274,230 results match your criteria Spatial Neglect


Coupling stable isotopes and water chemistry to assess the role of hydrological and biogeochemical processes on riverine nitrogen sources.

Water Res 2018 Dec 6;150:418-430. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Accurate source identification is critical for optimizing water pollution control strategies. Although the dual stable isotope (N-NO/O-NO) approach has been widely applied for differentiating riverine nitrogen (N) sources, the relatively short-term (<1 yr) N-NO/O-NO records typically used in previous studies often hinders rigorous assessment due to high temporal variability associated with watershed N dynamics. Estimated contributions of legacy N sources in soils and groundwater to riverine N export by modeling approaches in many previous studies also lack validation from complementary information, such as multiple stable isotopes. Read More

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December 2018

Ambient PM air pollution and cardiovascular disease prevalence: Insights from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 14;123:310-317. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental and Health risk Assessment, Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Backgrounds: Evidence on the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is scarce in developing countries. Moreover, few studies assessed the role of the PM (≤1. Read More

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December 2018

Fine particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at an urban site of Wuhan, central China: Characteristics, potential sources and cancer risks apportionment.

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 3;246:319-327. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Levels, compositions, sources, and cancer risks of fine particle (PM)-bound PAHs were investigated at an urban site of Wuhan, Central China. Totally 115 PM samples collected during four seasons from 2014 to 2015 were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority PAHs. The annual average of PM and total PAHs were 106 ± 41. Read More

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December 2018

Chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM personal exposure of two cohorts living in urban and suburban Beijing.

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 4;246:225-236. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021, China. Electronic address:

In the study, personal PM exposures and their source contributions were characterized for 159 subjects living in the Beijing Metropolitan area. The exposures and sources were examined as functions of residential location, season, vocation, cigarette smoking, and time spent outdoors. Sampling was performed for two categories of volunteers, guards and students, that lived in urban and suburban areas of Beijing. Read More

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December 2018

Evidences of different meteorological patterns governing Be and Pb surface levels in the southern Iberian Peninsula.

J Environ Radioact 2018 Dec 14;198:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Integrated Sciences, Area of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, 21071, Huelva, Spain; Research Center on Natural Resources, Health and the Environment (RENSMA), University of Huelva, 21071, Huelva, Spain.

Be, Pb and PM levels in surface air have been simultaneously measured at two sampling sites in the southern Iberian Peninsula for a period of two years. Each site covers one different meteorological area of the Guadalquivir valley, from the mouth (Huelva) to the middle point (Cordoba). The objective of the present study is to analyse the spatial variability of both natural radionuclides, and to identify and characterise the meteorological patterns associated with similar and different surface concentration levels in this complex region. Read More

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December 2018

A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of epidemiological studies on outdoor air pollution and tuberculosis outcomes.

Environ Res 2018 Dec 7;170:33-45. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Centre for Air Pollution, Energy and Health Research, Glebe, NSW, Australia.

Ambient air pollution is the leading environmental risk factor for disease globally. Air pollutants can increase the risk of some respiratory infections, but their effects on tuberculosis (TB) are unclear. In this systematic literature review, we aimed to assess epidemiological studies on the association between outdoor air pollutants and TB incidence, hospital admissions and death (collectively referred to here as 'TB outcomes'). Read More

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December 2018

Spatial presentation of cholesterol units on a DNA cube as a determinant of membrane protein-mimicking functions.

J Am Chem Soc 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Cells use membrane proteins as gatekeepers to transport ions and molecules, catalyze reactions, relay signals, and interact with other cells. DNA nanostructures with lipidic anchors are promising as membrane protein mimics because of their high tuneability. However, the design features specifying DNA nanostructure's functions in lipid membranes are yet to be fully understood. Read More

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December 2018

Compartment models for the electrical stimulation of retinal bipolar cells.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209123. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute for Analysis and Scientific Computing, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse, Vienna, Austria.

