771 results match your criteria Somnambulism Sleep Walking

Medicolegal aspects of non-rapid eye movement parasomnias.

Ann Acad Med Singap 2022 04;51(4):228-235

Neuroscience and Behavioural Disorders Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.

Introduction: In a subset of adults with non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias, clinical variants might be violent in nature and can potentially result in unintentional but considerable harm. As such, there is substantial interest on the forensic ramifications of these sleep behaviours.

Methods: This review examined the diagnostic criteria for parasomnias established in the context of international classification systems; medicolegal case reports; legal frameworks; and court cases in and outside of Singapore, to provide an overview of the implications of NREM parasomnias. Read More

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Dissociation of motor control from motor awareness in awake sleepwalkers: An EEG study in virtual reality.

Cortex 2022 04 9;149:165-172. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Sleep & Health Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Swiss Epilepsy Clinic, Klinik Lengg, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Recent behavioral evidence from a virtual reality (VR) study indicates that awake sleepwalkers show dissociation of motor control and motor awareness. This dissociation resembles the nocturnal disintegration of motor awareness and movement during episodes of sleepwalking. Here, we set out to examine the neural underpinnings of altered motor awareness in sleepwalkers by measuring EEG modulation during redirected walking in VR. Read More

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Self-reported developmental changes in the frequency and characteristics of somnambulistic and sleep terror episodes in chronic sleepwalkers.

Sleep Med 2022 01 20;89:147-155. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Centre for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital Du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, CIUSSS-NIM, Québec, Canada; Department of Psychology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Far from being benign, somnambulistic episodes can be frequent and/or severe and potentially injurious. Episodes may also be accompanied by sleep mentation with variable degrees of retrograde amnesia. The present study investigated how somnambulistic episodes unfold from childhood through adulthood, a topic that remains understudied. Read More

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January 2022

New-Onset Sleepwalking in a Patient Treated With Buspirone.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2022 Jan-Feb 01;42(1):96-98

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University, School of Medicine Detroit, MI

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February 2022

Olanzapine-Related Somnambulism: A Systematic Review of Literature and a Case Report of Anorexia Nervosa.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Nov-Dec 01;41(6):658-666

Background: Somnambulism, or sleepwalking (SW), is one of the most common forms of arousal parasomnias. It is characterized by different complex motor behaviors leading to unwanted movements in bed or walking during sleep. It can be the consequence of psychological stress, abnormal breathing during sleep, high fever, or drug adverse effects. Read More

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February 2022

Zolpidem for Insomnia: A Double-Edged Sword. A Systematic Literature Review on Zolpidem-Induced Complex Sleep Behaviors.

Indian J Psychol Med 2021 Sep 9;43(5):373-381. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Dept. of Pharmacology, Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

Background: Being a nonbenzodiazepine, zolpidem is believed to have a favorable side-effect profile and is widely prescribed for insomnia. However, in the past few years, numerous neuropsychiatric adverse reactions, particularly complex sleep behaviors (CSBs), have been reported with zolpidem.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review of zolpidem-associated CSBs. Read More

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September 2021

Genetic and demographic predisposing factors associated with pediatric sleepwalking in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Nov 20;430:119997. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Sleepwalking is a parasomnia associated with non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and is formally diagnosed using polysomnography (PSG). However, PSG are difficult to perform on children or adolescents due to needed compliance. To understand this condition in youth, few studies have been conducted on a large cohort of youths with a diverse distribution of ages and races to characterize it better in the absence of PSG. Read More

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November 2021

Geriatrics on beers criteria medications at risk of adverse drug events using real-world data.

Int J Med Inform 2021 10 22;154:104542. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Health Care Data Science Center, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; Departments of Biomedical Informatics, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: The established Beers Criteria consider side effects and safety concerns when prescribing drugs to the elderly. As the criteria suggest that attention should be paid toward prescriptions rather than prescription prohibition lists, these Beers Criteria medications (BCMs) are used appropriately under unavoidable circumstances.

Methods: Patients aged ≥ 65 years and with an experience of being prescribed inappropriate medications at Konyang University Hospital, South Korea, were selected. Read More

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October 2021

Sleepwalking and prolonged partial sleep paralysis in a case of obstructive sleep apnea.

Sleep Sci 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):186-189

All India Institute of Medical Sciences Rishikesh, Psychiatry - Rishikesh - Uttarakhand - India.

Observation of episodes of sleepwalking and prolonged partial sleep paralysis in the same patient is a rare condition. We present a case of 42 years gentleman who presented with recurrent episodes of sleepwalking and prolonged incomplete sleep paralysis. He was on tablet divalproate 1000mg/day and tablet olanzapine 5mg/day in view of a psychotic episode that occurred 4 years ago. Read More

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From burlesque to horror: a century of sleepwalking on the silver screen.

