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    [Expression of cancer testis (CT) antigens in pediatric and adolescent melanomas].
    Pathologe 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, 10021, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: One of the main problems in the diagnostics of pediatric melanomas is the differentiation from benign dermal lesions typical for this age group, such as Spitz nevus. The biological behavior of pediatric melanomas differs considerably from that of melanomas in adults.

    Material And Methods: Cancer testis (CT) antigens are named after their typical expression pattern since they are present in various types of malignant tumors but in normal adult tissues are solely expressed in testicular germ cells. Read More

    Pyogenic granuloma-like lesion in children: Should we wait?
    Indian J Plast Surg 2017 Jan-Apr;50(1):104-106
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Malignant melanoma is a potentially lethal cutaneous malignancy. Melanoma in paediatrics is rare as compared to adult melanoma. The clinicopathological characteristics of paediatric melanoma are different from adult melanoma, and the presence of melanoma mimics which occurs frequently in children (Spitz naevi) resulted in diagnosis uncertainty. Read More

    Melanoma frequency among symmetrical Spitzoid-looking lesions: a retrospective study.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
    Background: Many efforts have been spent attempting to define clinical, histopathological and molecular markers for differential diagnosis of Spitz nevus and melanoma. Dermoscopy has been widely used but it may be not always sufficient.

    Methods: A retrospective study was performed evaluating Spitzoid-looking lesions showing symmetry at clinical and dermoscopic examination in patients ≥ 12 years attending our Clinic from 2004 to 2014. Read More

    Spitz Tumors of the Skin.
    Surg Pathol Clin 2017 Jun 31;10(2):281-298. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam 1007 MB, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Spitz tumors are melanocytic neoplasms hallmarked by large cell size, lack of high-grade atypia, and a regular architecture. Most are nonpigmented or poorly pigmented. Malignant potential ranges from absent (Spitz nevus), to fully present (spitzoid melanoma), with a further, ill-defined group of Spitz tumors with limited metastatic potential. Read More

    Genomic Assessment of Blitz Nevi Suggests Classification as a Subset of Blue Nevus Rather Than Spitz Nevus: Clinical, Histopathologic, and Molecular Analysis of 18 Cases.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Departments of *Pathology, and†Dermatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; and‡Robert H. Lurie Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.
    Blitz nevi/tumors are a distinct subset of melanocytic neoplasia which show mixed morphologic features of Spitz and blue nevus. Genomically, most blue nevi have GNAQ or GNA11 mutations while most Spitzoid neoplasms have either an HRAS mutation or translocations involving MET, ROS, BRAF, ALK1, NTRK1, and RET. The criteria used for the assessment of malignancy in blue and Spitzoid lesions are different, and these lesions have different prognostic markers. Read More

    Estimating melanin location in the pigmented skin lesions by hue-saturation-lightness color space values of dermoscopic images.
    J Dermatol 2017 May;44(5):490-498
    Department of Dermatology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan.
    The depth of melanin in the skin can be estimated roughly by observation of the color exhibited on dermoscopy. Currently, there are no objective methods to estimate it. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the depth of melanin in the skin and the color variation exhibited, and to objectively estimate the 3-D location of melanin in the pigmented skin lesions from dermoscopic images. Read More

    The diagnosis and management of the Spitz nevus in the pediatric population: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.
    Syst Rev 2017 Apr 13;6(1):81. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Ottawa, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8L6, Canada.
    Background: Spitz nevi are uncommon melanocytic neoplasms found in children. Historically, the diagnosis and management of these tumors has lacked consensus among oncologists, pathologists, plastic surgeons, and dermatologists. Once interpreted and treated as a "juvenile melanoma", many have argued for the benignancy of such tumors in certain patient age groups, encouraging a conservative approach. Read More

