13,251 results match your criteria Spider Envenomation Widow


Trait-based ecology of terrestrial arthropods.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PS, U.K.

In focusing on how organisms' generalizable functional properties (traits) interact mechanistically with environments across spatial scales and levels of biological organization, trait-based approaches provide a powerful framework for attaining synthesis, generality and prediction. Trait-based research has considerably improved understanding of the assembly, structure and functioning of plant communities. Further advances in ecology may be achieved by exploring the trait-environment relationships of non-sessile, heterotrophic organisms such as terrestrial arthropods, which are geographically ubiquitous, ecologically diverse, and often important functional components of ecosystems. Read More

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December 2018

Gustatory Responsiveness to food-associated acids in the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).

Primates 2000 Apr;41(2):213-221

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.

The gustatory responsiveness of four adult spider monkeys to five food-associated acids was assessed in two-bottle preference tests of brief duration (3 min). The animals were given the choice between a 30 mM sucrose solution and defined concentrations of citric acid, ascorbic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, or tannic acid dissolved in a 30 mM sucrose solution. With this procedure,Ateles geoffroyi was found to significantly discriminate concentrations as low as 5 mM ascorbic acid, citric acid, and acetic acid, 10 mM malic acid, and 0. Read More

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Effect of Cadmium Accumulation on the Performance of Plants and of Herbivores That Cope Differently With Organic Defenses.

Front Plant Sci 2018 28;9:1723. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Centro de Ecologia, Evolução e Alterações Ambientais, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Some plants are able to accumulate in their shoots metals at levels that are toxic to most other organisms. This ability may serve as a defence against herbivores. Therefore, both metal-based and organic defences may affect herbivores. Read More

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November 2018
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Life-history changes in the cold tolerance of the two-spot spider mite : applications in pest control and establishment risk assessment.

Physiol Entomol 2018 Dec 12;43(4):334-345. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

School of Bioscience University of Birmingham Birmingham U.K.

Lethal time (LTime) and lethal temp (LTemp) are commonly used laboratory indices of arthropod cold tolerance, with the former often being employed to predict winter survival in the field. In the present study, we compare the cold tolerance of different life-history stages (nondiapausing and diapausing females, as well as males and juveniles) of a major agricultural pest: the two-spot spider mite Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Diapausing females from European populations of this species are shown to be freeze avoiding, supercooling to -23. Read More

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December 2018

Acute Toxicity of the Recombinant and Native Phα1β Toxin: New Analgesic from Spider Venom.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 12;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Postgraduate Program in Genetics and Applied Toxicology, Lutheran University of Brazil, Canoas, RS 92425⁻900, Brazil.

Phα1β, a purified peptide from the venom of the spider , and its recombinant form CTK 01512-2 are voltage-dependent calcium channel (Ca) blockers of types N, R, /Q, and L with a preference for type N. These peptides show analgesic action in different pain models in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute intrathecal toxicity of the native and recombinant Phα1β toxin in Wistar rats. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Versatile spider venom peptides and their medical and agricultural applications.

Toxicon 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Spiders have been evolving complex and diverse repertoires of peptides in their venoms with vast pharmacological activities for more than 300 million years. Spiders use their venoms for prey capture and defense, hence they contain peptides that target both prey (mainly arthropods) and predators (other arthropods or vertebrates). This includes peptides that potently and selectively modulate a range of targets such as ion channels, receptors and signaling pathways involved in physiological processes. Read More

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December 2018

Pitfalls on sample preparation for imaging of resected cancer tissue using enzyme-activatable fluorescent probes.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 13;9(89):36039-36047. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Molecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

and fluorescence imaging-assisted surgery can aid in determining the margins of tumors during surgical resection. While a variety of fluorescent probes have been proposed for this task, small molecule enzyme-activatable fluorescent probes are ideal for this application. They are quickly activated at tumor sites and result in bright signal with little background, resulting in high sensitivity. Read More

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November 2018

Reconfigurable Bioinspired Framework Nucleic Acid Nanoplatform Dynamically Manipulated in Living Cells for Subcellular Imaging.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Chemistry, 96 JinZhai Road, 230026, Hefei, CHINA.