Bipolar cells of the retina are among the smallest neurons of the nervous system. For this reason, compared to other neurons, their delay in signaling is minimal. Additionally, the small bipolar cell surface combined with the low membrane conductance causes very little attenuation in the signal from synaptic input to the terminal. Read More

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December 2018

Laboratory strains of Bacillus anthracis exhibit pervasive alteration in expression of proteins related to sporulation under laboratory conditions relative to genetically related wild strains.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209120. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Chemical and Biological Signature Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America.

The spore forming pathogen Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax in humans and animals. It cycles through infected hosts as vegetative cells and is eventually introduced into the environment where it generates an endospore resistant to many harsh conditions. The endospores are subsequently taken up by another host to begin the next cycle. Read More

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December 2018

A graph-based evidence synthesis approach to detecting outbreak clusters: An application to dog rabies.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 17;14(12):e1006554. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Early assessment of infectious disease outbreaks is key to implementing timely and effective control measures. In particular, rapidly recognising whether infected individuals stem from a single outbreak sustained by local transmission, or from repeated introductions, is crucial to adopt effective interventions. In this study, we introduce a new framework for combining several data streams, e. Read More

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December 2018

An improved DBSCAN algorithm based on cell-like P systems with promoters and inhibitors.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0200751. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

College of Business, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China.

Density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) algorithm can find clusters of arbitrary shape, while the noise points can be removed. Membrane computing is a novel research branch of bio-inspired computing, which seeks to discover new computational models/framework from biological cells. The obtained parallel and distributed computing models are usually called P systems. Read More

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December 2018

Towards UNAIDS Fast-Track goals: Targeting priority geographic areas for HIV prevention and care in Zimbabwe.

AIDS 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Ministry of Health and Child Care, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Introduction: Zimbabwe has made substantial progress toward the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) targets of 90-90-90 by 2020, with 73% of people living with HIV diagnosed, 87% of those diagnosed on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 86% of those on ART virally suppressed. Despite this exceptional response, more effort is needed to completely achieve the UNAIDS targets. Here, we conducted a detailed spatial analysis of the geographical structure of the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe to include geographical prioritization as a key component of their overall HIV intervention strategy. Read More

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December 2018

EXPOSURE OF ALASKA BROWN BEARS ( URSUS ARCTOS) TO BACTERIAL, VIRAL, AND PARASITIC AGENTS VARIES SPATIOTEMPORALLY AND MAY BE INFLUENCED BY AGE.

J Wildl Dis 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

2   Daniel B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, 180 East Green Street, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

We collected blood and serum from 155 brown bears ( Ursus arctos) inhabiting five locations in Alaska during 2013-16 and tested samples for evidence of prior exposure to a suite of bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents. Antibody seroprevalence among Alaska brown bears was estimated to be 15% for Brucella spp., 10% for Francisella tularensis, 7% for Leptospira spp. Read More

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December 2018

Energy Flux Manipulation in Upconversion Nanosystems.

Acc Chem Res 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science , National University of Singapore , Singapore 117543.

Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) exhibit unique optical characteristics, including a large anti-Stokes shift, a long luminescence lifetime, sharp emission bands, and high photostability. These virtues make UCNPs highly useful in many emerging applications such as biolabeling, security, multicolor displays, and optogenetics. Despite the enticing prospects of UCNPs, their practical utility is greatly hindered by the low efficiency of the conversion from near-infrared (NIR) excitation to visible emission. Read More

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December 2018

Protection of tissue physicochemical properties using polyfunctional crosslinkers.

