131 results match your criteria Spermatogenesis[Journal]


Ultrastructure of spermatid development within the testis of the Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake, (Squamata: Elapidae).

Spermatogenesis 2016 18;6(3):e1261666. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, Southeastern Louisiana University , Hammond, LA, USA.

Little is known about spermatid development during spermiogenesis in snakes, as there is only one complete study in ophidians, which details the spermatid ultrastructure within the viperid, . Thus, the following study will add to our understanding of the ontogenic steps of spermiogenesis in snakes by examining spermatid maturation in the elapid, , which were collected in Costa Rica in 2009. The spermatids of share many similar ultrastructural characteristics to that described for other squamates during spermiogenesis. Read More

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November 2016
5 Reads

Polycomb-dependent nucleolus localization of Jumonji/Jarid2 during spermatogenesis.

Spermatogenesis 2016 3;6(3):e1232023. Epub 2016 Sep 3.

Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan; Insect Advanced Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan.

Jumonji/Jarid2 (dJmj) has been identified as a component of Polycomb repressive complex 2. However, it is suggested that dJmj has both PRC-dependent and -independent roles. Subcellular localization of dJmj during spermatogenesis is unknown. Read More

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September 2016
6 Reads

Does cell polarity matter during spermatogenesis?

Spermatogenesis 2016 May-Aug;6(2):e1218408. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research, Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council , New York, NY, USA.

Cell polarity is crucial to development since apico-basal polarity conferred by the 3 polarity protein modules (or complexes) is essential during embryogenesis, namely the Par (partition defective)-, the CRB (Crumbs)-, and the Scribble-based polarity protein modules. While these protein complexes and their component proteins have been extensively studied in Drosophila and C. elegans and also other mammalian tissues and/or cells, their presence and physiological significance in the testis remain unexplored until the first paper on the Par-based protein published in 2008. Read More

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September 2016
3 Reads

Letter from the Editor.

Authors:
C Yan Cheng

Spermatogenesis 2016 May-Aug;6(2):e1216689. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

New York, NY, USA.

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September 2016
2 Reads

Overexpression of plastin 3 in Sertoli cells disrupts actin microfilament bundle homeostasis and perturbs the tight junction barrier.

Spermatogenesis 2016 Apr 28;6(1):e1206353. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research, Center for Biomedical Research , New York, NY, USA.

Throughout the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis, actin microfilaments arranged as bundles near the Sertoli cell plasma membrane at the Sertoli cell-cell interface that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) undergo extensive re-organization by converting between bundled and unbundled/branched configuration to give plasticity to the F-actin network. This is crucial to accommodate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes across the BTB. Herein, we sought to examine changes in the actin microfilament organization at the Sertoli cell BTB using an in vitro model since Sertoli cells cultured in vitro is known to establish a functional tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier that mimics the BTB in vivo. Read More

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April 2016
2 Reads

Genomic and expression analysis of transition proteins in Drosophila.

Spermatogenesis 2015 Sep-Dec;5(3):e1178518. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Department of Biological Sciences; Seton Hall University ; South Orange, NJ USA.

The current study was aimed at analyzing putative protein sequences of the transition protein-like proteins in 12 Drosophila species based on the reference sequences of transition protein-like protein (Tpl (94D) ) expressed in Drosophila melanogaster sperm nuclei. Transition proteins aid in transforming chromatin from a histone-based nucleosome structure to a protamine-based structure during spermiogenesis - the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis. Sequences were obtained from NCBI Ref-Seq database using NCBI ORF-Finder (PSI-BLAST). Read More

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August 2016
7 Reads

Formins: Actin nucleators that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics during spermatogenesis.

Spermatogenesis 2015 May-Aug;5(2):e1066476. Epub 2015 Jun 29.

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research; Center for Biomedical Research; Population Council ; New York, NY USA.

Formins are a growing class of actin nucleation proteins that promote the polymerization of actin microfilaments, forming long stretches of actin microfilaments to confer actin filament bundling in mammalian cells. As such, microfilament bundles can be formed in specific cellular domains, in particular in motile mammalian cells, such as filopodia. Since ectoplasmic specialization (ES), a testis-specific adherens junction (AJ), at the Sertoli cell-cell and Sertoli-spermatid interface is constituted by arrays of actin microfilament bundles, it is likely that formins are playing a significant physiological role on the homeostasis of ES during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Read More

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Separating from the pack: Molecular mechanisms of spermatid individualization.

