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    [Cancer and mycoses and literature review].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2017 Feb 11. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
    Service de parasitologie-mycologie, Hôpital Saint Antoine, 184 rue du Faubourg Saint Antoine, 75012, Paris, France.
    Various infectious agents are classical risk factors for cancer including bacteria, viruses and parasites. There is less evidence concerning the implication of fungal infection in carcinogenesis. The role of chronic Candida infection in the development of squamous cell carcinoma has been suspected for years. Read More

    Use of fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for differentiation between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii in yeast and mycelial phase.
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017 Feb;112(2):140-145
    Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.
    Background: Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) associated with Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) using oligonucleotides labeled with non-radioactive fluorophores is a promising technique for detection and differentiation of fungal species in environmental or clinical samples, being suitable for microorganisms which are difficult or even impossible to culture.

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to standardise an in situ hybridisation technique for the differentiation between the pathogenic species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, by using species-specific DNA probes targeting the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) of the rRNA gene.

    Methods: Yeast and mycelial phase of each Paracoccidioides species, were tested by two different detection/differentiation techniques: TSA-FISH for P. Read More

    Paracoccidioides spp. catalases and their role in antioxidant defense against host defense responses.
    Fungal Genet Biol 2017 Jan 16;100:22-32. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Cellular and Molecular Biology Unit, Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas, Medellín, Colombia; School of Microbiology, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; MICROBA Research Group, School of Microbiology, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. Electronic address:
    Dimorphic human pathogenic fungi interact with host effector cells resisting their microbicidal mechanisms. Yeast cells are able of surviving within the tough environment of the phagolysosome by expressing an antioxidant defense system that provides protection against host-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). This includes the production of catalases (CATs). Read More

    Effects of two 6-quinolinyl chalcones on the integrity of plasma membrane of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
    J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America, yet few therapeutic options exist. Our aim was to search for new compounds with high efficacy, low toxicity, shorter treatment time and affordable cost. We studied two synthetic 6-quinolinyl chalcones, 3b and 3e, to determine their effects on VERO cells, antifungal activity, survival curve, interaction with other drugs and phenotypic effects against several isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. Read More

    Peptides Derived from a Phage Display Library Inhibit Adhesion and Protect the Host against Infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii.
    Front Pharmacol 2016 23;7:509. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Câmpus Araraquara, São Paulo Brasil.
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are dimorphic fungi and are the etiological agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Adhesion is one of the most important steps in infections with Paracoccidioides and is responsible for the differences in the virulence of isolates of these fungi. Because of the importance of adhesion to the establishment of an infection, this study focused on the preliminary development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit adhesion by Paracoccidioides, thus inhibiting infection and preventing the disease. Read More

    Study of differential expression of miRNAs in lung tissue of mice submitted to experimental infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
    Med Mycol 2017 Jan 3. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Postgraduate Program in Experimental Pathology, Department of Pathological Sciences - State University of Londrina, Londrina, PR, Brazil
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single stranded RNA sequences involved in post-transcriptional regulation of different biological and physiological processes. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and it is a major cause of mortality due to systemic mycoses in Brazil. To date, there have been few reports on the role of miRNAs in the immune response against fungi, especially PCM. Read More

    Acute pulmonary involvement by paracoccidiodomycosis disease immediately after kidney transplantation: Case report and literature review.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2016 Dec 31. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Kidney Transplant Unit, Department of Transplantation, Instituto de Nefrología/ Nephrology, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Human disease has been observed in a limited geographic and ecological niche, and it is attributed to exposure to the fungus in soil. Most primary infections are subclinical, as the infection is contained by the host mainly through cell-mediated immune response. Read More

    Photodynamic inactivation of oral paracoccidioidomycosis affecting woman with systemic lupus erythematosus: an unusual case report.
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2016 Dec 21. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Department of Clinic and Surgery, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Alfenas, Rua Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700-Alfenas, MG, 37130-000, Brazil. Electronic address:

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces cytokine secretion in epithelial cells in a protease-activated receptor-dependent (PAR) manner.
    Med Microbiol Immunol 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology, Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Botucatu, 862 - Ed. Antônio C. M. Paiva - 6 andar, São Paulo, SP, 04023-062, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is one of the etiological agents of the human systemic mycosis paracoccidioidomycosis. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are expressed in many cell types and comprise a family of G protein-coupled receptors (PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4), which may be activated by proteases secreted by several pathogens. In the present study, we showed that the pathogenic fungus P. Read More

