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    Paracoccidioidomycosis associated with a heterozygous STAT4 mutation and impaired IFN-γ immunity.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Mutations in genes affecting interferon (IFN)-γ immunity have contributed to understand the essential role of IFN-γ in the protection against intracellular pathogens. However, inborn errors in STAT4, which controls IL-12 responses, have not yet been reported.

    Objective: To determine the underlying genetic defect in a family with a history of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) disease. Read More

    Differential production of interleukin-1 family cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33 and IL-37) in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis: correlation with clinical form and antifungal therapy.
    Med Mycol 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Department of Morphology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí (FMJ), Jundiaí, SP, Brazil.
    Besides interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, the newly described cytokines of IL-1 family IL-33 and IL-37 can contribute to the differentiation and maintenance of different population of T cells. IL-33 acts as an allarmin and promotes a predominant Th2 inflammatory response, whereas IL-37 plays an important role as an antagonist of inflammation. In paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. Read More

    Involvement of Dihydrolipoyl Dehydrogenase in the Phagocytosis and Killing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by Macrophages.
    Front Microbiol 2017 20;8:1803. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São PauloRibeirão Preto, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are fungi causing paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), an autochthonous systemic mycosis found in Latin America. These microorganisms contain a multitude of molecules that may be associated with the complex interaction of the fungus with the host. Here, we identify the enzyme dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) as an exoantigen from P. Read More

    Laryngeal paracoccidioidomycosis presenting as solitary true vocal fold disease.
    IDCases 2017 14;10:71-74. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Hospital Universitário Gaffrée e Guinle, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis or P. lutzii. It is a neglected tropical infectious disease that poses a major public health burden in endemic areas of Latin America. Read More

    Case report of myeloperoxidase deficiency associated with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and peritoneal tuberculosis.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Jul-Aug;50(4):568-570
    Ambulatório das Manifestações Cutâneas das Imunodeficiência Primárias, Departamento de Dermatologia, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Myeloperoxidase (MOP) is present in monocyte and neutrophil lysosomes, catalyzing hydrogen peroxide and chloride ion conversion to hypochlorous acid. MOP seems to destroy pathogens during phagocytosis by neutrophils and is considered an important defense against innumerous bacteria. We present a patient who had MOP deficiency, who presented with a subacute form of paracoccidioidomycosis and later with peritoneal tuberculosis. Read More

    Therapeutic treatment with scFv-PLGA nanoparticles decreases pulmonary fungal load in a murine model of paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Microbes Infect 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis with lymphatic dissemination that is caused by Paracoccidioides species. Treatment of PCM consists of chemotherapeutics such as itraconazole, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole or amphotericin B. However, several studies are aiming to develop therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of fungal infection using new molecules as adjuvants. Read More

    Recombinant vaccines of a CD4+ T-cell epitope promote efficient control of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis burden by restraining primary organ infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 22;11(9):e0005927. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an infectious disease endemic to South America, caused by the thermally dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides. Currently, there is no effective human vaccine that can be used in prophylactic or therapeutic regimes. We tested the hypothesis that the immunogenicity of the immunodominant CD4+ T-cell epitope (P10) of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis gp43 antigen might be significantly enhanced by using a hepatitis B virus-derived particle (VLP) as an antigen carrier. Read More

    Heat Shock Proteins in Histoplasma and Paracoccidioides: a minireview.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 USA
    Heat shock proteins (hsps) are highly conserved biomolecules that are constitutively expressed and generally up-regulated in response to various stress conditions (biotic and abiotic). Hsps have diverse functions, categorizations, and classifications. Their adaptive expression in fungi indicates their significance in these diverse species, particularly in dimorphic pathogens. Read More

    Acute Paracoccidioidomycosis in a 40-Year-Old Man: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Lagoa's Hospital, 501 Jardim Botânico Street, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22470-050, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis that represents an important public health problem in Latin America due to its life-threatening character. It is considered occupational disease of agricultural workers. In this report, we present a rare and serious case of the acute form of the disease in a 40-year-old man with no history of contact with the rural environment. Read More

    Neurological and multiple organ involvement due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and HIV co-infection diagnosed at autopsy.
    J Neurovirol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Medical Pathology Department, Medicine School, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis among immunocompetent patients in Latin America; it is rare in immunocompromised patients. The estimated frequency of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the HIV/PCM population was 2.5%. Read More

