15,542 results match your criteria Spider Envenomation Tarantula

Toddler with priapism as a result of redback spider latrodectism.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of General Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

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Single Polylactic Acid Nanowire for Highly Sensitive and Multifunctional Optical Biosensing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Nanowire-based optical biosensors with high sensitivity are highly desired for the detection of biological microenvironments and analysis of cellular processes. However, the current nanowire biosensors are mostly fabricated with metal and semiconductor materials, which are not suitable for long-term use in biological environments due to their incompatible and nondegradable properties. Biosensors based on biofriendly materials (e. Read More

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Habitat filtering differentially modulates phylogenetic and functional diversity relationships between predatory arthropods.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Jun 2;8(6):202093. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

UMR CNRS 6553 Ecobio, Université de Rennes, 263 Avenue du Gal Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 Rennes cedex, France.

Mechanisms underlying biological diversities at different scales have received significant attention over the last decades. The hypothesis of whether local abiotic factors, driving functional and phylogenetic diversities, can differ among taxa of arthropods remains under-investigated. In this study, we compared correlations and drivers of functional diversity (FD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) between spiders and carabids, two dominant taxa of ground-dwelling arthropods in salt marshes. Read More

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Spatial proximity and prey vibratory cues influence collective hunting in social spiders.

Isr J Ecol Evol 2020 Dec 19;66(1-2):26-31. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Social spiders are thought to predominantly receive information about their environment through vibrational cues. Thus, group living introduces the challenge of distinguishing useful vibrational information from the background noise of nestmates. Here we investigate whether spatial proximity between colony-mates may allow social spiders () to reduce background noise that might obstruct vibrational information from prey. Read More

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December 2020

Novel Molecular Organic Framework Composite Molecularly Imprinted Nanofibrous Membranes with a Bioinspired Viscid Bead Structure for Selective Recognition and Separation of Atrazine.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Green Chemistry and Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

In this work, novel atrazine (ATZ) molecularly imprinted nanofibrous membranes (A-MNMs) with a molecular organic framework (MOF)-based viscid bead structure were developed based on a natural spider-web-inspired strategy for selective separation of ATZ. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVDF/PVA) blended nanofibrous membranes as the basal membrane were synthesized by electrospinning technology combined with a chemical cross-linking procedure. The most critical design is that MOF nanocrystals as the matrix of the viscid bead structure were assembled on the PVDF/PVA blended nanofibrous membrane surface and the specific recognition sites were efficiently constructed on the surface and pores of the MOF-based viscid bead structure by a surface imprinting strategy. Read More

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Long-term, low incidence of web-decorating by spiders in the Mariana Islands, Micronesia.

Ecology 2021 Jun 9:e03433. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011, USA.

Many orb-weaving spiders build webs invested with curious flags, spirals, or zig-zagging ribbons of bright silk termed "decorations" or "stabilimenta". Web decorating arose some 150 million years ago in nine araneoid lineages, which have diversified into hundreds of species referable to about two dozen genera, with few reversions to non-decorating (Scharff and Coddington 1997; Garrison et al. 2016). Read More

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The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) does not respond for volatiles of maize infested by Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

Braz J Biol 2021 4;82:e239639. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei - UFSJ, Departamento de Ciências Agrárias, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brasil.

Among the plants defense mechanisms, the induction and emission of volatile organic compounds, which can be used to attract natural enemies, such predators insects. Although well studied, the induction of plant volatiles that attract natural enemies can vary according to intensity of infestation of herbivores and the species of host plant. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the volatiles of infested maize (Zea mays) plants by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in early and advanced infestations. Read More

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Multi-community effects of organic and conventional farming practices in vineyards.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 7;11(1):11979. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

INRAE, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, ISVV, SAVE, F-33140, Villenave d'Ornon, France.

Understanding the response of biodiversity to organic farming is crucial to design more sustainable agriculture. While it is known that organic farming benefits biodiversity on average, large variability in the effects of this farming system exists. Moreover, it is not clear how different practices modulate the performance of organic farming for biodiversity conservation. Read More

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High Altitude Limits of Living Things.

