37,960 results match your criteria Somatosensory Evoked Potentials: Clinical Applications


Anomalous Bodily Maps of Emotions in Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.

Objective: Embodied emotions arise from interoceptive and somatosensory processes, and are essential to the development of a stable sense of self. Emotional embodiment is therefore inherently interwoven with our sense of bodily self-awareness, and allows us to navigate complex social situations. Given that the core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) is characterized by the presence of bodily self-disturbances and social-emotional deficits, we hypothesized that embodiment of emotion would be disrupted in SZ. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Synaptic potentiation and rapid antidepressant response to ketamine in treatment-resistant major depression: A replication study.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Sep 12;283:64-66. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Preclinical and clinical evidence has demonstrated that ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects. Studies using pre-treatment with an AMPA inhibitor suggest that enhancing AMPA throughput is crucial to ketamine's effects, including increases in both basal and evoked gamma power. This study sought to replicate previous findings of increased gamma response to a somatosensory stimulus at 230 min and Day 1 in ketamine responders versus non-responders in 31 depressed subjects and 25 healthy controls. Read More

View Article
September 2018
1 Read

Somatosensory Evoked Potential Changes and Decompression Timing for Spinal Cord Function Recovery and Evoked Potentials in Rats with Spinal Cord Injury.

Brain Res Bull 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, 442000, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate changes of somatosensory evoked potentials and the effects of decompression timing on spinal cord recovery and evoked potentials by measuring the somatosensory evoked potentials of rats with spinal cord injury at different time points.

Methods: A total of 70 SD rats were divided into the control group (group A) and the experimental group. The experimental groups included group B, C and D according to the severity of spinal cord injury. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Cervical Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Vegetative State: A Preliminary Result of 12 Cases.

Neuromodulation 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objectives: Data on the treatment of the vegetative state (VS) with cervical spinal cord stimulation (cSCS) are limited and prognostic factors are inconclusive. In this study, we present our experience of treating 12 VS patients with cSCS and discuss the prognostic factors.

Methods: Twelve VS patients were enrolled. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Sensory coding is impaired in rat absence epilepsy.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, GIN, F-38000, Grenoble, France.

Key Points: Absence epilepsy is characterized by the occurrence of spike-and-wave discharges concomitant with an alteration of consciousness and associated with cognitive comorbidities. In a genetic model of absence epilepsy in the rat, the GAERS, we showed that spike-and-wave discharges are initiated in the barrel field primary somatosensory cortex that codes whisker-related information therefore playing an essential role in rodents' interactions with their environment. Sensory-information processing is impaired in the epileptic barrel field primary somatosensory cortex of GAERS with a delayed sensory-evoked potential and a duplicated neuronal response to whisker-stimulation in in vivo extracellular recordings. Read More

View Article
December 2018

MISC: missing imputation for single-cell RNA sequencing data.

BMC Syst Biol 2018 Dec 14;12(Suppl 7):114. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Joint Bioinformatics Program, University of Arkansas Little Rock George Washington Donaghey College of Engineering & IT and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 72204, USA.

Background: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology provides an effective way to study cell heterogeneity. However, due to the low capture efficiency and stochastic gene expression, scRNA-seq data often contains a high percentage of missing values. It has been showed that the missing rate can reach approximately 30% even after noise reduction. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Deficits in Behavioral Functions of Intact Barrel Cortex Following Lesions of Homotopic Contralateral Cortex.

Front Syst Neurosci 2018 22;12:57. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India.

Focal unilateral injuries to the somatosensory whisker barrel cortex have been shown cause long-lasting deficits in the activity and experience-dependent plasticity of neurons in the intact contralateral barrel cortex. However, the long-term effect of these deficits on behavioral functions of the intact contralesional cortex is not clear. In this study, we used the "Gap-crossing task" a barrel cortex-dependent, whisker-sensitive, tactile behavior to test the hypothesis that unilateral lesions of the somatosensory cortex would affect behavioral functions of the intact somatosensory cortex and degrade the execution of a bilaterally learnt behavior. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Dendritic spines in early postnatal Fragile X mice are insensitive to novel sensory experience.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Departments of Neurology

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often associated with atypical sensory processing and sensory hypersensitivity, which can lead to maladaptive behaviors, such as tactile defensiveness. Such altered sensory perception in ASD could arise from disruptions in experience-dependent maturation of circuits during early brain development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synaptic structures of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) neurons in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is a common inherited cause of autism, are not modulated by novel sensory information during development. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Machine learning-based prediction of clinical pain using multimodal neuroimaging and autonomic metrics.