Spermatogenesis 2015 May-Aug;5(2):e1041345. Epub 2015 May 21.

Department of Biology; Yeshiva University ; New York, NY USA.

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May 2015
1 Read

Antioxidant protects blood-testis barrier against synchrotron radiation X-ray-induced disruption.

Spermatogenesis 2015 Jan-Apr;5(1):e1009313. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes; Renji-Med X Clinical Stem Cell Research Center; Ren Ji Hospital; School of Medicine; Shanghai Jiao Tong University ; Shanghai, China ; School of Biomedical Engineering & Med-X Research Institute; Shanghai Jiao Tong University ; Shanghai, China.

Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has wide biomedical applications including high resolution imaging and brain tumor therapy due to its special properties of high coherence, monochromaticity and high intensity. However, its interaction with biological tissues remains poorly understood. In this study, we used the rat testis as a model to investigate how SR X-ray would induce tissue responses, especially the blood-testis barrier (BTB) because BTB dynamics are critical for spermatogenesis. Read More

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March 2015
2 Reads

spermatid individualization is sensitive to temperature and fatty acid metabolism.

Spermatogenesis 2015 Jan-Apr;5(1):e1006089. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Department of Biology; Yeshiva University ; New York, NY USA.

Fatty acids are precursors of potent lipid signaling molecules. They are stored in membrane phospholipids and released by phospholipase A (PLA). Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (ATs) oppose PLA by re-esterifying fatty acids into phospholipids, in a biochemical pathway known as the Lands Cycle. Read More

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February 2015
2 Reads

Fascin - An actin binding and bundling protein in the testis and its role in ectoplasmic specialization dynamics.

Spermatogenesis 2015 Jan-Apr;5(1):e1002733. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research; Center for Biomedical Research; Population Council ; New York, NY USA.

In the mammalian testis such as in rats, a unique actin-rich cell-cell adherens junction (AJ) known as ectoplasmic specialization (ES) is found in the seminiferous epithelium. ES is conspicuously found between Sertoli cells near the basement membrane known as the basal ES, which together with tight junction (TJ), gap junction, and desmosome constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The BTB, in turn, anatomically divides the seminiferous epithelium into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartment. Read More

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February 2015
1 Read

Uncoupling of transcription and translation of Fanconi anemia (FANC) complex proteins during spermatogenesis.

Spermatogenesis 2015 Jan-Apr;5(1):e979061. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

The Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology; School of Biomedical Sciences; Faculty of Medicine; Nursing and Health Sciences; Monash University ; Victoria, Australia.

Male germ cell genome integrity is critical for spermatogenesis, fertility and normal development of the offspring. Several DNA repair pathways exist in male germ cells. One such important pathway is the Fanconi anemia (FANC) pathway. Read More

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December 2014
2 Reads

Testicular histology and germ cell cytology during spermatogenesis in the Mississippi map turtle, , from Northeast Arkansas.

Spermatogenesis 2014 Sep-Dec;4(3):e992654. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Department of Biology; University of Indianapolis ; Indianapolis, IN USA.

The testicular histology and cytology of spermatogenesis in were examined using specimens collected between July 1996 and May 2004 from counties in northeastern Arkansas. A histological examination of the testes and germ cell cytology indicates a postnuptial testicular cycle of spermatogenesis and a major fall spermiation event. The majority of the germ cell populations in May and June specimens are represented by resting spermatogonia, type A spermatogonia, type B spermatogonia, pre-leptotene spermatocytes, and numerous Sertoli cell nuclei near the basement membrane. Read More

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February 2015
1 Read

Seasonal spermatogenesis in the Mexican endemic oviparous lizard, (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae).

Spermatogenesis 2014 Sep-Dec;4(3):e988585. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Biology Department; University of Indianapolis ; Indianapolis, IN USA.

Oviparous species of exhibit either seasonal or continuous spermatogenesis and populations from high-elevation show a seasonal pattern known as spring reproductive activity. We studied the spermatogenic cycle of a high-elevation (2700 m) population of endemic oviparous lizard, , that resided south of México, D.F. Read More

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February 2015
3 Reads

Testicular structure and germ cells morphology in salamanders.

Spermatogenesis 2014 Sep-Dec;4(3):e988090. Epub 2015 Mar 12.

