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    Paracoccidioidomycosis: Current Perspectives from Brazil.
    Open Microbiol J 2017 31;11:224-282. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Tropical Diseases, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - São Paulo State University - UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: This review article summarizes and updates the knowledge on paracoccidioidomycosis. P lutzii and the cryptic species of P. brasiliensis and their geographical distribution in Latin America, explaining the difficulties observed in the serological diagnosis. Read More

    Disease Tolerance Mediated by Phosphorylated Indoleamine-2,3 Dioxygenase Confers Resistance to a Primary Fungal Pathogen.
    Front Immunol 2017 13;8:1522. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Resistance to primary fungal pathogens is usually attributed to the proinflammatory mechanisms of immunity conferred by interferon-γ activation of phagocytes that control microbial growth, whereas susceptibility is attributed to anti-inflammatory responses that deactivate immunity. This study challenges this paradigm by demonstrating that resistance to a primary fungal pathogen such as Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis can be mediated by disease tolerance, a mechanism that preserves host fitness instead of pathogen clearance. Among the mechanisms of disease tolerance described, a crucial role has been ascribed to the enzyme indoleamine-2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) that concomitantly controls pathogen growth by limiting tryptophan availability and reduces tissue damage by decreasing the inflammatory process. Read More

    Final diagnosis of 86 cases included in differential diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in a Brazilian sample: a retrospective cross-sectional study.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Sep-Oct;92(5):642-648
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medical Clinics, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo (FMRP-USP) - Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil.
    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is distributed worldwide, including Brazil. Its several clinical forms need to be distinguished from other dermatoses. Clinical similarities and lack of a gold standard diagnostic tool make leishmaniasis-like lesions a challenging diagnosis. Read More

    Opinion: Paracoccidioidomycosis and HIV Immune Recovery Inflammatory Syndrome.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Laboratories of Medical Investigation Units #53 and #56, Medical School and Tropical Medicine Institute, University of São Paulo Medical School, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 455, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Two distinct patterns of immune recovery inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) are recognized, paradoxical and unmasking IRIS. Here we raise some concerns regarding the first case of neuroPCM-IRIS published to date, as recently proposed by Almeida and Roza (Mycopathologia 177:137-141, 2017) for a patient originally described by Silva-Vergara et al. (Mycopathologia 182:393-396, 2014), taking in account the different case definitions for IRIS and the cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis already described in the literature. Read More

    A case of paracoccidioidomycosis due to Paracoccidioides lutzii presenting sarcoid-like form.
    Med Mycol Case Rep 2018 Mar 25;19:6-8. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória 29043-900, Espírito Santo, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a fungal disease caused by Paracoccidioides spp., which can cause a systemic granulomatous infection with tegumentary and visceral involvement. Sarcoid-like skin lesions are uncommon and can be misdiagnosed due to similarities with other granulomatous diseases. Read More

    Oral paracoccidioidomycosis in a single-center retrospective analysis from a Brazilian southeastern population.
    J Infect Public Health 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Clinical Dentistry, Espírito Santo Federal University, Vitória, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent endemic systemic fungal infection in Latin America. In Brazil, it stands out as the eighth-highest cause of mortality among chronic or recurrent infections and has the highest mortality rate among systemic mycoses. Oral mucosal lesions may be the first visible physical manifestation of the disease. Read More

    A Dectin-1-caspase-8 pathway licenses canonical caspase-1 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release in response to a pathogenic fungus.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is equipped with an arsenal of virulence factors that are crucial for causing infection. Our group previously defined the NLRP3 inflammasome as a mediator of P. brasiliensis-induced cell damage recognition, and induction of effective Th1 immune responses. Read More

    Increased peripheral blood TCD4+ counts and serum SP-D levels in patients with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis, during and after antifungal therapy.
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017 Nov;112(11):748-755
    Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.
    Background: The main clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) are the acute/subacute form (AF) and the chronic form (CF), and they both display considerable clinical variability. The immune responses of PCM patients, during and after treatment, remain neglected, mainly in the case of CF patients, due to the high prevalence of pulmonary sequelae.