Pain 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States.

Although self-report pain ratings are the gold standard in clinical pain assessment, they are inherently subjective in nature and significantly influenced by multidimensional contextual variables. Although objective biomarkers for pain could substantially aid pain diagnosis and development of novel therapies, reliable markers for clinical pain have been elusive. In this study, individualized physical maneuvers were used to exacerbate clinical pain in patients with chronic low back pain (N = 53), thereby experimentally producing lower and higher pain states. Read More

View Article
October 2018
2 Reads

From anatomy to function: the role of the somatosensory cortex in emotional regulation.

Braz J Psychiatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Mood Disorders Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

 : Since the pioneering work of Penfield and his colleagues in the 1930s, the somatosensory cortex, which is located on the postcentral gyrus, has been known for its central role in processing sensory information from various parts of the body. More recently, a converging body of literature has shown that the somatosensory cortex also plays an important role in each stage of emotional processing, including identification of emotional significance in a stimulus, generation of emotional states, and regulation of emotion. Importantly, studies conducted in individuals suffering from mental disorders associated with abnormal emotional regulation, such as major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and panic disorders, specific phobia, obesity, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, have found structural and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex. Read More

View Article
December 2018

An Investigation and Suggestions for the Improvement of Brain Death Determination in China.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(24):2910-2914

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China/Brain Injury Evaluation Quality Control Centre, Beijing 100053, China.

Background: Brain death is the irreversible cessation of the function of the brain including the brainstem. In 2013, the Brain Injury Evaluation Quality Control Centre (BQCC) of the National Health and Family Planning Commission issued criteria and practical guidelines for the determination of brain death. This study aimed to evaluate whether the institutions have adopted these guidelines and to make suggestions for the improvement of the current criteria and practical guidelines for brain death determination in China. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Critical Role of Somatosensation in Postural Control Following Spaceflight: Vestibularly Deficient Astronauts Are Not Able to Maintain Upright Stance During Compromised Somatosensation.

Front Physiol 2018 27;9:1680. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Human Research Program, Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX, United States.

The free-fall of orbital spaceflight effectively removes the gravitational vector used as a primary spatial orientation reference on Earth. Sustained absence of this reference drives adaptive changes in the internal perception-action models of the central nervous system (CNS), most notably in the processing of the vestibular otolith inputs. Upon landing, the return of the gravitational signal triggers a re-adaptation that restores terrestrial performance; however, during this period, the individual suffers from a functional vestibular deficiency. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Visual-Somatosensory Integration and Quantitative Gait Performance in Aging.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 27;10:377. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Cognitive and Motor Aging, Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States.

The ability to integrate information across sensory modalities is an integral aspect of mobility. Yet, the association between visual-somatosensory (VS) integration and gait performance has not been well-established in aging. A total of 333 healthy older adults (mean age 76. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Long-Term Effects of Early Life Seizures on Endogenous Local Network Activity of the Mouse Neocortex.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2018 27;10:43. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Understanding the long term impact of early life seizures (ELS) is of vital importance both for researchers and clinicians. Most experimental studies of how seizures affect the developing brain have drawn their conclusions based on changes detected at the cellular or behavioral level, rather than on intermediate levels of analysis, such as the physiology of neuronal networks. Neurons work as part of networks and network dynamics integrate the function of molecules, cells and synapses in the emergent properties of brain circuits that reflect the balance of excitation and inhibition in the brain. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Prospective study of clinical, neurophysiological and urodynamic findings in multiple scleosis patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal venous angioplasty.

Clin Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 26;130(1):138-144. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Unit of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: Verify whether Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) may affect neural conduction properties in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, thereby modifying patients' disability, with prospective neurophysiological, urodynamic, clinical and subjective well-being evaluations.