    Myxoid Spitz Nevi: Report of 6 Cases.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Mar 27. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    *Department of Cellular Pathology, Cellular Pathology, Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, Spain; †Biomedical Investigation Institute of A Coruña, CellCOM-SB Group, A Coruña, Spain; ‡Department of Cellular Pathology, Hospital de la Reina, Cellular Pathology, Ponferrada, Spain; §Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; ¶Universidad Complutense, Medical School, Instituto i+12, Madrid, Spain; and ‖Department of Dermatology, Los Angeles Medical Center (LAMC), Southern California Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA.
    Mucin deposition in Spitz nevus seems to be a very rare phenomenon, as there have only been 3 cases previously published. We report 6 additional cases, half of them in women, and half in men. The ages of the patients varied from 5 to 47 years (mean = 30. Read More

    A Diagnostic Algorithm Combining Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Cytogenetics to Diagnose Challenging Melanocytic Tumors.
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2017 Mar 30. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    *Inserm U1078 Departments of †Molecular Genetics and Histocompatibility ‡Pathology, CHRU Brest §European University of Brittany, Brest, France.
    Some melanocytic tumors are diagnostic challenges and require ancillary tools in helping the pathologists to determine their potential of malignancy. We intend to propose a diagnostic algorithm in helping to classify challenging melanocytic tumors combining histology, immunohistochemistry, and cytogenetics. We report on 24 spitzoid and/or misdiagnosed melanocytic tumors studied with a triple p16, Ki-67, and HMB45 immunohistochemistry score, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with melanoma-dedicated and non-melanoma-dedicated probes and comparative genomic hybridization on DNA microarray (CGH array). Read More

    Immunohistochemical Study of Vasculogenic Mimicry and Angiogenesis in Melanocytic Tumors of the Eye and the Periocular Area.
    Anticancer Res 2017 03;37(3):1113-1120
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Background/aim: The ability of a tumor to grow requires a sufficient blood supply. Microvascular density is considered the standard for assessing the neovasculature. Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry refers to the formation of tumor cell-lined vessels that contribute to tumor neovascularization. Read More

    Polypoid Spitz Nevus With a Halo Reaction.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Feb;39(2):130-133
    *Department of Cellular Pathology, Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, Spain;†Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, INER/CIENI, Hospital Angeles Lomas, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico City, Mexico; and‡Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Universidad Complutense, I+12, Madrid, Spain.
    Approximately, 2% of Spitz nevi are polypoid; between 3.6% and 7.4% present with a halo reaction. Read More

    Human polyomavirus DNA detection in keratoacanthoma and Spitz naevus: no evidence for a causal role.
    J Clin Pathol 2017 May 19;70(5):451-453. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Department of oncology and pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Keratoacanthomas (KA) and Spitz naevus (SN) are both lesions with unknown aetiology; therefore, the possibility of a viral involvement, more specifically the involvement of human polyomaviruses (HPyV), was investigated. In total, 22 cases of KA and 25 cases of SN were tested for the presence of HPyVs. DNA was extracted and amplified by multiplex PCR and thereafter tested with a multiplex bead-based assay for HPyVs (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV, TSPyV, HPyV6, 7 and 9) and two primate viruses (SV40 and LPyV). Read More

    A review of kinase fusions in melanocytic tumors.
    Lab Invest 2017 Feb 28;97(2):158-165. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Departments of Pathology and Dermatology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.
    Translocations resulting in a kinase fusion are well reported in many tumor types and indeed can be defining, particularly in the case of hematopoietic malignancies. The recent reports of multiple protein kinase fusions within melanocytic neoplasms, particularly in those with spitzoid morphology, have heralded a new era of classification of these melanocytic tumors. Seen within approximately half of all spitzoid neoplasms and present within the full spectrum of benign, atypical, and malignant lesions, kinase fusions likely represent an early oncogenic event contributing to cell proliferation and growth. Read More

    Spitz Nevi and Other Spitzoid Neoplasms in Children: Overview of Incidence Data and Diagnostic Criteria.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Jan 22;34(1):25-32. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Dermatology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Spitz nevi are benign melanocytic neoplasms characterized by epithelioid or spindle melanocytes or both. In some rare cases their presentation overlaps with the clinical and histopathologic features of malignant melanoma, so a differential diagnosis can be difficult to make. Intermediate forms between Spitz nevi and malignant melanoma, with unpredictable behavior, have been called atypical Spitz tumors. Read More

    Spitz nevi: diverse clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological features in childhood.
    J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2017 Jan 10;15(1):70-75. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    Dermatology, Department of -Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Italy.
    Background And Objectives: The characterization of clinical features and biological potential of Spitz nevi has attracted a lot of interest in past decades. The aim of our paper was to describe the clinical, dermatoscopic features as well as the clinical outcome of surgically excised Spitz nevi in three different pediatric age groups.

