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    73 results match your criteria Spider Envenomation Brown Recluse

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    [Cutaneous loxoscelism, about an exceptional observation of 9 consecutive cases].
    Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2016 Dec 28;61(6):811-819. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Département de chirurgie plastique et reconstructrice, CHRU Lapeyronie, 34295 Montpellier, France; Centre de traitement des brûlés, CHRU Lapeyronie, 34295 Montpellier, France; Unité médico-chirurgicale de plaies et cicatrisation, CHRU Picardie, 34295 Amiens, France; Unité de chirurgie plastique et craniofaciale pédiatrique, CHRU Lapeyronie, 34295 Montpellier, France. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Loxosceles spiders are ubiquitous and responsible for many cases of envenomation in the world. The kind rufescens is present in the Provence and Occitan regions in France. During the summer 2015, we faced many Loxosceles rufescens cases of bites having led to extensive integumental necrosis whose features and singular evolution seems important to report. Read More

    Immunodetection of the "brown" spider (Loxosceles intermedia) dermonecrotoxin with an scFv-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein.
    Immunol Lett 2016 May 10;173:1-6. Epub 2016 Mar 10.
    Laboratório de Imunoquímica, Departamento de Patologia Básica, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba CEP 81531-980, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Bites by spiders from Loxosceles genus often lead to a wide variance in envenomation profile of patients and diagnosis is difficult due to the number of diseases that mimic loxoscelism. In such a context, it is of interest to consider the design of standardized recombinant colorimetric antibodies for diagnosis and specific detection of individual circulating toxins in biological fluids of envenomed patients. We have previously prepared a monoclonal murine IgG (LiMab7) that reacts with Loxosceles intermedia venom components of 32-35kDa and neutralizes the dermonecrotic activity of the venom. Read More

    Therapeutic Plasma Exchange for Refractory Hemolysis After Brown Recluse Spider (Loxosceles reclusa) Envenomation.
    J Med Toxicol 2015 Sep;11(3):364-7
    Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Resident, PGY 3, School of Medicine, University of Kansas, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, MS 4004, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA,
    Introduction: The brown recluse spider (BRS) (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomation can lead to multiple complications, including hemolysis. We present a case of refractory hemolysis after a BRS bite treated with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE).

    Case Report: A 17-year-old female presented with fever, fatigue, and dyspnea. Read More

    Bilateral optic neuropathy following bite from brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa).
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2016 14;35(2):168-72. Epub 2015 Apr 14.
    a Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science , Havener Eye Institute, The Ohio State University , Columbus , OH , USA.
    A 63-year-old female with history of a resected frontal lobe meningioma presented with bilaterally decreased vision after a bite from a brown recluse spider. The exam was significant for a left relative afferent pupillary defect, bilateral optic nerve pallor, decreased foveal sensitivity in the left eye and new bilateral visual field defects, despite stability of her meningioma. The findings remained stable at 1-year follow-up. Read More

    Characterization of Brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) hemolymph: cellular and biochemical analyses.
    Toxicon 2015 May 24;98:62-74. Epub 2015 Feb 24.
    Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Paraná, UFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:
    This is the first study on the hemolymph from a spider of the Loxosceles genus. These animals are responsible for a great number of envenomation cases worldwide. Several studies on Loxosceles venoms have been published, and the knowledge about the venom and its toxins is considerable, not only regarding the biological and biochemical characterization, but also regarding structural, genetic and phylogenetic approaches. Read More

    Successful use of plasma exchange for profound hemolysis in a child with loxoscelism.
    Pediatrics 2014 Nov;134(5):e1464-7
    Divisions of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, and.
    We describe a 6-year-old boy who presented with massive hemolysis, shock, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and acute renal failure after loxosceles envenomation. In this patient, plasma exchange therapy (PEX) successfully cleared the plasma from an initial hemolytic index of 2000 (equivalent to 2 g/dL hemoglobin, where optimetric laboratory evaluation is impossible) to an index of <50 (no detectable hemolysis). This allowed the PICU team to correct his coagulopathy, assess his degree of organ dysfunction, and provide routine laboratory assessments during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Read More