    Chronic Paracoccidioidomycosis with adrenal involvement mimicking tuberculosis - A case report from Austria.
    Med Mycol Case Rep 2016 Dec 2;14:12-16. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and endemic in certain areas of Central and South America. We report a case of a 62-year-old-man with a complex history of tuberculosis and imaging findings of a cerebral lesion and bilateral adrenal enlargement. Biopsy of adrenal gland revealed Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazilian Patients With and Without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Feb 28;96(2):368-372. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Triângulo Mineiro Federal University, Uberaba, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is endemic to Latin America, where 10 million people may be infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis/Paracoccidioides lutzii and 1,600,000 individuals live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An epidemiological overlapping of these infections occurred early in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome era with nearly 180 published cases. This study presents epidemiological, clinical, and outcome profiles for 31 PCM patients with HIV infection diagnosed in a teaching hospital in Brazil, and includes an update of previously reported cases. Read More

    Analysis of Paracoccidioides lutzii mitochondria: a proteomic approach.
    Yeast 2016 Nov 25. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, ICBII, Campus II, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74001-970, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.
    The genus Paracoccidioides is composed of thermal dimorphic fungi, causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most frequent systemic mycoses in Latin America. Mitochondria have sophisticated machinery for ATP production, which involves metabolic pathways such as citric acid and glyoxylate cycles, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, this organelle performs a variety of functions in the cell, working as an exceptional metabolic signalling centre that contributes to cellular stress responses, as autophagy and apoptosis in eukaryotic organisms. Read More

    Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Dec;22(12):2063-2069
    Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Read More

    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2016 Nov 3;58:77. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
    São Paulo State Health Secretariat, Tuberculosis Control Division, Epidemiological Surveillance Center, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    The aim of this retrospective study was to review all the notified cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in São Paulo State (Brazil), as well as to describe and discuss the clinical, microbiological and radiologic aspects in a single reference center, within the same state, from 2000 to 2012. There were 1,097 notifications of MDR-TB in São Paulo State over this period, 70% affecting men aged on average 38 years (10-77). There was a significant fall in the MDR-TB mortality rate from 30% to 8% (2000-2003 versus 2009-2012). Read More

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-associated dermatitis and lymphadenitis in a dog.
    Mycopathologia 2016 Oct 18. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    Laboratory of Applied Immunology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease of humans from Latin America that is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, with most cases of PCM in domestic animals being associated with P. brasiliensis. Read More

    Severe Changes in Thymic Microenvironment in a Chronic Experimental Model of Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    PLoS One 2016 13;11(10):e0164745. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
    T cell maturation takes place within the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ that is commonly targeted during infections. Previous studies showed that acute infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), promotes thymic atrophy that is associated with the presence of yeast cells in the organ. However, as human PCM is a chronic infection, it is imperative to investigate the consequences of Pb infection over the thymic structure and function in chronic infection. Read More

    HIV Immune Recovery Inflammatory Syndrome and Central Nervous System Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Mycopathologia 2016 Oct 7. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
    Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
    The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a deregulated inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. It is manifested when there is an abrupt change in host immunity from an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive state to a pro-inflammatory state as a result of rapid depletion or removal of factors that promote immune suppression or inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this paper is to discuss and re-interpret the possibility of association of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) with IRIS in the central nervous system (CNS) in a case from Brazil published by Silva-Vergara ML. Read More

    Genome Diversity, Recombination, and Virulence across the Major Lineages of Paracoccidioides.
    mSphere 2016 Sep-Oct;1(5). Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    The Paracoccidioides genus includes two species of thermally dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis, a neglected health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. To examine the genome evolution and the diversity of Paracoccidioides spp., we conducted whole-genome sequencing of 31 isolates representing the phylogenetic, geographic, and ecological breadth of the genus. Read More

    Depletion of Neutrophils Promotes the Resolution of Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice Infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
    PLoS One 2016;11(9):e0163985. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    School of Microbiology, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
    Chronic stages of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) are characterized by granulomatous lesions which promote the development of pulmonary fibrosis leading to the loss of respiratory function in 50% of patients; in addition, it has been observed that neutrophils predominate during these chronic stages of P. brasiliensis infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of the neutrophil during the chronic stages of experimental pulmonary PCM and during the fibrosis development and tissue repair using a monoclonal specific to this phagocytic cell. Read More