In nature, the formation of spider silk fibers begins with dimerizing the pH-sensitive N-terminal domains of silk proteins (spidroins) upon lowering pH, which provides a natural masterpiece for programmable assembly. Inspired by the similarity of pH-dependent dimerization behaviors, here we introduce an i-motif-guided model to mimic the initial step of spidroin assembly at the subcellular level. A framework nucleic acid (FNA) nanoplatform is designed using two tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) with different branched vertexes carrying a bimolecular i-motif and a split ATP aptamer. Read More

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December 2018

Cockroaches, locusts, and envenomating arthropods: a promising source of antimicrobials.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2018 Sep;21(9):873-877

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Selangor, Malaysia.

Objectives: To present a brief overview of various natural sources of antimicrobials with the aim of highlighting invertebrates living in polluted environments as additional sources of antimicrobials.

Materials And Methods: A PubMed search using antibacterials, antimicrobials, invertebrates, and natural products as keywords was carried out. In addition, we consulted conference proceedings, original unpublished research undertaken in our laboratories, and discussions in specific forums. Read More

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September 2018

Secreted Cysteine-Rich Repeat Proteins "SCREPs": A Novel Multi-Domain Architecture.

Front Pharmacol 2018 20;9:1333. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia.

Peptide toxins isolated from animal venom secretions have proven to be useful pharmacological tools for probing the structure and function of a number of molecular receptors. Their molecular structures are stabilized by posttranslational formation of multiple disulfide bonds formed between sidechain thiols of cysteine residues, resulting in high thermal and chemical stability. Many of these peptides have been found to be potent modulators of ion channels, making them particularly influential in this field. Read More

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November 2018

Exposure to cuticular bacteria can alter host behavior in a funnel-weaving spider.

Curr Zool 2018 Dec 16;64(6):721-726. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Contact with environmental microbes are arguably the most common species interaction in which any animal participates. Studies have noted diverse relationships between hosts and resident microbes, which can have strong consequences for host development, physiology, and behavior. Many of these studies focus specifically on pathogens or beneficial microbes, while the benign microbes, of which the majority of bacteria could be described, are often ignored. Read More

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December 2018

Behavioral predictability in a lynx spider is interactively influenced by mean behavior, prey density, and an insecticide.

Curr Zool 2018 Dec 30;64(6):713-720. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Department of Science, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

Behavioral predictability, i.e., short-term intra-individual variability under relatively constant environmental conditions, has only recently begun to gain attention. Read More

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December 2018

Diel and infradian (7-day) activity rhythms in Mexican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) kept with and without visitor contact.

Am J Primatol 2018 Dec;80(12):e22933

Department of Animal Physiology, Institute for Zoology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Diel activity rhythms in mammals are regulated by an endogenous (circadian) timing system which is synchronized by environmental 24-hr periodicities called zeitgebers. Additional direct responses to stochastic environmental factors ensure the fine-tuning to the actual situation and may mask the circadian time course. Following an observational study on behavioral effects of visitor activities in a group of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) kept free-ranging on a small island of Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed the effect of weekly varying numbers of visiting tourist boats on the monkeys' diel activity rhythm. Read More

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December 2018
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The importance and adaptive value of life-history evolution for metapopulation dynamics.

J Anim Ecol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Biology, Research Group Phycology - Bioinformatics & Evolutionary Genomics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The spatial configuration and size of patches influence metapopulation dynamics by altering colonisation-extinction dynamics and local density dependency. This spatial forcing as determined by the metapopulation typology then imposes strong selection pressures on life-history traits, which will in turn feed back on the ecological metapopulation dynamics. Given the relevance of metapopulation persistence for biological conservation, and the potential rescuing role of evolution, a firm understanding of the relevance of these eco-evolutionary processes is essential. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

An updated perspective on spiders as generalist predators in biological control.

Oecologia 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, 76829, Landau/Pfalz, Germany.

The role of generalist predators in biological control remains controversial as they may not only reduce pest populations but also disrupt biocontrol exerted by other natural enemies. Here, we focus on spiders as a model group of generalist predators. They are among the most abundant and most diverse natural enemies in agroecosystems. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Use of Ethyl Formate Fumigation to Control Adult Bean Thrips in Navel Oranges.

J Econ Entomol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA.

