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    Rebound hyperglycaemia in diabetic cats.
    J Feline Med Surg 2016 Aug 4;18(8):587-96. Epub 2015 Jun 4.
    School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
    Objectives: Rebound hyperglycaemia (also termed Somogyi effect) is defined as hyperglycaemia caused by the release of counter-regulatory hormones in response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, and is widely believed to be common in diabetic cats. However, studies in human diabetic patients over the past quarter century have rejected the common occurrence of this phenomenon. Therefore, we evaluated the occurrence and prevalence of rebound hyperglycaemia in diabetic cats. Read More

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signalling exerts chondrogenesis promoting and protecting effects: implication of calcineurin as a downstream target.
    PLoS One 2014 18;9(3):e91541. Epub 2014 Mar 18.
    Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, University of Debrecen, Faculty of Medicine, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an important neurotrophic factor influencing differentiation of neuronal elements and exerting protecting role during traumatic injuries or inflammatory processes of the central nervous system. Although increasing evidence is available on its presence and protecting function in various peripheral tissues, little is known about the role of PACAP in formation of skeletal components. To this end, we aimed to map elements of PACAP signalling in developing cartilage under physiological conditions and during oxidative stress. Read More

    Mechanical loading stimulates chondrogenesis via the PKA/CREB-Sox9 and PP2A pathways in chicken micromass cultures.
    Cell Signal 2014 Mar 12;26(3):468-82. Epub 2013 Dec 12.
    Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, Nagyerdei krt. 98, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary. Electronic address:
    Biomechanical stimuli play important roles in the formation of articular cartilage during early foetal life, and optimal mechanical load is a crucial regulatory factor of adult chondrocyte metabolism and function. In this study, we undertook to analyse mechanotransduction pathways during in vitro chondrogenesis. Chondroprogenitor cells isolated from limb buds of 4-day-old chicken embryos were cultivated as high density cell cultures for 6 days. Read More

    Progressive retinal degeneration and glial activation in the CLN6 (nclf) mouse model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: a beneficial effect of DHA and curcumin supplementation.
    PLoS One 2013 4;8(10):e75963. Epub 2013 Oct 4.
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany ; Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a group of neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders characterized by vision loss, mental and motor deficits, and spontaneous seizures. Neuropathological analyses of autopsy material from NCL patients and animal models revealed brain atrophy closely associated with glial activity. Earlier reports also noticed loss of retinal cells and reactive gliosis in some forms of NCL. Read More

    [Morning hyperglycemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and different modes of therapy: an evaluation of the DPV data pool].
    Klin Padiatr 2012 Nov 22;224(7):471-5. Epub 2012 Aug 22.
    Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, St. Vincenz-Krankenhaus, Paderborn.
    Early morning hyperglycemia is frequent among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Reasons are a dawn phenomenon, a Somogyi phenomenon or a lack of insulin in the morning hours. Only few studies are published regarding incidence and relation to different modes of basal insulin treatment in this population. Read More

    The dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi effect - two phenomena of morning hyperglycaemia.
    Endokrynol Pol 2011 ;62(3):276-84
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
    Morning hyperglycaemia in diabetic subjects may be caused by the dawn phenomenon, or the Somogyi effect, or poor glycaemic control. The dawn phenomenon occurs when endogenous insulin secretion decreases or when the effect of the exogenous insulin administered to the patient the day before disappears, together with a physiological increase in insulin-antagonistic hormones. The Somogyi effect is present in the case of excessive amounts of exogenous insulin. Read More

    Adoptive transfer of peripheral immune cells potentiates allodynia in a graded chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain.
    Brain Behav Immun 2011 Mar 4;25(3):503-13. Epub 2010 Dec 4.
    Discipline of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia.
    Recent evidence demonstrates that peripheral immune cells contribute to the nociceptive hypersensitivity associated with neuropathic pain by infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS). We have recently developed a rat model of graded chronic constriction injury (CCI) by varying the exposure of the sciatic nerve and control non-nerve tissue to surgical placement of chromic gut. We demonstrate that splenocytes can contribute significantly to CCI-induced allodynia, as adoptive transfer of these cells from high pain donors to low pain recipients potentiates allodynia (P<0. Read More

    [Elevated serum dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a direct comparison].
    Orv Hetil 2010 May;151(22):899-902
    Semmelweis Egyetem, Altalános Orvostudományi Kar II. Belgyógyászati Klinika Budapest Szentkirályi utca 46. 1088.
    Unlabelled: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) has an important role in the carbohydrate metabolism with the degradation of incretin hormones.

