14,597 results match your criteria Spider Envenomation Tarantula


LCTX-F2, a Novel Potentiator of Coagulation Factors From the Spider Venom of .

Front Pharmacol 2020 16;11:896. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

The National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Animal Peptide Drug Development, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.

Spider venoms contain many functional proteins/peptides such as proteinases, serine/cysteine proteinase inhibitors, insecticidal toxins, and ion channel toxins. However, to date, no peptide toxin with procoagulant activities has been identified from spider venom. In this study, a novel toxin LCTX-F2 with coagulation-promoting activity was identified and characterized in the venom of the spider (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308506PMC

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on human keratinocytes triggered by sphingomyelinase D from Loxosceles venom.

Arch Toxicol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.

The spiders of the Loxosceles genus (called brown or violin spiders) are of medical relevance in several countries due to the many human envenomation cases reported. The main component of Loxosceles venom is the enzyme sphingomyelinase D (SMase D), which is responsible for the local and systemic effects induced by the whole venom. Here, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by Loxosceles laeta venom and SMase D on human keratinocytes to better understand the dermonecrosis development mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02830-2DOI Listing

Salticidae (Arachnida, Araneae) of Thailand: new species and records of Peckham & Peckham, 1886 and Simon, 1885.

PeerJ 2020 22;8:e9352. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland.

The study is based on new material from the collections of the Naturalis Biodiversity Centre in Leiden (RNHM) and the Hungarian Natural History Museum (HNHM) and addresses issues in two genera: Peckham & Peckham, 1886 and Simon, 1885 from Thailand. Both genera are of Asian/Indomalayan origin, the latter with a diversity hotspot in the subtropical valleys of the Himalayas. Based on morphological data, we propose three new species of ( sp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316081PMC

Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Se Nanoparticles Upon Coating with Recombinant Spider Silk Protein eADF4(κ16).

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 17;15:4275-4288. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department for Biomaterials, Faculty of Engineering Science, University of Bayreuth, Prof. Rüdiger Bormann Str. 1, Bayreuth 95447, Germany.

Purpose: Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) are promising antibacterial agents to tackle the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to fabricate Se NPs with a net positive charge to enhance their antibacterial efficacy.

Methods: Se NPs were coated with a positively charged protein - recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(κ16) - to give them a net positive surface charge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S255833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306472PMC

The effect of terminal globular domains on the response of recombinant mini-spidroins to fiber spinning triggers.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 30;10(1):10671. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Chemistry, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, Manchester Synthetic Biology Research Centre SYNBIOCHEM, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M1 7DN, UK.

Spider silk spidroins consist of long repetitive protein strands, flanked by globular terminal domains. The globular domains are often omitted in recombinant spidroins, but are thought to be essential for the spiders' natural spinning process. Mimicking this spinning process could be an essential step towards producing strong synthetic spider silk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67703-1DOI Listing

Mechanical Properties and Weibull Scaling Laws of Unknown Spider Silks.

Molecules 2020 Jun 26;25(12). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Laboratory of Bio-inspired, Bionic, Nano, Meta Materials & Mechanics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano, 77, 38123 Trento, Italy.

Spider silks present extraordinary mechanical properties, which have attracted the attention of material scientists in recent decades. In particular, the strength and the toughness of these protein-based materials outperform the ones of many man-made fibers. Unfortunately, despite the huge interest, there is an absence of statistical investigation on the mechanical properties of spider silks and their related size effects due to the length of the fibers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122938DOI Listing

Nonlinear adaptive NeuroFuzzy feedback linearization based MPPT control schemes for photovoltaic system in microgrid.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(6):e0234992. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

Renewable energy resources connected to a single utility grid system require highly nonlinear control algorithms to maintain efficient operation concerning power output and stability under varying operating conditions. This research work presents a comparative analysis of different adaptive Feedback Linearization (FBL) embedded Full Recurrent Adaptive NeuroFuzzy (FRANF) control schemes for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV subsystem tied to a smart microgrid hybrid power system (SMG-HPS). The proposed schemes are differentiated based on structure and mathematical functions used in FRANF embedded in the FBL model. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234992PLOS

Formation and functionalization of membraneless compartments in Escherichia coli.