Shipments of California Navel oranges (Citrus sinensis) (Osbeck)) that are found to be infested with adult bean thrips (Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) upon arrival in Australia either undergo mandatory fumigation with methyl bromide (MeBr) to kill the thrips or are refused entry. Ethyl formate (EtF) mixed with carbon dioxide (CO₂) is an effective fumigant for control of various arthropods including but not limited to, thrips, aphids, Pacific spider mites, California red scale, and omnivorous leaf rollers. Dose-mortality curves at 5°C, 10°C, and 15°C were developed for control of adult bean thrips using EtF plus CO₂, with 5°C being more effective. Read More

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December 2018

Fine structure of the aggregate silk nodules in the orb-web spider .

Authors:
Myung-Jin Moon

Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2018 14;22(6):421-428. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan, South Korea.

Among the triad spinning units for capture thread producing system in the orb-web spiders, aqueous gluey substances are produced from two pairs of aggregate silk glands (ASG). Although biochemical analysis of glue substance is produced by way of their passage through the ASG, its structural modifications in the nodular area have been nearly neglected till now. This paper focused on identifying the fine structural characteristics of the aggregate nodules in the golden orb-web spider using both of light and transmission electron microscopes. Read More

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November 2018

A DNA barcode-assisted annotated checklist of the spider (Arachnida, Araneae) communities associated to white oak woodlands in Spanish National Parks.

Biodivers Data J 2018 29(6):e29443. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences & Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, E-08028, Barcelona, Spain Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences & Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, E-08028 Barcelona Spain.

Background: A large scale semi-quantitative biodiversity assessment was conducted in white oak woodlands in areas included in the Spanish Network of National Parks, as part of a project aimed at revealing biogeographic patterns and identify biodiversity drivers. The semi-quantitative COBRA sampling protocol was conducted in sixteen 1-ha plots across six national parks using a nested design. All adult specimens were identified to species level based on morphology. Read More

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November 2018
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The spider mites of the genus Banks (Acari, Trombidiformes, Tetranychidae) from Saudi Arabia: two new species, a re-description, and a key to the world species.

Zookeys 2018 28(799):47-88. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Acarology laboratory, Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, P.O. Box 2460, Saudi Arabia King Saud University Riyadh Saudi Arabia.

Two new species of the genus Banks are described and illustrated based on adult females and males, from Forssk (Leguminosae), from Hochst. ex Endl. (Cupressaceae), and Attiah, 1967 is redescribed from H. Read More

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November 2018

Structural and functional characterization of an intradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenase from the polyphagous spider mite herbivore Tetranychus urticae Koch.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA. Electronic address:

Genome analyses of the polyphagous spider mite herbivore Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite) revealed the presence of a set of 17 genes that code for secreted proteins belonging to the "intradiol dioxygenase-like" subgroup. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that this novel enzyme family has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In order to better understand the role of these proteins in T. Read More

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December 2018

Acaricidal effect of cell-free supernatants from Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

J Invertebr Pathol 2018 Dec 6;160:61-66. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey. Electronic address:

The effects of secondary metabolites produced by the following symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus szentirmaii, X. nematophila, X. bovienii, X. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of Saliva Proteins of Spider Mite Tetranychus evansi by Transcriptome and LC-MS/MS Analyses.

Proteomics 2018 Dec 5:e1800302. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.

The spider mite Tetranychus evansi has a remarkable ability to suppress and manipulate plant defenses, which makes it an ideal model to investigate plant-herbivores interactions. In this study, we performed a de novo assembly of the transcriptome of T. evansi, and characterized the proteins in its secreted saliva by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Ecology and life history of (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) from Monte Albo (Sardinia, Italy).

Authors:
Enrico Lunghi

PeerJ 2018 29;6:e6049. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Biogeography, Trier University, Trier, Germany.

The orb-weaver spider Simon 1922 (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) is one of the most common cave predators occurring in the Mediterranean basin. Although the congeneric represented the model species in several studies, our knowledge of is only founded on observations performed on a handful of populations. In this study spiders were studied in caves of Monte Albo (Sardinia, Italy) over a year. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Molecular palaeontology illuminates the evolution of ecdysozoan vision.

Proc Biol Sci 2018 Dec 5;285(1892). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Queen's Road, Bristol, UK

Colour vision is known to have arisen only twice-once in Vertebrata and once within the Ecdysozoa, in Arthropoda. However, the evolutionary history of ecdysozoan vision is unclear. At the molecular level, visual pigments, composed of a chromophore and a protein belonging to the opsin family, have different spectral sensitivities and these mediate colour vision. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Peptide-membrane interactions affect the inhibitory potency and selectivity of spider toxins ProTx-II and GpTx-1.