Methods: In 55 out of 72 consecutively screened MS patients, the following procedures were carried out before (T0), at 2-6 months (T1) and at 6-15 months (T2) after a diagnostic phlebography, eventually followed by the PTA intervention if chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was diagnosed: clinical/objective evaluation (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS), ratings of subjective well-being, evaluation of urodynamic functions and multimodal EPs (visual, acoustic, upper and lower limbs somatosensory and motor evoked potentials).

Results: The number of dropouts was relatively high, and a complete set of neurophysiological and clinical data remained available for 37 patients (19 for urological investigations). Read More

View Article
November 2018

Brain MRI Lesions are Related to Bowel Incontinence in Multiple Sclerosis.

J Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Bowel incontinence in multiple sclerosis might be associated with specific lesion sites. This study intended to determine associations between bowel incontinence and cerebral multiple sclerosis lesions using a voxel-wise lesion symptom mapping analysis.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of multiple sclerosis patients with self-reported bowel incontinence and matched controls. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Emergence of Coordinated Activity in the Developing Entorhinal-Hippocampal Network.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

INMED, Aix-Marseille University, INSERM, Marseille, France.

Correlated activity in the entorhinal-hippocampal neuronal networks, supported by oscillatory and intermittent population activity patterns is critical for learning and memory. However, when and how correlated activity emerges in these networks during development remains largely unknown. Here, we found that during the first postnatal week in non-anaesthetized head-restrained rats, activity in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and hippocampus was highly correlated, with intermittent population bursts in the MEC followed by early sharp waves (eSPWs) in the hippocampus. Read More

View Article
December 2018
4 Reads

Somatosensory Plasticity in Pediatric Cerebral Palsy following Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy.

Neural Plast 2018 8;2018:1891978. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences & Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is predominantly a disorder of movement, with evidence of sensory-motor dysfunction. CIMT is a widely used treatment for hemiplegic CP. However, effects of CIMT on somatosensory processing remain unclear. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Identifying the pathways required for coping behaviours associated with sustained pain.

Nature 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Animals and humans display two types of response to noxious stimuli. The first includes reflexive defensive responses that prevent or limit injury; a well-known example of these responses is the quick withdrawal of one's hand upon touching a hot object. When the first-line response fails to prevent tissue damage (for example, a finger is burnt), the resulting pain invokes a second-line coping response-such as licking the injured area to soothe suffering. Read More

View Article
December 2018
6 Reads
42.351 Impact Factor

Correlates of Residual Limb Pain: from Residual Limb Length and Usage to Metabolites and Activity in Secondary Somatosensory Cortex.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Most recent studies attribute residual limb pain to peripheral pathological changes of the stump. However, in this study, we focus on its associations with the residual limb length, usage as well as the metabolic and functional alterations of the brain. The secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), one important area involved in pain intensity discrimination, was selected as the region of interest. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Transcranial alternating current stimulation at 10 Hz modulates response bias in the Somatic Signal Detection Task.

Int J Psychophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. Electronic address:

Ongoing, pre-stimulus oscillatory activity in the 8-13 Hz alpha range has been shown to correlate with both true and false reports of peri-threshold somatosensory stimuli. However, to directly test the role of such oscillatory activity in behaviour, it is necessary to manipulate it. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers a method of directly manipulating oscillatory brain activity using a sinusoidal current passed to the scalp. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Somatosensory temporal discrimination is impaired in fibromyalgia.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Motor Control Laboratory, Besevler, 06510 Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: Fibromyalgia is the prototypical central sensitivity syndrome which is associated with increased sensitivity to pain and other stimuli. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether somatosensory temporal discrimination ability, which provides information about central processing of sensory stimuli, was impaired in patients with fibromyalgia.

Methods: Fifteen patients with fibromyalgia and 15 healthy subjects participated in the study. Read More

View Article
October 2018

The diagnostic accuracy of somatosensory evoked potentials in evaluating neurological deficits during 1057 lumbar interbody fusions.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Lumbar interbody spinal fusion (LIF) surgeries are performed to treat or prevent back pain in patients with degenerated intervertebral discs and a variety of spinal diseases. However, post-operative neurological complications may ensue. Intraoperative monitoring techniques have been used to predict and potentially reduce the risk of complications. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Space counts! Brain correlates of spatial and numerical representations in synaesthesia.