John B West

High Alt Med Biol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

West, John B. High altitude limits of living things. 00:000-000, 2021. Read More

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Is Continued Improvement After Automated Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia Explained by Subsequent Exposure? A First Test of the Lowered Threshold Hypothesis.

Front Psychiatry 2021 20;12:645273. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Consumer Virtual Reality (VR) technology offers a powerful, immersive medium for scalable dissemination of mental health interventions. Decades of research has shown VR exposure therapy to be efficacious in the treatment of anxiety disorders and that the fear reduction generalizes to real-world stimuli. Many studies also report continued improvement over time, after discontinuing VR use. Read More

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An Integrated Approach to Discriminate the Quality Markers of Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation Based on Multi-dimensional Characteristic Network: Shenqi Jiangtang Granule as a case.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 2:114277. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, No. 18, Chaowang Road, Hangzhou 310014, China. Electronic address:

Background: Due to the complexity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the current quality evaluation of TCM are difficult to associate with clinical efficacy. Shenqi Jiangtang Granule (SJG), a classical TCM formula, is proven as a therapy for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and complications while the substantial basis of the therapeutic effects is not clear.

Purpose: The present study proposed an integrated approach to discriminate the quality markers (Q-markers) based on multi-dimensional characteristic network for quality control of TCM. Read More

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Photoperiodic control of reproductive arrest in the oak-inhabiting spider mite Schizotetranychus brevisetosus (Acari: Tetranychidae).

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Jun 4;84(2):389-405. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Faculty of Agriculture and Marine Science, Kochi University, 200 Monobeotsu, Nankoku, Kochi, 783-8502, Japan.

Populations of Schizotetranychus brevisetosus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae), which live on the evergreen oak (Quercus glauca), survive the coldest months as either adult females or winter eggs. Adult females comprise the majority of the population in early November and oviposit from late November to early March. Most winter eggs hatch by late March, and adults of the next generation emerge in April. Read More

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First Report of Anthracnose on Hymenocallis littoralis Caused by Colletotrichum siamense in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences of Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China;

Spider lily (Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb.) is a widely cultivated horticultural plant worldwide and has ornamental and medicinal value. Read More

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A checklist of spiders from Yongxing Island, South China Sea, with taxonomic notes on four species of goblin spiders.

Biodivers Data J 2021 21;9:e67087. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Life Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang, China College of Life Science, Shenyang Normal University Shenyang China.

Background: Yongxing Island (about 1.85 km) isthe largest island of the Xisha Islands. It is located in the Western South China Sea and belongs to the tropical ocean monsoon climate zone. Read More

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Erythritol, an Artificial Sweetener, Is Acaricidal Against Pest Mites and Minimally Harmful to a Predatory Mite.

J Econ Entomol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

USDA-ARS, Temperate Tree Fruit and Vegetable Crop Research Unit, 5230 Konnowac Pass Road, Wapato, WA 98951, USA.

Erythritol, an artificial sweetener, has shown promise as an organic, human-safe insecticide. Recently, erythritol applications were shown to be successful at controlling pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster)) (Hempitera: Psyllidae), the most important pest of pear in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) and pear rust mite (Epitrimerus pyri (Nalepa)) (Trombidiformes: Eriophyidae) can also be highly damaging pear pests. Read More

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Spider-Web and Ant-Tentacle Doubly Bio-Inspired Multifunctional Self-Powered Electronic Skin with Hierarchical Nanostructure.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 2:e2004377. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

National Demonstration Center for Experimental Light Chemistry Engineering Education, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710021, China.