    Combination of Histopathology and FT-Raman Spectroscopy for the Study of Experimental Paracoccidiodomycosis (PCM) in the Spleen.
    Photochem Photobiol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Morphological Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo5790, 87020-900, Maringá, Paraná, Brasil.
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) can disseminate through the lymphatic and hematogenic pathways. As a result the spleen and other lymphoid organs are targets of paracoccidioidomycosis. There are few studies describing this disease in the spleen and more detailed descriptions are required. Read More

    Th17-Inducing Cytokines IL-6 and IL-23 Are Crucial for Granuloma Formation during Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Front Immunol 2017 21;8:949. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has the highest mortality rate among systemic mycosis. The T helper 1-mediated immunity is primarily responsible for acquired resistance during P. brasiliensis infection, while susceptibility is associated with Th2 occurrence. Read More

    Employing proteomic analysis to compare Paracoccidioides lutzii yeast and mycelium cell wall proteins.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2017 Nov 24;1865(11 Pt A):1304-1314. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, ICB II, Campus II, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74001-970 Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important systemic mycosis caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus. During the infective process, the cell wall acts at the interface between the fungus and the host. In this way, the cell wall has a key role in growth, environment sensing and interaction, as well as morphogenesis of the fungus. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis: level of pulmonary sequelae in high resolution computed tomography images from patients of two endemic regions of Brazil.
    Quant Imaging Med Surg 2017 Jun;7(3):318-325
    Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
    Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate differences in lung damage in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) in two endemic regions of Brazil (Botucatu, SP, in the southeastern region and Campo Grande, MS, in the west central region).

    Methods: The study sought to objectively quantify fibrosis and emphysema treated patients using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) that was performed according to an established and validated computational method. The analysis was based on clinical data that were associated with objective quantifications of pulmonary sequelae. Read More

    Subtractive phage display selection for screening and identification of peptide sequences with potential use in serodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
    Lett Appl Microbiol 2017 Nov 21;65(5):346-353. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Laboratório de Imunologia Celular e Bioquímica de Fungos e Protozoários, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Campus Diadema, São Paulo, Brasil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease endemic in Latin America whose aetiologic agents are the thermodimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported for the fungal antigens used for serological diagnosis, and inconsistencies among laboratories have been reported. The use of synthetic peptides in the serological diagnosis of infectious diseases has proved to be a valuable strategy because in some cases, the reactions are more specific and sensitive. Read More

    The IDO-AhR Axis Controls Th17/Treg Immunity in a Pulmonary Model of Fungal Infection.
    Front Immunol 2017 24;8:880. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    In infectious diseases, the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) that catalyzes the tryptophan (Trp) degradation along the kynurenines (Kyn) pathway has two main functions, the control of pathogen growth by reducing available Trp and immune regulation mediated by the Kyn-mediated expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, IDO1 was shown to control the disease severity of both resistant and susceptible mice to the infection; however, only in resistant mice, IDO1 is induced by TGF-β signaling that confers a stable tolerogenic phenotype to dendritic cells (DCs). In addition, in pulmonary PCM, the tolerogenic function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was linked to the IDO1 activity. Read More

    Neglected endemic mycoses.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Fungi often infect mammalian hosts via the respiratory route, but traumatic transcutaneous implantation is also an important source of infections. Environmental exposure to spores of pathogenic fungi can result in subclinical and unrecognised syndromes, allergic manifestations, and even overt disease. After traumatic cutaneous inoculation, several fungi can cause neglected mycoses such as sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, mycetoma, entomophthoramycosis, and lacaziosis. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis: Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects in 546 Cases Studied in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Sep 27;97(3):836-844. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Infectious Diseases and Dermatology Units of the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease in the southeast region of Brazil, which includes the state of Espírito Santo (ES). This historic case series analyses 546 patients treated in this state from 1978 to 2012. Patients aged from 7 to 83 years, 509 males and 37 females, yielding a ratio of 13. Read More

    Brazilian guidelines for the clinical management of paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease occurring in Latin America that is associated with rural environments and agricultural activities. However, the incidence and prevalence of paracoccidiodomycosis is underestimated because of the lack of compulsory notification. If paracoccidiodomycosis is not diagnosed and treated early and adequately, the endemic fungal infection could result in serious sequelae. Read More

    NOD-Like Receptor P3 Inflammasome Controls Protective Th1/Th17 Immunity against Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Front Immunol 2017 10;8:786. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular multimeric complex that triggers the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, important cytokines for the innate immune response against pathogens. The functional NLRP3 inflammasome complex consists of NLRP3, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1. Various molecular mechanisms were associated with NLRP3 activation including the presence of extracellular ATP, recognized by the cell surface P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Read More