    Objective: To evaluate the distribution of whole blood T cell subsets, serum cytokines, and biomarkers of pulmonary fibrosis in PCM patients, according to the clinical form and at different time points, during the antifungal therapy. Read More

    Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis prediagnosticated as neoplasm: An important challenge in diagnosis using rt-PCR.
    Med Mycol Case Rep 2018 Mar 6;19:1-5. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Núcleo de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    This paper presents a case of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis in a 62-year-old male patient, who lives in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The patient was hospitalized with icteric syndrome of cholestatic pattern and weight loss, with loss 30 kg in 5 months. The imaging of the abdomen showed lesion of infiltrative pattern, affecting gallbladder and intrahepatic bile ducts, suggesting neoplasia of malignant behavior, besides to presenting the yellow nail syndrome. Read More

    Hypereosinophilia Secondary to Disseminated Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 Oct 18;18:1114-1117. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Internal Medicine, CES Clinic, Medellin, Colombia.
    BACKGROUND Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic mycosis in Central and South America caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Despite its self-limited course and usually asymptomatic infection, some patients may present with a systemic illness mimicking multiple conditions and thus question the general state of their immune system. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old male presented to the hospital with fever, dry cough, and non-pruritic rash with no characteristic distribution for the past 10 days. Read More

    Impaired anti-fibrotic effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell in a mouse model of pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 17;11(10):e0006006. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    School of Microbiology, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) have been consider as a promising therapy in fibrotic diseases. Experimental models suggest that BMMSCs may be used as an alternative therapy to treat chemical- or physical-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the anti-fibrotic potential of BMMSCs in an experimental model of lung fibrosis by infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis associated with a heterozygous STAT4 mutation and impaired IFN-γ immunity.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Mutations in genes affecting interferon (IFN)-γ immunity have contributed to understand the essential role of IFN-γ in the protection against intracellular pathogens. However, inborn errors in STAT4, which controls IL-12 responses, have not yet been reported.

    Objective: To determine the underlying genetic defect in a family with a history of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) disease. Read More

    Differential production of interleukin-1 family cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33 and IL-37) in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis: correlation with clinical form and antifungal therapy.
    Med Mycol 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Department of Morphology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí (FMJ), Jundiaí, SP, Brazil.
    Besides interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, the newly described cytokines of IL-1 family IL-33 and IL-37 can contribute to the differentiation and maintenance of different population of T cells. IL-33 acts as an allarmin and promotes a predominant Th2 inflammatory response, whereas IL-37 plays an important role as an antagonist of inflammation. In paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. Read More

    Involvement of Dihydrolipoyl Dehydrogenase in the Phagocytosis and Killing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by Macrophages.
    Front Microbiol 2017 20;8:1803. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São PauloRibeirão Preto, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are fungi causing paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), an autochthonous systemic mycosis found in Latin America. These microorganisms contain a multitude of molecules that may be associated with the complex interaction of the fungus with the host. Here, we identify the enzyme dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) as an exoantigen from P. Read More

    Laryngeal paracoccidioidomycosis presenting as solitary true vocal fold disease.
    IDCases 2017 14;10:71-74. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Hospital Universitário Gaffrée e Guinle, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis or P. lutzii. It is a neglected tropical infectious disease that poses a major public health burden in endemic areas of Latin America. Read More

    Case report of myeloperoxidase deficiency associated with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and peritoneal tuberculosis.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Jul-Aug;50(4):568-570
    Ambulatório das Manifestações Cutâneas das Imunodeficiência Primárias, Departamento de Dermatologia, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Myeloperoxidase (MOP) is present in monocyte and neutrophil lysosomes, catalyzing hydrogen peroxide and chloride ion conversion to hypochlorous acid. MOP seems to destroy pathogens during phagocytosis by neutrophils and is considered an important defense against innumerous bacteria. We present a patient who had MOP deficiency, who presented with a subacute form of paracoccidioidomycosis and later with peritoneal tuberculosis. Read More

    Therapeutic treatment with scFv-PLGA nanoparticles decreases pulmonary fungal load in a murine model of paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Microbes Infect 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis with lymphatic dissemination that is caused by Paracoccidioides species. Treatment of PCM consists of chemotherapeutics such as itraconazole, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole or amphotericin B. However, several studies are aiming to develop therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of fungal infection using new molecules as adjuvants. Read More