Nat Chem Biol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Membraneless organelles formed by liquid-liquid phase separation of proteins or nucleic acids are involved in diverse biological processes in eukaryotes. However, such cellular compartments have yet to be discovered or created synthetically in prokaryotes. Here, we report the formation of liquid protein condensates inside the cells of prokaryotic Escherichia coli upon heterologous overexpression of intrinsically disordered proteins such as spider silk and resilin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41589-020-0579-9DOI Listing

Molecular species delimitation in the primitively segmented spider genus Heptathela endemic to Japanese islands.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2020 Jun 26:106900. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Determining species boundaries forms an important foundation for biological research. However, the results of molecular species delimitation can vary with the data sets and methods that are used. Here we use a two-step approach to delimit species in the genus Heptathela, a group of primitively segmented trapdoor spiders that are endemic to Japanese islands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.106900DOI Listing

Beyond polyphagy and opportunism: natural prey of hunting spiders in the canopy of apple trees.

PeerJ 2020 19;8:e9334. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Entomology, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary.

Spiders (Araneae) form abundant and diverse assemblages in agroecosystems such as fruit orchards, and thus might have an important role as natural enemies of orchard pests. Although spiders are polyphagous and opportunistic predators in general, limited information exists on their natural prey at both species and community levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the natural prey (realized trophic niche) of arboreal hunting spiders, their role in trophic webs and their biological control potential with direct observation of predation events in apple orchards. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307562PMC

Physical and social cues shape nest-site preference and prey capture behavior in social spiders.

Behav Ecol 2020 May-Jun;31(3):627-632. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Animals often face conflicting demands when making movement decisions. To examine the decision process of social animals, we evaluated nest-site preferences of the social spider . Colonies engage in collective web building, constructing 3D nests and 2D capture webs on trees and fences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/araa003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303816PMC
February 2020

The efficacy of a single-session pro-yellow laser in the treatment of facial telangiectasia.

Lasers Med Sci 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey.

Facial telangiectasia (FT) is a condition in which small dilated vessels visibly protrude on the surface of the skin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single-session pro-yellow laser in the treatment of FT and spider angioma (SA) to compare it with a limited number of studies conducted on this subject. In this pilot study, we reviewed 41 patients who admitted to our dermatology clinic with FT and SA and were treated by using pro-yellow laser. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-020-03082-3DOI Listing

Interactive situations reveal more about children's emotional knowledge.

J Exp Child Psychol 2020 Jun 23;198:104879. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Early Cognitive Development Centre, School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Research examining children's emotion judgments has generally used nonsocial tasks that do not resemble children's daily experiences in judging others' emotions. Here, younger children (4- to 6-year-olds) and older children (7- to 9-year-olds) participated in a socially interactive task where an experimenter opened boxes and made an expression (happy, sad, scared, or disgust) based on the object inside. Children guessed which of four objects (a sticker, a broken toy car, a spider, or toy poop) was in the box. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2020.104879DOI Listing

Spider Mites Cause More Damage to Tomato in the Dark When Induced Defenses Are Lower.

J Chem Ecol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Section Molecular and Chemical Ecology, Department of Evolutionary and Population Biology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Plants have evolved robust mechanisms to cope with incidental variation (e.g. herbivory) and periodical variation (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-020-01195-1DOI Listing

Structural Basis of Oligomerization of N-Terminal Domain of Spider Aciniform Silk Protein.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 23;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Spider silk is self-assembled from water-soluble silk proteins through changes in the environment, including pH, salt concentrations, and shear force. The N-terminal domains of major and minor ampullate silk proteins have been found to play an important role in the assembly process through salt- and pH-dependent dimerization. Here, we identified the sequences of the N-terminal domains of aciniform silk protein (AcSpN) and major ampullate silk protein (MaSpN) from (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124466DOI Listing

Muscle-tendon arrangement and innervation pattern of the m. flexor digitorum superficialis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) and spider monkey (Ateles sp.).

J Anat 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Rehabilitation Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe, Japan.

The muscle-tendon arrangement of the m. flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) varies among different primate groups. Recent developmental investigations revealed that the primordium of FDS emerges in the hand region first and relocates to the forearm later. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13250DOI Listing

Two new and one newly recorded species of Karsch, 1884 (Araneae, Sparassidae) from China.

Zookeys 2020 11;940:105-115. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

The State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering of China, Centre for Behavioural Ecology and Evolution, College of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, Hubei, China Hubei University Hubei China.