Sleep Med 2021 09 21;85:172-183. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Sleep Disorder Unit, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, Sorbonne University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Long before being described as a disorder, sleepwalking was considered as a mysterious phenomenon inspiring artwork. From the early beginning of cinema, sleepwalkers were shown to populations, playing a crucial role in storytelling and collective knowledge.

Objective: We characterized how sleepwalking has been portrayed in a large number of movies from the origins of cinema to recent years. Read More

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September 2021

Autonomic Modulation During Baseline and Recovery Sleep in Adult Sleepwalkers.

Front Neurol 2021 24;12:680596. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur Montréal, Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux du Nord-de-l'Île-de-Montréal (CIUSSS-NIM), Montreal, QC, Canada.

Sleepwalking has been conceptualized as deregulation between slow-wave sleep and arousal, with its occurrence in predisposed patients increasing following sleep deprivation. Recent evidence showed autonomic changes before arousals and somnambulistic episodes, suggesting that autonomic dysfunctions may contribute to the pathophysiology of sleepwalking. We investigated cardiac autonomic modulation during slow-wave sleep in sleepwalkers and controls during normal and recovery sleep following sleep deprivation. Read More

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Mental Activity During Episodes of Sleepwalking, Night Terrors or Confusional Arousals: Differences Between Children and Adults.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 21;13:829-840. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Sleep Medicine Unit, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Ospedale Civico, Lugano, Switzerland.

Objective/background: Night terrors, sleepwalking and confusional arousals are behavioral manifestations of incomplete awakenings from sleep. According to international diagnostic criteria, these behaviors occur in the absence of any mental experience, or in the presence of very limited cognition or dream imagery (eg, a single visual scene). The aim of this study was to systematically and retrospectively investigate the mental content associated with sleep terrors and/or sleepwalking in both children and adults. Read More

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Disorders of arousal in 4 older men: evidence from clinical practice.

J Clin Sleep Med 2022 01;18(1):129-136

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Neuromotorie, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Study Objectives: To describe clinical and video-polysomnographic features of disorders of arousal (DoA) in older adults.

Methods: Four consecutive male patients with nocturnal motor behaviors underwent a clinical interview, neurologic examination, laboratory tests, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and nocturnal in-laboratory or 24- to 48-hour home video polysomnography. The patients repeated an evaluation after 6 months of follow-up, including a 48-hour home video polysomnography in 2 patients. Read More

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January 2022

Noonan syndrome with somnambulism: A rare case report.

Ind Psychiatry J 2020 Jul-Dec;29(2):339-341. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Dr. D Y Patil Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant, genetic, multisystem disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 1000-2500 live births. Characteristic features of the condition include distinctive myopathic facial features, hypertelorism, short and broad nose, webbed neck, and low set ears. About 10% of the subjects have auditory defects due to sensorineural hearing loss. Read More

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An Unusual Case of Drunk Driving in Japan: Alcohol-Related Sleepwalking.

Acta Med Okayama 2021 Apr;75(2):255-259

Department of Medical Education, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine.

Alcohol has been identified as a potential precipitating factor for parasomnia, particularly sleepwalking (SW). We report an unusual case of a Japanese drunk driver who may have experienced alcohol-related SW, based on the statements of the suspect, pharmacokinetic analyses of the suspect's breath alcohol concentration, testimonies of witnesses, driving recorder data, and medical records. The existence of sleep-related criminal acts performed while a suspect experiences memory loss under the influence of alcohol has not been sufficiently recognized, and awareness of such acts should be raised among the police, public prosecutors, and the general public in Japan. Read More

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Frequent, complex and vivid dream-like/hallucinatory experiences during NREM sleep parasomnia episodes.

Sleep Med 2021 06 2;82:61-64. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Sleep Medicine Unit, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Ospedale Civico, Lugano, Switzerland; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università Della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland; Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland.

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Association of Sleepwalking and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder With Parkinson Disease in Men.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 04 1;4(4):e215713. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

Importance: Previous studies conducted among patients with Parkinson disease (PD) reported that parasomnias other than rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), particularly sleepwalking (SW), are associated with PD severity. However, it remains unclear whether the presence of SW is associated with altered odds of having PD in a population-based study.

Objective: To evaluate whether probable SW, either alone or co-occurring with probable RBD, is associated with higher odds of PD in men. Read More

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A safety signal of somnambulism with the use of antipsychotics and lithium: A pharmacovigilance disproportionality analysis.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 10 27;87(10):3971-3977. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Univ. Bordeaux, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, team Pharmacoepidemiology, UMR 1219, Bordeaux, F-33000, France.

Aims: Antipsychotics and lithium are widely used in psychiatry, particularly in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Recently, some cases of somnambulism or sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) have been reported in patients treated with these drugs. This study investigated the risk of reporting somnambulism or SRED associated with the use of antipsychotics and lithium. Read More

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October 2021

Restless sleep disorder in children with NREM parasomnias.