    Patients And Methods: A retrospective study analyzing clinical features, videodermatoscopic images, histopathological diagnosis and patient outcome. Read More

    The utilization of spitz-related nomenclature in the histological interpretation of cutaneous melanocytic lesions by practicing pathologists: results from the M-Path study.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Jan 28;44(1):5-14. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Department of Pathology, Institut Curie, and Faculty of Medicine, University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Background: Spitz nevi, atypical Spitz tumors and spitzoid melanomas ('spitzoid lesions') represent controversial and poorly understood cutaneous melanocytic lesions that are difficult to diagnose histologically. It is unknown how these terms are used by pathologists.

    Methods: We describe use of Spitz-related terminology using data from the Melanoma Pathology (M-Path) study database comprising pathologists' interpretations of biopsy slides, a nation-wide study evaluating practicing US pathologists' (N = 187) diagnoses of melanocytic lesions (8976 independent diagnostic assessments on 240 total test cases, with 1 slide per case). Read More

    Angiomatoid Spitz naevus: novel observations and clues to diagnosis of a rare variant.
    Pathology 2016 Dec 22;48(7):739-742. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
    Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; Melanoma Institute Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Discipline of Pathology, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

    Eruptive disseminated Spitz nevi.
    Eur J Dermatol 2017 Feb;27(1):59-62
    Clinical Epidemiology Unit, IDI-IRCCS - FLMM, Rome, Italy.
    Background: The solitary form of Spitz nevus is a common clinical entity in children, typically occurring on the face and extremities. However, less frequent variants of Spitz nevi, such as agminated forms and eruptive disseminated Spitz nevi (EDSN), have been described. The agminated form is characterised by localised clusters or segmental distribution of Spitz nevi on the face, back, or extremities. Read More

    NTRK3 kinase fusions in Spitz tumours.
    J Pathol 2016 Nov;240(3):282-290
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Oncogenic fusions in TRK family receptor tyrosine kinases have been identified in several cancers and can serve as therapeutic targets. We identified ETV6-NTRK3, MYO5A-NTRK3 and MYH9-NTRK3 fusions in Spitz tumours, and demonstrated that NTRK3 fusions constitutively activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phospholipase Cγ1 pathways in melanocytes. This signalling was inhibited by DS-6051a, a small-molecule inhibitor of NTRK1/2/3 and ROS1. Read More

    Automated quantification of Ki67/MART1 stains may prevent false-negative melanoma diagnoses.
    J Cutan Pathol 2016 Nov 26;43(11):956-962. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Background: Inability to distinguish melanomas from benign nevi is the most frequent reason for malpractice lawsuits in surgical pathology. Reliable diagnostic tools to support hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains and induce diagnostic vigilance are thus highly needed. Because high diagnostic performance recently was showed using automated image analysis, the immunohistochemical proliferation marker Ki67 seems a potential candidate. Read More

    Pagetoid Spitz nevi: clinicopathologic characterization of a series of 12 cases.
    J Cutan Pathol 2016 Nov 1;43(11):932-939. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
    Background: Pagetoid Spitz nevus is an uncommon Spitz nevus variant characterized by a predominantly intraepidermal proliferation of single epithelioid melanocytes. Recognition of this variant is important to avoid misdiagnosis as melanoma.