Two new species of the genus Karsch, 1884, Zhu & Zhong, (♂) and Zhu & Zhong, (♂), are described and figured from Taiwan Island. (L. Koch, 1875) is recorded from Guangdong and Fujian provinces for the first time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.940.50764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303221PMC

Eight new species of the spider genus (Araneae, Pimoidae) from Tibet, China.

Zookeys 2020 11;940:79-104. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China.

Eight new species of the spider genus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1943 are described from Tibet, China: Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), and Zhang & Li, (♂♀). The DNA barcodes of the eight new species are documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.940.49793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303224PMC

New cheiracanthiid spiders from Xishuangbanna rainforest, southwestern China (Araneae, Cheiracanthiidae).

Zookeys 2020 11;940:51-77. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China.

Four new species of the genus C.L. Koch, 1839 from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China are described: Yu & Li, (♂♀), Yu & Li, (♂♀), Yu & Li, (♂), and Yu & Li, (♀). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.940.51802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303227PMC

Multi-targeting sodium and calcium channels using venom peptides for the treatment of complex ion channels-related diseases.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 Jun 21:114107. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, 306 Carmody Rd, St Lucia, QLD, AU 4072.

Venom peptides are amongst the most exquisite group of bioactive molecules able to alter the normal physiology of organisms. These bioactive peptides penetrate tissues and blood vessels to encounter a number of receptors and ion channels to which they bind with high affinity and execute modulatory activities. Arachnid is the most diverse class of venomous animals often rich in peptides modulating voltage-gated sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) channels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114107DOI Listing

Interventions to prevent in-hospital falls in older people with cognitive impairment for further research: a mixed studies review.

J Clin Nurs 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

G01, 2.05c, Griffith University Parklands Drive, Gold Coast, QLD, 4222, Australia.

Background: While advances in falls prevention in the adult population have occurred, the care requirements for older patients with cognitive impairment at risk of falling are less established.

Objectives: The aim of this review was to identify interventions to prevent in-hospital falls in older patients with cognitive impairment for further research and describe the strategies used to implement those interventions.

Design: A seven-stage mixed studies review was used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15383DOI Listing

Earlier springs enable high-Arctic wolf spiders to produce a second clutch.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 Jun 24;287(1929):20200982. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service - Atlantic Forestry Centre, 26 University Drive, PO Box 960, Corner Brook, NL, Canada A2H 6J3.

Spiders at southern latitudes commonly produce multiple clutches, but this has not been observed at high latitudes where activity seasons are much shorter. Yet the timing of snowmelt is advancing in the Arctic, which may allow some species to produce an additional clutch. To determine if this is already happening, we used specimens of the wolf spider caught by pitfall traps from the long-term (1996-2014) monitoring programme at Zackenberg, NE Greenland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329030PMC

A case of surgically resected cardiac rhabdomyoma with progressive left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

Cardiovasc Pathol 2020 May 12;49:107226. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Pathology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Cardiac rhabdomyoma is the most prevalent cardiac tumors in the pediatric population, in close association with tuberous sclerosis complex. It is usually detected antenatally or postnatally by echocardiography. Clinical presentations depend greatly on the size and position of the tumor mass. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carpath.2020.107226DOI Listing

Engineered antigen containing epitopes from Loxosceles spp. spider toxins induces a monoclonal antibody (Lox-mAb3) against astacin-like metalloproteases.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 20;162:490-500. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia and Genética, Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Loxoscelism pose a health issue in the South America. The treatment for these accidents is based on the administration of antivenom produced in animals immunized with Loxosceles venom. In this work, a previously produced non-toxic multiepitopic chimeric protein (rMEPlox), composed of epitopes derived from the main toxins families (sphyngomielinase-D, metalloproteases, and hyaluronidases) of Loxosceles spider venoms, was used as antigen to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.176DOI Listing

On-line anxiety level detection from biosignals: Machine learning based on a randomized controlled trial with spider-fearful individuals.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(6):e0231517. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.

We present performance results concerning the validation for anxiety level detection based on trained mathematical models using supervised machine learning techniques. The model training is based on biosignals acquired in a randomized controlled trial. Wearable sensors were used to collect electrocardiogram, electrodermal activity, and respiration from spider-fearful individuals. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231517PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310735PMC

Bio-inspired micro glue threads fabricated by liquid bridge-to-solidification as an effective sensing platform.