Cortex 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Psychology and Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Over-learned semantic representations, such as numbers, are strongly associated with space in normal cognition, and in the phenomenon called number-space synaesthesia. In number-space synaesthesia, numbers are linked to spatial locations in an idiosyncratic way. Synaesthetes report numbers as belonging to a specific location, or feelings that a specific location is the right location for that number. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Pain characterization and response to palliative care in dogs with naturally-occurring appendicular osteosarcoma: An open label clinical trial.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207200. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

GREPAQ (Groupe de recherche en pharmacologie animale du Québec), Department of biomedical sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada.

This study aimed to characterize bone cancer pain (quantitative sensory testing (QST), stance asymmetry index, actimetry, scores of pain and quality of life (QoL)) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA), and to evaluate a stepwise palliative analgesic treatment. The pain profile of thirteen client-owned dogs with OSA was compared with seven healthy dogs. Dogs with OSA were then enrolled in a prospective, open-label, clinical trial. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

A databank for intracellular electrophysiological mapping of the adult somatosensory cortex.

Gigascience 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurophysiology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen - the Netherlands.

Background: Neurons in the supragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex integrate sensory (bottom-up) and cognitive/perceptual (top-down) information as they orchestrate communication across cortical columns. It has been inferred, based on intracellular recordings from juvenile animals, that supragranular neurons are electrically mature by the fourth postnatal week. However, the dynamics of the neuronal integration in the adulthood is largely unknown. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Individual optimal attentional strategy during implicit motor learning boosts frontoparietal neural processing efficiency: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 5:e01183. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Japan.

Introduction: Optimal focus of attention is a crucial factor for improving motor learning. Most previous studies have shown that directing attention to movement outcome (external focus; EF) is more effective than directing attention to body movement itself (internal focus; IF). However, our recent studies demonstrated that the optimal attentional strategy in healthy and clinical populations varies depending on individual motor imagery ability. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

miR-202 modulates the progression of neuropathic pain through targeting RAP1A.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Anestheiology, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong, China.

Neuropathic pain is a somatosensory disorder which is caused by disease or nerve injury that affects the nervous system. microRNAs (miRNAs) are proved to play crucial roles in the development of neuropathic pain. However, the role of miR-202 in neuropathic pain is still unknown. Read More

View Article
December 2018
5 Reads

A comparison of biological activity of commercially available purified native botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A1 to F1 in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2018 Dec 22;6(6):e00446. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Ipsen Bioinnovation Abingdon Oxford UK.

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a major therapeutic agent. Of seven native BoNT serotypes (A to G), only A and B are currently used in the clinic. Here we compared the potency of commercially available purified native serotypes A1 to F1 across in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Altered pain processing in people with type I and II diabetes: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of pain threshold and pain modulation mechanisms.

Syst Rev 2018 Dec 5;7(1):222. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The Hopkins Centre, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.

Background: Peripheral neuropathies are a common complication in patients with diabetes. Changes in nerve function and central pain processing can be quantified by assessing pain thresholds and pain modulation mechanisms.

Aim: To summarise the literature which compares pain thresholds and pain modulation mechanisms in people with diabetes without neuropathies, with non-painful diabetic neuropathies and with painful diabetic neuropathies, and in people without diabetes. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Persistent reduction in sialylation of cerebral glycoproteins following postnatal inflammatory exposure.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Dec 5;15(1):336. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Paediatrics, Sainte-Justine Hospital Research Center, Université de Montréal, Montreal, H3T 1C5, QC, Canada.

Background: The extension of sepsis encompassing the preterm newborn's brain is often overlooked due to technical challenges in this highly vulnerable population, yet it leads to substantial long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities. In this study, we demonstrate how neonatal neuroinflammation following postnatal E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in rat pups results in persistent reduction in sialylation of cerebral glycoproteins. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read
5.408 Impact Factor

Robot-assisted gait training effectively improved lateropulsion in subacute stroke patients: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Republic of Korea -

Background: Some stroke patients are known to use nonparetic extremities to push toward the paretic side, a movement known as lateropulsion. Lateropulsion impairs postural balance and interferes with rehabilitation.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) on recovery from lateropulsion compared with conventional physical therapy (CPT). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, reduces cisplatin-evoked neuropathic pain by protecting against oxidative stress.