Laboratorio de Biología de la Reproducción; Departamento de Biología Comparada; Facultad de Ciencias; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; Ciudad Universitaria ; México DF, México.

Testes of salamanders or urodeles are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. The testes are composed of one or several lobes. Each lobe is morphologically and functionally a similar testicular unit. Read More

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Comparative testicular structure and spermatogenesis in bony fishes.

Spermatogenesis 2014 Sep-Dec;4(3):e983400. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Laboratorio de Biología de la Reproducción; Departamento de Biología Comparada; Facultad de Ciencias; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; Ciudad Universitaria ; México, México.

In most bony fishes, testes are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. Histological examination of teleost testes, and also in all vertebrates, shows that the testes are formed of germ cells and somatic cells, comprising the germinal and interstitial compartments. Both compartments are separated by a basement membrane. Read More

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February 2015
10 Reads

Testicular structure in three viviparous species of teleosts in the genus (Anablepidae).

Spermatogenesis 2014 Sep-Dec;4(3):e983399. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute; St. Petersburg , FL USA.

Histological structure of the testes and development of spermatozoa in species is described using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The testis type is restricted spermatogonial, wherein spermatogonia are restricted to the distal ends of lobules, typical of the Atherinomorpha, and spermatogenesis is continuous throughout the year in wild-caught fish. Within the testicular lobes there are lobular germinal compartments wherein the functional units are spermatocysts, whose borders are formed by Sertoli cells. Read More

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February 2015
2 Reads

Histological analysis of spermatogenesis within non-mammalian vertebrates.

Authors:
Kevin Gribbins

Spermatogenesis 2014 Sep-Dec;4(3):e1011565. Epub 2015 Mar 12.

Department of Biology; University of Indianapolis ; Indianapolis, IN USA.

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March 2015
1 Read

Spermatogenic cycle of a plethodontid salamander, (Amphibia, Urodela).

Spermatogenesis 2014 Sep-Dec;4(3):e982420. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Department of Biology; University of Indianapolis ; Indianapolis, IN USA.

Previous investigators have described the spermatogenic cycles of numerous species of plethodontid salamanders. Most studies describe a fairly stereotypical cycle with meiotic divisions of spermatogenesis commencing in the spring/summer. However, many studies lack details obtainable from histological examination and/or testicular squashes and, instead, provide only mensural data from the testes. Read More

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December 2014
13 Reads

Spermiogenesis in birds.

Authors:
Tom A Aire

Spermatogenesis 2014 Sep-Dec;4(3):e959392. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Department of Anatomy; Physiology and Pharmacology; School of Veterinary Medicine; St. George's University ; St. George, Grenada.

Current knowledge on avian spermiogenesis, including strengths and weaknesses, has been reviewed. Information on avian spermiogenesis considerably lags behind that in mammals because of the paucity of reports in birds. Spermiogenesis in passerine birds has received even much less attention than in non-passerine birds. Read More

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October 2014
32 Reads

The nuclear form of glutathione peroxidase 4 colocalizes and directly interacts with protamines in the nuclear matrix during mouse sperm chromatin assembly.

Spermatogenesis 2014 25;4:e28460. Epub 2014 Apr 25.

DAHFMO; Section of Histology & Medical Embryology; University of Rome "La Sapienza;" Rome, Italy.

The testis-specific nuclear form of Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase (nGPx4) is associated with the nuclear matrix during spermiogenesis and is implicated in sperm chromatin condensation. In this study, we have addressed the question whether nGPx4 directly interacts with protamines by transiently sharing a nuclear matrix localization. We first expressed tagged protamine 1-myc and protamine 2-V5 in HeLa and COS-1 cells and showed by both confocal microscopy and immunoblotting analyses that protamines were produced in vitro and colocalized correctly to the nucleus. Read More

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April 2014
2 Reads

Receptors and signaling pathways involved in proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli cells.

Spermatogenesis 2014 20;4:e28138. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Section of Experimental Endocrinology; Department of Pharmacology; Escola Paulista de Medicina; Universidade Federal de São Paulo; INFAR; Vila Clementino; São Paulo, SP Brazil.

The identification of the hormones and other factors regulating Sertoli cell survival, proliferation, and maturation in neonatal, peripubertal, and pubertal life remains one of the most critical questions in testicular biology. The regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation is thought to be controlled by cell-cell junctions and a set of circulating and local hormones and growth factors. In this review, we will focus on receptors and intracellular signaling pathways activated by androgen, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, activin, retinoids, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, relaxin, and estrogen, with special emphasis on estrogen receptors. Read More

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February 2014
2 Reads

Supporters of sperm: The 12 Biology of Spermatozoa meeting, Hassop Hall, Derbyshire, UK.