    Acute kidney injury and dermonecrosis after Loxosceles reclusa envenomation.
    Indian J Nephrol 2014 Jul;24(4):246-8
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Spiders of the Loxosceles species can cause dermonecrosis and acute kidney injury (AKI). Hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and direct toxin-mediated renal damage have been postulated. There are very few reports of Loxoscelism from India. Read More

    A randomized controlled trial of trypsin to treat brown recluse spider bites in Guinea pigs.
    J Med Toxicol 2014 Sep;10(3):266-8
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, 600 Moye Boulevard, Room 3ED311, Greenville, NC, 27834, USA.
    Brown recluse spider bites result in necrotic skin lesions for which there is no known antidote. Since venom toxins are proteins, a proteolytic enzyme like trypsin might be effective in reducing toxicity. The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial of trypsin to treat brown recluse spider bites in guinea pigs. Read More

    Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) from a presumed brown recluse spider bite.
    J Clin Immunol 2014 Jul 16;34(5):544-7. Epub 2014 Apr 16.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Bone Marrow Transplant and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 7015, 45229, Cincinnati, OH, USA,
    Systemic loxoscelism is a rare complication after Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider) envenomation. Loxosceles venom contains pro-inflammatory proteins, which have been shown to be elevated in patients with hemophagocytic lymph histiocytosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old male that developed presumed systemic loxoscelism, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with hepatic dysfunction and renal failure. Read More

    Surgical treatment of a brown recluse spider bite: a case study and literature review.
    J Foot Ankle Surg 2014 May-Jun;53(3):320-3. Epub 2014 Mar 22.
    Nerve and Hand Surgeon, Institute for Nerve, Hand, and Reconstructive Surgery, Rutherford, NJ.
    Spider bite envenomation can cause local, constitutional, and/or systemic symptoms. The present case study reports on 5 years of follow-up for a "probable" brown recluse spider bite of the foot and ankle that was refractory to conservative treatment and was subsequently treated with surgery. The present case study reports the atypical occurrence of long-term peripheral neuropathy after necrotic arachnidism induced by "probable" brown recluse (Loxosceles recluse) envenomation, in a 46-year-old male. Read More

    Clinicopathological course of acute kidney injury following brown recluse (Loxoscles reclusa) envenomation.
    Clin Kidney J 2013 Dec 1;6(6):609-12. Epub 2013 Oct 1.
    Department of Medicine , Washington University School of Medicine , St Louis , MO , USA.
    We report a case of severe systemic loxoscelism in a previously healthy young man. This was associated with a Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia, striking leukomid reaction, renal failure, respiratory failure and cardiovascular collapse. This is the first documented case of a renal biopsy in a patient with renal failure after envenomation by the brown recluse spider. Read More

    Brown Recluse spider bite mediated hemolysis: clinical features, a possible role for complement inhibitor therapy, and reduced RBC surface glycophorin A as a potential biomarker of venom exposure.
    PLoS One 2013 27;8(9):e76558. Epub 2013 Sep 27.
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.
    Background: The venom of Loxosceles reclusa (Brown Recluse spider) can cause a severe, life-threatening hemolysis in humans for which no therapy is currently available in the USA beyond supportive measures. Because this hemolysis is uncommon, relatively little is known about its clinical manifestation, diagnosis, or management. Here, we aimed to clarify the clinical details of envenomation, to determine the efficacy of the complement inhibitor eculizumab to prevent the hemolysis in vitro, and to investigate markers of exposure to Brown Recluse venom. Read More

    Phospholipase D toxins of brown spider venom convert lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin to cyclic phosphates.
    PLoS One 2013 29;8(8):e72372. Epub 2013 Aug 29.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
    Venoms of brown spiders in the genus Loxosceles contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These toxins cleave the substrates sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine in mammalian tissues, releasing the choline head group. The other products of substrate cleavage have previously been reported to be monoester phospholipids, which would result from substrate hydrolysis. Read More

    Two successive necrotic lesions secondary to presumed loxosceles envenomation.
    Wilderness Environ Med 2013 Jun 24;24(2):132-5. Epub 2013 Jan 24.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.
    Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomations with subsequent necrotic skin lesions occur infrequently, and systemic loxoscelism is rarer still. We report a case of 2 successive developing necrotic lesions, each on adjacent medial aspects of the legs, secondary to presumed Loxosceles envenomation. A 31-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented to the emergency department with 2, large, necrotic lesions, 1 on each medial thigh. Read More