    Recombinant vaccines of a CD4+ T-cell epitope promote efficient control of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis burden by restraining primary organ infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 22;11(9):e0005927. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an infectious disease endemic to South America, caused by the thermally dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides. Currently, there is no effective human vaccine that can be used in prophylactic or therapeutic regimes. We tested the hypothesis that the immunogenicity of the immunodominant CD4+ T-cell epitope (P10) of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis gp43 antigen might be significantly enhanced by using a hepatitis B virus-derived particle (VLP) as an antigen carrier. Read More

    Heat Shock Proteins in Histoplasma and Paracoccidioides.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Nov 6;24(11). Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly conserved biomolecules that are constitutively expressed and generally upregulated in response to various stress conditions (biotic and abiotic). Hsps have diverse functions, categorizations, and classifications. Their adaptive expression in fungi indicates their significance in these diverse species, particularly in dimorphic pathogens. Read More

    Acute Paracoccidioidomycosis in a 40-Year-Old Man: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Dec 12;182(11-12):1095-1099. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Lagoa's Hospital, 501 Jardim Botânico Street, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22470-050, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis that represents an important public health problem in Latin America due to its life-threatening character. It is considered occupational disease of agricultural workers. In this report, we present a rare and serious case of the acute form of the disease in a 40-year-old man with no history of contact with the rural environment. Read More

    Neurological and multiple organ involvement due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and HIV co-infection diagnosed at autopsy.
    J Neurovirol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Medical Pathology Department, Medicine School, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis among immunocompetent patients in Latin America; it is rare in immunocompromised patients. The estimated frequency of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the HIV/PCM population was 2.5%. Read More

    Combination of Histopathology and FT-Raman Spectroscopy for the Study of Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis in the Spleen.
    Photochem Photobiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Morphological Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brasil.
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) can disseminate through the lymphatic and hematogenic pathways. As a result the spleen and other lymphoid organs are targets of paracoccidioidomycosis. There are few studies describing this disease in the spleen and more detailed descriptions are required. Read More

    Th17-Inducing Cytokines IL-6 and IL-23 Are Crucial for Granuloma Formation during Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Front Immunol 2017 21;8:949. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has the highest mortality rate among systemic mycosis. The T helper 1-mediated immunity is primarily responsible for acquired resistance during P. brasiliensis infection, while susceptibility is associated with Th2 occurrence. Read More

    Employing proteomic analysis to compare Paracoccidioides lutzii yeast and mycelium cell wall proteins.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2017 Nov 24;1865(11 Pt A):1304-1314. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, ICB II, Campus II, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74001-970 Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important systemic mycosis caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus. During the infective process, the cell wall acts at the interface between the fungus and the host. In this way, the cell wall has a key role in growth, environment sensing and interaction, as well as morphogenesis of the fungus. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis: level of pulmonary sequelae in high resolution computed tomography images from patients of two endemic regions of Brazil.
    Quant Imaging Med Surg 2017 Jun;7(3):318-325
    Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
    Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate differences in lung damage in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) in two endemic regions of Brazil (Botucatu, SP, in the southeastern region and Campo Grande, MS, in the west central region).

    Methods: The study sought to objectively quantify fibrosis and emphysema treated patients using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) that was performed according to an established and validated computational method. The analysis was based on clinical data that were associated with objective quantifications of pulmonary sequelae. Read More

    Subtractive phage display selection for screening and identification of peptide sequences with potential use in serodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
    Lett Appl Microbiol 2017 Nov 21;65(5):346-353. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Laboratório de Imunologia Celular e Bioquímica de Fungos e Protozoários, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Campus Diadema, São Paulo, Brasil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease endemic in Latin America whose aetiologic agents are the thermodimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported for the fungal antigens used for serological diagnosis, and inconsistencies among laboratories have been reported. The use of synthetic peptides in the serological diagnosis of infectious diseases has proved to be a valuable strategy because in some cases, the reactions are more specific and sensitive. Read More

    The IDO-AhR Axis Controls Th17/Treg Immunity in a Pulmonary Model of Fungal Infection.
    Front Immunol 2017 24;8:880. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    In infectious diseases, the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) that catalyzes the tryptophan (Trp) degradation along the kynurenines (Kyn) pathway has two main functions, the control of pathogen growth by reducing available Trp and immune regulation mediated by the Kyn-mediated expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, IDO1 was shown to control the disease severity of both resistant and susceptible mice to the infection; however, only in resistant mice, IDO1 is induced by TGF-β signaling that confers a stable tolerogenic phenotype to dendritic cells (DCs). In addition, in pulmonary PCM, the tolerogenic function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was linked to the IDO1 activity. Read More