    Aim: We assessed the serum DPP-4 activity both in fasting and postprandial condition in patients with type 1-, type 2 diabetes and healthy controls.

    Methods: Serum DPP-4 activities were determined at fasting sate and at 60 and 180 minutes after test meal. Read More

    Sessile hemocytes as a hematopoietic compartment in Drosophila melanogaster.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Mar 4;106(12):4805-9. Epub 2009 Mar 4.
    Institute of Genetics, Biological Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 521, H-6701, Szeged, Hungary.
    The blood cells, or hemocytes, in Drosophila participate in the immune response through the production of antimicrobial peptides, the phagocytosis of bacteria, and the encapsulation of larger foreign particles such as parasitic eggs; these immune reactions are mediated by phylogenetically conserved mechanisms. The encapsulation reaction is analogous to the formation of granuloma in vertebrates, and is mediated by large specialized cells, the lamellocytes. The origin of the lamellocytes has not been formally established, although it has been suggested that they are derived from the lymph gland, which is generally considered to be the main hematopoietic organ in the Drosophila larva. Read More

    Different reactivities of amphetamines with N-methyl-bis(trifluoroacetamide) in heated gas chromatographic injectors.
    Pharmazie 2008 Mar;63(3):233-4
    National Institute of Forensic Toxicology, Budapest, Hungary.
    A fast gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method has been developed earlier for the determination of amphetamine derivatives in human serum and urine. For derivatization, N-methyl-bis(trifluoroacetamide) (MBTFA) was used. Derivatization was performed using an on-line mode, since 1 microl of MBTFA and 1 microl sample extract, dissolved in toluene were injected simultaneously. Read More

    Nocturnal hypoglycaemias in type 1 diabetic patients: what can we learn with continuous glucose monitoring?
    Diabetes Metab 2007 Nov 24;33(5):360-5. Epub 2007 Jul 24.
    Service of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism,Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Aim: In type 1 diabetic patients (T1DM), nocturnal hypoglycaemias (NH) are a serious complication of T1DM treatment; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is recommended to detect them. However, the majority of NH remains undetected on an occasional SMBG done during the night. An alternative strategy is the Continuous glucose monitoring (CGMS), which retrospectively shows the glycaemic profile. Read More

    Stereoselective quantification of methadone and a d(6)-labeled isotopomer using high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass-spectrometry: application to a pharmacokinetic study in a methadone maintained subject.
    Ther Drug Monit 2006 Aug;28(4):559-67
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia.
    There is evidence that the apparent oral clearance of rac-methadone is induced during the early phase of methadone maintenance treatment. However, it is not known if this is due to changes in bioavailability or if this phenomenon is stereoselective. This knowledge can be obtained by administering a dose of stable-labeled methadone at selected times during ongoing treatment. Read More

    Fasting hyperglycemia: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
    Diabetes Technol Ther 2004 Aug;6(4):525-33
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
    Suboptimal glycemic control in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Even brief periods of hyperglycemia increase the risk of complications. Fasting hyperglycemia is a phenomenon that has been observed in essentially all individuals with diabetes and may be due to dysregulation of the normal circadian hormonal patterns resulting in increased hepatic glucose output. Read More

    [Continuous glucose monitoring system, as a valuable tool in the care of children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus].
    Orv Hetil 2004 Jun;145(24):1265-70
    Semmelweis Egyetem, Altalános Orvostudományi Kar, I. Gyermekklinika, Budapest.
    Introduction: Good metabolic control of diabetic patients is mainly based on the results of self measured blood glucose levels. Important excursions of blood glucose may, however, be hidden in the usual case of 4-5 daily determinations. The aim of this paper was to give detailed information about this new diagnostic tool and to report the first Hungarian pediatric experiences with continuous glucose monitoring. Read More