Nat Biotechnol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Understanding complex biological systems requires the system-wide characterization of both molecular and cellular features. Existing methods for spatial mapping of biomolecules in intact tissues suffer from information loss caused by degradation and tissue damage. We report a tissue transformation strategy named stabilization under harsh conditions via intramolecular epoxide linkages to prevent degradation (SHIELD), which uses a flexible polyepoxide to form controlled intra- and intermolecular cross-link with biomolecules. Read More

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December 2018

Quantitative susceptibility mapping detects neovascularization of the epiphyseal cartilage after ischemic injury in a piglet model of legg-calvé-perthes disease.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood hip disorder thought to be caused by disruption of blood supply to the developing femoral head. There is potential for imaging to help assess revascularization of the femoral head.

Purpose: To investigate whether quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) can detect neovascularization in the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury to the developing femoral head. Read More

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December 2018
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Mortality for neurological diseases and pesticides: etiological hypotheses by a spatial analysis in the province of Pavia.

Med Lav 2018 Dec 20;109(6):420-434. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Italy.

Background: Neurological and neurodegenerative diseases are multifactorial and their causes are not well understood yet. Among the relevant risk factors, pesticides and the productive activities in which they are used are included.

Objectives: To evaluate the association of mortality from neurological diseases within the Province of Pavia (Italy) with the agricultural activities, as a proxy of pesticides exposure. Read More

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December 2018

Legitimizing Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of Romantic Love and the Mediating Effect of Patriarchal Ideologies.

J Interpers Violence 2018 Dec 17:886260518818427. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1 Aix Marseille Univ, LPS, Aix-en-Provence, France.

Romantic love in heterosexual relationships is recognized as an important aspect to be considered in relation to the psychosocial mechanisms associated with the persistence of intimate partner violence and the help-seeking barriers faced by female victims. However, few studies have explored the processes underlying the relationship between this form of love and attitudes toward this kind of violence. To do this, the current study aims to analyze the relationship between the adherence to romantic love and the legitimization of intimate partner violence (i. Read More

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December 2018

A 3D Convolutional Neural Network to Model Retinal Ganglion Cell's Responses to Light Patterns in Mice.

Int J Neural Syst 2018 Dec;28(10):1850043

† Instituto de Bioingeniería, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain.

Deep Learning offers flexible powerful tools that have advanced our understanding of the neural coding of neurosensory systems. In this work, a 3D Convolutional Neural Network (3D CNN) is used to mimic the behavior of a population of mice retinal ganglion cells in response to different light patterns. For this purpose, we projected homogeneous RGB flashes and checkerboards stimuli with variable luminances and wavelength spectrum to mimic a more naturalistic stimuli environment onto the mouse retina. Read More

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December 2018

"A child may be tall but also stunted." Conceptualization of and meanings attached to childhood height and short stature in rural Tanzania.

Matern Child Nutr 2018 Dec 16:e12769. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Population Research Centre, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

Stunting affects large numbers of under-fives in Tanzania. But do caretakers of under-fives recognize height as a marker of child growth? What meanings do they attach to linear growth? An ethnographic study using cultural schemas theory was conducted in a rural community in Southeastern Tanzania to investigate caregivers' conceptualizations of child height in relation to growth and the meanings attached to short stature. Data for the study was collected through 19 focus group discussions, 30 in-depth interviews, and five key informant interviews with caregivers of under-fives, including mothers, fathers, elderly women, and community health workers. Read More

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December 2018
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Spatiotemporal Control Strategies for Bone Formation through Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Approaches.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 17:e1801044. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, 599 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA.

Global increases in life expectancy drive increasing demands for bone regeneration. The gold standard for surgical bone repair is autografting, which enjoys excellent clinical outcomes; however, it possesses significant drawbacks including donor site morbidity and limited availability. Although collagen sponges delivered with bone morphogenetic protein, type 2 (BMP2) are a common alternative or supplement, they do not efficiently retain BMP2, necessitating extremely high doses to elicit bone formation. Read More