    Neglected endemic mycoses.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Nov 31;17(11):e367-e377. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Fungi often infect mammalian hosts via the respiratory route, but traumatic transcutaneous implantation is also an important source of infections. Environmental exposure to spores of pathogenic fungi can result in subclinical and unrecognised syndromes, allergic manifestations, and even overt disease. After traumatic cutaneous inoculation, several fungi can cause neglected mycoses such as sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, mycetoma, entomophthoramycosis, and lacaziosis. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis: Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects in 546 Cases Studied in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Sep 27;97(3):836-844. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Infectious Diseases and Dermatology Units of the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease in the southeast region of Brazil, which includes the state of Espírito Santo (ES). This historic case series analyses 546 patients treated in this state from 1978 to 2012. Patients aged from 7 to 83 years, 509 males and 37 females, yielding a ratio of 13. Read More

    Brazilian guidelines for the clinical management of paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Sep-Oct;50(5):715-740. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease occurring in Latin America that is associated with rural environments and agricultural activities. However, the incidence and prevalence of paracoccidiodomycosis is underestimated because of the lack of compulsory notification. If paracoccidiodomycosis is not diagnosed and treated early and adequately, the endemic fungal infection could result in serious sequelae. Read More

    NOD-Like Receptor P3 Inflammasome Controls Protective Th1/Th17 Immunity against Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Front Immunol 2017 10;8:786. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular multimeric complex that triggers the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, important cytokines for the innate immune response against pathogens. The functional NLRP3 inflammasome complex consists of NLRP3, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1. Various molecular mechanisms were associated with NLRP3 activation including the presence of extracellular ATP, recognized by the cell surface P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Read More

    Health and Environmental Risk Assessment Project for bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA. I. Infectious diseases.
    Dis Aquat Organ 2017 Jul;125(2):141-153
    Georgia Aquarium, 225 Baker Street, NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30313, USA.
    From 2003 to 2015, 360 free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, n = 246), Florida, and coastal waters of Charleston (CHS, n = 114), South Carolina, USA, were captured, given comprehensive health examinations, and released as part of a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional study of individual and population health. The aim of this review is to summarize the substantial health data generated by this study and to examine morbidity between capture sites and over time. The IRL and CHS dolphin populations are affected by complex infectious and neoplastic diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances. Read More

    Therapeutic Response in Adult Patients with Nonsevere Chronic Paracoccidioidomycosis Treated with Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim: A Retrospective Study.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug 19;97(2):556-562. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Julio Müller University Hospital, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiaba, Brazil.
    According to the Brazilian Consensus on Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), itraconazole is the drug of choice for treatment. However, the combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) is most commonly used in clinical practice because of its higher availability in the public health services. The aims of this study were to evaluate the therapeutic response of patients with nonsevere chronic PCM to SMX-TMP and highlight the factors related to treatment failure. Read More

    Impact of Paracoccin Gene Silencing on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Virulence.
    MBio 2017 Jul 18;8(4). Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
    Among the endemic deep mycoses in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is a major cause of morbidity. Disease development and its manifestations are associated with both host and fungal factors. Concerning the latter, several recent studies have employed the methodology of gene modulation in P. Read More

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis presents metabolic reprogramming and secretes a serine proteinase during murine infection.
    Virulence 2017 Oct 13;8(7):1417-1434. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    a Laboratório de Biologia Molecular , Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás , Campus Samambaia s/n, Goiânia , Goiás , Brazil.
    Paracoccidoides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, cause disease in healthy and immunocompromised persons in Latin America. We developed a method for harvesting P. brasiliensis yeast cells from infected murine lung to facilitate in vivo transcriptional and proteomic profiling. Read More

    Cellular and Molecular Defects Underlying Invasive Fungal Infections-Revelations from Endemic Mycoses.
    Front Immunol 2017 28;8:735. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    LKS Faculty of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp. Read More

    Dendritic Cells Primed with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Peptide P10 Are Therapeutic in Immunosuppressed Mice with Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Front Microbiol 2017 14;8:1057. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Laboratory of Medical Mycology, Tropical Medicine Institute USP-LIM53, University of São PauloSão Paulo, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America, with the highest prevalence in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus are etiologic agents of the disease. The 15 amino acid peptide P10 is derived from gp43, the main diagnostic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Read More