ACS Sens 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Spiders synthesize their web using a liquid bridge-to-solidification (LBS) mechanism at the end of their gland. Inspired by this process, in this work, we fabricated micro glue threads (μGTs, polymer micro-wires) by a simple "pinch and spread" process using just two fingertips. The μGTs exhibited excellent tensile strength (~50 GPa), comparable to those of spider silk and biological fibers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.0c00378DOI Listing

Investigation of binding modes of spider toxin-human voltage-gated sodium channel subtybe 1.7.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Jun 22:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

College of plant protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, P.R China.

ABSTRACTSThe human voltage-gated sodium channel subtype 1.7 (hNaV1.7) is an attractive target for the development of potent and selective novel analgesics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1783363DOI Listing

Venomics Approach Reveals a High Proportion of -Like Toxins in the Venom of the Noble False Widow Spider .

Toxins (Basel) 2020 Jun 18;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, MolSys RU, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium.

The noble false widow spider originates from the Macaronesian archipelago and has expanded its range globally. Outside of its natural range, it may have a negative impact on native wildlife, and in temperate regions it lives in synanthropic environments where it frequently encounters humans, subsequently leading to envenomations. is the only medically significant spider in Ireland and the UK, and envenomations have resulted in local and systemic neurotoxic symptoms similar to true black widows (genus ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060402DOI Listing

Mapping the Molecular Surface of the Analgesic Na1.7-Selective Peptide Pn3a Reveals Residues Essential for Membrane and Channel Interactions.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2020 Jun 19;3(3):535-546. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, 306 Carmody Road, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Compelling human genetic studies have identified the voltage-gated sodium channel Na1.7 as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. The analgesic spider-venom-derived peptide μ-theraphotoxin-Pn3a is an exceptionally potent and selective inhibitor of Na1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.0c00002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296542PMC

Morphology and performance of the "trap-jaw" cheliceral strikes in spiders (Araneae, Mecysmaucheniidae).

Authors:
Hannah M Wood

J Exp Biol 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013 USA

Mecysmaucheniidae spiders have evolved ultra-fast cheliceral strikes four times independently. The mechanism for producing these high-speed strikes is likely due to a latch/spring system that allows for stored energy to be rapidly released. This study examines two different sister-lineages: has ultra-fast cheliceral strikes and , based on external morphology, is hypothesized to have slower strikes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.219899DOI Listing

Recruiters' perspectives of recruiting women during pregnancy and childbirth to clinical trials: A qualitative evidence synthesis.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(6):e0234783. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Introduction: Research on research is key to enhancing efficacy in trial methodology. Clinical trials involving women during pregnancy and childbirth are limited, with a paucity of data guiding evidence-based practice. Following a prioritisation exercise that highlighted the top-ten unanswered recruitment questions, this qualitative evidence synthesis was designed specifically to focus on the barriers and enablers for clinicians/healthcare professionals in helping conduct randomised trials within the context of recruitment during pregnancy and childbirth. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234783PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304625PMC

Principal component analysis of electroencephalographic activity during sleep and wakefulness in the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).

Am J Primatol 2020 Jun 18:e23162. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Laboratorio de Correlación Electroencefalográfica y Conducta, Instituto de Neurociencias, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

The study of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep in the spider monkey has provided new insights into primitive arboreal sleep physiology and behavior in anthropoids. Nevertheless, studies conducted to date have maintained the frequency ranges of the EEG bands commonly used with humans. The aim of the present work was to determine the EEG broad bands that characterize sleep and wakefulness in the spider monkey using principal component analysis (PCA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23162DOI Listing

Co-expression of the neuropeptide proctolin and glutamate in the central nervous system, along mechanosensory neurons and leg muscle in Cupiennius salei.

Cell Tissue Res 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Biology, Saint Michael's College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT, 05349, USA.

Similar to hair cells in the mammalian cochlear system, mechanosensory neurons in the Central American wandering spider Cupiennius salei are strongly innervated by efferent fibers that originate from neurons whose somata are located in the central nervous system (CNS). In both the mammalian and arachnid systems, efferent fibers have been shown to co-express two or more transmitters; however, our understanding regarding co-transmission and how it affects sensory signal transduction and processing in these systems is only fragmentary. The spider model system is exceptionally suitable for this type of investigation due to the large size and easy accessibility of the sensory and efferent neurons in this system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-020-03217-6DOI Listing

How a Scorpion Toxin Selectively Captures a Prey Sodium Channel: the Molecular and Evolutionary Basis Uncovered.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Leuven, Belgium.