Authors:
Hanne Løvlie

Spermatogenesis 2014 23;4:e27596. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

IFM Biology; Linköping University; Linköping, Sweden.

The Biology of Spermatozoa (BoS) meetings have run on a biannual basis since the early 1990s. They are dedicated to the fascinating research topic of sperm and their complicated route to fertilization. The BoS meetings focus on sperm, but they also explore additional supporting factors important in fertilization, such as those present in seminal and ovarian fluid, as well as the genomic bases of sperm biology. Read More

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January 2014
1 Read

spermatogenesis addendum: The effect of Hurricane Katrina on spermatogenesis of the western cottonmouth snake.

Spermatogenesis 2014 Sep-Dec;4(3):e988586. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Department of Biology; University of Indianapolis ; Indianapolis, IN USA.

Recent studies detailed the spermatogenic cycle of the Western Cottonmouth Snake, and noted that spermatogenesis is bimodal, with active periods during March-June and August-October in southeastern Louisiana. However, only spermatogonia were present in September in the only specimen that was captured and the authors state that the individual "should have a high testis volume and also show spermiogenic activity." The specimen in their study was caught immediately following Hurricane Katrina outside of its normal habitat. Read More

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February 2015
15 Reads

Review of Azoospermia.

Spermatogenesis 2014 31;4:e28218. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Department of Urology and Institute for Reproductive Medicine; Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University; New York, NY USA ; Director of the Center for Male Reproductive Medicine and Microsurgery; Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University; New York, NY USA ; Center for Biomedical Research; The Population Council; New York, NY, USA.

Azoospermia is classified as obstructive azoospermia (OA) or non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), each having very different etiologies and treatments. The etiology, diagnosis, and management of azoospermia were reviewed and relevant literature summarized. Differentiation between these two etiologies is of paramount importance and is contingent upon thorough history and physical examination and indicated laboratory/genetic testing. Read More

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March 2014
66 Reads

Mammalian piRNAs: Biogenesis, function, and mysteries.

Authors:
Qi Fu P Jeremy Wang

Spermatogenesis 2014 7;4:e27889. Epub 2014 Feb 7.

Department of Animal Biology; University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine; Philadelphia, PA USA.

Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a distinct class of small non-coding RNAs specifically expressed in the germline of many species. They are most notably required for transposon silencing. Loss of piRNAs results in defects in germ cell development, and thus, infertility. Read More

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February 2014
1 Read

Endocrine control of spermatogenesis: Role of FSH and LH/ testosterone.

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e996025. Epub 2015 Jan 26.

Early Development; Covance Laboratories GmbH ; Muenster, Germany.

Evaluation of testicular functions (production of sperm and androgens) is an important aspect of preclinical safety assessment and testicular toxicity is comparatively far more common than ovarian toxicity. This chapter focuses (1) on the histological sequelae of disturbed reproductive endocrinology in rat, dog and nonhuman primates and (2) provides a review of our current understanding of the roles of gonadotropins and androgens. The response of the rodent testis to endocrine disturbances is clearly different from that of dog and primates with different germ cell types and spermatogenic stages being affected initially and also that the end-stage spermatogenic involution is more pronounced in dog and primates compared to rodents. Read More

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January 2015
2 Reads

Toxicants target cell junctions in the testis: Insights from the indazole-carboxylic acid model.

Authors:
C Yan Cheng

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e981485. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research; Center for Biomedical Research; Population Council ; New York, NY USA.

There are numerous types of junctions in the seminiferous epithelium which are integrated with, and critically dependent on the Sertoli cell cytoskeleton. These include the basal tight junctions between Sertoli cells that form the main component of the blood-testis barrier, the basal ectoplasmic specializations (basal ES) and basal tubulobulbar complexes (basal TBC) between Sertoli cells; as well as apical ES and apical TBC between Sertoli cells and the developing spermatids that orchestrate spermiogenesis and spermiation. These junctions, namely TJ, ES, and TBC interact with actin microfilament-based cytoskeleton, which together with the desmosomal junctions that interact with the intermediate filament-based cytoskeleton plus the highly polarized microtubule-based cytoskeleton are working in concert to move spermatocytes and spermatids between the basal and luminal aspect of the seminiferous epithelium. Read More

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January 2015

Organic and inorganic transporters of the testis: A review.