    [Blood pressure volatility--a new parameter for determining blood pressure variability in type-1 diabetes mellitus].
    Orv Hetil 2003 Sep;144(36):1779-84
    Semmelweis Egyetem, Altalános Orvostudományi Kar, II. Belgyógyászati Klinika, Budapest.
    Introduction: In diabetes the heart rate variability is decreased because of the autonomic neuropathy and parallel with this phenomenon the overnight blood pressure fall is lost. Presumably this change in the hemodynamic parameters is connected with the fact that the cardiovascular complications in type 1 diabetic patients are 2-4 times more frequent than in healthy patients. The volatility, as a new factor, is the dispersion of the proportion of the blood pressure values following each other. Read More

    Stable myocardial performance at clamped aorta based solely on the internal mammary artery graft flow: a functional test.
    Acta Chir Hung 1994 ;34(1-2):29-42
    Haynal Imre Medical University, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Budapest, Hungary.
    Authors report their experiences with arterial revascularization of the heart using the internal mammary artery (IMA). A method of intraoperative measurement of the free cut end and the effective graft flow of the IMA after meticulous anatomical dissection is described. Free cut end IMA flow was measured both at systemic and extracorporeal pump perfusion pressure and was found as 145+/-26 ml/min and 135+/-16 ml, respectively. Read More

    Nocturnal blood glucose control in type I diabetes mellitus.
    Diabetes Care 1993 Dec;16 Suppl 3:71-89
    Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrine and Metabolism and Sciences, University of Perugia, Italy.
    A major problem in replacing insulin in type I diabetes mellitus is that currently no depot preparation exists that is capable of mimicking the background insulin secretion of the healthy pancreas. Because all of the currently available intermediate- or long-acting insulin preparations have a peaked-action profile, excess insulin action at midnight and insulin waning at dawn occur whenever such an insulin preparation is given at supper time. If the target fasting plasma glucose is the ambitious near-normoglycemia of intensive insulin therapy, intermediate-acting insulin at suppertime easily results in hypoglycemia in the early evening hours and hyperglycemia in the fasting state. Read More

    Fasting hyperglycemia in type I diabetes mellitus.
    J Am Osteopath Assoc 1993 Jul;93(7):769-74
    Division of Endocrinology, Shadyside Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15232.
    The differential diagnosis of fasting hyperglycemia in type I diabetes includes the Somogyi effect, the dawn phenomenon, and insufficient insulin administration. To determine the causes of fasting hyperglycemia and their effect on subsequent daytime blood glucose control, the authors retrospectively reviewed blood glucose profiles of 126 patients with type I diabetes. The Somogyi effect accounted for 12. Read More

    Evaluation of criteria contributions for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus.
    Scand J Rheumatol 1993 ;22(2):58-62
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.
    The American Rheumatism Association (ACR) preliminary and revised criteria for classification of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in a population of 100 patients with SLE and 100 patients with other rheumatic diseases. Bayes' theorem was applied for evaluation of ARA criteria for the classification of SLE and a scoring system was developed which allows simple determination of the probability of SLE. The evaluation revealed considerable differences in values of the ARA criteria. Read More

    [The dawn or Somogyi phenomenon? High morning fasting blood sugar values in young type-1 diabetics].
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1992 Oct;117(40):1503-7
    Abteilung Pädiatrie I, Universitäts-Kinderklinik Ulm.
    High blood sugar levels in the morning in juvenile type 1 diabetics may be caused by a Somogyi phenomenon (counter-regulation after nocturnal hypoglycaemia) or insulin resistance in the morning hours (dawn phenomenon). To enable differentiation between the two, 1,562 blood sugar profiles (24 h, 3 h, 6 h) were determined in 161 children and juveniles (74 boys, 87 girls; mean age 10.8 [1. Read More

    Renal tubular transport of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide, and morphine-3-glucuronide in the isolated perfused rat kidney.
    Drug Metab Dispos 1991 Nov-Dec;19(6):1087-92
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, Australia.
    The isolated perfused rat kidney was used to examine the renal handling of morphine and its inactive metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), and active metabolite morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). The kidneys were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH 7.4) containing albumin, glucose, and amino acids, and drug concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Read More