    Spontaneous pneumothorax in paracoccidioidomycosis patients from an endemic area in Midwestern Brazil.
    Mycoses 2017 Feb 30;60(2):124-128. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. About 80% of PCM patients are present with its chronic form. The lungs are affected in most patients with the chronic form; however, pleural involvement has rarely been reported. Read More

    Characterizing the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp.
    Fungal Biol 2016 Oct 17;120(10):1209-24. Epub 2016 Jul 17.
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, ICB II, Campus II, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, 74690-900, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by thermo dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. Although previous proteome analyses of Paracoccidioides spp. have been carried out, the nuclear subproteome of this pathogen has not been described. Read More

    Depletion of Neutrophils Exacerbates the Early Inflammatory Immune Response in Lungs of Mice Infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
    Mediators Inflamm 2016 25;2016:3183285. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
    Basic and Applied Microbiology Research Group (MICROBA), School of Microbiology, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín, Colombia.
    Neutrophils predominate during the acute phase of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Herein, we determined the role of the neutrophil during the early stages of experimental pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for neutrophils. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 1. Read More

    Therapeutic effect of monophosphoryl lipid A administration on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-infected mice.
    Med Mycol 2016 Sep 17. Epub 2016 Sep 17.
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
    The lack of antifungals with low toxicity and short-term therapy for patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) led us to evaluate adjuvants in immunotherapeutic intervention. We have previously shown complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to be therapeutic on experimental PCM. Owing to CFA toxicity, here we tested adjuvants approved for clinical use or in preclinical phase in experimental mouse PCM. Read More

    Identification and characterisation of elongation factor Tu, a novel protein involved in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-host interaction.
    FEMS Yeast Res 2016 Nov 14;16(7). Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Laboratório de Micologia Clínica, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brasil
    Paracoccidioides spp., which are temperature-dependent dimorphic fungi, are responsible for the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America, the paracoccidioidomycosis. The aim of this study was to characterise the involvement of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-host interaction. Read More

    Amphotericin B lipid complex in the treatment of severe paracoccidioidomycosis: a case series.
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 2016 Oct 19;48(4):428-30. Epub 2016 Jul 19.
    Department of Medicine, School of Health and Biosciences, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Amphotericin B deoxycholate is the main option for intravenous (i.v.) treatment of severe paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Read More

    Detrimental Effect of Fungal 60-kDa Heat Shock Protein on Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection.
    PLoS One 2016 6;11(9):e0162486. Epub 2016 Sep 6.
    Department of Biology, Ribeirão Preto Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
    The genus Paracoccidioides comprises species of dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. Here, we investigated whether administration of native 60-kDa heat shock protein of P. brasiliensis (nPbHsp60) or its recombinant counterpart (rPbHsp60) affected the course of experimental PCM. Read More

    Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR): A New Patent to diagnostic purposes for paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov 2016 Sep 5. Epub 2016 Sep 5.
    Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa - Hospital Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte - Núcleo de Pós-graduação Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. It is prevalent in Latin American, mainly in Brazil. Read More

    Phosphosite-specific regulation of the oxidative-stress response of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a shotgun phosphoproteomic analysis.
    Microbes Infect 2017 Jan 30;19(1):34-46. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis that is widespread in Latin America. This fungus is a facultative intracellular pathogen able to survive and replicate inside non-activated macrophages. Therefore, the survival of P. Read More

    The Cell Wall-Associated Proteins in the Dimorphic Pathogenic Species of Paracoccidioides.
    Curr Protein Pept Sci 2016 Aug 12. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina- Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii cause human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). They are dimorphic ascomycetes that grow as filaments at mild temperatures up to 28°C and as multibudding pathogenic yeast cells at 37°C. Read More

    Infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces B-1 cell migration and activation of regulatory T cells.
    Microbes Infect 2016 Dec 11;18(12):798-803. Epub 2016 Aug 11.
    Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. The infection is initiated by inhalation of conidia into the lung and may develop as localized or disseminated disease depending on the depression of cellular immunity. In the present study, we observed that intratracheal infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis caused the percentage of resident B-1 cells to decrease. Read More

