13,530 results match your criteria Spider Envenomation Tarantula


Loxoscelism: Cutaneous and Hematologic Manifestations.

Adv Hematol 2019 20;2019:4091278. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, West Cancer Clinic, 7945 Wolf River Blvd, Germantown, TN 38138, USA.

Background: Brown recluse spider (BRS) envenomation can lead to significant morbidity through severe local reaction and systemic illness including acute hemolytic anemia, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), and even death. We aim to describe the clinical features and the roles of antibiotics and steroids in the treatment of loxoscelism.

Methods: We retrospectively identified nine patients (pts) at our institution who were admitted with moderate to severe loxoscelism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4091278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446102PMC

Habitat edge responses of generalist predators are predicted by prey and structural resources.

Ecology 2019 Apr 23:e02662. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, 80208, USA.

Generalist predators are thought to be less vulnerable to habitat fragmentation because they use diverse resources across larger spatial scales than specialist predators. Thus, it has been suggested that generalist predators may respond positively to habitat edges or demonstrate no edge response, because they can potentially use prey resources equally well on both sides of the habitat edge. However, most predictions about generalist predator responses to the habitat edge are based solely on prey resources, without consideration of other potential drivers. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ecy.2662
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2662DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Metabolic and Behavioral Responses of Predators to Prey Nutrient Content.

J Insect Physiol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Integrative Biology, Oklahoma State University, 501 Life Science West, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 74075, USA.

Predators feed on a diversity of prey that can vary widely in nutrient content. While prey nutrient content is known to have important consequences for life history traits, less is known about how it affects physiology and behavior. The purpose of this study was to test how diet affected the physiology and behavior of the wolf spider Hogna carolinensis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2019.04.006DOI Listing

The sex- and duration-dependent effects of intermittent fasting on lifespan and reproduction of spider mite .

Front Zool 2019 11;16:10. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, 1072 New Zealand.

Background: Intermittent fasting (IF) is receiving increasing attention as an alternative to continuous restriction of calories because of its benefits in aging-related disease prevention and lifespan extension. However, whether both sexes with sexual dimorphism have similar response to IF have rarely been assayed. In this study, we determined how different durations of IF influence lifespan and whether males and females differed in their responses to IF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-019-0310-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458716PMC

Phylogenomics of the longitarsal Colossendeidae: The evolutionary history of an Antarctic sea spider radiation.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Statistical Phylogenetics and Phylogenomics, Adenauerallee 160, D-53113 Bonn, Germany; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Bonn, D-53012 Bonn, Germany.

Sea spiders (Pycnogonida) constitute a group of marine benthic arthropods that has a particularly high species diversity in the Southern Ocean. The "longitarsal" group of the sea spider family Colossendeidae is especially abundant in this region. However, this group also includes some representatives from other oceans, which raises the question where the group originates from. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10557903183051
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2019.04.017DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Nonvascular uses of pulsed dye laser in clinical dermatology.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Dermatological Surgery & Laser Unit, St John's Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK.

Lasers are fast becoming the vogue of dermatology ranging from ablative, nonablative, fractional photothermolysis to vascular lasers. There are a range of vascular lasers including potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP 532 nm), pulsed dye laser (PDL -595 nm), diode (810 nm), and Nd:YAG (1064 nm). PDL is a laser that emits yellow light using Rhodamine dye as it is lasing medium. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jocd.12924
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12924DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Field-evolved resistance and cross-resistance of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to bifenazate, cyenopyrafen and SYP-9625.

Exp Appl Acarol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute of Plant and Environmental Protection, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, 9 Shuguanghuayuan Middle Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100097, China.

The acaricide bifenazate acts as complex III inhibitor whereas cyenopyrafen and SYP-9625 act as complex II inhibitors. All these acaricides are commonly used to control two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch. We examined field-evolved and laboratory-selected resistance of TSSM to these three acaricides and determined cross-resistance among them. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10493-019-00359-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-019-00359-3DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Fibril self-assembly of amyloid-spider silk block polypeptides.