For the practical applications of wearable electronic skin (e-skin), the multifunctional, self-powered, biodegradable, biocompatible, and breathable materials are needed to be assessed and tailored simultaneously. Integration of these features in flexible e-skin is highly desirable; however, it is challenging to construct an e-skin to meet the requirements of practical applications. Herein, a bio-inspired multifunctional e-skin with a multilayer nanostructure based on spider web and ant tentacle is constructed, which can collect biological energy through a triboelectric nanogenerator for the simultaneous detection of pressure, humidity, and temperature. Read More

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Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Preying on (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae).

Insects 2021 May 31;12(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Bioenvironmental Division, Chungnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Yesan 32418, Korea.

The predatory gall midge, (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is an acarivorous species that mainly feeds on spider mites (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Because of its cosmopolitan distribution and predation efficacy, it is considered an important natural enemy available as a biological agent for augmentative biocontrol. However, despite its practical use, the thermal development and survival response to temperature have not yet been fully studied. Read More

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Effects of f. Inoculum on the Composting of Cabbage Wastes and the Endophytic Activities of the Composted Material on Tomatoes and Red Spider Mite Infestation.

Microorganisms 2021 May 31;9(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Horticultural Sciences, Bellville Campus, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Symphony Way, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535, South Africa.

Globally, fungal inocula are being explored as agents for the optimization of composting processes. This research primarily evaluates the effects of inoculating organic vegetable heaps with the entomopathogenic fungus f. (Hypocreales) on the biophysicochemical properties of the end-product of composting. Read More

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Native Spider Silk-Based Antimicrobial Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 29;13(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

SCAMT Institute, ITMO University, Lomonosova str.9, 191002 Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Novel antimicrobial natural polymeric hybrid hydrogels based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and spider silk (Ss) were prepared using the chemical crosslinking method. The effects of the component ratios on the hydrogel characteristics were observed parallel to the primary physicochemical characterization of the hydrogels with scanning electron microscopic imaging, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements, which confirmed the successful crosslinking, regular porous structure, exact composition, and hydrophilic properties of hyaluronic acid/spider silk-based hydrogels. Further characterizations of the hydrogels were performed with the swelling degree, enzymatic degradability, viscosity, conductivity, and shrinking ability tests. Read More

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Venom and Social Behavior: The Potential of Using Spiders to Evaluate the Evolution of Sociality under High Risk.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 May 28;13(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA.

Risks of sociality, including competition and conspecific aggression, are particularly pronounced in venomous invertebrates such as arachnids. Spiders show a wide range of sociality, with differing levels of cannibalism and other types of social aggression. To have the greatest chance of surviving interactions with conspecifics, spiders must learn to assess and respond to risk. Read More

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Molecular Characterization of Chitin Synthase Gene in (Boisduval) and Its Response to Sublethal Concentrations of an Insecticide.

Insects 2021 May 28;12(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China.

The carmine spider mite, (Boisduval), is one of the most important acarine pest species. At present, its control remains primarily dependent on using various chemical insecticides/acaricides in agricultural crops worldwide. To clarify the mechanism whereby responds to insecticide exposure, we identified the chitin synthase 1 gene () and then explored the gene expression levels of at different developmental stages of . Read More

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Ornithologists' Help to Spiders: Factors Influencing Spiders Overwintering in Bird Nesting Boxes.

Insects 2021 May 18;12(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 27, 77900 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Spiders are common inhabitants of tree hollows, as well as bird nesting boxes, especially in autumn and winter. Some species of spiders use bird nesting boxes for overwintering. We investigated spider assemblages in nesting boxes and how temperature influences the abundance of overwintering spiders in nesting boxes in lowland forest in the Czech Republic. Read More

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Duvernoy's Gland Transcriptomics of the Plains Black-Headed Snake, (Squamata, Colubridae): Unearthing the Venom of Small Rear-Fanged Snakes.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 May 6;13(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA.