    Methods: We reviewed and characterized 12 pagetoid Spitz nevi diagnosed at a tertiary care institution over the past 25 years. Read More

    Agminated melanocytic nevus status post dabrafenib therapy for metastatic melanoma.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Jul 15;22(7). Epub 2016 Jul 15.
    Dermatology, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra. Pamplona, Navarra, Spain..
    Agminated melanocytic nevus is an uncommon type of mole, characterized by a local group of macular or papular pigmented lesions, well demarcated, without a common pigmented background. This pattern has also been associated with Spitz nevi, dysplastic melanocytic nevi, and non-melanocytic lesions.We describe the onset of an acquired agminated melanocytic nevus after dabrafenib treatment. Read More

    Expression of microphthalmia transcription factor, S100 protein, and HMB-45 in malignant melanoma and pigmented nevi.
    Biomed Rep 2016 Sep 1;5(3):327-331. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130041, P.R. China.
    Malignant melanoma (MM) is a type of malignant tumor, which originates from neural crest melanocytes. MM progresses rapidly and results in a high mortality rate. The present study aims to investigate the expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), the S100 protein, and HMB-45 in MM and pigmented nevi. Read More

    Nuclear and cytoplasmic features in the diagnosis of banal nevi, Spitz nevi, and melanoma.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 Nov 16;75(5):1032-1037.e8. Epub 2016 Aug 16.
    Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Electronic address:
    Background: Many authors have described cytologic features in a variety of melanocytic lesions but, to our knowledge, a statistical analysis of sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of these features alone or in combination has not been performed.

    Objective: We sought to determine the diagnostic value of nuclear and cytoplasmic characteristics in the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions via multivariate statistical analysis.

    Methods: This is a retrospective observational study conducted on 300 melanocytic lesions. Read More

    Imaging mass spectrometry assists in the classification of diagnostically challenging atypical Spitzoid neoplasms.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 Dec 5;75(6):1176-1186.e4. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
    Mass Spectrometry Research Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.
    Background: Previously, using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), we discovered proteomic differences between Spitz nevi and Spitzoid melanomas.

    Objective: We sought to determine whether IMS can assist in the classification of diagnostically challenging atypical Spitzoid neoplasms (ASN), to compare and correlate the IMS and histopathological diagnoses with clinical behavior.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective collaborative study involving centers from 11 countries and 11 US institutions analyzing 102 ASNs by IMS. Read More

    Atypical Spitzoid Neoplasms in Childhood: A Molecular and Outcome Study.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Mar;39(3):181-186
    *Department of Dermatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; and †Robert H. Lurie Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.
    The natural history of atypical Spitz neoplasms remains poorly understood, resulting in significant patient and clinician anxiety. We sought to better characterize outcomes that correlated with molecular features by performing a prospective cohort study of pediatric atypical spitzoid neoplasms in which fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were obtained for diagnosis. Cases with sufficient tissue underwent additional retrospective assessment for translocations in ALK, NTRK1, BRAF, RET, and ROS1. Read More

    Gene of the month: BAP1.
    J Clin Pathol 2016 Sep 27;69(9):750-3. Epub 2016 May 27.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    The BAP1 gene (BRCA1-associated protein 1) is a tumour suppressor gene that encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), regulating key cellular pathways, including cell cycle, cellular differentiation, transcription and DNA damage response. Germline BAP1 mutations cause a novel cancer syndrome characterised by early onset of multiple atypical Spitz tumours and increased risk of uveal and cutaneous melanoma, mesothelioma, renal cell carcinoma and various other malignancies. Recognising the clinicopathological features of specific BAP1-deficient tumours is crucial for early screening/tumour detection, with significant impact on patient outcome. Read More

    Time to reconsider Spitzoid neoplasms?
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2016 Apr 30;6(2):43-8. Epub 2016 Apr 30.
    Department of Anatomic Pathology, Dermatopathology Section, SM Annunziata Hospital, AUSL Toscana Centro, Florence, Italy.
    Background: Spitzoid neoplasms may pose significant diagnostic problems because in a fraction of them it is quite difficult or impossible to establish if they are benign or malignant lesions. An extraordinarily large number of studies have been made in attempts to solve this problem; regrettably, the histological criteria proposed and the various special sophisticated techniques employed have proven to be ineffective in making this distinction with confidence.