    Targeting the Homoserine Dehydrogenase of Paracoccidioides Species for Treatment of Systemic Fungal Infections.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Sep 24;61(9). Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Chemistry, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
    This work evaluated new potential inhibitors of the enzyme homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis. The tertiary structure of the protein bonded to the analogue NAD, and l-homoserine was modeled by homology. The model with the best output was subjected to gradient minimization, redocking, and molecular dynamics simulation. Read More

    Standardization and Prevalence of the Booster Phenomenon: Evaluation Using a Two-Step Skin Test with 43 kDa Glycoprotein in Individuals from an Endemic Region of Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Oct 23;182(9-10):809-817. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária s/n, Campo Grande, 79070-900, Brazil.
    Background: We estimated the occurrence rate of the booster phenomenon by using an intradermal test with 43 kDa glycoprotein in an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis in the central-west region of Brazil.

    Methods: Individuals who had a negative result on a survey performed by using an intradermal test with 43 kDa glycoprotein in an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis underwent a second intradermal test after 10-15 days to determine the presence or absence of the booster phenomenon. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test, Chi-square for linear trend test, Student's t test, and binomial test; p < 0. Read More

    Can passage in Galleria mellonella activate virulence factors of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as in the murine model?
    Med Mycol 2017 Jun 15. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a fungal disease restricted to Latin countries, and its etiologic agents derive from the Paracoccidioides genus. Attenuation or loss of virulence in Paracoccidioides spp. following successive subculturing has been described. Read More

    Altered distribution of peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets in patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Acta Trop 2017 Sep 9;173:185-190. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Distrito de Rubião Junior s/n, 18618-970, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by fungi from the genus Paracoccidioides in Latin America. PCM-patients (PCM-p) are classified as having acute/subacute or chronic (CF) clinical forms. CF is responsible for 75%-90% of all cases, affects mainly adults over 30 years old and the clinical manifestation are associated mainly with lungs and mucosa of upper airdigestive tract. Read More

    The Critical Role of Notch1-TLR 4 Signaling in the Inflammatory and Fungicidal Activity of Macrophages Against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Strain Pb18.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Oct 9;182(9-10):797-807. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580, Bloco 17, São Paulo, CEP: 05508-900, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis of deep nature that primarily affects the lung and can spread via lymphatic and hematogenous to other organs and tissues. It is mainly caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis fungus which exhibits thermal dimorphism. The innate immune system mediated by macrophages is extremely important for the control of infection and is involved in the induction and regulation of immune/inflammatory response. Read More

    Sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions in chronic adult paracoccidioidomycosis: report of two cases.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Jun 1;59:e36. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Serviço de Dermatologia, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    This study reports two cases of chronic paracoccidioidomycosis with sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions. The patients began the treatment in 2013 at Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF) of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). The first case (mild form) was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (8 mg /kg per day, orally) for three months and, then, with half the dose for nine months; the second (moderate form), with itraconazole (200 mg per day, orally) for 12 months. Read More

    Yeast Expressing Gp43 Protein as a Vaccine Against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:213-224
    Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida dos Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brasil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) represents the most frequent systemic mycosis in Latin American. The disease is caused by the pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and is initially characterized by pulmonary lesions, which can subsequently disseminate to other organs, resulting in secondary injuries. Although its high incidence, there is no commercially available vaccine against fungal diseases. Read More

    Th1-Inducing Agents in Prophylaxis and Therapy for Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:159-167
    Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, São Paulo, SP, 14049-900, Brazil.
    Adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules could be included in the treatment of P. brasiliensis infection. In this context, we reported that the therapeutic and/or prophylactic administration of Th1-inducing agents, such as immunomodulatory lectins and adjuvants, was able to provide protection against experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. Read More

    Peptide Vaccine Against Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:113-128
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Federal University of São Paulo, Rua Botucatu 862, 8th floor, São Paulo, 04021-001, Brazil.
    The chapter reviews methods utilized for the isolation and characterization of a promising immunogen candidate, aiming at a human vaccine against paracoccidioidomycosis. Peptide P10 carries a T-CD4+ epitope and was identified as an internal sequence of the major diagnostic antigen known as gp43 glycoprotein. It successfully treated massive intratracheal infections by virulent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in combination with chemotherapy. Read More

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