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e979653. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

University of Arizona; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; Tucson, AZ, US.

Transporters have a huge impact on the toxicology and pharmacological effects of xenobiotics in addition to being implicated in several diseases. While these important proteins have been well studied in organs such as the kidney or liver, characterization of transporters in the testis is still in the early stages. Knowledge of transporter function may greatly advance the field's understanding of the physiological and toxicological processes that occur in the testis. Read More

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January 2015
4 Reads

Mechanisms of spermiogenesis and spermiation and how they are disturbed.

Authors:
Liza O'Donnell

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e979623. Epub 2015 Jan 26.

MIMR-PHI Institute of Medical Research ; Clayton, Victoria, Australia ; Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology; Monash University ; Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Haploid round spermatids undergo a remarkable transformation during spermiogenesis. The nucleus polarizes to one side of the cell as the nucleus condenses and elongates, and the microtubule-based manchette sculpts the nucleus into its species-specific head shape. The assembly of the central component of the sperm flagellum, known as the axoneme, begins early in spermiogenesis, and is followed by the assembly of secondary structures needed for normal flagella. Read More

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January 2015

Interpreting histopathology in the epididymis.

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e979114. Epub 2015 Jan 8.

National Health and Environmental Research Laboratory; Reproductive Toxicology Division; US Environmental Protection Agency ; Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

While most of this Special Issue is devoted to the testis (which is where most drug and chemically induced toxicity of the male reproductive tract is identified), being able to recognize and understand the potential effects of toxicants on the epididymis is immensely important and an area that is often overlooked. The epididymis is the organ where the post-testicular sperm differentiation occurs, through a complex and still not completely understood sperm maturation process, allowing them to fertilize the oocyte. Also in the epididymis, sperm are stored until ejaculation, while being protected from immunogenic reaction by a blood-epididymis barrier. Read More

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January 2015
5 Reads

Kinases as targets for chemical modulators: Structural aspects and their role in spermatogenesis.

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e979113. Epub 2015 Jan 26.

Centre for Bioinformatics; School of Life Sciences; Pondicherry University ; Puducherry, India ; Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; School of Life Sciences; Pondicherry University ; Puducherry, India ; KIIT University ; Bhubaneshwar, Odisha, India.

Protein phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation events are crucial in deciding the fate of cells. They regulate cellular growth, differentiation and cell death, and kinases are the key players of these events. The members of ser/thr kinases and tyrosine kinases form the majority of protein kinase family, exerting their regulatory mechanism in almost all cells. Read More

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January 2015
1 Read

Implications of Sertoli cell induced germ cell apoptosis to testicular pathology.

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e979110. Epub 2015 Jan 26.

Center for Molecular and Cellular Toxicology; College of Pharmacy; The University of Texas at Austin ; Austin, TX USA.

After exposure to toxicants, degenerating germ cells represents the most common testicular histopathological alteration, regardless of the mechanism of toxicity. Therefore, deciphering the primary toxicant cellular target and mechanism of action can be extremely difficult. However, most testicular toxicants display a cell-specific and a stage-specific pattern of damage, which is the best evidence for identifying the primary cellular target (i. Read More

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January 2015

Testicular histopathology associated with disruption of the Sertoli cell cytoskeleton.

Authors:
Kamin J Johnson

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e979106. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting; The Dow Chemical Company ; Midland, MI USA.

Testicular histological alterations following Sertoli cell cytoskeleton disruption are numerous. The Sertoli cell cytoskeleton is comprised of intermediate filaments, microtubules, microfilaments and their direct interacting proteins and performs essential functions including structural support of the seminiferous epithelium, apicobasal movement of elongate spermatids, and release of elongate spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium during spermiation. This review summarizes the histological changes occurring after disruption of the Sertoli cell cytoskeleton, including the signature lesion of seminiferous epithelium sloughing. Read More

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February 2015

Testicular and epididymal toxicity: Pathogenesis and potential mechanisms of toxicity.

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e1005511. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Pfizer Drug Safety Research and Development ; Groton, CT USA.

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January 2015

The blood-epididymis barrier and inflammation.

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e979619. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

INRS-Institut Armand Frappier; University of Quebec ; Laval, QC, Canada.