Biomacromolecules 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Due to their association with debilitating diseases and their potential applications in developing novel bionanomaterials, highly ordered amyloid fibrils have recently received considerable attention. While many studies have thus far focused on amyloid fibrils made with short peptides containing just one steric zipper-forming segment of native amyloid proteins, the self-assembly of proteins containing multiple steric zipper-forming segments has been rarely explored. Here we develop a strategy to create four block polypeptides, each containing 16 repeats of a zipper-forming segment from four different amyloid morphological classes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00218DOI Listing

Substrate specificity and promiscuity of horizontally transferred UDP-glycosyltransferases in the generalist herbivore Tetranychus urticae.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000, Ghent, Belgium; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (UvA), Science Park 904, 1908, XH, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the addition of UDP-sugars to small hydrophobic molecules, turning them into more water-soluble metabolites. While their role in detoxification is well documented for vertebrates, arthropod UGTs have only recently been linked to the detoxification and sequestration of plant toxins and insecticides. The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a generalist herbivore notorious for rapidly developing resistance to insecticides and acaricides. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09651748193002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.04.010DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

Pore-forming spider venom peptides show cytotoxicity to hyperpolarized cancer cells expressing K+ channels: A lentiviral vector approach.

PLoS One 2019 12;14(4):e0215391. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

Recent studies demonstrated the upregulation of K+ channels in cancer cells. We have previously found that a pore-forming peptide LaFr26, purified from the venom of the Lachesana sp spider, was selectively incorporated into K+ channel expressing hyperpolarized cells. Therefore, it is expected that this peptide would have selective cytotoxicity to hyperpolarized cancer cells. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215391PLOS

Spiders did not repeatedly gain, but repeatedly lost, foraging webs.

PeerJ 2019 4;7:e6703. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.

Much genomic-scale, especially transcriptomic, data on spider phylogeny has accumulated in the last few years. These data have recently been used to investigate the diverse architectures and the origin of spider webs, concluding that the ancestral spider spun no foraging web, that spider webs evolved 10-14 times, and that the orb web evolved at least three times. These findings in fact result from a particular phylogenetic character coding strategy, specifically coding the of webs as logically equivalent, and homologous to, 10 other observable (i. Read More

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https://peerj.com/articles/6703
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451839PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Towards Spider Glue: Long Read Scaffolding for Extreme Length and Repetitious Silk Family Genes AgSp1 and AgSp2 with Insights into Functional Adaptation.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

General Technical Services.

An individual orb weaving spider can spin up to seven different types of silk, each with unique functions and material properties. The capture spiral silk of classic two-dimensional aerial orb webs is coated with an amorphous glue that functions to retain prey that get caught in a web. This unique modified silk is partially comprised of spidroins (spider fibroins) encoded by two members of the silk gene family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.119.400065DOI Listing

Non-target effects of herbicides on Tetranychus urticae and its predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis: implications for biological control.

Pest Manag Sci 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Clemson University, Coastal Research and Education Center, 2700 Savannah Highway, Charleston, SC, 29414.

Background: A key element of conservation biocontrol is identifying and limiting use of pesticides that have substantial non-target effects on natural enemies to prevent biocontrol disruption. The Phytoseiidae (predatory mites) are one of the most studied natural enemy groups in the field of pesticide non-target effects. While there is substantial research on the non-target effects of insecticides on arthropod natural enemies, research on herbicide impacts is limited. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ps.5443
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5443DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Experimental duplication of bilaterian body axes in spider embryos: Holm's organizer and self-regulation of embryonic fields.

Dev Genes Evol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Evolutionary Cell and Developmental Biology, JT Biohistory Research Hall, 1-1 Murasaki-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka, 569-1125, Japan.

Bilaterally symmetric body plans of vertebrates and arthropods are defined by a single set of two orthogonal axes, the anterior-posterior (or head-tail) and dorsal-ventral axes. In vertebrates, and especially amphibians, complete or partial doubling of the bilaterian body axes can be induced by two different types of embryological manipulations: transplantation of an organizer region or bi-sectioning of an embryo. Such axis doubling relies on the ability of embryonic fields to flexibly respond to the situation and self-regulate toward forming a whole body. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-019-00631-xDOI Listing

Juvenile social experience generates differences in behavioral variation but not averages.

