34 results match your criteria Spider Envenomation Funnel Web

A potential life-threatening Asian funnel-web spider bite (Macrothele gigas) in central Taiwan.

Toxicon 2022 Jul 18;213:83-86. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Division of Clinical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan; College of Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Five funnel-web spiders in the genus Macrothele are widely distributed to Taiwan. We herein reported the severe case of a woman bitten by a male Macrothele gigas who present with autonomic (i.e. Read More

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J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2016 Apr;46(1):167-78

Spider bites are uncommon medical events, since there are limited number of spiders world-wide with fangs strong enough to pierce human skin, and most spiders bite humans only as a final defense when being crushed between skin and another object. Thus, most lesions attributed to spider bites are caused by some other etiology. The spiders that can cause medically significant bites include widow and false widow spiders (worldwide), recluse spiders (mostly North and South America), Australian funnel web spiders (eastern coastal Australia) and Phoneutria spiders (Brazil). Read More

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Verified spider bites in Oregon (USA) with the intent to assess hobo spider venom toxicity.

Toxicon 2014 Jun 13;84:51-5. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA; Oregon Poison Center, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

This study compiled 33 verified spider bites from the state of Oregon (USA). The initial goal was to amass a series of bites by the hobo spider to assess whether it possesses toxic venom, a supposition which is currently in a contested state. None of the 33 bites from several spider species developed significant medical symptoms nor did dermonecrosis occur. Read More

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The lethal toxin from Australian funnel-web spiders is encoded by an intronless gene.

PLoS One 2012 22;7(8):e43699. Epub 2012 Aug 22.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Australian funnel-web spiders are generally considered the most dangerous spiders in the world, with envenomations from the Sydney funnel-web spider Atrax robustus resulting in at least 14 human fatalities prior to the introduction of an effective anti-venom in 1980. The clinical envenomation syndrome resulting from bites by Australian funnel-web spiders is due to a single 42-residue peptide known as δ-hexatoxin. This peptide delays the inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels, which results in spontaneous repetitive firing and prolongation of action potentials, thereby causing massive neurotransmitter release from both somatic and autonomic nerve endings. Read More

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January 2013

Dr William Wilson Ingram (1888-1982): doctor-soldier, physician and Antarctic expeditioner.

J H Pearn

J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2011 Sep;41(3):270-7

School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Dr William Wilson Ingram (1888-1982), a Scottish-born physician, contributed significantly to the health and heritage of Australia, his adopted land. Born on Speyside and educated in Aberdeen, he was a doctor-soldier in two World Wars and decorated with the Military Cross. Ingram was a Foundation Fellow (1938) of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians and established one of the first specialist diabetic clinics in Australia, in Sydney in 1928. Read More

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September 2011

Spider bite.

Lancet 2011 Dec 15;378(9808):2039-2047. Epub 2011 Jul 15.

Centro de Desenvolvimento Cultural, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

Spiders are a source of intrigue and fear, and several myths exist about their medical effects. Many people believe that bites from various spider species cause necrotic ulceration, despite evidence that most suspected cases of necrotic arachnidism are caused by something other than a spider bite. Latrodectism and loxoscelism are the most important clinical syndromes resulting from spider bite. Read More

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December 2011

Spider bites - Assessment and management.

Aust Fam Physician 2009 Nov;38(11):862-7

Monash University, and Southern Health, Melbourne, Victoria.

Background: Spider bite is common, but most species cause minimal or no effects. Patients may be misinformed regarding the nature and consequences of a bite. Understanding the current literature can assist the physician in the management of spider bite patients. Read More

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November 2009

Medical aspects of spider bites.

Annu Rev Entomol 2008 ;53:409-29

Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Spiders have been incriminated as causes of human suffering for centuries, but few species worldwide cause medically significant envenomation. Widow spiders (Latrodectus spp.) occur worldwide and cause latrodectism, which is characterized by pain (local and generalized) associated with nonspecific systemic effects, diaphoresis, and less commonly other autonomic and neurological effects. Read More

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November 2008

Arachnid toxinology in Australia: from clinical toxicology to potential applications.

Toxicon 2006 Dec 21;48(7):872-98. Epub 2006 Jul 21.

Neurotoxin Research Group, Department of Medical & Molecular Biosciences, University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, City Campus, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia.

The unique geographic isolation of Australia has resulted in the evolution of a distinctive range of Australian arachnid fauna. Through the pioneering work of a number of Australian arachnologists, toxinologists, and clinicians, the taxonomy and distribution of new species, the effective clinical treatment of envenomation, and the isolation and characterisation of the many distinctive neurotoxins, has been achieved. In particular, work has focussed on several Australian arachnids, including red-back and funnel-web spiders, paralysis ticks, and buthid scorpions that contain neurotoxins capable of causing death or serious systemic envenomation. Read More

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December 2006

Struan Sutherland--Doyen of envenomation in Australia.

James Tibballs

Toxicon 2006 Dec 15;48(7):860-71. Epub 2006 Jul 15.

Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, The University of Melbourne, Australia.