The growing resistance of insects to chemical pesticides is reducing the effectiveness of conventional methods for pest control and thus the development of novel insecticidal agents is imperative. Scorpion toxins specific for insect voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) have been considered as one of the most promising insecticide alternatives due to their host specificity, rapidly evoked toxicity, biodegradability and the lack of resistance. However, they have not been developed for uses in agriculture and public health, mainly because of a limited understanding of their molecular and evolutionary basis controlling their phylogenetic selectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa152DOI Listing

Spider link: a palatal skeletal anchorage system.

J Clin Orthod 2020 Feb;54(2):82-95

University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

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February 2020

P-ANCA vasculitis with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage preceded by a spider bite.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jun 17;13(6). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Internal Medicine, UCSF Fresno Center for Medical Education and Research Edward and Ann Hildebrand Medical Library, Fresno, California, USA.

We report a patient with antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis that was preceded by witnessed black widow spider bites. The patient initially presented with a diffuse painful skin rash that developed after a few hours post bite. He was treated initially with topical ointment for the suspected bite. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-233710DOI Listing

There is no other monkey in the mirror for spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

J Comp Psychol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Human Behavior, Ecology and Culture.

Mirror self-recognition (MSR), usually considered a marker of self-awareness, occurs in several species and may reflect a capacity that has evolved in small incremental steps. In line with research on human development and building on previous research adopting a gradualist framework, we categorized the initial mirror responses of naïve spider monkeys () according to four levels. We compared social, exploratory, contingent and self-exploratory responses to a mirror and faux mirror during three short trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/com0000243DOI Listing

Structural diversity of native Major Ampullate, Minor Ampullate, Cylindriform and Flagelliform silk proteins in solution.

Biomacromolecules 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

The foundations of silk spinning, the structure, storage, and activation of silk proteins, remain highly debated. By combining solution small-angle Neutron and X-ray Scattering (SANS and SAXS) alongside Circular Dichroism (CD), we reveal a shape anisotropy of the four principal native spider silk feedstocks from Nephila edulis. We show that these proteins behave in solution like elongated semi-flexible polymers with locally rigid sections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.0c00819DOI Listing

Functional diversity and trade-offs in divergent antipredator morphologies in herbivorous insects.

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 30;10(11):5089-5096. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Graduate School of Human Development & Environment Kobe University Kobe Japan.

Predator-prey interactions may be responsible for enormous morphological diversity in prey species. We performed predation experiments with morphological manipulations (ablation) to investigate the defensive function of dorsal spines and explanate margins in Cassidinae leaf beetles against three types of predators: assassin bugs (stinger), crab spiders (biter), and tree frogs (swallower). There was mixed support for the importance of primary defense mechanisms (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297758PMC

Plant-animal interactions between carnivorous plants, sheet-web spiders, and ground-running spiders as guild predators in a wet meadow community.

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 30;10(11):4762-4772. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Entomology University of Kentucky Lexington KY USA.

Plant-animal interactions are diverse and widespread shaping ecology, evolution, and biodiversity of most ecological communities. Carnivorous plants are unusual in that they can be simultaneously engaged with animals in multiple mutualistic and antagonistic interactions including reversed plant-animal interactions where they are the predator. Competition with animals is a potential antagonistic plant-animal interaction unique to carnivorous plants when they and animal predators consume the same prey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297782PMC

Synthetic peptides to produce antivenoms against the Cys-rich toxins of arachnids.

Toxicon X 2020 Jun 5;6:100038. Epub 2020 May 5.

CIBER-BBN, Networking Centre on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, and Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Scorpion and spider envenomation is treated with the appropriate antivenoms, prepared as described by Césaire Auguste Phisalix and Albert Calmette in 1894. Such treatment requires the acquisition and manipulation of arachnid venoms, both very complicated procedures. Most of the toxins in the venoms of spiders and scorpions are extremely stable cysteine-rich peptide neurotoxins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxcx.2020.100038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285918PMC

Biotechnological potential of Phospholipase D for antivenom development.