    Failure of nocturnal hypoglycemia to cause daytime hyperglycemia in patients with IDDM.
    Diabetes Care 1990 Feb;13(2):133-42
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.
    To test the hypothesis that nocturnal hypoglycemia causes postprandial hyperglycemia the next day (the Somogyi phenomenon) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), we studied 10 moderately well controlled patients, who were on their usual therapeutic regimens, from 2000 to 2000 on three occasions. On a control day, samples were obtained without intervention. On another day, nocturnal hypoglycemia was prevented (by intravenous infusion of glucose, if necessary, from 2200 to 0400 to keep plasma glucose levels at greater than 5. Read More

    Impact of activated glucose counterregulation on insulin requirements in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
    Horm Metab Res Suppl 1990 ;24:87-96
    Istituto di Patologia Speciale Medica e Metodologia Clinica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Italy.
    The glucose counterregulatory system is one of the most important homeostatic systems in physiology, since it normally prevents hypoglycaemia or, should it occur for any reason such as insulin administration, limits the severity of hypoglycaemia and ultimately may restore normoglycaemia. In normal nondiabetic subjects, activation of counterregulation does not result in overt hyperglycaemia in the post-absorptive state, because the pancreatic beta-cell increases insulin secretion. On the contrary, in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) whose pancreatic B-cell cannot respond to an increase in plasma glucose, activated counterregulation may easily result in overt hyperglycaemia. Read More

    Hypoglycemia in IDDM.
    Diabetes 1989 Sep;38(9):1193-9
    Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.
    Hypoglycemia causes substantial morbidity and some mortality in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). It is often the limiting factor in attempts to achieve euglycemia. The prevention or correction of hypoglycemia normally involves both dissipation of insulin and activation of glucose counterregulatory systems. Read More

    Dawn phenomenon and Somogyi effect in IDDM.
    Diabetes Care 1989 Apr;12(4):245-51
    Department of Medicine II, University of Vienna, Austria.
    We examined the clinical relevance of a rise in fasting blood glucose (BG) between 0300 and 0600 in 97 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) receiving sequentially conventional (CT) and basal-bolus (BBIT) insulin therapies and assessed the impact of one potential causal factor, i.e., posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia, with 231 BG profiles (97 during CT, 134 during BBIT) in which BG was measured every 3 h over a 24-h period. Read More

    Lilly lecture 1988. Glucose counterregulation and its impact on diabetes mellitus.
    Diabetes 1988 Dec;37(12):1608-17
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Clinical Research Center, Pennsylvania 15261.
    Glucose counterregulation is the sum of processes that protect against development of hypoglycemia and that restore euglycemia if hypoglycemia should occur. In order of importance, the key counterregulatory factors are glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone, cortisol, and hepatic autoregulation. These act primarily by increasing hepatic glucose output, initially via breakdown of glycogen and later by gluconeogenesis. Read More

    The effect of asymptomatic nocturnal hypoglycemia on glycemic control in diabetes mellitus.
    N Engl J Med 1988 Nov;319(19):1233-9
    Istituto di Patologia Speciale Medica, Universita di Perugia, Italy.
    To assess the effect of asymptomatic nocturnal hypoglycemia on glycemic control in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we studied, on three nights, 10 patients receiving their usual regimens of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. During a control night, the patients' mean (+/- SE) plasma glucose level reached a nadir of 4.5 +/- 0. Read More

    Frequency of early-morning rise in blood glucose in children with diabetes at camp.
    Diabetes Care 1988 Jul-Aug;11(7):574-8
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
    To estimate the frequency of an early-morning glucose rise (EMR) in relatively unselected children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), we assessed capillary blood glucose (CBG) at midsleep (0200-0430) and prebreakfast (0700-0800) in 97 children with diabetes at camp. The EMR (prebreakfast CBG-midsleep CGB) was inversely related to the midsleep CBG level (r = -.45, P less than . Read More

    Failure of nocturnal hypoglycemia to cause fasting hyperglycemia in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
    N Engl J Med 1987 Dec;317(25):1552-9
    Metabolism Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.
    To test the hypothesis that nocturnal hypoglycemia causes fasting hyperglycemia (the Somogyi phenomenon) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we studied 10 patients, who were on their usual therapeutic regimens, from 10 p.m. through 8 a. Read More

    Diabetogenic action of GH and cortisol in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Aspects of the mechanisms behind the Somogyi phenomenon.
    Horm Metab Res 1987 Apr;19(4):156-9
    The effect on glucose homeostasis of a transient elevation of plasma growth hormone (GH) and cortisol was studied over 6 h in 14 male patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) by using an i.v. somatostatin (100 micrograms/h) - insulin (0. Read More