Pain 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Painful peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of cisplatin treatment. Using a murine model of cisplatin-induced hyperalgesia, we determined whether a PPARγ synthetic agonist, pioglitazone, attenuated the development of neuropathic pain and identified underlying mechanisms. Cisplatin produced mechanical and cold hyperalgesia and decreased electrical thresholds of Aδ and C-fibers, which were attenuated by co-administration of pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, i. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Effects of Tonic Spinal Cord Stimulation on Sensory Perception in Chronic Pain Patients: A Systematic Review.

Neuromodulation 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec - Université Laval, Axe neurosciences, Quebec city, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: Even if spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is widely used and effective in treating intractable chronic neuropathic pain conditions, little is known about its possible impacts on sensory perception. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a useful tool to assess this issue. The aim of this study was to review the impact of tonic SCS on somatosensory perception quantified by QST in chronic pain patients. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A Single-Blinded Trial Using Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Painful Neuropathy.

Diabetes Ther 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

About two-thirds of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) suffer from anxiety and/or depression disorders. However, the pathogenesis of PDN is unclear, in particular with respect to the mechanism associated with the central nervous system. We used the neuroimaging techniques of fraction amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and regional homogeneity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the brain activity in patients with PDN. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Paradoxical, causal effects of sensory gain modulation on motor inhibitory control - a tDCS, EEG-source localization study.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 30;8(1):17486. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, TU Dresden, Germany.

Response inhibition is a key component of executive functioning, but the role of perceptual processes has only recently been focused. Although the interrelation of incoming information and resulting behavioural (motor) effects is well-known to depend on gain control mechanisms, the causal role of sensory gain modulation for response inhibition is elusive. We investigate it using a somatosensory response inhibition (Go/Nogo) task and examine the effects of parietal (somatosensory) cathodal and sham tDCS stimulation on a behavioural and neurophysiological level. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

A sensorimotor pathway via higher-order thalamus.

J Neurosci 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 60637

We now appreciate that sensory processing in cortex occurs not only via direct communication between primary to secondary areas but also via their parallel cortico-thalamo-cortical (i.e., transthalamic) pathways. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Brain systems at the intersection of chronic pain and self-regulation.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

University of Colorado, Boulder, United States. Electronic address:

Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with cognitive, affective, and somatosensory components that can be modified by expectations and learning. Individual differences in cognitive and affective processing, as well as contextual aspects of the pain experience, render chronic pain an inherently personal experience. Such individual differences are supported by the heterogeneity of brain representations within and across chronic pain pathologies. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

The posterior insular-opercular cortex: An access to the brain networks of thermosensory and nociceptive processes?

Authors:
R Peyron C Fauchon

Neurosci Lett 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Central Integration of Pain team (NeuroPain), Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Inserm U1028, UCB Lyon1, UJM, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, France.

In spite of systematic investigations, the existence of a specific cortex that could encode for the intensities of somatosensory stimuli, including within nociceptive ranges, is still a matter of debate. The present consensus is that pain is expressed in a distributed network made of thalamus, SII, insula, ACC, and, less consistently, SI. Here we argument that there must be an entrance to this network. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

Quantitative study of the somatosensory sensitization underlying cross-modal plasticity.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0208089. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Development Biology and Neuroscience, Tohoku University Graduate School of Life Science, Sendai, Japan.

Loss of one sensory modality can cause other types to become more perceptive (cross-modal plasticity). To test the hypothesis that the loss of vision changes the perceptual threshold in the somatosensory system, we applied optogenetics to directly manipulate the afferent inputs involved in the whisker-barrel system using a transgenic rat (W-TChR2V4) that expresses channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) selectively in the large mechanoreceptive neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and their peripheral nerve terminals. The licking behavior of W-TChR2V4 rat was conditioned to a blue LED light cue on the whisker area while the magnitude and duration of light pulses were varied. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Artificial tactile and proprioceptive feedback improves performance and confidence on object identification tasks.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0207659. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

Somatosensory feedback of the hand is essential for object identification. Without somatosensory feedback, individuals cannot reliably determine the size or compliance of an object. Electrical nerve stimulation can restore localized tactile and proprioceptive feedback with intensity discrimination capability similar to natural sensation. Read More

View Article
December 2018
6 Reads

Locating primary somatosensory cortex in human brain stimulation studies: Systematic review and meta-analytic evidence.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over human primary somatosensory cortex (S1), unlike over primary motor cortex (M1), does not produce an immediate, objective output. Researchers must therefore rely on one or more indirect methods to position the TMS coil over S1. The 'gold standard' method of TMS coil positioning is to use individual functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (F/SMRI) alongside a stereotactic navigation system. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Dissociation of muscle and cortical response scaling to balance perturbation acceleration.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

W.H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, United States.