Struan Sutherland (1936-2002) was the doyen of medical research in the field of envenomation and the ultimate authority on the medical management of envenomated victims in Australia for almost 3 decades. In 1981 as Head of Immunology Research of Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL), he produced an antivenom against the Sydney Funnel-web Spider (Atrax robustus)-an accomplishment that had defied numerous previous attempts. Struan also invented the pressure-immobilisation technique of first-aid for snake bite. Read More

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December 2006

The funnel web and common spider bites.

Aust Fam Physician 2004 Apr;33(4):244-51

Epworth Hospital.

Background: The funnel web spiders, encompassed within the genera Atrax and Hadronyche, are the most dangerous spiders in the world. Although the incidence of envenomation is low, funnel web spiders remain a cause of considerable public concern. However, most common spider bites produce only minor effects-requiring only symptomatic treatment. Read More

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Structure and function of delta-atracotoxins: lethal neurotoxins targeting the voltage-gated sodium channel.

Toxicon 2004 Apr;43(5):587-99

Neurotoxin Research Group, Department of Heath Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia.

Delta-atracotoxins (delta-ACTX), isolated from the venom of Australian funnel-web spiders, are responsible for the potentially lethal envenomation syndrome seen following funnel-web spider envenomation. They are 42-residue polypeptides with four disulfides and an "inhibitor cystine-knot" motif with structural but not sequence homology to a variety of other spider and marine snail toxins. Delta-atracotoxins induce spontaneous repetitive firing and prolongation of action potentials resulting in neurotransmitter release from somatic and autonomic nerve endings. Read More

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Acute myocardial injury caused by Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) envenoming.

Anaesth Intensive Care 2003 Dec;31(6):672-4

Newcastle Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales.

A 67-year-old female suffered envenoming by a Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus), complicated by ST elevation and elevated troponin levels consistent with an acute myocardial injury. She was treated primarily with funnel-web spider antivenom, admission to intensive care and initial respiratory support for acute pulmonary oedema. The mechanism by which funnel-web spider envenomation caused myocardial injury is unclear but follow-up nuclear studies in the patient demonstrated that she had minimal atherosclerotic disease. Read More

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December 2003

Synthesis and characterization of delta-atracotoxin-Ar1a, the lethal neurotoxin from venom of the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus).

Biochemistry 2003 Nov;42(44):12933-40

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072 Australia.

Delta-atracotoxin-Ar1a (delta-ACTX-Ar1a) is the major polypeptide neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the male Sydney funnel-web spider, Atrax robustus. This neurotoxin targets both insect and mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels, where it competes with scorpion alpha-toxins for neurotoxin receptor site-3 to slow sodium-channel inactivation. Progress in characterizing the structure and mechanism of action of this toxin has been hampered by the limited supply of pure toxin from natural sources. Read More

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November 2003

Antivenom treatment in arachnidism.

J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2003 ;41(3):291-300

Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle and Newcastle Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Envenomation by arachnids causes significant medical illness worldwide. Scorpion sting is the most important arachnid envenomation causing adult morbidity and pediatric mortality. Important groups of spiders include the widow spiders (Latrodectus spp. Read More

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Spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pacific: atracotoxin, latrotoxin and related spider neurotoxins.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2002 Sep;29(9):785-94

Neurotoxin Research Group, Department of Heath Sciences, University of Technology, PO Box 123, Sydney, Broadway, New South Wales 2007, Australia.

1. The spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pacific region include widow (family Theridiidae) and Australian funnel-web spiders (subfamily Atracinae). In addition, cupboard (family Theridiidae) and Australian mouse spiders (family Actinopodidae) may contain neurotoxins responsible for serious systemic envenomation. Read More

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September 2002

Cross-reactivity of Sydney funnel-web spider antivenom: neutralization of the in vitro toxicity of other Australian funnel-web (Atrax and Hadronyche) spider venoms.

Toxicon 2002 Mar;40(3):259-66

Neurotoxin Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, Sydeney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Australian funnel-web spiders are recognized as one of the most venomous spiders to humans world-wide. Funnel-web spider antivenom (FWS AV) reverses clinical effects of envenomation from the bite of Atrax robustus and a small number of related Hadronyche species. This study assessed the in vitro efficacy of FWS AV in neutralization of the effects of funnel-web spider venoms, collected from various locations along the eastern seaboard of Australia, in an isolated chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. Read More

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Neurotoxic activity of venom from the Australian eastern mouse spider (Missulena bradleyi) involves modulation of sodium channel gating.

Br J Pharmacol 2000 Aug;130(8):1817-24

Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

Mouse spiders represent a potential cause of serious envenomation in humans. This study examined the activity of Missulena bradleyi venom in several in vitro preparations. Whilst female M. Read More

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Clinical features and management of Hadronyche envenomation in man.

Toxicon 2000 Mar;38(3):409-27

Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Newcastle Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales, Australia.

Using case reports and a review of the literature, the clinical features of envenomation by the genus of Australian funnel web spiders known as Hadronyche, are characterised. Five cases are reported here, including the first life-threatening envenomation by Hadronyche species 14 (the Port Macquarie funnel web). Two severe envenomations by Hadronyche cerberea (the Southern Tree funnel web) and one each by Hadronyche formidabilis (the Northern Tree funnel web) and Hadronyche infensa (the Darling Downs funnel web) are also described. Read More

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Spider bite. A rational approach.