Toxicon X 2020 Jun 18;6:100036. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Godoy Cruz, 2290, (1425) Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Loxoscelism is one of the most important forms of araneism in South America. The Health Authorities from countries with the highest incidence and longer history in registering loxoscelism cases indicate that specific antivenom should be administered during the first hours after the accident, especially in the presence or at risk of the most severe clinical outcome. Current antivenoms are based on immunoglobulins or their fragments, obtained from plasma of hyperimmunized horses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxcx.2020.100036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286061PMC

DIFFUSE IDIOPATHIC SKELETAL HYPEROSTOSIS WITH SECONDARY DYSPHAGIA IN A BLACK-HANDED SPIDER MONKEY ().

J Zoo Wildl Med 2020 Jun;51(2):455-458

Milwaukee County Zoo, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.

A 32-yr-old male black-handed spider monkey () with marked kyphosis and reduced spinal range of motion developed intermittent regurgitation, which was managed with an acid reducer. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) was suspected in this animal due to radiographically evident ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. At repeat radiographic evaluation 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2018-0240DOI Listing

Fixed food eruption caused by Maja squinado (European spider crab) in a child.

Contact Dermatitis 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Dermatology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Ferrol, Ferrol, A Coruña, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cod.13642DOI Listing

Immune priming against bacteria in spiders and scorpions?

PeerJ 2020 5;8:e9285. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Panamá, Panama, Panama.

Empirical evidence of immune priming in arthropods keeps growing, both at the within- and trans-generational level. The evidence comes mostly from work on insects and it remains unclear for some other arthropods whether exposure to a non-lethal dose of a pathogen provides protection during a second exposure with a lethal dose. A poorly investigated group are arachnids, with regard to the benefits of immune priming measured as improved survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278890PMC

Woodlice change the habitat use of spiders in a different food chain.

PeerJ 2020 1;8:e9184. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States of America.

Background: In old field systems, the common woodlouse may have an indirect effect on a nursery web spider. Woodlice and nursery web spiders feed in different food chains, yet previous work demonstrated that the presence of woodlice is correlated with higher predation success by nursery web spiders upon their grasshopper prey. This finding suggested a new hypothesis which links two seemingly disparate food chains: when woodlice are present, the spider predator or the grasshopper prey changes their location in the vegetative canopy in a way that increases their spatial overlap and therefore predation rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271883PMC

Two new species of the primitively segmented spider genus from Hunan Province, China (Mesothelae, Liphistiidae).

Zookeys 2020 1;937:1-19. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China Hunan Normal University Changsha China.

This study reports two new species of the primitively segmented spider genus from Hunan Province, China, based on morphological characters: (♂♀), (♂♀). Additional material also facilitates a more accurate description of (Yin, 2001) with the first description of the male. Nucleotide data for the barcoding gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), is also provided for these three species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.937.50548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280323PMC

Imperfect and askew: A review of asymmetric genitalia in araneomorph spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae).

PLoS One 2020 15;15(6):e0220354. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Biodiversity Discovery group, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Bilateral asymmetry in the genitalia is a rare but widely dispersed phenomenon in the animal tree of life. In arthropods, occurrences vary greatly from one group to another and there seems to be no common explanation for all the independent origins. In spiders, genital asymmetry appears to be especially rare. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220354PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295216PMC

Shifting evolutionary sands: transcriptome characterization of the Aptostichus atomarius species complex.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 15;20(1):68. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California Davis, Academic Surge Building 1282, Davis, CA, 95616-5270, USA.

Background: Mygalomorph spiders represent a diverse, yet understudied lineage for which genomic level data has only recently become accessible through high-throughput genomic and transcriptomic sequencing methods. The Aptostichus atomarius species complex (family Euctenizidae) includes two coastal dune endemic members, each with inland sister species - affording exploration of dune adaptation associated patterns at the transcriptomic level. We apply an RNAseq approach to examine gene family conservation across the species complex and test for patterns of positive selection along branches leading to dune endemic species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01606-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294663PMC

Revealing the Venomous Secrets of the Spider's Web.

J Proteome Res 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Center of the Study of Social Insects, Department of General and Applied Biology, Institute of Biosciences of Rio Claro, University of São Paulo State (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP 13506-900, Brazil.

Orb-weaving spiders use a highly strong, sticky and elastic web to catch their prey. These web properties alone would be enough for the entrapment of prey; however, these spiders may be hiding venomous secrets in the web, which current research is revealing. Here, we provide strong proteotranscriptomic evidence for the presence of toxin/neurotoxin-like proteins, defensins, and proteolytic enzymes on the web silk from spider. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00086DOI Listing
June 2020
4.245 Impact Factor