    Health and Environmental Risk Assessment Project for bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA. I. Infectious diseases.
    Dis Aquat Organ 2017 Jul;125(2):141-153
    Georgia Aquarium, 225 Baker Street, NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30313, USA.
    From 2003 to 2015, 360 free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, n = 246), Florida, and coastal waters of Charleston (CHS, n = 114), South Carolina, USA, were captured, given comprehensive health examinations, and released as part of a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional study of individual and population health. The aim of this review is to summarize the substantial health data generated by this study and to examine morbidity between capture sites and over time. The IRL and CHS dolphin populations are affected by complex infectious and neoplastic diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances. Read More

    Therapeutic Response in Adult Patients with Nonsevere Chronic Paracoccidioidomycosis Treated with Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim: A Retrospective Study.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug 19;97(2):556-562. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Julio Müller University Hospital, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiaba, Brazil.
    According to the Brazilian Consensus on Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), itraconazole is the drug of choice for treatment. However, the combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) is most commonly used in clinical practice because of its higher availability in the public health services. The aims of this study were to evaluate the therapeutic response of patients with nonsevere chronic PCM to SMX-TMP and highlight the factors related to treatment failure. Read More

    Impact of Paracoccin Gene Silencing on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Virulence.
    MBio 2017 Jul 18;8(4). Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
    Among the endemic deep mycoses in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is a major cause of morbidity. Disease development and its manifestations are associated with both host and fungal factors. Concerning the latter, several recent studies have employed the methodology of gene modulation in P. Read More

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis presents metabolic reprogramming and secretes a serine proteinase during murine infection.
    Virulence 2017 Jul 13:1-18. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    a Laboratório de Biologia Molecular , Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás , Campus Samambaia s/n, Goiânia , Goiás , Brazil.
    Paracoccidoides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, cause disease in healthy and immunocompromised persons in Latin America. We developed a method for harvesting P. brasiliensis yeast cells from infected murine lung to facilitate in vivo transcriptional and proteomic profiling. Read More

    Cellular and Molecular Defects Underlying Invasive Fungal Infections-Revelations from Endemic Mycoses.
    Front Immunol 2017 28;8:735. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    LKS Faculty of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp. Read More

    Dendritic Cells Primed with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Peptide P10 Are Therapeutic in Immunosuppressed Mice with Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Front Microbiol 2017 14;8:1057. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Laboratory of Medical Mycology, Tropical Medicine Institute USP-LIM53, University of São PauloSão Paulo, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America, with the highest prevalence in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus are etiologic agents of the disease. The 15 amino acid peptide P10 is derived from gp43, the main diagnostic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Read More

    Targeting the Homoserine Dehydrogenase of Paracoccidioides Species for Treatment of Systemic Fungal Infections.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Sep 24;61(9). Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Chemistry, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil
    This work evaluated new potential inhibitors of the enzyme homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis. The tertiary structure of the protein bonded to the analogue NAD, and l-homoserine was modeled by homology. The model with the best output was subjected to gradient minimization, redocking, and molecular dynamics simulation. Read More

    Standardization and Prevalence of the Booster Phenomenon: Evaluation Using a Two-Step Skin Test with 43 kDa Glycoprotein in Individuals from an Endemic Region of Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária s/n, Campo Grande, 79070-900, Brazil.
    Background: We estimated the occurrence rate of the booster phenomenon by using an intradermal test with 43 kDa glycoprotein in an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis in the central-west region of Brazil.

    Methods: Individuals who had a negative result on a survey performed by using an intradermal test with 43 kDa glycoprotein in an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis underwent a second intradermal test after 10-15 days to determine the presence or absence of the booster phenomenon. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test, Chi-square for linear trend test, Student's t test, and binomial test; p < 0. Read More

    Can passage in Galleria mellonella activate virulence factors of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as in the murine model?
    Med Mycol 2017 Jun 15. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a fungal disease restricted to Latin countries, and its etiologic agents derive from the Paracoccidioides genus. Attenuation or loss of virulence in Paracoccidioides spp. following successive subculturing has been described. Read More