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December 2018

Photoacoustic Imaging: Contrast Agents and Their Biomedical Applications.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 17:e1805875. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging as a fast-developing imaging technique has great potential in biomedical and clinical applications. It is a noninvasive imaging modality that depends on the light-absorption coefficient of the imaged tissue and the injected PA-imaging contrast agents. Furthermore, PA imaging provides superb contrast, super spatial resolution, and high penetrability and sensitivity to tissue functional characteristics by detecting the acoustic wave to construct PA images. Read More

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December 2018

A new regulator of seed size control in Arabidopsis identified by a genome-wide association study.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

School of Life Sciences and School of Advanced Agricultural Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

Organ size in plants is controlled by the interaction between genotype and the environment. Seed size, an important agronomic trait, largely determines yield and is an important focus of research. However, the genetic components underpinning natural variation of seed size in undomesticated species remain largely unidentified. Read More

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December 2018

The three regimes of spatial recovery.

Ecology 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Centre for Biodiversity Theory and Modelling, Theoretical and Experimental Ecology Station, CNRS and Paul Sabatier University, 09200, Moulis, France.

An enduring challenge for ecology is identifying the drivers of ecosystem and population stability. In a spatially explicit context, key features to consider are landscape spatial structure, local interactions, and dispersal. Substantial work has been done on each of these features as a driver of stability, but little is known on the interplay between them. Read More

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December 2018

A spatially varying charge model for regulating site-selective protein adsorption and cell behaviors.

Biomater Sci 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, P. R. China and School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou International Campus, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, P. R. China. and National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China and Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China and Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China.

Implanted materials that enter the body first interact with proteins in body fluids, and cells then perceive and respond to the foreign implant through this layer of adsorbed proteins. Thus, spatially specific regulation of protein adsorption on an implant surface is pivotal for mediating subsequent cellular behaviors. Unlike the surface modulation strategy for traditional biomaterials, in this research, materials with a nonuniform spatial distribution of surface charges were designed to achieve site-selective protein adsorption and further influence cell behavior by charge regulation. Read More

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December 2018

Universal localization transition accompanying glass formation: insights from efficient molecular dynamics simulations of diverse supercooled liquids.

Soft Matter 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.

The origin of the precipitous dynamic arrest known as the glass transition is a grand open question of soft condensed matter physics. It has long been suspected that this transition is driven by an onset of particle localization and associated emergence of a glassy modulus. However, progress towards an accepted understanding of glass formation has been impeded by an inability to obtain data sufficient in chemical diversity, relaxation timescales, and spatial and temporal resolution to validate or falsify proposed theories for its physics. Read More

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December 2018

Visualization of inhomogeneous current distribution on ZrO-coated LiCoO thin-film electrodes using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604, Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan and WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1-509, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Cathode surface coating with metal-oxide thin layers has been intensively studied to improve the cycle durability of lithium-ion batteries. A comprehensive understanding of the metal-oxide morphology and the local electrochemical properties is essential for figuring out the metal-oxide coating effect. In this study, scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) is used to analyze the surface morphology with high spatial resolution, together with the local electrochemical properties. Read More

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December 2018

Hemp ( L.) Seed Phenylpropionamides Composition and Effects on Memory Dysfunction and Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in Mice.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 27;3(11):15988-15995. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Key Lab of Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China.

Hempseed has achieved a growing popularity in human nutrition, particularly regarding essential amino acids and fatty acids. The multiple positive attributes of hempseed have led to the further study of its constituents. In this study, hempseed extract containing phenylpropionamides (TPA) was obtained and its chemical profile and content were obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography technology based on previous study. Read More

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November 2018

Comparison of two methods for measuring contrast sensitivity in anisometropic amblyopia.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 27;30(4):343-347. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate two psychophysical contrast sensitivity testing methods in amblyopic patients.