    Cutaneous involvement in the deep mycoses: A review. Part II -Systemic mycoses.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2016 Dec 4;107(10):816-822. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Departamento de Dermatología, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    In the second part of this review on the deep mycoses, we describe the main systemic mycoses-paracoccidioidomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, mucormycosis, and cryptococcosis-and their cutaneous manifestations. Skin lesions are only occasionally seen in deep systemic mycoses either directly, when the skin is the route of entry for the fungus, or indirectly, when the infection has spread from a deeper focus. These cutaneous signs are often the only clue to the presence of a potentially fatal infection. Read More

    Evaluation of the efficacy of antifungal drugs against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii in a Galleria mellonella model.
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 2016 Sep 5;48(3):292-7. Epub 2016 Jul 5.
    Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú Km 1, Araraquara, São Paulo CEP: 14801-902, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii belong to a group of thermodimorphic fungi and cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), which is a human systemic mycosis endemic in South and Central America. Patients with this mycosis are commonly treated with amphotericin B (AmB) and azoles. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis: acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type.
    An Bras Dermatol 2016 May-Jun;91(3):384-6
    Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (Unesp) - Botucatu (SP), Brazil.
    The authors report aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type, in a 19-year-old female patient. Paracoccidioidomycosis, juvenile type, classically occurs in young patients, both sexes, with lymphoma-like aspects as initial presentation. However, following the natural history of the disease the lymph nodes assume patterns of infectious disease, as an abscess and fistulae. Read More

    Current strategies for diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis and prospects of methods based on gold nanoparticles.
    Future Microbiol 2016 Jul 15;11:973-85. Epub 2016 Jul 15.
    Departamento de Ciências Biológicas/DECBI - Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas/NUPEB - Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Campus Universitário Morro do Cruzeiro - Ouro Preto, CEP 35400-000, Minas Gerais, Brasil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a human systemic granulomatous mycosis caused by thermodimorphic fungi from Paracoccidioides genus. The disease is prevalent in Latin America and triggers a serious clinical condition. Consequently, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent progression of the disease, which can result in death. Read More

    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2016 07;58:57
    Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Hospital Regional da Asa Norte, Medical School, Pulmonology Unit. Brasília, DF, Brazil. E-mail:
    A previously healthy, 52-year-old woman presented with a nine months history of low fever and weight loss (> 30 kg). Physical examination disclosed generalized lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, abdominal distension, mild tachypnea and a left breast mass. Laboratory tests showed anemia; (prerenal) kidney injury, low serum albumin level; and negative serology for HIV and viral hepatitis. Read More

    Severe Paracoccidioidomycosis in a 14-Year-Old Boy.
    Mycopathologia 2016 Dec 30;181(11-12):915-920. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Tessalia Vieira de Camargo, 126, Campinas, São Paulo, 13083-878, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. We describe a severe case of paracoccidioidomycosis in a 14-year-old boy, with a rapid disease progression. The fungal strain was isolated and inoculated into a T and/or B cell immunocompromised mice, which revealed a highly virulent strain. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis in the spine: case report and review of the literature.
    Sao Paulo Med J 2016 May-Jun;134(3):263-267
    MD, PhD. Full Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Context:: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic form of mycosis that spreads hematogenously, secondarily to reactivation of lung infection or infection at another site or to new exposure to the causative agent. Few cases of bone involvement have been reported in the literature and involvement of the spine is extremely rare.

    Case Report:: We describe a case of a 68-year-old male patient with spondylodiscitis at the levels L4-L5 caused by presence of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which was diagnosed through percutaneous biopsy. Read More

    Antifungal Activity of Amphotericin B Conjugated to Nanosized Magnetite in the Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Jun 15;10(6):e0004754. Epub 2016 Jun 15.
    Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.
    This study reports on in vitro and in vivo tests that sought to assess the antifungal activity of a newly developed magnetic carrier system comprising amphotericin B loaded onto the surface of pre-coated (with a double-layer of lauric acid) magnetite nanoparticles. The in vitro tests compared two drugs; i.e. Read More

    A conserved dimorphism-regulating histidine kinase controls the dimorphic switching in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
    FEMS Yeast Res 2016 Aug 5;16(5). Epub 2016 Jun 5.
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Unidade José Alencar, Street São Nicolau, nº210, 4º floor, São Paulo 04023-900, Brazil Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09913-030, São Paulo, Brazil
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, thermally dimorphic fungi, are the causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Paracoccidioides infection occurs when conidia or mycelium fragments are inhaled by the host, which causes the Paracoccidioides cells to transition to the yeast form. Read More