Behav Ecol 2019 Mar-Apr;30(2):455-464. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Developmental plasticity is known to influence the mean behavioral phenotype of a population. Yet, studies on how developmental plasticity shapes patterns of variation within populations are comparatively rare and often focus on a subset of developmental cues (e.g. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/beheco/article/30/2/455/5255902
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/ary185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450201PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Atrazine exposure shifts activity but has minimal effects on courtship in an agrobiont spider.

Ecotoxicology 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Biology, Miami University, Hamilton, OH, 45011, USA.

The behavior of many animals relies upon the input of chemical signals throughout the environment. Those animals that live in close proximity to humans may then be at risk, as the input of anthropogenic chemicals can have significant sublethal effects by masking or altering these naturally occurring signals. While the herbicide atrazine has been found to have the potential to alter such chemical information, research is lacking on how it may impact agrobiont arthropods which are the first and most direct line of exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-019-02041-1DOI Listing

Associated cultivated plants in tomato cropping systems structure arthropod communities and increase the Helicoverpa armigera regulation.

Bull Entomol Res 2019 Apr 10:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

GECO, Univ Montpellier,CIRAD, Montpellier,France.

Cultivating plant mixtures is expected to provide a higher productivity and a better control of pests and diseases. The structure of the arthropod community is a major driver of the magnitude of natural pest regulations.With the aim of optimizing pest management, a study was carried out to determine the effect of the cropping system type (tomato mono-cropping vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007485319000117DOI Listing

Catching Latrophilin With Lasso: A Universal Mechanism for Axonal Attraction and Synapse Formation.

Front Neurosci 2019 22;13:257. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

BrainPatch Ltd., London, United Kingdom.

Latrophilin-1 (LPHN1) was isolated as the main high-affinity receptor for α-latrotoxin from black widow spider venom, a powerful presynaptic secretagogue. As an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor, LPHN1 is cleaved into two fragments, which can behave independently on the cell surface, but re-associate upon binding the toxin. This triggers intracellular signaling that involves the Gαq/phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate cascade and an increase in cytosolic Ca, leading to vesicular exocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438917PMC

Structural properties and their influence on the prey retention in the spider web.

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2019 Feb;377(2138):20180271

2 Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- and Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLB2), The Ohio State University , 201 W. 19th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1142 , USA.

Orb webs absorb the impact energy of prey and transmit vibratory information to the spider with minimal structural damage. The structural properties of the web and the arrangement of threads within the web affect transmission time during the prey impact. The objective of the present study is to determine damping, stiffness, and transmissibility of healthy and damaged spider webs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2018.0271DOI Listing
February 2019
2.864 Impact Factor

Polar gigantism and the oxygen-temperature hypothesis: a test of upper thermal limits to body size in Antarctic pycnogonids.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Apr;286(1900):20190124

1 Department of Biology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa , Honolulu, HI 96822 , USA.

The extreme and constant cold of the Southern Ocean has led to many unusual features of the Antarctic fauna. One of these, polar gigantism, is thought to have arisen from a combination of cold-driven low metabolic rates and high oxygen availability in the polar oceans (the 'oxygen-temperature hypothesis'). If the oxygen-temperature hypothesis indeed underlies polar gigantism, then polar giants may be particularly susceptible to warming temperatures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0124DOI Listing

Bioinspired Fabrication of Polyurethane/Regenerated Silk Fibroin Composite Fibres with Tubuliform Silk-Like Flat Stress⁻Strain Behaviour.

Polymers (Basel) 2018 Mar 19;10(3). Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Institute of Textiles & Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon 999077, Hong Kong, China.