Aust Fam Physician 1997 Dec;26(12):1380-5

Australian Venom Research Unit, Cabrini Private Hospital.

Background: Spider bite is one of the most common envenomation problems in Australia. Australia is home to two spiders of major medical importance; the Sydney funnel web spider and the redback spider.

Objective: This paper describes the features of envenomation and discusses treatment for bites by the Sydney funnel web spider and the redback spider. Read More

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December 1997

Near fatal envenomation from the funnel-web spider in an infant.

G J Browne

Pediatr Emerg Care 1997 Aug;13(4):271-3

Department of Emergency Medicine, New Children's Hospital, Westmead, Australia.

Children with significant envenomation require early first aid, resuscitation, and the administration of antivenom at the earliest possible time to survive. The case of a nine-month-old infant with life-threatening massive envenomation from the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) is presented. The infant was administered life-saving first aid (pressure immobilization bandage) and resuscitation measures prior to and during the administration of funnel-web-specific antivenom. Read More

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Pharmacological action of Australian animal venoms.

W C Hodgson

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1997 Jan;24(1):10-7

Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

1. Australia has some of the most venomous fauna in the world. Although humans are not usually perceived as being predators against these animals they are often envenomated, accidentally or otherwise. Read More

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January 1997

Antivenom use in Australia. Premedication, adverse reactions and the use of venom detection kits.

S K Sutherland

Med J Aust 1992 Dec 7-21;157(11-12):734-9

CSL Limited, Parkville, Vic.

Objectives: To analyse reports of antivenom use and sequelae in Australia from July 1 1989 to June 30 1990. The value of snake venom detection kits (VDKs) was also analysed.

Methods: Information was obtained from antivenom usage reports returned to the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories and from personal letters sent to those reporting doctors. Read More

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January 1993

An endogenous antitoxin to the lethal venom of the funnel web spider, Atrax robustus, in rabbit sera.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Comp Pharmacol Toxicol 1991 ;99(1-2):157-61

School of Chemistry, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW.

1. An endogenous antitoxin fraction was isolated from non-immune rabbit sera by affinity chromatography with robustoxin bound to the solid support. 2. Read More

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Efficacy of funnel-web spider antivenom in human envenomation by Hadronyche species.

Med J Aust 1989 Dec 4-18;151(11-12):706-7

Toowoomba General Hospital, Qld.

We describe the envenomation of three patients by Hadronyche versuta, Hadronyche infensa and Hadronyche cerberea (which all are species of funnel-web spider) and the reversal of symptoms by funnel-web spider antivenom. The importance of continuing to administer antivenom until symptoms are reversed is emphasized; all three patients required further doses of antivenom to reverse the symptoms completely. None of the patients had received first aid. Read More

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January 1990

Actions of robustoxin, a neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the male funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus), in anaesthetized monkeys.

Toxicon 1989 ;27(4):481-92

Department of Pharmacology, University of Sydney, N.S.W. Australia.

Robustoxin, a polypeptide consisting of a chain of 42 amino acid residues in a known sequence, has been isolated by cation exchange chromatography from the crude venom of the male funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus). Physiological activity or toxicity in the venom fractions was detected by production of fasciculation in mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations and by lethality in new-born mice. In the present experiments in Macaca fascicularis monkeys anaesthetized with pentobarbitone, robustoxin (5-30 micrograms/kg infused i. Read More

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Some studies of the oedematogenic action of the venom of funnel-web spiders (Atrax species).

R K Atkinson

Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 1986 Oct;64 ( Pt 5):453-64

The ability of the venoms of Atrax infensus and two other funnel-web spider species to induce oedema in rats was investigated and it was found that all Atrax venoms tested caused strong Evans blue leakage from adjacent blood vessels when injected subcutaneously. This dye leakage did not diminish significantly either when the neurotoxin in the venom was first neutralized by pre-mixing with a rat serum protein preparation or when the sensory nerves supplying an area of skin were severed 4 days prior to its envenomation. The pattern and speed of Evans blue extravasation caused by female A. Read More

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October 1986

Funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) antivenom in the treatment of human envenomation.

Med J Aust 1984 Dec 8-22;141(12-13):796-9

Envenomation by the Sydney funnel-web spider may lead to serious illness or death. After an antivenom which had been raised in rabbits was proven to reverse the signs of envenomation in animals, a trial was conducted in patients. Nine patients (aged 3-82 years) with severe envenomation by funnel-web spiders received treatment with an antivenom to the venom of Atrax robustus. Read More

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January 1985

Funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) antivenom. 2. Early clinical experience.

Med J Aust 1981 Nov;2(10):525-6

This paper describes the successful use of funnel-web antivenom in two severe cases of envenomation from bites by a male funnel-web spider, Atrax robustus. Rapid resolution of the syndrome occurred in both cases. Although the first patient, a 49-year-old man, may have slowly recovered without antivenom, it is unlikely that the other patient, a three-year-old boy, would have survived without antivenom therapy. Read More

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November 1981