The role of cortical activity in standing balance is unclear. Here we tested whether perturbation-evoked cortical responses share sensory input with simultaneous balance-correcting muscle responses. We hypothesized that the acceleration-dependent somatosensory signals that drive the initial burst of the muscle automatic postural response also drive the simultaneous perturbation-evoked cortical N1 response. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Corollary discharge in precerebellar nuclei of sleeping infant rats.

Elife 2018 12 5;7. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa, United States.

In week-old rats, somatosensory input arises predominantly from external stimuli or from sensory feedback (reafference) associated with myoclonic twitches during active sleep. A previous study suggested that the brainstem motor structures that produce twitches also send motor copies (or corollary discharge, CD) to the cerebellum. We tested this possibility by recording from two precerebellar nuclei-the inferior olive (IO) and lateral reticular nucleus (LRN). Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

ANO10 mutational screening in recessive ataxia: genetic findings and refinement of the clinical phenotype.

J Neurol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Unit of Medical Genetics and Neurogenetics, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 3 (ARCA3) is a rare inherited disorder caused by mutations in the ANO10 gene. The disease is characterized by slowly progressive spastic ataxia variably associated with motor neuron involvement, epilepsy, and cognitive decline. We performed mutational screening in 80 patients with sporadic or autosomal recessive adult-onset ataxia. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

A Prospective Study of the Impact of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on EEG Correlates of Somatosensory Perception.

Front Psychol 2018 20;9:2117. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.

The (8-12 Hz) neocortical alpha rhythm is associated with shifts in attention across sensory systems, and is thought to represent a sensory gating mechanism for the inhibitory control of cortical processing. The present preliminary study sought to explore whether alpha frequency transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) could modulate endogenous alpha power in the somatosensory system, and whether the hypothesized modulation would causally impact perception of tactile stimuli at perceptual threshold. We combined electroencephalography (EEG) with simultaneous brief and intermittent tACS applied over primary somatosensory cortex at individuals' endogenous alpha frequency during a tactile detection task ( = 12 for EEG, = 20 for behavior). Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Functional neural mechanisms of sensory phenomena in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Nov 21;109:68-75. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Sensory phenomena (SP) are aversive or uncomfortable sensations that accompany and/or drive repetitive behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although SP are associated with significant distress and may respond less well to standard treatments than harm-related obsessions, little is known about their underlying neurobiology. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain functioning related to severity of SP during a "body-focused" videos task designed to elicit activation in sensorimotor brain regions. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Hemodynamic and neuronal responses to cocaine differ in awake versus anesthetized animals: Optical brain imaging study.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA. Electronic address:

Cocaine is a highly addictive drug with complex pharmacological effects. Most preclinical imaging studies investigating the effects of cocaine in the brain have been performed under anesthesia, which confounds findings. To tackle this problem, we used optical imaging to compare the effects of cocaine in the awake versus the anesthetized state. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Application of epineural sheath conduit for restoration of 6-cm long nerve defects in a sheep median nerve model.

Microsurgery 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Due to limited number of studies, we tested feasibility of autologous epineural sheath conduit (ESC) in repair of 6-cm median nerve gaps in a sheep-the large animal model.

Materials And Methods: Eight ewes, 6-8 months old, 30-35 kg, were divided into three experimental groups: group 1-no defect repair (n = 4 nerves/group), group 2-autograft controls (n = 6 nerves/group), group 3-autologous ESC filled with saline (n = 6 nerves/group). ESC was constructed from a 6-cm long segment of sheep median nerve and tested for expression of laminin B, Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100 and CD31 using immunofluorescent staining. Read More

View Article
December 2018