Tubuliform silk is one of the seven different types of spider silks, which is well known for its unique tensile behaviour with Flat Tensile Stress⁻Strain (FTSS) curve. It is found that anisotropic microstructure of β-sheets is responsible for this property. In recent years, bioinspired approaches to engineer fibres supported by modern manufacturing systems have been attracting considerable interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym10030333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6414937PMC

Biotic predictors complement models of bat and bird responses to climate and tree diversity in European forests.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Jan;286(1894):20182193

10 Department of Systematic Botany and Functional Biodiversity, University of Leipzig , Leipzig , Germany.

Bats and birds are key providers of ecosystem services in forests. How climate and habitat jointly shape their communities is well studied, but whether biotic predictors from other trophic levels may improve bird and bat diversity models is less known, especially across large bioclimatic gradients. Here, we achieved multi-taxa surveys in 209 mature forests replicated in six European countries from Spain to Finland, to investigate the importance of biotic predictors (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367190PMC
January 2019

Imaging and mechanical characterization of different junctions in spider orb webs.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 8;9(1):5776. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Laboratory of Bio-Inspired & Graphene Nanomechanics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano, 77, 38123, Trento, Italy.

Spider silk and spider orb webs are among the most studied biological materials and structures owing to their outstanding mechanical properties. A key feature that contributes significantly to the robustness and capability to absorb high kinetic energy of spider webs is the presence of junctions connecting different silk threads. Surprisingly, in spite of their fundamental function, the mechanics of spider web junctions have never been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42070-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453893PMC

Responsive Protein Hydrogels Assembled from Spider Silk Carboxyl-Terminal Domain and Resilin Copolymers.

Polymers (Basel) 2018 Aug 14;10(8). Epub 2018 Aug 14.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Responsive protein hydrogels are known to respond to target external stimuli that cause changes in their properties, attracting considerable attention for diverse applications. Here we report the design and recombinant biosynthesis of protein copolymers via genetic fusion of repeating units of resilin with spider silk carboxyl-terminal (CT) domain. The resulting copolymers were thermoresponsive in aqueous solutions, and formed reversible hydrogels at low temperatures and irreversible hydrogels at high temperatures within minutes, a peculiar dual thermogelation feature endowed by the CT domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym10080915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403847PMC

Hierarchical architecture of spider attachment setae reconstructed from scanning nanofocus X-ray diffraction data.

J R Soc Interface 2019 Jan;16(150):20180692

1 Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Zoological Institute, Kiel University , 24098 Kiel , Germany.

When sitting and walking, the feet of wandering spiders reversibly attach to many surfaces without the use of gluey secretions. Responsible for the spiders' dry adhesion are the hairy attachment pads that are built of specially shaped cuticular hairs (setae) equipped with approximately 1 µm wide and 20 nm thick plate-like contact elements (spatulae) facing the substrate. Using synchrotron-based scanning nanofocus X-ray diffraction methods, combining wide-angle X-ray diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, allowed substantial quantitative information to be gained about the structure and materials of these fibrous adhesive structures with 200 nm resolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2018.0692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364634PMC
January 2019

Eggshell spheres protect brown widow spider ( Latrodectus geometricus) eggs from bacterial infection.

J R Soc Interface 2019 Jan;16(150):20180581

3 Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University , Beer Sheva , Israel.

Eggs provide a rich source of nutrients for the developing embryo, making them a favoured food source for other organisms as well. Several defence mechanisms have evolved to protect the developing embryos against microbial threats. In this article, we elucidate the defence strategy of brown widow spider ( Latrodectus geometricus) eggs against bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2018.0581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364662PMC
January 2019

Nature-Derived Peptides: A Growing Niche for GPCR Ligand Discovery.

Trends Pharmacol Sci 2019 May 5;40(5):309-326. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Institute of Pharmacology, Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent important drug targets, as they regulate pivotal physiological processes and they have proved to be readily druggable. Natural products have been and continue to be amongst the most valuable sources for drug discovery and development. Here, we surveyed small molecules and (poly-)peptides derived from plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria, which modulate GPCR signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2019.03.004DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Safety and short-term efficacy of telangiectasia treatment by means of an innovative combination of 532 and 808 nm transdermal diode laser.

Phlebology 2019 Apr 6:268355519841999. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

2 Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an innovative transdermal multiple wavelength diode laser in telangiectasia treatment.

Methods: A total of 94 females underwent treatment by means of a multiple wavelength laser. All the cases were treated by three cycles of 532 nm combined with simultaneous 808 nm pulse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0268355519841999DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Hunting the wolf: A molecular phylogeny of the wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

División de Aracnología, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Av. Angel Gallardo 470, C1405DJR, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Lycosids are a diverse family of spiders distributed worldwide. Previous studies recovered some of the deeper splits of the family, but with little support. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of the Lycosidae including a wide geographic sampling of representatives and all the subfamilies described to date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Vitellogenesis in spiders: first analysis of protein changes in different reproductive stages of Polybetes pythagoricus.