    Nocturnal hypoglycemia does not commonly result in major morning hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus.
    Diabetes Care 1987 Mar-Apr;10(2):141-7
    We analyzed 216 overnight blood glucose profiles (samples at 2100, 0300, and 0700 h) in 75 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus primarily to assess the impact of nocturnal hypoglycemia on morning hyperglycemia and secondarily to assess the frequency and magnitude of a night-to-morning increase in glucose levels in a clinical context. A dawn phenomenon (an 0300 to 0700 h increment in blood glucose) was rather uncommon in our patients (about one-third of profiles), was readily demonstrable in groups of patients only when nocturnal glucose levels were low (less than or equal to 50 mg/dl) or normal (51-100 mg/dl), and was generally not of great magnitude (mean 0700 h glucose levels of 114 mg/dl after 0300 h values of less than or equal to 100 mg/dl). Nocturnal hypoglycemia (0300 h blood glucose of less than or equal to 50 mg/dl, 7% of profiles) was followed by significant increments in blood glucose. Read More

    The effect of nicotine on cultured cells of vascular origin.
    Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 1985 ;407(4):441-7
    Monolayers of endothelial, smooth muscle and fibroblastic cells of healthy porcine, bovine or human fetal origin were treated with 10(-4) to 10(-9) M final concentrations of nicotine. The effect was registered as changes in the synthesis and polyimerization of the cytoskeleton. The silver and gold impregnation method produced anisotropy of the synthetic granules and of the final polymers of microtubules and filaments under physiological conditions as revealed by polarization microscopy. Read More

    Glucose counterregulation and waning of insulin in the Somogyi phenomenon (posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia).
    N Engl J Med 1984 Nov;311(19):1214-9
    To determine the roles of glucose counterregulation and the waning of insulin action in the development of posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia (the Somogyi phenomenon), we studied changes in plasma glucose and glucose turnover in five patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) after subcutaneous injection of insulin under conditions in which hypoglycemic glucose counterregulation and the waning of insulin action were allowed to occur or were prevented. In control experiments, in which both glucose counterregulation and insulin waning were allowed to occur, plasma glucose levels decreased from 94 +/- 3 to 47 +/- 7 mg per deciliter and then increased to 289 +/- 20 mg per deciliter at 12 hours because of a marked increase in glucose production. When the waning of insulin action was prevented by insulin infusion, glucose production increased less (P less than 0. Read More

    The dynamic basis of energy transduction in enzymes.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1984 Sep;768(2):81-112
    The most important idea underlying our treatment herein is the unity of the enzyme molecule and the medium. Appreciation of this relationship is vital, if enzymology is to graduate from its present reductionistic status to a more holistic posture. Enzymes are biological entities firstly, and isolated objects of physicochemical analysis secondly. Read More

    The Somogyi phenomenon. Sacred cow or bull?
    Arch Intern Med 1984 Apr;144(4):781-7
    Posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia (Somogyi phenomenon) occurs infrequently in insulin-treated diabetic patients. When it occurs it is often in children and adolescents, or patients with a short duration of diabetes. Marked hyperglycemia (greater than 220 mg/dL) after hypoglycemia results from a large meal to relieve the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Read More

    Methylated nucleic acid bases in Mycobacterium and mycobacteriophage DNA.
    Acta Microbiol Acad Sci Hung 1982 ;29(3):181-5
    Methylated bases of the DNA of two mycobacteria (Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium smegmatis var. butyricum) and two mycobacteriophages (Phage phlei and Phage butyricum) have been studied. In both the bacterial and the phage DNAs 5-methyl-cytosine and 6-methyl-aminopurine could be detected. Read More

    Fasting hyperglycemia and associated free-insulin and cortisol changes in Somogyi-like patients.
    Diabetes Care 1979 Dec;2(6):457-464
    Blood glucose levels were measured over a 24-h period in eight insulin-dependent diabetic subjects who were difficult to control and who presented with morning fasting hyperglycemia. At least seven exhibited clinical characteristics suggestive of the Somogyi phenomenon. A continuous glucose monitoring apparatus was used to relate the concentrations of glucose during the day to concomitant levels of free insulin and cortisol. Read More

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