    Brown recluse spider bite to the upper lip.
    J Ark Med Soc 2012 Mar;108(10):208-10
    Brown recluse spiders are predominantly found in south central United States. Their bites usually cause mild self-limiting reactions, although localized tissue necrosis and rare systemic, potentially fatal, envenomations are known to occur. Herein, we report an atypical presentation of a brown recluse bite in a 20 year old female who was admitted to the intensive care unit due to angioedema and cellulitis. Read More

    Emergency department death from systemic loxoscelism.
    Ann Emerg Med 2012 Oct 2;60(4):439-41. Epub 2012 Feb 2.
    Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.
    Systemic loxoscelism is a constitutional illness resulting from the bite of the brown recluse spider. In severe form, it may cause hemolysis, acute renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. More rarely, it may result in death. Read More

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia in a child following Loxosceles reclusa envenomation.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2011 Nov-Dec;28(6):685-8. Epub 2011 Mar 15.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65212, USA.
    Previously reported cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis secondary to brown recluse spider bite have been questioned due to lack of identification of the spider or because of the concomitant administration of antibiotics. We report a 9-year-old boy who arrived at the emergency department with a confirmed Loxosceles reclusa bite to the neck. On the third day of hospitalization, he developed hundreds of monomorphous, sterile pustules, initially in intertriginous areas. Read More

    [Cutaneous necrotic loxoscelism. A case report].
    Rev Alerg Mex 2011 May-Jun;58(3):171-6
    Médico adscrito.
    Brown recluse (Loxosceles spp.) spiders are arachnid species known to cause necrotic arachnidism. The envenomation, described as loxoscelism, is associated with localized pain, erythema, and edema followed by the development of necrosis. Read More

    Seasonality of brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa, submitted by the general public: implications for physicians regarding loxoscelism diagnoses.
    Toxicon 2011 Dec 28;58(8):623-5. Epub 2011 Sep 28.
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, USA.
    Many medically important animals exhibit fluctuating seasonal abundance such that risk from envenomation or disease is not constant throughout the year. As indicated by homeowner submissions, brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa, show seasonal peaks of activity during summer and paucity in winter. This information should be incorporated as part of the diagnostic algorithm for physicians when considering the probability of loxoscelism in endemic Loxosceles areas especially if a skin lesion occurs when spiders are scarce. Read More

    Suspected brown recluse envenomation: a case report and review of different treatment modalities.
    J Emerg Med 2011 Aug 3;41(2):e31-7. Epub 2010 Apr 3.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, USA.
    Background: The Loxosceles reclusa, commonly known as the brown recluse spider, is responsible for virtually all cases of spider bites leading to a significant necrosis.

    Case Report: We report the case of a 72-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department complaining of back pain, weakness, and diarrhea. The patient stated that he sustained a bug bite 1 week before presenting to the hospital. Read More

    Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomation leading to acute hemolytic anemia in six adolescents.
    J Pediatr 2010 Jan;156(1):155-7
    Department of Hematology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.
    Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider) bites often cause local envenomation reactions; however, acute hemolysis from systemic loxoscelism is rare. To highlight this important diagnostic consideration for unexplained hemolysis in areas endemic for brown recluse spiders, we report on 6 adolescents with acute hemolytic anemia from presumed L reclusa bites. Read More

    Duration of Loxosceles reclusa venom detection by ELISA from swabs.
    Clin Lab Sci 2009 ;22(4):216-22
    Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland AFB, TX 78236-9908, USA.
    Background: Diagnosis of Loxosceles reclusa envenomations is currently based upon clinical presentation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can detect surface Loxosceles venom at the envenomation site, allowing diagnostic confirmation. The length of time that venom on the skin is recoverable non-invasively is unknown. Read More

    Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomation in small animals.
    J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2009 Aug 28;19(4):329-36. Epub 2009 Jul 28.
    Central California Veterinary Specialty Center, Fresno, CA 93710the Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 and Biology Division, San Bernardino County Museum, Redlands, CA, 92373.
    Objective: To provide a comprehensive review of relevant literature regarding the brown recluse spider (BRS) and to define those criteria that must be satisfied before making a diagnosis of brown recluse envenomation.

    Etiology: The complex venom of the BRS contains sphingomyelinase D, which is capable of producing all the clinical signs in the human and some animal models.