The venoms of small rear-fanged snakes (RFS) remain largely unexplored, despite increased recognition of their importance in understanding venom evolution more broadly. Sequencing the transcriptome of venom-producing glands has greatly increased the ability of researchers to examine and characterize the toxin repertoire of small taxa with low venom yields. Here, we use RNA-seq to characterize the Duvernoy's gland transcriptome of the Plains Black-headed Snake, , a small, semi-fossorial colubrid that feeds on a variety of potentially dangerous arthropods including centipedes and spiders. Read More

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Niche Modeling May Explain the Historical Population Failure of in Taiwan: Implications of Biocontrol Strategies.

Insects 2021 May 6;12(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106332, Taiwan.

Biological control commonly involves the commercialization and introduction of natural enemies. Athias-Henriot, a mite species widely used in the control of spider mites, was imported to Taiwan in the 1990s and was mass-reared and released into the field. However, none have been observed in comprehensive surveys of phytoseiid mites for over 30 years. Read More

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Acaricidal Efficacy of Jasmine and Lavender Essential Oil or Mustard Fixed Oil against Two-Spotted Spider Mite and Their Impact on Growth and Yield of Eggplants.

Biology (Basel) 2021 May 6;10(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

National Organic Agriculture Center, Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture, Unaizah 56467, Saudi Arabia.

Eggplant is repeatedly attacked by numerous pests, particularly two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), which considerably decline plant productivity. Synthetic acaricides are frequently applied for controlling TSSM, resulting in environmental pollution. The utilization of rational novel substances which repel or prevent TSSM establishment represents a sustainable eco-friendly to reduce the utilization of agrochemicals. Read More

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Bioacaricidal Potential of Ethanol Extract for Boudreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae) Control.

Plants (Basel) 2021 May 21;10(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute of Applied Ecology, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Victoria City 87019, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

The Tetranychidae family includes mites causing severe damage to agricultural fields. The red spider mite, Boudreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae), causes severe damage to several plant species grown as cash crops. Current red spider mite control depends mainly on chemical insecticides. Read More

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Healable and Recyclable Elastomers with Record-High Mechanical Robustness, Unprecedented Crack Tolerance, and Superhigh Elastic Restorability.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 1:e2101498. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Spider silk is one of the most robust natural materials, which has extremely high strength in combination with great toughness and good elasticity. Inspired by spider silk but beyond it, a healable and recyclable supramolecular elastomer, possessing superhigh true stress at break (1.21 GPa) and ultrahigh toughness (390. Read More

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Gene expression profiling reveals candidate genes for defining spider silk gland types.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2021 May 27;135:103594. Epub 2021 May 27.

University of California, Riverside, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, 2710 Life Science Building, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA. Electronic address:

Molecular studies of the secretory glands involved in spider silk production have revealed candidate genes for silk synthesis and a complicated history of spider silk gene evolution. However, differential gene expression profiles of the multiple silk gland types within an individual orb-web weaving spider are lacking. Each of these gland types produces a functionally distinct silk type. Read More

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Spider-Inspired Electrohydraulic Actuators for Fast, Soft-Actuated Joints.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 May 29:e2100916. Epub 2021 May 29.

Paul M. Rady Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA.

The impressive locomotion and manipulation capabilities of spiders have led to a host of bioinspired robotic designs aiming to reproduce their functionalities; however, current actuation mechanisms are deficient in either speed, force output, displacement, or efficiency. Here-using inspiration from the hydraulic mechanism used in spider legs-soft-actuated joints are developed that use electrostatic forces to locally pressurize a hydraulic fluid, and cause flexion of a segmented structure. The result is a lightweight, low-profile articulating mechanism capable of fast operation, high forces, and large displacement; these devices are termed spider-inspired electrohydraulic soft-actuated (SES) joints. Read More

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Taste responsiveness of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) to eight substances tasting sweet to humans.

Physiol Behav 2021 May 26;238:113470. Epub 2021 May 26.

IFM Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address:

Using a two-bottle choice test of short duration, we determined taste preference thresholds for eight substances tasting sweet to humans in three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and four black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). We found that the chimpanzees significantly preferred concentrations as low as 100-500 mM galactose, 250 mM sorbitol, 0.5-2 mM acesulfame K, 0. Read More

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