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound findings in paracoccidioidomycosis.
    Rev Bras Reumatol Engl Ed 2016 Jan-Feb;56(1):75-8. Epub 2014 Nov 28.
    Department of Rheumatology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to South America. The infection is usually asymptomatic and mostly affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts with clinical-radiological dissociation. Joint involvement is rare with no specific pattern or radiological injury. Read More

    Oral Paracoccidioidomycosis Granulomas are Predominantly Populated by CD163+ Multinucleated Giant Cells.
    Mycopathologia 2016 Oct 28;181(9-10):709-16. Epub 2016 May 28.
    Department of Clinic and Surgery, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Alfenas, Rua Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, Alfenas, MG, 37130-000, Brazil.
    Multinucleated giant cells (MGC) are considered to be a hallmark of granulomatous inflammation; thus, they may play an essential role in the host response against pathogens, particularly Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. This study characterizes the MGC found in oral paracoccidioidomycosis and assesses the correlation of MGC with the amount of fungi within oral tissues. Twenty-six cases were included. Read More

    Influence of N-glycans on Expression of Cell Wall Remodeling Related Genes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells.
    Curr Genomics 2016 Apr;17(2):112-8
    Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14049-900, Brazil;
    Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. It is caused by the temperature-dependent dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The P. Read More

    Polymorphisms on IFNG, IL12B and IL12RB1 genes and paracoccidioidomycosis in the Brazilian population.
    Infect Genet Evol 2016 Sep 17;43:245-51. Epub 2016 May 17.
    Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 470 (IMT1, 1°. andar), 05403-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Laboratory of Medical Investigation in Immunology (LIM-48), Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 470 (IMT2, térreo, sala 12), 05403-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic chronic mycosis, endemic in Latin America, especially Brazil, and is the eighth leading cause of death among chronic and recurrent infectious diseases. PCM infection is characterized by the presence of Th1 immune response; the acute form, by a mixed Th2/Th9, while the chronic form is characterized by Th17/Th22 profiles. The occurrence and severity of human PCM may also be associated with genetic factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on cytokines encoding genes. Read More

    Paracoccidioidomycosis and cryptococcosis with localized skin manifestations: report of two cases in the elderly.
    An Bras Dermatol 2016 Apr;91(2):243-4
    Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
    Distinct cases of Paracoccidioidomycosis and Cryptococcosis with atypical and localized skin manifestation on the upper limbs of two elderly patients are reported. In the 2nd one, he presented asymptomatic pulmonary cancer; the blood tests for fungal infection were negative, and the etiologic agents were seen in skin biopsy samples. This report emphasizes the importance of the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases in elderly patients. Read More

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection promotes thymic disarrangement and premature egress of mature lymphocytes expressing prohibitive TCRs.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 May 17;16:209. Epub 2016 May 17.
    Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato, 255, Cidade Universitária, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Paracoccidioidomycosis, a chronic granulomatous fungal disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells affects mainly rural workers, albeit recently cases in immunosuppressed individuals has been reported. Protective immune response against P. brasiliensis is dependent on the activity of helper T cells especially IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. Read More

    Isavuconazole Treatment of Cryptococcosis and Dimorphic Mycoses.
    Clin Infect Dis 2016 Aug 11;63(3):356-62. Epub 2016 May 11.
    Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
    Background: Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) caused by Cryptococcus and dimorphic fungi are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Isavuconazole (ISAV) is a novel, broad-spectrum, triazole antifungal agent (IV and by mouth [PO]) developed for the treatment of IFD. It displays potent activity in vitro against these pathogens and in this report we examine outcomes of patients with cryptococcosis or dimorphic fungal infections treated with ISAV. Read More

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis PS2: First Autochthonous Paracoccidioidomycosis Case Report in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Literature Review.
    Mycopathologia 2016 Oct 9;181(9-10):701-8. Epub 2016 May 9.
    Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Dermatologia Infecciosa, Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil.
    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by pathogenic dimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis complex. It is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America, mainly in Brazil. Despite its severity and high mortality rates, it is considered a neglected disease. Read More

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