Methods: Thirty-three adults with anisometropic amblyopia participated in this study. Psychophysical contrast sensitivity was measured for both amblyopic and fellow eyes of the participants at 1, 3, and 5 cycles per degree (cpd) spatial frequencies by Freiburg visual acuity and contrast test (FrACT) and Metrovision contrast sensitivity test, which employ sine-wave gratings for measurement of contrast sensitivity. Read More

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December 2018

Internal strain tunes electronic correlations on the nanoscale.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 14;4(12):eaau9123. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

In conventional metals, charge carriers basically move freely. In correlated electron materials, however, the electrons may become localized because of strong Coulomb interactions, resulting in an insulating state. Despite considerable progress in the last decades, elucidating the driving mechanisms that suppress metallic charge transport, the spatial evolution of this phase transition remains poorly understood on a microscopic scale. Read More

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December 2018

Self-Assembly of a Designed Nucleoprotein Architecture through Multimodal Interactions.

ACS Cent Sci 2018 Nov 15;4(11):1578-1586. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

The co-self-assembly of proteins and nucleic acids (NAs) produces complex biomolecular machines (e.g., ribosomes and telomerases) that represent some of the most daunting targets for biomolecular design. Read More

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November 2018

Tumor Retention of Enzyme-Responsive Pt(II) Drug-Loaded Nanoparticles Imaged by Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Fluorescence Microscopy.

ACS Cent Sci 2018 Nov 23;4(11):1477-1484. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

In nanomedicine, determining the spatial distribution of particles and drugs, together and apart, at high resolution within tissues, remains a major challenge because each must have a different label or detectable feature that can be observed with high sensitivity and resolution. We prepared nanoparticles capable of enzyme-directed assembly of particle therapeutics (EDAPT), containing an analogue of the Pt(II)-containing drug oxaliplatin, an N-labeled monomer in the hydrophobic block of the backbone of the polymer, the near-infrared dye Cy5.5, and a peptide that is a substrate for tumor metalloproteinases in the hydrophilic block. Read More

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November 2018

Conceptual Advances from Werner Complexes to Metal-Organic Frameworks.

ACS Cent Sci 2018 Nov 22;4(11):1457-1464. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Alfred Werner's work on the geometric aspects of how ligands bind to metal ions at the end of the 19th century has given rise, in the molecular realm, to organometallic, bioinorganic, and cluster chemistries. By stitching together organic and inorganic units into crystalline porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the connectivity, spatial arrangement, and geometry of those molecular complexes can now be fixed in space and become directly addressable. The fact that MOFs are porous provides additional space within which molecules can further be transformed and their chemistry controlled. Read More

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November 2018

Comparison of changes in shoulder functions between biceps tenotomy and tenodesis in an animal model.

Asia Pac J Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Technol 2019 Jan 29;15:17-22. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Objectives: Tenotomy and tenodesis of the long head of biceps tendon are effective pain-relieving treatments. However, there is no consensus on the functional outcome after these surgical procedures. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in ambulation parameters after recovery from the surgery between rats that underwent tenotomy versus tenodesis procedures. Read More

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January 2019

In vivo tracking of orally-administered particles within the gastrointestinal tract of murine models using multispectral optoacoustic tomography.

Photoacoustics 2019 Mar 17;13:46-52. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 27101, United States.

While particle carriers have potential to revolutionize disease treatment, using these carriers requires knowledge of spatial and temporal biodistribution. The goal of this study was to track orally administered particle uptake and trafficking through the murine gastrointestinal (GI) tract using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). Polylactic acid (PLA) particles encapsulating AlexaFluor 680 (AF680) dye conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were orally gavaged into mice. Read More

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Photoacoustic temperature imaging based on multi-wavelength excitation.

Photoacoustics 2019 Mar 22;13:33-45. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Soft Matter and Biophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D - box 2416, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Building further upon the high spatial resolution offered by ultrasonic imaging and the high optical contrast yielded by laser excitation of photoacoustic imaging, and exploiting the temperature dependence of photoacoustic signal amplitudes, this paper addresses the question whether the rich information given by multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) allows to obtain 3D temperature images. Numerical simulations and experimental results are reported on agarose phantoms containing gold nanoparticles and the effects of shadowing, reconstruction flaws, etc. on the accuracy are determined. Read More

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Flexible Coupling in Joint Inversions: A Bayesian Structure Decoupling Algorithm.