J Comp Physiol B 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de la Plata Prof. Dr. Rodolfo R. Brenner (INIBIOLP), Fac. Cs. Médicas, CCT-La Plata CONICET-UNLP, Calle 60 y 120, 1900, La Plata, Argentina.

Vitellogenesis represents one of the most vital processes of oviparous species during which various proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids are synthesized and stored inside the developing oocytes. Through analyzing protein changes in the midgut diverticula, hemolymph, and ovaries of females throughout the different vitellogenic stages of the spider Polybetes pythagoricus, we determined the origin of the different proteins involved in the formation of lipovitellins (LVs) along with the existence of a linkage between the hemocyanin and this vital process. An increase in the total protein content of the midgut diverticula, hemolymph, and ovary occurred throughout vitellogenesis followed by a decrease in those levels after laying. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00360-019-01217-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00360-019-01217-9DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Contact application of neonicotinoids suppresses the predation rate in different densities of prey and induces paralysis of common farmland spiders.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 5;9(1):5724. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Crop Research Institute, Biodiversity Lab, Prague, Czech Republic.

Neonicotinoids are very effective in controlling crop pests but have adverse effects on predators and pollinators. Spiders are less sensitive to neonicotinoids compared to insects because of the different structure of their acetylcholine receptors, the binding targets of neonicotinoids. We tested whether short-term exposure to neonicotinoids affected the predation rate in different densities of prey of spiders and led to their paralysis or eventual death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42258-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450932PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Acoustic variation of spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) contact calls is related to caller isolation and affects listeners' responses.

PLoS One 2019 3;14(4):e0213914. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Cognitive Ethology Laboratory, German Primate Center, Göttingen, Germany.

Group living animals produce vocalizations denominated "contact calls" to maintain contact with out-of-sight group members. These calls have been shown to vary with caller identity and distance to potential listeners. However, it is not clear whether the acoustic variation of contact calls is related to caller social isolation (e. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213914PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447145PMC
April 2019
1 Read

From waterfall plots to spaghetti plots in early oncology clinical development.

Pharm Stat 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Clinical Pharmacology, Roche Innovation Centre, Basel, Switzerland.

Waterfall plots are used to describe changes in tumor size observed in clinical studies. They are frequently used to illustrate the overall drug response in oncology clinical trials because of its simple representation of results. Unfortunately, this visual display suffers a number of limitations including (1) potential misguidance by masking the time dynamics of tumor size, (2) ambiguous labelling of the y-axis, and (3) low data-to-ink ratio. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pst.1944
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pst.1944DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

DNP NMR spectroscopy reveals new structures, residues and interactions in wild spider silks.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2019 Apr;55(32):4687-4690

School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052, Australia.

DNP solid state NMR spectroscopy allows non-targeted analysis of wild spider silk in unprecedented detail at natural abundance, revealing hitherto unreported features across several species. A >50-fold signal enhancement for each silk, enables the detection of novel H-bonding networks and arginine conformations, and the post-translational modified amino acid, hydroxyproline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc01045aDOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

First description of the male of Jäger, 2008 (Araneae, Sparassidae) from China.

Zookeys 2019 20;832:153-160. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

ubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning 437100, Hubei, China.

The male of Jäger, 2008 is described for the first time from Menglun Town, Yunnan Province, China. This is the first record of this genus from China. An illustrated morphological description of this species is given. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.832.32569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437136PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Nest usurpation: a specialised hunting strategy used to overcome dangerous spider prey.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 29;9(1):5386. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37, Brno, Czech Republic.