    Altered distribution of peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets in patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Acta Trop 2017 Sep 9;173:185-190. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Distrito de Rubião Junior s/n, 18618-970, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by fungi from the genus Paracoccidioides in Latin America. PCM-patients (PCM-p) are classified as having acute/subacute or chronic (CF) clinical forms. CF is responsible for 75%-90% of all cases, affects mainly adults over 30 years old and the clinical manifestation are associated mainly with lungs and mucosa of upper airdigestive tract. Read More

    The Critical Role of Notch1-TLR 4 Signaling in the Inflammatory and Fungicidal Activity of Macrophages Against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Strain Pb18.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580, Bloco 17, São Paulo, CEP: 05508-900, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis of deep nature that primarily affects the lung and can spread via lymphatic and hematogenous to other organs and tissues. It is mainly caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis fungus which exhibits thermal dimorphism. The innate immune system mediated by macrophages is extremely important for the control of infection and is involved in the induction and regulation of immune/inflammatory response. Read More

    Sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions in chronic adult paracoccidioidomycosis: report of two cases.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Jun 1;59:e36. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Serviço de Dermatologia, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    This study reports two cases of chronic paracoccidioidomycosis with sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions. The patients began the treatment in 2013 at Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF) of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). The first case (mild form) was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (8 mg /kg per day, orally) for three months and, then, with half the dose for nine months; the second (moderate form), with itraconazole (200 mg per day, orally) for 12 months. Read More

    Yeast Expressing Gp43 Protein as a Vaccine Against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:213-224
    Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida dos Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brasil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) represents the most frequent systemic mycosis in Latin American. The disease is caused by the pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and is initially characterized by pulmonary lesions, which can subsequently disseminate to other organs, resulting in secondary injuries. Although its high incidence, there is no commercially available vaccine against fungal diseases. Read More

    Th1-Inducing Agents in Prophylaxis and Therapy for Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:159-167
    Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, São Paulo, SP, 14049-900, Brazil.
    Adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules could be included in the treatment of P. brasiliensis infection. In this context, we reported that the therapeutic and/or prophylactic administration of Th1-inducing agents, such as immunomodulatory lectins and adjuvants, was able to provide protection against experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. Read More

    Peptide Vaccine Against Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:113-128
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Federal University of São Paulo, Rua Botucatu 862, 8th floor, São Paulo, 04021-001, Brazil.
    The chapter reviews methods utilized for the isolation and characterization of a promising immunogen candidate, aiming at a human vaccine against paracoccidioidomycosis. Peptide P10 carries a T-CD4+ epitope and was identified as an internal sequence of the major diagnostic antigen known as gp43 glycoprotein. It successfully treated massive intratracheal infections by virulent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in combination with chemotherapy. Read More

    DNAhsp65 Vaccine as Therapy against Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:85-96
    Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.
    The conventional treatment for fungal diseases usually shows long periods of therapy and the high frequency of relapses and sequels. New strategies of the treatment are necessary. We have shown that the Mycobacterium leprae HSP65 gene can be successfully used as therapy against murine Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Read More

    Mouse Immunization with Radioattenuated Yeast Cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:3-21
    Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Rua Professor Mário Werneck S/N°, Cidade Universitária-Campus da UFMG, 31120-970, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The present chapter describes the methodology to obtain radioattenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis and a protocol to evaluate protective response elicited by this immunogen in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. Read More

    Pseudotumoral neuroparacoccidioidomycosis of the posterior fossa: A case report and review of the literature.
    Surg Neurol Int 2017 10;8:76. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo State, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis of significant importance in some Latin American countries. The widespread use of neuroimaging methods has shown that involvement of the central nervous system was more frequent than previously reported. The most common form of occurrence of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis is the pseudotumoral one. Read More

    Voice disorders in residual paracoccidioidomycosis in upper airways and digestive tract.
    Rev Iberoam Micol 2017 Jul - Sep;34(3):180-184. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, INI/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis of acute and chronic evolution, caused by species belonging to the genus Paracoccidioides. It is considered the most prevalent systemic endemic mycosis in Latin America, with cases in the tropical and subtropical regions. Residual PCM refers to the fibrotic scar sequelae resulting from the disease treatment which, when associated with collagen accumulation, leads to functional and anatomic alterations in the organs. Read More