J Geophys Res Solid Earth 2018 Oct 13;123(10):8798-8826. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Univ Lyon, UniversitÃl' de Lyon 1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5276, LGL-TPE Villeurbanne France.

When different geophysical observables are sensitive to the same volume, it is possible to invert them simultaneously to jointly constrain different physical properties. The question addressed in this study is to determine which structures (e.g. Read More

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October 2018

Huffaker revisited: spatial heterogeneity and the coupling of ineffective agents in biological control.

Ecosphere 2018 Jul 24;9(7). Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 USA.

In a classic study, Huffaker demonstrated that abiotic forms of spatial heterogeneity could induce stability in predator-prey interactions. Recent theories suggest that space can also act to destabilize predator-prey systems and that stability can arise from coupling of unstable units. Here, using Huffaker's classic experimental design refitted with modern empirical and statistical techniques, we reassess the effect of space on predator-prey interactions when the prey are pests of agriculture, and when predators must compete with pathogens for shared prey resources. Read More

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Spatial-Temporal Cellular Bioeffects from Acoustic Droplet Vaporization.

Theranostics 2018 10;8(20):5731-5743. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

One of the major challenges in developing acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV)-associated therapy as an effective and safe strategy is the precise determination of the spatial cellular bioeffects after ADV (cell death or cell membrane permeabilization). In this study, we combined high-speed camera imaging and live-cell microscopic imaging to observe the transient dynamics of droplets during ADV and to evaluate the mechanical force on cells. C6 glioma cells were co-incubated with DiI-labeled droplets (radius: 1. Read More

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November 2018

A Biomimetic Gold Nanocages-Based Nanoplatform for Efficient Tumor Ablation and Reduced Inflammation.

Theranostics 2018 24;8(19):5362-5378. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, Hubei Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic Chemistry and Materia Medica, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Gold nanocages (AuNCs), with high photothermal conversion efficiency and unique hollow interiors, have become a promising nanoplatform for synergistic phototheraml therapy (PTT)-chemotherapy. However, the insufficient tumor targeting, in vivo premature drug leakage and low drug loading efficiency responsible for the spatial-temporal un-synchronization of PTT-chemotherapy, as well as inflammatory response might compromise the anticancer treatment of AuNCs-based drug delivery systems. Cancer cell membrane (CCM)-coated AuNCs were developed to load anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX@CAuNCs) by transmembrane ammonium sulfate gradient method. Read More

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October 2018

Methodological approach for predicting and mapping the phenological adaptation of tropical maize ( L.) using multi-environment trials.

Plant Methods 2018 7;14:108. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), ICRAF House, United Nations, Avenue, Gigiri, P. O. Box 1041-00621, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: The phenological development of the maize crop from emergence through flowering to maturity, usually expressed as a rate (i.e. 1/duration), is largely controlled by temperature in the tropics. Read More

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December 2018

Elucidating the Role of Chromatin State and Transcription Factors on the Regulation of the Yeast Metabolic Cycle: A Multi-Omic Integrative Approach.

Front Genet 2018 30;9:578. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Genomics of Gene Expression Laboratory Centro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe, Valencia, Spain.

The Yeast Metabolic Cycle (YMC) is a model system in which levels of around 60% of the yeast transcripts cycle over time. The spatial and temporal resolution provided by the YMC has revealed that changes in the yeast metabolic landscape and chromatin status can be related to cycling gene expression. However, the interplay between histone modifications and transcription factor activity during the YMC is still poorly understood. Read More

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November 2018

Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips Facilitate Learning About Climate Change.