    Diagnosis: There is no current commercially available test. Read More

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the eye.
    Undersea Hyperb Med 2008 Sep-Oct;35(5):333-87
    Navy Medical Lessons Learned Center, Naval Operational Medicine Institute, Pensacola, FL, USA.
    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a primary or adjunctive therapy for a variety of medical disorders including some involving the eye. This paper is the first comprehensive review of HBOT for ocular indications. The authors recommend the following as ocular indications for HBOT: decompression sickness or arterial gas embolism with visual signs or symptoms, central retinal artery occlusion, ocular and periocular gas gangrene, cerebro-rhino-orbital mucormycosis, periocular necrotizing fasciitis, carbon monoxide poisoning with visual sequelae, radiation optic neuropathy, radiation or mitomycin C-induced scleral necrosis, and periorbital reconstructive surgery. Read More

    Osteomyelitis of the mandibular symphysis caused by brown recluse spider bite.
    Eplasty 2008 Aug 28;8:e45. Epub 2008 Aug 28.
    Institute for Tissue Regeneration, Repair, and Rehabilitation, Bay Pines VA Medical Center, Bay Pines, Florida, USA.
    Background: Brown recluse spider bites cause significant trauma via their tissue toxic venom. Diagnosis of these injuries and envenomation is difficult and many times presumptive. Treatment is varied and dependent upon presentation and course of injury. Read More

    Reports of envenomation by brown recluse spiders exceed verified specimens of Loxosceles spiders in South Carolina.
    J Am Board Fam Med 2007 Sep-Oct;20(5):483-8
    Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425, USA.
    Purpose: To determine whether the number of brown recluse spider bites diagnosed by South Carolina physicians coincides with evidence of brown recluse spiders found in the state.

    Methods: Brown recluse spider bite diagnosis data were extracted from 1990 and 2004 surveys of South Carolina physicians. This was compared with the known historical evidence of brown recluse spiders collected in South Carolina and derived from various sources, including state agencies, arachnologists, and museum specimens. Read More

    Cutaneous and systemic effects of varying doses of brown recluse spider venom in a rabbit model.
    Clin Lab Sci 2007 ;20(2):99-105
    Clinical Research Squadron/MSRL, Lackland AFB, TX 78236-5300, USA.
    Objective: To ascertain whether a dose response exists between the dose of brown recluse spider venom (BRSV) and the cutaneous and coagulation effects in a rabbit model. Cutaneous necrosis is a serious complication of brown recluse spider envenomation (spider bite with venom). Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a dreaded complication of brown recluse envenomation in humans. Read More

    Generalized vasculitic exanthem following Loxosceles reclusa envenomation.
    J Cutan Pathol 2007 Jun;34(6):513-4
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
    Brown recluse spider bites (BRSB) cause a myriad of reactions ranging from local necrosis to potentially lethal systemic involvement. Envenomation may induce a generalized exanthem known clinically but not described histologically. We report a 49-year-old female who developed a generalized exanthem 24 hours after BRSB. Read More

    Brown spider envenomation.
    Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 2006 Nov;21(4):191-3
    Reid Veterinary Hospital, 933 SW Queen Avenue, Albany, OR 97321, USA.
    The venom from spiders of the genus Loxosceles, the most famous being Loxosceles recluse (the most brown recluse spider) can cause serious poisoning. These spiders inhabit the south and south central states from Georgia through Texas and north to southern Wisconsin. They are commonly called violin spiders because of the violin-shaped marking on the dorsum of the cephalothorax. Read More

    Brown recluse spider envenomation.
    Clin Lab Med 2006 Mar;26(1):211-26, ix-x
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Room AG373, 1701 North Senate Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46206, USA.
    Brown recluse spider bite is a common diagnosis in almost every state in America. In fact, cases have been reported in areas where the spider has never been seen. A review of medical literature reveals that most current concepts regarding brown recluse spider envenomation are based on supposition. Read More