Hunting other predators is dangerous, as the tables can turn and the hunter may become the hunted. Specialized araneophagic (spider eating) predators have evolved intriguing hunting strategies that allow them to invade spiders' webs by adopting a stealthy approach or using aggressive mimicry. Here, we present a newly discovered, specialized hunting strategy of the araneophagic spider Poecilochroa senilis (Araneae: Gnaphosidae), which forces its way into the silk retreat of the potential spider prey and immobilizes it by swathing gluey silk onto its forelegs and mouthparts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41664-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441022PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Citizen science observations reveal rapid, multi-decadal ecosystem changes in eastern Long Island Sound.

Mar Environ Res 2019 Apr 21;146:80-88. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

University of Connecticut, Department of Marine Sciences, 1080 Shennecossett Road, 06340, Groton, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Long-term environmental records are among the most valuable assets for understanding the trajectory and consequences of climate change. Here we report on a newly recovered time-series from Project Oceanology, a non-profit ocean science organization serving New England schools (USA) since 1972. As part of its educational mission, Project Oceanology has routinely and consistently recorded water temperature, pH, and oxygen as well as invertebrate and fish abundance in nearshore waters of the Thames River estuary in eastern Long Island Sound (LIS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2019.03.007DOI Listing

The Efficacy of Antivenin Latrodectus (Black Widow) Equine Immune F(ab') Versus Placebo in the Treatment of Latrodectism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial.

Ann Emerg Med 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, CO.

Study Objective: The antivenom currently available for treatment of systemic black widow envenomation (latrodectism) is composed of equine whole immunoglobin. Although considered effective, it has been associated with anaphylaxis and 2 reported fatalities. We test the efficacy and safety of new equine antivenom composed of purified F(ab') antibody fragments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.02.007DOI Listing
March 2019
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4.676 Impact Factor

Self-Rolling Refillable Tubular Enzyme Containers Made of Recombinant Spider Silk and Chitosan.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Encapsulation of enzymes is often necessary to stabilize them against environmental conditions or to protect them from other harmful enzymes such as proteases. Here, a refillable spatial confinement system was produced using a fully degradable self-rolling biopolymer bilayer. The enzyme containers comprise spider silk and chitosan and enable one-pot reactions in the micro- to milliliter regime by trapping the enzyme inside the semipermeable tube and allow the substrate and/or product either to diffuse freely or to be entrapped. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b01654DOI Listing

Same principles but different purposes: passive fluid handling throughout the animal kingdom.

Integr Comp Biol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Zoology, Worringerweg 3, Aachen, Germany.

Everything on earth is subject to physical laws, thus they influence all facets of living creatures. Though these laws restrain animals in many ways, some animals have developed a way to use physical phenomena in their favor to conserve energy. Many animals, which have to handle fluids, for example, have evolved passive mechanisms by adapting their wettability or using capillary forces for rapid fluid spreading. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icz018DOI Listing

Thus far but no further: predatory mites do not migrate effectively into strawberry plantations.

Exp Appl Acarol 2019 Mar 27;77(3):359-373. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK.

Enhancing the performance of predatory mites is often regarded as the best biological control approach towards the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, the main pest of strawberry plantations. Optimizing the colonization of plantations by predators from adjacent areas such as field margins is seen as an important component of conservation biocontrol. We have investigated the factors contributing to enhancing the numbers of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseidae), such as management of the field margins, vegetation composition and the effect of the presence of woody species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-019-00357-5DOI Listing

The first Paratropididae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae) from Colombia: new genus, species and records.

Zookeys 2019 14;830:1-32. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Sección Entomología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La República, Iguá 4225, Montevideo, Uruguay Universidad de La República Montevideo Uruguay.

The family of mygalomorph spiders Paratropididae Simon, 1889 is here reported for the first time for Colombia, where it is represented by three genera (, , ) and eight species. One genus, , and six species constitute new taxa that are here diagnosed, described and illustrated. The geographical distribution of FO Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 and Dupérré, 2015 are also redescribed and expanded on the basis of new material examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.830.31433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428803PMC
March 2019
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A Critical Appraisal of the Placement of Xiphosura (Chelicerata) with Account of Known Sources of Phylogenetic Error.