    Objectives: To explore the possible causes for this diagnostic failure and an attempt to identify the source of this problem. Read More

    Spitz/Reed nevi: a review of clinical-dermatoscopic and histological correlation.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2016 Apr 30;6(2):37-41. Epub 2016 Apr 30.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Centro Hospitalar São João EPE, Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Background: Spitz/Reed nevi are melanocytic lesions that may mimic melanoma at clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological levels. Management strategies of these lesions remain controversial.

    Objectives: We aim a correlation among clinical-dermatoscopic and histological features of a series of Spitz/Reed nevi diagnosed during 7 years at the Department of Dermatology. Read More

    Differential diagnosis of Spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Aug 13;30(8):1269-77. Epub 2016 May 13.
    1st Dermatology Clinic, 'Andreas Sygros' University Skin Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Atypical Spitzoid neoplasms represent a controversial and incompletely defined diagnostic category for lesions with intermediate architecture and cytomorphology between Spitz nevus and melanoma. The vast majority of these neoplasms have a good overall prognosis. Only a small proportion of patients will end up developing distant metastases and death. Read More

    Immunohistochemical evaluation of p16 expression in cutaneous histiocytic, fibrohistiocytic and undifferentiated lesions.
    J Cutan Pathol 2016 Aug 6;43(8):671-8. Epub 2016 Jun 6.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Background: Expression of p16 is frequently evaluated in melanocytic lesions. Expression of p16 in cutaneous histiocytic, fibrohistiocytic and undifferentiated lesions has not been well characterized.

    Methods: We evaluated p16 expression in a cohort of histiocytic (reticulohistiocytoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, xanthogranuloma, Rosai Dorfman disease and xanthoma), fibrohistiocytic (dermatofibroma, epithelioid fibrous histiocytoma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans) and undifferentiated (atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma) lesions. Read More

    A diagnostic algorithm for atypical spitzoid tumors: guidelines for immunohistochemical and molecular assessment.
    Mod Pathol 2016 Jul 22;29(7):656-70. Epub 2016 Apr 22.
    Department of Pathology, Dermatopathology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
    Atypical spitzoid tumors are a morphologically diverse group of rare melanocytic lesions most frequently seen in children and young adults. As atypical spitzoid tumors bear striking resemblance to Spitz nevus and spitzoid melanomas clinically and histopathologically, it is crucial to determine its malignant potential and predict its clinical behavior. To date, many researchers have attempted to differentiate atypical spitzoid tumors from unequivocal melanomas based on morphological, immonohistochemical, and molecular diagnostic differences. Read More

    Spitz Nevus Intermingling With a Hemangioma.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Oct;38(10):780-3
    *Department of Cellular Pathology, Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, Spain; and †Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, INER/CIENI, Hospital Angeles Lomas, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico City, Mexico.
    We report on a Spitz nevus intermingling with a hemangioma in the same biopsy from the right thigh of a 10-year-old boy. The hemangioma was made of dilated vessels in superficial areas but of narrow and angulated vessels in the deep and lateral zones. The Spitz nevus was typical, showing maturation, and no worrisome cytological features. Read More

    Paediatric melanoma.
    Pathology 2016 Feb 16;48(2):155-65. Epub 2016 Jan 16.
    PathWest Laboratory Medicine, QEII Medical Centre, and School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Western Australia, WA, Australia. Electronic address:
    Cutaneous melanoma occurs only rarely in children under 10 years of age. Mimics of melanoma, including Spitz naevi and proliferative nodules in congenital melanocytic naevi are much more frequent in this age group. Melanoma arising in congenital melanocytic naevus is uncommon, but can show aggressive behaviour. Read More