    [Total upper lip necrosis and loxoscelism caused by violin spider bite].
    Orv Hetil 2005 Nov;146(45):2317-21
    Semmelweis Egyetem, Fogorvostudományi Kar, Arc-AlIcsont-Szájsebészeti es Fogászati Klinika, Budapest.
    Arthropods and in particular spiders are a common embodiment of our fears, despite the fact that only a few species are dangerous to man. The authors present a case involving severe local and general reactions to a loxosceles (brown recluse spider) bite. They give an overview of the occurrence of loxosceles spiders, the signs and symptoms of envenomation and the therapeutic possibilities. Read More

    Brown recluse spider envenomation: dermatologic application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2005 Jul-Aug;4(4):424-8
    Department of Dermatology, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY 10025, USA.
    Envenomation from the brown recluse (Loxosceles recluse) spider commonly proceed on one of three clinical pathways. The majority of bites (90%) result in nothing more than a local reaction. They are essentially self-limiting, require little if any attention, and resolve spontaneously. Read More

    Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) venom phospholipase D (PLD) generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA).
    Biochem J 2005 Oct;391(Pt 2):317-23
    Department of Pharmacology, Box 800735, University of Virginia School of Medicine, 1300 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0735, USA.
    Envenomation by the brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) may cause local dermonecrosis and, rarely, coagulopathies, kidney failure and death. A venom phospholipase, SMaseD (sphingomyelinase D), is responsible for the pathological manifestations of envenomation. Recently, the recombinant SMaseD from Loxosceles laeta was demonstrated to hydrolyse LPC (lysophosphatidylcholine) to produce LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) and choline. Read More

    Comparison of colchicine, dapsone, triamcinolone, and diphenhydramine therapy for the treatment of brown recluse spider envenomation: a double-blind, controlled study in a rabbit model.
    Arch Dermatol 2005 May;141(5):595-7
    Department of Dermatology, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA 17821, USA.
    Objective: To compare the efficacy of dapsone, diphenhydramine, colchicine, and intralesional triamcinolone in the treatment of brown spider bites. We used a purified venom that reproducibly produces a large eschar. To mimic real-life circumstances, all agents were administered following a 2-hour delay after envenomation. Read More

    An approach to spider bites. Erroneous attribution of dermonecrotic lesions to brown recluse or hobo spider bites in Canada.
    Can Fam Physician 2004 Aug;50:1098-101
    British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Saanichton.
    Objective: To dispel prevalent myths surrounding diagnosis of dermonecrotic and associated conditions supposedly resulting from bites of brown recluse, hobo, or other spiders in Canada.

    Sources Of Information: Worldwide, spider bites are regularly misdiagnosed as the etiologic agents in human dermonecrosis mainly as a result of inaccurate, erroneous, or hyperbolic popular and professional literature based on inference, circumstantial evidence, inferior clinical trials, and misunderstanding of the facts regarding spider-bite envenomation.

    Main Message: A working diagnosis of "spider bite" or publishing a case history should be considered only when a spider is caught in the act of biting or otherwise reliably associated with a lesion. Read More

    Brown recluse spider bites to the head: three cases and a review.
    Ear Nose Throat J 2004 Jul;83(7):465-70
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75390, USA.
    Consequences of envenomation from the bite of a brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) range from mild itching to death. The bite of this spider causes the most severe form of arthropod-induced tissue necrosis. These bites pose several challenges to the clinician in that diagnosis can be difficult, systemic manifestations can occur, and healing can be resistant to conventional measures. Read More

    Reports of envenomation by brown recluse spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae) outnumber verifications of Loxosceles spiders in Florida.
    J Med Entomol 2004 Jul;41(4):593-7
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
    Bites attributed to the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, are frequently reported by medical personnel throughout Florida, whereas the extensive arachnological evidence contradicts the alleged widespread occurrence of Loxosceles spiders in the state. We compared reports of brown recluse spider bites made by medical personnel from a 6-yr Florida poison control center database to the known verifications of Loxosceles spiders from 100 yr of Florida arachnological data. Medical personnel diagnosed 124 brown recluse spider bites from 31 of Florida's 67 counties in 6 yr. Read More

    Sudden unexplained hemolysis occurring in an infant due to presumed Loxosceles envenomation.
    J Emerg Med 2003 Oct;25(3):277-82
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, St. Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
    We report the case of a 3-week-old infant referred for evaluation of sudden onset jaundice and unexplained hemolysis. After an exhaustive workup, the most likely etiology was found to be envenomation by a brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa. This case underscores the fact that severe loxoscelism may occur in the absence of the classically described necrotic cutaneous lesion, and represents one of the youngest presumed cases of loxoscelism. Read More