Front Psychol 2018 30;9:2364. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Communication, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

Across four studies, two controlled lab experiments and two field studies, we tested the efficacy of immersive Virtual Reality (VR) as an education medium for teaching the consequences of climate change, particularly ocean acidification. Over 270 participants from four different learning settings experienced an immersive underwater world designed to show the process and effects of rising sea water acidity. In all of our investigations, after experiencing immersive VR people demonstrated knowledge gains or inquisitiveness about climate science and in some cases, displayed more positive attitudes toward the environment after comparing pre- and post-test assessments. Read More

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November 2018

Numerical and Non-numerical Predictors of First Graders' Number-Line Estimation Ability.

Front Psychol 2018 30;9:2336. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Psychology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, United States.

Children's ability to map numbers into a spatial context has been shown to be a powerful predictor of math performance. Here, we investigate how three types of cognitive abilities - approximate number processing ability, symbolic number processing ability, and non-numerical cognitive abilities - predict 0-100 number-line estimation performance in first graders. While each type of measure predicts number-line performance when considered individually, when considered together, only symbolic number comparison and non-verbal reasoning predicted unique variance in number-line estimation. Read More

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November 2018

Sharing Different Reference Frames: How Stimulus Setup and Task Setup Shape Egocentric and Allocentric Simon Effects.

Front Psychol 2018 30;9:2063. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Institute of Psychology, University of Hildesheim, Hildesheim, Germany.

Different reference frames are used in daily life in order to structure the environment. The two-choice Simon task setting has been used to investigate how task-irrelevant spatial information influences human cognitive control. In recent studies, a Go/NoGo Simon task setting was used in order to divide the Simon task between a pair of participants. Read More

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November 2018

Adipokinetic Hormone Receptor Mediates Lipid Mobilization to Regulate Starvation Resistance in the Brown Planthopper, .

Front Physiol 2018 29;9:1730. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Lipid storage must be efficiently mobilized to sustain the energy demands during processes of exercise or starvation. In insects, adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and brummer lipase are well-known regulators of lipid mobilization. We recently demonstrated that brummer-dependent lipolysis regulates starvation resistance in the brown planthopper, , one of the most destructive rice pests. Read More

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November 2018

A Compartmental Model to Investigate Local and Global Ca Dynamics in Astrocytes.

Front Comput Neurosci 2018 30;12:94. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Computational Intelligence Lab, Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States.

Intracellular Ca dynamics in astrocytes can be triggered by neuronal activity and in turn regulate a variety of downstream processes that modulate neuronal function. In this fashion, astrocytic Ca signaling is regarded as a processor of neural network activity by means of complex spatial and temporal Ca dynamics. Accordingly, a key step is to understand how different patterns of neural activity translate into spatiotemporal dynamics of intracellular Ca in astrocytes. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of Geometric Toy Design on Parent-Child Interactions and Spatial Language.

Early Child Res Q 2019 1st Quarter;46:126-141. Epub 2018 May 18.

Temple University.

Geometric forms have formal definitions. While knowing shape names is considered important for school-readiness, many children do not understand the defining features of shapes until well into elementary school (Satlow & Newcombe, 1998). One reason is likely that they do not encounter enough variety in the shapes they see (citation removed). Read More

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Feeding strategies for the acquisition of high-quality food sources in stream macroinvertebrates: Collecting, integrating, and mixed feeding.

Limnol Oceanogr 2018 Sep 6;63(5):1964-1978. Epub 2018 May 6.

WasserCluster Lunz-Inter-University Centre for Aquatic Ecosystem Research Lunz am See Austria.

Aquatic macroinvertebrates play an important functional role in energy transfer in food webs, linking basal food sources to upper trophic levels that include fish, birds, and humans. However, the trophic coupling of nutritional quality between macroinvertebrates and their food sources is still poorly understood. We conducted a field study in subalpine streams in Austria to investigate how the nutritional quality (measured by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, LC-PUFAs) in macroinvertebrates changes relative to their basal food sources. Read More

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September 2018