    The complex management of atypical Spitz tumours.
    Pathology 2016 Feb 16;48(2):132-41. Epub 2016 Jan 16.
    Unit of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy.
    In recent years, advances in molecular genetic characterisation have revealed that atypical Spitz tumours (ASTs) are basically heterogeneous diseases, although the clinical relevance of these findings is yet to be determined. Evidence of molecularly-defined diverse groups of lesions continues to accumulate; however, conflicting, confusing, and overlapping terminology has fostered ambiguity and lack of clarity in the field in general. The lack of fundamental diagnostic (morphological) unambiguous classification framework results in a number of challenges in the interpretation of the molecular genetic data. Read More

    Genomic aberrations in spitzoid melanocytic tumours and their implications for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.
    Pathology 2016 Feb 18;48(2):113-31. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States; Marie-Josée and Henry R. Kravis Center for Molecular Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States.
    Histopathological evaluation of melanocytic tumours usually allows reliable distinction of benign melanocytic naevi from melanoma. More difficult is the histopathological classification of Spitz tumours, a heterogeneous group of tumours composed of large epithelioid or spindle-shaped melanocytes. Spitz tumours are biologically distinct from conventional melanocytic naevi and melanoma, as exemplified by their distinct patterns of genetic aberrations. Read More

    Spitz Nevus: A Rare Lesion of the Oral Cavity.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2016 Mar-Apr;33(2):e154-5
    Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Pigmented mucosal lesions represent a group of rare entities with different etiopathogenetic origins, histopathologic features, dermoscopic appearances, and clinical course. Solitary pigmented lesions of melanocytic origin are uncommon in the oral mucosa, and intraoral occurrence of Spitz nevus is very rare. Here we present a case of Spitz nevus occurring on the hard palate of a 26-month-old boy. Read More

    Clinical Follow-up of Atypical Spitzoid Tumors Analyzed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Apr;38(4):289-96
    *Dermatology, Scottsdale, AZ; and †Departments of Dermatology and Laboratory Medicine, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA.
    Many neoplasms with spitzoid features remain enigmatic, especially those with intermediate grade features or "atypical spitzoid tumors" (ASTs). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has emerged as a complementary technique to conventional microscopy, with certain chromosomal patterns conveying diagnostic information. In this study, we examined 36 ASTs analyzed by FISH for specific abnormalities in chromosomes 6, 9, and 11. Read More

    The landscape of fusion transcripts in spitzoid melanoma and biologically indeterminate spitzoid tumors by RNA sequencing.
    Mod Pathol 2016 Apr 19;29(4):359-69. Epub 2016 Feb 19.
    Department of Pathology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.
    Kinase activation by chromosomal translocations is a common mechanism that drives tumorigenesis in spitzoid neoplasms. To explore the landscape of fusion transcripts in these tumors, we performed whole-transcriptome sequencing using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in malignant or biologically indeterminate spitzoid tumors from 7 patients (age 2-14 years). RNA sequence libraries enriched for coding regions were prepared and the sequencing was analyzed by a novel assembly-based algorithm designed for detecting complex fusions. Read More

    Automatic Classification of Specific Melanocytic Lesions Using Artificial Intelligence.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 17;2016:8934242. Epub 2016 Jan 17.
    Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, Aleja Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland.
    Background: Given its propensity to metastasize, and lack of effective therapies for most patients with advanced disease, early detection of melanoma is a clinical imperative. Different computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed to increase the specificity and sensitivity of melanoma detection. Although such computer programs are developed for different diagnostic algorithms, to the best of our knowledge, a system to classify different melanocytic lesions has not been proposed yet. Read More

    Spitz Tumors: Comparison of Histological Features in Relationship to Immunohistochemical Staining for ALK and NTRK1.
    Int J Surg Pathol 2016 May 12;24(3):200-6. Epub 2016 Feb 12.
    Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA
    Spitz tumors are a group of melanocytic neoplasms with distinct morphological features that tend to affect young individuals. Distinguishing benign from malignant Spitz tumors can be challenging, but cytogenetic and molecular tests have contributed to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. Spitz tumors harbor diverse genetic alterations, including mutations in HRAS, loss of BAP1, or kinase fusions in ROS1, NTRK1, ALK, BRAF, and RET genes. Read More

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