    Hepatic Disease with Portal Hypertension and Acute Juvenile Paracoccidioidomycosis: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Jun 2. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Inpatient Health Care, Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a neglected systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America caused by dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. The acute juvenile PCM is a severe type of presentation that usually affects young vulnerable patients and rarely progresses to portal hypertension. Here, two cases of liver disease and portal hypertension as complications of acute juvenile PCM are reported. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis with sarcoid-like lesions:a diagnostic challenge.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Mar-Apr;50(2):273-276
    Disciplina de Dermatologia, Curso de Medicina, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Clinical presentation of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) can be diverse. Morphology and quantity of skin lesions depends on interactions between host immunity and fungus virulence. Diagnosis can be a challenge considering that this fungus has low virulence and some individuals have immunity to microorganism, which results in well-marked granulomas without visible microorganisms. Read More

    Paracoccidioides Spp.: Virulence Factors and Immune-Evasion Strategies.
    Mediators Inflamm 2017 2;2017:5313691. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Departamento de Biología, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, GTO, Mexico.
    Paracoccidioides spp. are dimorphic fungal pathogens responsible for one of the most relevant systemic mycoses in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Their exact ecological niche remains unknown; however, they have been isolated from soil samples and armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), which have been proposed as animal reservoir for these fungi. Read More

    Trichosporon asteroides Isolated from Cutaneous Lesions of a Suspected Case of "paracoccidioidomycosis ceti" in a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).
    Mycopathologia 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Sembaru, Nishihara-cho, Nakagusuku-gun, Okinawa, 903-0213, Japan.
    "Paracoccidioidomycosis ceti" is a rare zoonotic fungal infection affecting dolphins and is endemic worldwide. The causative agents are Paracoccidioides species; however, it is impossible to isolate the fungal species. We isolated Trichosporon asteroides from multifocal, irregularly raised skin lesions on a female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) captured off coast of Japan, which was suspected to have "paracoccidioidomycosis ceti. Read More

    Molecular cloning, expression and insulin reduction activity of a thioredoxin 1 homologue (TRX1) from the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides lutzii.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Oct 22;103:683-691. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Institute of Biological Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Goiás, 74001-970 Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.
    The dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides spp. are the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The Paracoccidioides lutzii response to oxidative stress is largely unexplored. Read More

    Chronic paracoccidioidmycosis in a woman with Crohn Disease.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Apr 15;23(4). Epub 2017 Apr 15.
    Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.
    We report a rare case of chronic paracoccidioidomycosis(PCM) in a woman with Crohn disease in the setting of treatment with azathioprine and mesalazine. Serum tests for antigens to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Aspergillus fumigatus were negative. An incisional biopsy of an oral lesion with periodic acid-schiff and Grocott-methenamine silver stains revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation with multinucleated giant cells with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis within the cytoplasm, confirming the diagnosis of PCM. Read More

    Serological Evidence of Infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Dogs with Leishmaniasis.
    Mycopathologia 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Departamento de Ciências Patológicas, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Campus Universitário, Londrina, Paraná, 86057-970, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis prevalent in Latin American countries, caused by the dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. The habitat of these fungi in nature remains undefined, although it is believed that infection occurs by inhalation of infective propagules present in soil. Read More

    Unusual Otolaryngologic Manifestations of Paracoccidioidomycosis: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 May;96(5):1136-1138
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, Brazil.
    AbstractParacoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs more frequently in its chronic form, which particularly affects male adults from rural areas. These patients present with pulmonary involvement and systemic symptoms. Read More

    Functional and phenotypic evaluation of eosinophils from patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 10;11(5):e0005601. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Eosinophilia is a typical finding of the acute/juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. This clinical form is characterized by depressed cellular immune response and production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, it has been shown that the increased number of eosinophils in peripheral blood of patients returns to normal values after antifungal treatment. Read More

    [Colon Paracoccidioidomycosis in a hospital from Lima - Peru: report of 4 cases].
    Rev Gastroenterol Peru 2017 Jan-Mar;37(1):77-81
    Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. Lima, Perú.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent mycosis in South America. Mucocutaneous and lymph node involvement is the most frequent affectation of this disease in our country, with the intestinal commitment rarely reported. We report 4 cases of colonic manifestation with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, and weight loss. Read More

    Preliminary evaluation of circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers in paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Biomed Rep 2017 Mar 26;6(3):353-357. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, São Paulo 14800-901, Brazil.
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (length, 19-24 nucleotides) that regulate gene expression by either mRNA degradation or translational inhibition of proteins. Circulating miRNAs, which are extremely stable and protected from RNAse-mediated degradation in body fluids, have appeared as candidate biomarkers for numerous diseases. However, little is known about circulating miRNAs in fungal infections. Read More

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