ACS Chem Biol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Gating modifier toxins (GMTs) from spider venom can inhibit voltage gated sodium channels (NaVs) involved in pain signal transmission, including the NaV1.7 subtype. GMTs have a conserved amphipathic structure that allow them to interact with membranes and also with charged residues in regions of NaV that are exposed at the cell surface. Read More

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December 2018
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Extensive local reaction after bite of the Mediterranean spider Zoropsis spinimana.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

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December 2018
1 Read

Biased emotional attention in patients with dental phobia.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignal Analysis, University of Muenster, D-48149, Muenster, Germany.

Biased motivated attention towards phobia-relevant pictures is a typical finding in specific phobia. In the visual system, the allocation of motivated attention is indexed by two event-related potential components - the Early Posterior Negativity and the Late Positive Potential. Enhanced Early Posterior Negativity and Late Positive Potential amplitudes are reliably observed in specific phobia such as, for instance, snake, spider or blood-injection-injury phobia and to some extent also in dental phobia. Read More

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December 2018
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Description of three new species of Thoma, 2014 (Araneae: Oonopidae) from Sumatra, Indonesia.

Zookeys 2018 19(797):71-85. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Zoological Museum, Center of Natural History, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.

Three species from the family Oonopidae are newly described from leaf litter habitats in Sumatra, Indonesia based on male and female morphology. All three species belong to the genus Thoma, 2014: , , and Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Unintended Consequences: A Review of Pharmacologically-Induced Priapism.

Sex Med Rev 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Urology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Priapism has been linked to many commonly prescribed medications, as well as recreational drugs and toxins. Although the incidence of priapism as a result of medication is small, the increasing use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, and recreational drugs may lead to more cases of pharmacologically-induced priapism in the future.

Aim: To provide a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the most common causes of pharmacologically induced priapism and discuss incidence, pathophysiology, and basic management strategies. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Golden Orbweavers Ignore Biological Rules: Phylogenomic and Comparative Analyses Unravel a Complex Evolution of Sexual Size Dimorphism.

Syst Biol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California Davis, 1 Shields Drive, Davis, CA, USA.

Instances of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) provide the context for rigorous tests of biological rules of size evolution, such as Cope's Rule (phyletic size increase), Rensch's Rule (allometric patterns of male and female size), as well as male and female body size optima. In certain spider groups, such as the golden orbweavers (Nephilidae), extreme female-biased SSD (eSSD, female:male body length ≥ 2) is the norm. Nephilid genera construct webs of exaggerated proportions, which can be aerial, arboricolous, or intermediate (hybrid). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Evaluation of selected biological properties of the hunting web spider (Steatoda grossa, Theridiidae) in the aspect of short- and long-term exposure to cadmium.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 26;656:297-306. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, Katowice 40-007, Poland.

The study aimed at comparing the effects of short- and long-term exposure of Steatoda grossa female spiders to cadmium on the web's architecture, its energy content, and ultrastructure of ampullate glands. Simple food chain model (medium with 0.25 mM CdCl → Drosophila hydei flies → spider (for 4 weeks or 12 months) was used for the exposure. Read More

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November 2018

Spider mites escape bacterial infection by avoiding contaminated food.

Oecologia 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Edificio C2, 3º Piso Campo Grande, 1749-016, Lisbon, Portugal.

To fight infection, arthropods rely on the deployment of an innate immune response but also upon physical/chemical barriers and avoidance behaviours. However, most studies focus on immunity, with other defensive mechanisms being relatively overlooked. We have previously shown that the spider mite Tetranychus urticae does not mount an induced immune response towards systemic bacterial infections, entailing very high mortality rates. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Thermal niche conservatism in an environmental gradient in the spider Sicarius thomisoides (Araneae: Sicariidae): Implications for microhabitat selection.