Syst Biol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura) are traditionally regarded as sister group to the clade of terrestrial chelicerates (Arachnida). This hypothesis has been challenged by recent phylogenomic analyses, but the non-monophyly of Arachnida has consistently been disregarded as artifactual. We re-evaluated the placement of Xiphosura among chelicerates using the most complete phylogenetic data set to date, expanding outgroup sampling, and including data from whole genome sequencing projects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syz011DOI Listing
March 2019
14.387 Impact Factor

Effect of Pesticides on Biological Control Potential of Neoscona theisi (Araneae: Araneidae).

J Insect Sci 2019 Mar;19(2)

Department of Zoology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

The present study was designed to record the effect of λ-cyhalothrin, Bifenthrin, and Glyphosate on the mortality, avoidance behavior, foraging activity, and activity of Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and Carboxylesterase (CarE) in Neoscona theisi (Walckenaer, 1841). Highest mortality (70%) in N. theisi was recorded against λ-cyhalothrin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/iez024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435917PMC

Evidence for faster X chromosome evolution in spiders.

Mol Biol Evol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

In species with chromosomal sex determination, X chromosomes are predicted to evolve faster than autosomes because of positive selection on recessive alleles or weak purifying selection. We investigated X chromosome evolution in Stegodyphus spiders that differ in mating system, sex-ratio, and population dynamics. We assigned scaffolds to X chromosomes and autosomes using a novel method based on flow cytometry of sperm cells and reduced representation sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz074DOI Listing

Comparative characterization of putative chitin deacetylases from Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2019 Mar 26:1-4. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

a Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (North China), Ministry of Agriculture , College of Biological Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Agriculture , Beijing , China.

Considering the challenges of controlling carmine spider mite and protecting pollinators, chitin deacetylase genes (TecCDA1 and TecCDA2) of spider mite were characterized as group I, and were expressed in stage-specific pattern, which imply their role during development. The differences in sequences and structures between T. cinnabarinus and honeybee CDAs offer possibilities to design new selective pesticides protecting pollinator honeybees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09168451.2019.1591264DOI Listing

Experimental evidence of frequency-dependent selection on group behaviour.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 04 25;3(4):702-707. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Evolutionary ecologists often seek to identify the mechanisms maintaining intraspecific variation. In social animals, whole groups can exhibit between-group differences in their collective traits. We examined whether negative frequency-dependent selection (that is, a rare-type advantage) could help to maintain between-group variation. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-019-0852-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0852-zDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Heightened defensive responses following subtotal lesions of macaque orbitofrontal cortex.

J Neurosci 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Section on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892

Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive attention to threat. Several brain areas, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), have been associated with threat processing, with more recent work implicating specialized roles for medial and lateral subregions of OFC in mediating specific symptoms of anxiety disorders. Virtually no causal work, however, has evaluated the role of these OFC subregions in regulating behavioral responses under threat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2812-18.2019DOI Listing
March 2019
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Revisiting Polybia paulista wasp venom using shotgun proteomics - Insights into the N-linked glycosylated venom proteins.

J Proteomics 2019 May 21;200:60-73. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Center of the Study of Social Insects, Department of Biology, Institute of Biosciences of Rio Claro, São Paulo State University, Rio Claro, SP 13500, Brazil. Electronic address:

The partial proteome of Polybia paulista wasp venom was previously reported elsewhere using a gel-dependent approach and resulted in the identification of a limited number of venom toxins. Here, we reinvestigated the P. paulista venom using a gel-free shotgun proteomic approach; the highly dynamic range of this approach facilitated the detection and identification of 1673 proteins, of which 23 venom proteins presented N-linked glycosylation as a posttranslational modification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2019.03.012DOI Listing
May 2019
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Synthesis and Acaricidal- and Insecticidal-Activity Evaluation of Novel Oxazolines Containing Sulfiliminyl Moieties and Their Derivatives.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Apr 2;67(15):4224-4231. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Research Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry , Nankai University , Tianjin 300071 , People's Republic of China.

Sulfimides and sulfoximines are highly relevant for medicinal chemistry and crop protection, as the resulting products can reveal interesting bioactivities. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a series of novel 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolines containing sulfiliminyl and sulfoximinyl moieties. The acaricidal and insecticidal activities of the new compounds were evaluated and indicated that these compounds exhibited excellent acaricidal activities against spider mite larvae and eggs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b00657DOI Listing