    Brown recluse spiders: a review to help guide physicians in nonendemic areas.
    South Med J 2003 May;96(5):486-90
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
    The brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) exists in significant populations mainly in the midwestern United States. Although bites can cause significant harm, envenomation is infrequent, and cases are usually clinically insignificant. Proper knowledge of the spider's habitat and lifestyle as well as the signs and symptoms of loxoscelism are needed to assess clinical cases adequately. Read More

    An infestation of 2,055 brown recluse spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae) and no envenomations in a Kansas home: implications for bite diagnoses in nonendemic areas.
    J Med Entomol 2002 Nov;39(6):948-51
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
    During a 6-mo period, 2,055 brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik, were collected in a 19th-century-built, currently occupied home in Lenexa, KS. We conservatively estimate that at least 400 of these spiders were large enough to cause envenomation. Additional collections from more typically infested homes in Missouri and Oklahoma in 2001 yielded 45 and 30 brown recluse spiders, respectively. Read More

    Direct correlation between diffusion of Loxosceles reclusa venom and extent of dermal inflammation.
    Acad Emerg Med 2001 Apr;8(4):309-14
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0305, USA.
    Objectives: Envenomation by Loxosceles species (brown recluse) spiders results in large dermal inflammatory lesions. Venom-induced dermal inflammation occurs indirectly via soluble mediators of inflammation. This study aimed to explore whether the anatomic extent of dermonecrotic arachnidism is due to the cascade of soluble proinflammatory mediators elicited by venom deposited at the bite site, or due to diffusion of the venom per se. Read More

    Nineteen documented cases of Loxosceles reclusa envenomation.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2001 Apr;44(4):603-8
    Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-5227, USA.
    Objective: Our purpose was to review documented Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider) envenomations and to describe the natural history.

    Methods: This article is a retrospective review of 19 documented cases seen in a university dermatology clinic. The study included the cases of 11 female and 8 male patients between the ages of 15 and 54 years with documented cases of brown recluse spider bite between 1987 and 1993. Read More

    A controlled trial of topical nitroglycerin in a New Zealand white rabbit model of brown recluse spider envenomation.
    Ann Emerg Med 2001 Feb;37(2):161-5
    Department of Emergency Medicine, East Carolina University School of Medicine, Greenville, NC 27858, USA.
    Study Objectives: Topical nitroglycerin has been reported to prevent skin necrosis from brown recluse spider bites, but this has never been scientifically tested. This study attempts to assess the effects of topical nitroglycerin on experimental Loxosceles reclusa envenomations.

    Methods: We performed a randomized, blinded, controlled study in an animal care facility. Read More

    Brown recluse spider bites.
    J Am Board Fam Pract 2000 Nov-Dec;13(6):415-23
    Department of Family Medicine, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson 39216-4505, USA.
    Background: Brown recluse spider bites are a serious medical problem in the southeastern United States. Although most bites are asymptomatic, envenomation can result in a constellation of systemic symptoms referred to as loxoscelism. Patients can also develop necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). Read More

    Detection of Loxosceles venom in lesional hair shafts and skin: application of a specific immunoassay to identify dermonecrotic arachnidism.
    Am J Emerg Med 2000 Sep;18(5):626-8
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, USA.
    Loxosceles spiders, of which the brown recluse is the best known, are indigenous to southcentral and southwestern regions of the United States. Loxosceles spider envenomation frequently results in painful, centrally necrotic, erythematous skin lesions that evolve over 24 to 48 hours and may take several weeks to completely heal. The diagnosis of loxoscelism is typically is based on the presence of the characteristic dermal lesion, because no definitive clinical diagnostic assay exists, and the spider is generally not available for identification. Read More

    Histological findings after brown recluse spider envenomation.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2000 Jun;22(3):242-6
    Wilford Hall Air Force Medical Center, Lackland AFB, TX, USA.
    Histologic specimens from 41 rabbits were studied for changes resulting from the manual injection of brown recluse spider venom. Major findings included a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, coagulative tissue necrosis, and vasculitis. All specimens demonstrated a well-delineated zone of eosinophilic staining recognizable as "mummified" coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis. Read More

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