J Therm Biol 2018 Dec 29;78:298-303. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Chile; Instituto de Ecología y Evolución (IEB), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Temperature is one of the most important environmental variables for organisms, especially for ectothermic animals. In fact, ectotherms must move within a relatively narrow range of temperatures where they are able to maximize their performance. We assessed the thermal ecology of female sand spiders (Sicarius thomisoides) in Chile from separate populations along an environmental gradient and different macro habitats (coast vs. Read More

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December 2018

Where cone snails and spiders meet: design of small cyclic sodium-channel inhibitors.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 3:fj201801909R. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Toxicology and Pharmacology, Katholieke Universiteit (KU) Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium.

A 13 aa residue voltage-gated sodium channel (Na) inhibitor peptide, Pn, containing 2 disulfide bridges was designed by using a chimeric approach. This approach was based on a common pharmacophore deduced from sequence and secondary structural homology of 2 Na inhibitors: Conus kinoshitai toxin IIIA, a 14 residue cone snail peptide with 3 disulfide bonds, and Phoneutria nigriventer toxin 1, a 78 residue spider toxin with 7 disulfide bonds. As with the parent peptides, this novel Na channel inhibitor was active on Na1. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Monitoring of indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using spider webs.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 27;218:758-766. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Protection, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland. Electronic address:

Fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the spider webs prepared in the laboratory and exposed to indoor air pollution in a defined period of time. We have selected homes differing in location (rural area vs. city), type of room (living room, kitchen, basement), inhabitants' habits (smoking cigarettes vs. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Prolonged milk provisioning in a jumping spider.

Science 2018 11;362(6418):1052-1055

Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, 666303, China.

Lactation is a mammalian attribute, and the few known nonmammal examples have distinctly different modalities. We document here milk provisioning in a jumping spider, which compares functionally and behaviorally to lactation in mammals. The spiderlings ingest nutritious milk droplets secreted from the mother's epigastric furrow until the subadult stage. Read More

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November 2018

Arthropod assassins: Crawling biochemists with diverse toxin pharmacopeias.

Authors:
Volker Herzig

Toxicon 2018 Nov 27;158:33-37. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

The millions of extant arthropod species are testament to their evolutionary success that can at least partially be attributed to venom usage, which evolved independently in at least 19 arthropod lineages. While some arthropods primarily use venom for predation (e.g. Read More

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November 2018

Dual pathways in social evolution: Population genetic structure of group-living and solitary species of kleptoparasitic spiders (Argyrodinae: Theridiidae).

PLoS One 2018 29;13(11):e0208123. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, United States of America.

Group-living behavior is taxonomically widespread but rare in spiders. The conventional view is that the main pathways to group-living in spiders are either sub-social, where extended maternal care leads to prolonged sibling association; or communal living, where individuals aggregate to exploit a common resource. Female egg-sac guarding behavior occurs throughout kleptoparasitic spiders in the subfamily Argyrodinae (Theridiidae), while individuals in group-living species cohabit in the resource rich webs of their host spiders. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Barriers and facilitators to the integration of mental health services into primary health care: a systematic review.

Syst Rev 2018 Nov 28;7(1):211. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.

Background: The objective of the review was to synthesize evidence of barriers and facilitators to the integration of mental health services into PHC from existing literature. The structure of the review was guided by the SPIDER framework which involves the following: Sample or population of interest-primary care providers (PCPs); Phenomenon of Interest-integration of mental health services into primary health care (PHC); Design-influenced robustness and analysis of the study; Evaluation-outcomes included subjective outcomes (views and attitudes); and Research type-qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies.

Methods: Studies that described mental health integration in PHC settings, involved primary care providers, and presented barriers/facilitators of mental health integration into PHC were included in the review. Read More

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November 2018

The evil eye effect: vertical pupils are perceived as more threatening.

Cogn Emot 2018 Nov 28:1-12. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

b Baskent University , Department of Psychology , Ankara , Turkey.

Popular culture has many examples of evil characters having vertically pupilled eyes. Humans have a long evolutionary history of rivalry with snakes and their visual systems were evolved to rapidly detect snakes and snake-related cues. Considering such evolutionary background, we hypothesised that humans would perceive vertical pupils, which are characteristics of ambush predators including some of the snakes, as threatening. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

A review of some Neriene spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae) from China.

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 5;4513(1):1-90. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

The State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering of China, Centre for Behavioural Ecology and Evolution, College of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, Hubei, China.

The genus Neriene Blackwall, 1833 from China is reviewed. Two new species are described: Neriene lushanensis n. sp. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Description of Paracymbiomma gen. nov., a new genus of prodidomid spiders from the Neotropical region (Araneae: Prodidomidae) including a new troglobite species.