The blood-epididymis barrier (BEB) is a critical structure for male fertility. It enables the development of a specific luminal environment that allows spermatozoa to acquire both the ability to swim and fertilize an ovum. The presence of tight junctions and specific cellular transporters can regulate the composition of the epididymal lumen to favor proper sperm maturation. Read More

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December 2014
1 Read

Redox reactions in mammalian spermatogenesis and the potential targets of reactive oxygen species under oxidative stress.

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e979108. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Kitasato University ; Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Reduction-oxidation (Redox) reactions are ubiquitous mechanisms for vital activities in all organisms, and they play pivotal roles in the regulation of spermatogenesis as well. Here we focus on 3 redox-involved processes that have drawn much recent attention: the regulation of signal transduction by reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide, oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and sulfoxidation of protamines during sperm chromatin condensation. The first 2 of these processes are emerging topics in cell biology and are applicable to most living cells, which includes spermatogenic cells. Read More

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December 2014
2 Reads

Disruption of estrogen receptor signaling and similar pathways in the efferent ductules and initial segment of the epididymis.

Authors:
Rex A Hess

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e979103. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Reproductive Biology & Toxicology; Department of Comparative Biosciences; College of Veterinary Medicine; University of Illinois ; Urbana, IL USA.

Seminiferous tubular atrophy may involve indirectly the disruption of estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) function in efferent ductules of the testis. ESR1 helps to maintain fluid resorption by the ductal epithelium and the inhibition or stimulation of this activity in rodent species will lead to fluid accumulation in the lumen. If not resolved, the abnormal buildup of fluid in the head of the epididymis and efferent ductules becomes a serious problem for the testis, as it leads to an increase in testis weight, tubular dilation and seminiferous epithelial degeneration, as well as testicular atrophy. Read More

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December 2014
5 Reads
6 Citations

Morphologic manifestations of testicular and epididymal toxicity.

Spermatogenesis 2014 May-Aug;4(2):e979099. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

AbbVie; GPRD Preclinical Safety ; Chicago, IL USA.

Histopathologic examination of the testis is the most sensitive means to detect effects on spermatogenesis; however, the complexity of testicular histology, interrelatedness of cell types within the testis, and long duration of spermatogenesis can make assessment of a testicular toxicant challenging. A thorough understanding of the histology and morphologic manifestations of response to injury is critical to successfully identify a testicular effect and to begin to understand the underlying mechanism of action. The basic patterns of response to xenobiotic-induced injury to the testis and epididymis are detailed and discussed. Read More

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December 2014
2 Reads

Ginseng and male reproductive function.

Spermatogenesis 2013 Jul 13;3(3):e26391. Epub 2013 Sep 13.

School of Biological Sciences; University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong, PR China.

Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. Read More

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July 2013
2 Reads

Why do we need male contraceptives?

Spermatogenesis 2013 Jul 25;3(3):e25888. Epub 2013 Jul 25.

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research; Center for Biomedical Research; The Population Council; New York, NY USA.

A recent article published in Bloomberg Businessweek has painted a grim picture of family planning practices in India by coercing women into sterilization. In the village of Sonhoula, 33 women, many of them poor, were forced into sterilization because each woman received either $10 or a modest increase in welfare benefits from local officials. These women accepted the offer out of desperation without receiving counseling on alternative birth control methods (). Read More

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July 2013
1 Read

A network of spectrin and plectin surrounds the actin cuffs of apical tubulobulbar complexes in the rat.

Spermatogenesis 2013 Jul 19;3(3):e25733. Epub 2013 Jul 19.

Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences; Faculty of Medicine; University of British Columbia; BC Canada.

Tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs) are actin-related endocytic structures that internalize intercellular junctions in the seminiferous epithelium. The structures consist of elongate tubular projections of the attached plasma membranes of two adjacent cells that project into Sertoli cells. This double membrane core is cuffed by a dentritic actin network and is capped at its end by a clathrin-coated pit. Read More

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July 2013
4 Reads

Focal adhesion kinase is a regulator of F-actin dynamics: New insights from studies in the testis.

Spermatogenesis 2013 Jul 21;3(3):e25385. Epub 2013 Jun 21.

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research; Center for Biomedical Research; Population Council; New York, NY USA.