Sleep 2021 07;44(7)

Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Sleep and Disorders Unit, Istanbul, Turkey.

Study Objectives: Restless sleep disorder (RSD) is a newly defined sleep disorder in the pediatric age group. Here, we investigated the frequency of RSD and the sleep characteristics in children with NREM (non-rapid eye movements) parasomnias associated with RSD.

Methods: We analyzed all patients with NREM parasomnias for the last 1 year, and investigated the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics. Read More

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The Arousal Disorders Questionnaire: a new and effective screening tool for confusional arousals, Sleepwalking and Sleep Terrors in epilepsy and sleep disorders units.

Sleep Med 2021 04 29;80:279-285. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Arousal Disorders (DoA) include Confusional Arousals, Sleepwalking and Sleep Terrors. DoA diagnosis is mainly clinical but no validated questionnaires exist for DoA screening according to the criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition. Recently our group proposed the Arousal Disorders Questionnaire (ADQ) as a new diagnostic tool for DoA diagnosis. Read More

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NonREM Disorders of Arousal and Related Parasomnias: an Updated Review.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 01 1;18(1):124-139. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Neurology, Sleep Disorders Center, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Parasomnias are abnormal behaviors and/or experiences emanating from or associated with sleep typically manifesting as motor movements of varying semiology. We discuss mainly nonrapid eye movement sleep and related parasomnias in this article. Sleepwalking (SW), sleep terrors (ST), confusional arousals, and related disorders result from an incomplete dissociation of wakefulness from nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Read More

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January 2021

Spindles insufficiency in sleepwalkers' deep sleep.

Neurophysiol Clin 2020 Oct 4;50(5):339-343. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur, Montréal, Canada; Department of Neurosciences, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.

Objectives: Sleepwalkers have consistently shown N3 sleep discontinuity, especially after sleep deprivation. In healthy subjects, sleep spindles activity has been positively correlated to sleep stability. We aimed to compare spindles density during N3 sleep between sleepwalkers and healthy controls. Read More

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October 2020

NREM parasomnia as a dream enacting behavior.

A L Rocha I Arnulf

Sleep Med 2020 11 6;75:103-105. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Sleep Disorder Unit, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France; [email protected], Sorbonne University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

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November 2020

You must become Caligari!

Simon Guerrier

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 08;7(8):670-671

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Increased behavioral inhibition trait and negative stress coping in non-rapid eye movement parasomnias.

J Clin Sleep Med 2020 10;16(10):1737-1744

Department of Neurology, Institute of Translational Neurology, University Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Study Objectives: Reduced gray matter volume in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has recently been found in patients with non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnia, providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the arousal state dissociation. It remains unclear whether PCC changes in NREM parasomnias might also play a role in cognitive or affective dysfunction in these patients. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate neurobehavioral correlates of PCC abnormalities in patients with NREM parasomnia. Read More

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October 2020

Sleepwalking and sleep-related eating associated with atypical antipsychotic medications: Case series and systematic review of literature.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2020 Jul - Aug;65:74-81. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Sleep Medicine, CentraCare, MN, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Sleep walking (SW) is a parasomnia behavior characterized by repetitious occurrence of ambulation during a partial arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Sleep-related eating (SRE) is one of the complex sleep behaviors that may accompany SW. Emerging evidence suggests that NREM parasomnias can be associated with atypical antipsychotic medication use. Read More

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The mysteries of hysteria: a historical perspective.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2020 Aug - Sep;32(5-6):437-450. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Neurology and Neuro-rehabilitation, Swiss Medical Network Neurocenter, Montreux, Switzerland.

Jean-Martin Charcot started his main work on hysteria around 1870, until his death in 1893. Désiré Bourneville had triggered Charcot's interest in hysteria during his stay as an in his department, while Charles Richet's 1875 article on somnambulism was the trigger for Charcot to develop hypnotism. Charcot's collaborators Paul Richer, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Sollier, Joseph Babinski, Sigmund Freud and Pierre Janet subsequently became most famous in hysteria. Read More

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November 2021

From ecstasy to divine somnambulism: Henri Delacroix's studies in the history and psychology of mysticism.

Matei Iagher

Hist Psychol 2020 11 14;23(4):333-350. Epub 2020 May 14.

University College London.

This article aims at placing Henri Delacroix's (1908) book on the psychology of mysticism in the context of debates in the psychology of religion in the earlier part of the 20th century. I argue that Delacroix's work was authored as part of a wider debate that Delacroix maintained with the American school of the psychology of religion regarding the role of emotions in religious experience. As I show, Delacroix sought to counter the primacy of the affective in religious experience, which the Americans maintained, and to introduce the notion of a developmental logic into the mystical life. Read More

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November 2020

A case of somnambulism?

Paul Batchelor

Br Dent J 2020 04;228(8):565

Honorary Clinical Professor, School of Medicine, University of Central Lancashire, UK.

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