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 8;4514(3):301-331. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Laboratório Especial de Coleções Zoológicas, Instituto Butantan. Av. Vital Brasil, 1500, CEP 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil..

Paracymbiomma gen. nov. is proposed to include six new species from Brazil: P. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Systematics of the Australian spiny trapdoor spiders of the genus Blakistonia Hogg (Araneae: Idiopidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 12;4518(1):1-76. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, and School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..

A combined molecular and morphological approach was used to revise the Australian spiny trapdoor spiders of the genus Blakistonia Hogg. Where possible, our molecular approach used sequence data from the COI barcoding gene, which were analysed using Bayesian, RAxML and neighbour-joining approaches. These molecular data were combined with morphology to describe and diagnose the genus, to redescribe the type (and only previously valid) species, B. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

New species of Anaptomecus Simon, 1903 (Araneae: Sparassidae) from Colombia, with an identification key for all known species of the genus.

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 13;4521(2):294-300. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Laboratorio de Aracnología & Miriapodología (LAM-UN), Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, Colombia..

The huntsman spider genus Anaptomecus was proposed by Simon (1903) to include the type species, A. longiventris Simon, 1903, described from a juvenile male collected in Cayambé (San Pedro de Cayambé), Pichincha, Ecuador. Mello-Leitão (1940) described a second species, A. Read More

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November 2018

A new, remarkable erigonine spider genus from eastern Asia (Araneae, Linyphiidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 21;4524(2):245-250. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospekt 33, Moscow 119071, Russia..

Erigomicronus new genus is erected for Oreonetides longembolus Wunderlich Li, 1995 (the type species) and Maro lautus Saito, 1984. The genitalia of both species are studied in detail and illustrated. Based to the male palp conformation, the new genus seems to belong to the subfamily Erigoninae, but the epigynum resembles that of some "micronetine" genera, e. Read More

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November 2018

Five new species and new records of the spider genus Stemmops Araneae, Theridiidae, Spintharinae) from Brazil.

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 21;4524(2):174-186. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Laboratório de Diversidade e Sistemática de Arachnida (LaDiSA). Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS). Av. Unisinos, 950, Cristo Rei, 93022-000 São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil..

The spider genus Stemmops O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894, currently comprises 22 described species. Spiders of this genus are mainly known from the Neotropical Region, but are poorly studied in Brazil. Read More

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November 2018
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Five new Lathys species (Araneae: Dictynidae) from South China and the first description of the male of Lathys spiralis Zhang, Hu Zhang, 2012.

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 16;4500(2):151-178. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

College of Life Science, Jinggangshan University, Ji'an 343009, Jiangxi, China College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, Hunan, China.

Dictynidae spiders were collected from Jinggang Mountain National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi Province, China in the past four years. Five new species are described and illustrated with photographs, SEMs and line drawings: Lathys adunca Liu spec. nov. Read More

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October 2018

Raoiella of the world (Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 19;4501(1):1-301. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Queensland Museum, P.O. Box 3300, South Brisbane, Qld 4101, Australia.

We describe 16 new species and redescribe six established species in the genus Raoiella-R. argenta sp. nov. Read More

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October 2018

Description of two new species of Paratus Simon, 1898 from southern China (Araneae: Liocranidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 29;4508(1):141-150. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

The Key Laboratory of Invertebrate Systematics and Application, College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071002, P. R. China.

In this paper, two new Paratus species are described from southern China from both sexes: Paratus hamatus sp. n. from Yunnan Province and P. Read More

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October 2018
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On a new species of the spider genus Attacobius Mello-Leitão (Araneae: Corinnidae) from Brazilian Cerrado.

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 31;4508(3):446-450. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Departamento de Zoologia, Laboratório de Aracnologia. Av. Perimetral, n° 1901, CEP 66077-830, Belém, Pará, Brazil.

At the time the genus Attacobius Mello-Leitão, 1925 was first acknowledged as a member of the subfamily Corinninae, Corinnidae, by Platnick Baptista (1995), only three species were recognized. Since then, that number has increased to 15 currently valid species (Bonaldo Brescovit 1998; 2005; Pereira-Filho et al. 2018). Read More

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October 2018
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