During spermatogenesis, spermatogonia (2n, diploid) undergo a series of mitotic divisions as well as differentiation to become spermatocytes, which enter meiosis I to be followed by meiosis II to form round spermatids (1n, haploid), and then differentiate into spermatozoa (1n, haploid) via spermiogenesis. These events take place in the epithelium of the seminiferous tubule, involving extensive junction restructuring at the Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell interface to allow the transport of developing germ cells across the epithelium. Although structural aspects of these cell-cell junctions have been studied, the underlying mechanism(s) that governs these events has yet to be explored. Read More

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July 2013
7 Reads

Letter from the editor: CFTR and male fertility-Impact beyond cystic fibrosis.

Authors:
Hsiao Chang Chan

Spermatogenesis 2013 Jul 29;3(3):e26228. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Epithelial Cell Biology Research Center; School of Biomedical Sciences; Faculty of Medicine; The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong, PR China.

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July 2013
2 Reads

NC1 domain of collagen α3(IV) derived from the basement membrane regulates Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier dynamics.

Spermatogenesis 2013 Apr;3(2):e25465

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research; Center for Biomedical Research; Population Council; New York, NY USA.

The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure for spermatogenesis. Delay in BTB formation in neonatal rats or its irreversible damage in adult rats leads to meiotic arrest and failure of spermatogonial differentiation beyond type A. While hormones, such as testosterone and FSH, are crucial to BTB function, little is known if there is a local regulatory mechanism in the seminiferous epithelium that modulates BTB function. Read More

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Letter from the Editor.

Authors:
C Yan Cheng

Spermatogenesis 2013 Apr;3(2):e25462

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research; Center for Biomedical Research; Population Council; New York, NY USA.

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April 2013
1 Read

Adjudin disrupts spermatogenesis by targeting drug transporters: Lesson from the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP).

Spermatogenesis 2013 Apr;3(2):e24993

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research; Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council; New York, NY USA ; Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology; School of Basic Medicine; Peking Union Medical College; Beijing, China.

For non-hormonal male contraceptives that exert their effects in the testis locally instead of via the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, such as adjudin that disrupts germ cell adhesion, a major hurdle in their development is to improve their bioavailability so that they can be efficiently delivered to the seminiferous epithelium by transporting across the blood-testis barrier (BTB). If this can be done, it would widen the gap between their efficacy and general toxicity. However, Sertoli cells that constitute the BTB, peritubular myoid cells in the tunica propria, germ cells at different stages of their development, as well as endothelial cells that constitute the microvessels in the interstitium are all equipped with multiple drug transporters, most notably efflux drug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-related protein 1 (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) that can actively prevent drugs (e. Read More

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April 2013
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RAI14 (retinoic acid induced protein 14) is an F-actin regulator: Lesson from the testis.

Spermatogenesis 2013 Apr;3(2):e24824

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research; Center for Biomedical Research; Population Council; New York NY USA ; Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology; School of Basic Medicine; Peking Union Medical College; Beijing, China.

RAI14 (retinoic acid induced protein 14) is an actin-binding protein first identified in the liver. In the testis, RAI14 is expressed by both Sertoli and germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. Besides binding to actin in the testis, RAI14 is also a binding protein for palladin, an actin cross-linking and bundling protein. Read More

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April 2013
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Protamines and spermatogenesis in and : A comparative analysis.

Spermatogenesis 2013 Apr;3(2):e24376

Western University; London, ON, Canada.

The production of mature and motile sperm is a detailed process that utilizes many molecular players to ensure the faithful execution of spermatogenesis. In most species that have been examined, spermatogenesis begins with a single cell that undergoes dramatic transformation, culminating with the hypercompaction of DNA into the sperm head by replacing histones with protamines. Precise execution of the stages of spermatogenesis results in the production of motile sperm. Read More

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April 2013
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Role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases in male reproduction.

Spermatogenesis 2013 Apr;3(2):e24194

Akdeniz University Medical Faculty Department of Histology and Embryology; Antalya, Turkey.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a family of enzymes involved in a wide variety of biological processes, including DNA repair and maintenance of genomic stability following genotoxic stress, and regulates the expression of various proteins at the transcriptional level as well as replication and differentiation. However, excessive activation of PARP has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases associated with oxidative stress (OS), which has been known to play a fundamental role in the etiology of male infertility. Based on the degree and type of the stress stimulus, PARP directs cells to specific fates (such as, DNA repair vs. Read More

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April 2013
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