38,429 results match your criteria Somatosensory & Motor Research [Journal]


Selective effect of static stretching, concentric contractions, and a one-leg balance task on ankle motion sense in young and older adults.

Gait Posture 2019 Apr 10;71:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Being aware of ankle movement and motor control has a critical role in maintaining balance during functional activities such as standing, walking, and running. Since the somatosensory system declines with aging, this is even more important for older adults.

Research Question: How do different exercise modalities (static stretching, one-leg balance task, concentric contractions, and control) acutely influence ankle motion sense in young and older adults?

Methods: Seventeen young and fifteen older participants performed four different intervention protocols (static stretching, one-leg balance task, concentric contractions, and control) in random order. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Vestibular Function Modulates the Benefit of Hearing Aids in People With Hearing Loss During Static Postural Control.

Ear Hear 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

École d'orthophonie et d'audiologie, Université de Montréal, Québec, Montréal, Canada.

Objectives: To evaluate the influence of auditory cues on postural sway in normal-hearing (NH) individuals, hearing-impaired individuals with vestibular impairment (HIVL), or hearing-impaired (HI) individuals without vestibular impairment.

Design: Thirty-two participants received a hearing and a vestibular evaluation (vHIT, oVEMP, cVEMP) and then were separated in to three groups (NH, HI, HIVL). All participants had to stand on a force platform in four postural conditions (A: EO/firm, B: EC/firm, C: EO/Foam, D: EC/Foam) under two auditory conditions, with or without auditory cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000720DOI Listing

Effects of Light Touch on Balance in Patients with Stroke.

Open Med (Wars) 2019 9;14:259-263. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea, 191 Hambangmoe-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Inchon, 406-799, Republic of Korea.

Light touch is the combination of cutaneous and kinesthetic inputs. The literature suggests that light touch compensates for a reduced amount of center of pressure information in older peoples, blind subjects and patients with neurological disorder. This study investigated the effects of light touch applied to an external bar, on the postural sway in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2019-0021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463820PMC

Optogenetics: Therapeutic spark in neuropathic pain.

Authors:
Long Wang Kang Liu

Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 # Jie Fang road Wu Chang District, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

Optogenetics is an emerging field, which uses light and molecular genetics to manipulate the activity of live cells by expressing light-sensitive proteins. With the discovery of bacteriorhodopsin, a light-sensitive bacterial protein, in 1971 Oesterhelt and Stoeckenius laid the pavement of optogenetics. However, the cross-integration of different disciplines is a little more than a decade old. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2019.4114DOI Listing

Evoked potentials improve multimodal prognostication after cardiac arrest.

Resuscitation 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Aim: Predicting recovery in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients requires multiple modalities of prognostic assessment. In isolation, absent N20 cortical responses in somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) are a specific predictor of poor outcome. It is unknown whether SSEP results, when assessed in the context of prior knowledge (demographic and clinical information), change the pretest predicted probability of recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2019.04.011DOI Listing

The effects of textured insoles on quiet standing balance in four stance types with and without vision.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2019 4;11. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

1School of Health and Social Care, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, TS1 3BX UK.

Background: Wearing a textured shoe insole can decrease postural sway during static balance. Previous studies assessed bipedal and/or unipedal standing. In contrast, we aimed to investigate if textured insoles modulated postural sway during four stance types (bipedal, standard Romberg, tandem Romberg, and unipedal), with and without vision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13102-019-0117-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449971PMC

Estrogen-Dependent Functional Spine Dynamics in Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons of the Mouse.

J Neurosci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 916 Hunterian Building, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA

Surgical ovariectomy has been shown to reduce spine density in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of rodents, and this reduction is reversed by 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment in a model of human estrogen replacement therapy. Here, we report reduction of spine density in apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons of several neocortical regions that is reversed by subsequent E2 treatment in ovariectomized (OVX) female Thy1M-EGFP mice. We also found that OVX-associated reduction of spine density in somatosensory cortex was accompanied by a reduction in mEPSC frequency (but not mIPSC frequency), indicating a change in functional synapses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2772-18.2019DOI Listing

Real-Time Performance of a Tactile Neuroprosthesis on Awake Behaving Rats.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

With the advancement of electrode and equipment technology, neuroprosthetics have become a promising alternative to partially compensate for the loss of sensorimotor function in amputees and patients with neurological diseases. Cortical neural interfaces are suitable especially for spinal cord injuries and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although considerable success has been achieved in the literature by spike decoding of motor signáis from the human brain, somatosensory feedback is essential for better motor control, interaction with objects, and the embodiment of prosthetic devices. Read More

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https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8688479/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2019.2910320DOI Listing
April 2019
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Neuroplasticity modifications following a lower-limb amputation: a systematic review.

PM R 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Departamento de Fisioterapia, Terapia Ocupacional, Rehabilitación y Medicina Física. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos.

Background: Although there are studies that have examined brain functional reorganization following upper limb amputation, understanding of the brain changes that occur in people with lower limb amputation is limited.

Objective: To investigate modifications in the brain following lower limb amputation.

Methods: We included case-control studies that evaluate neuroplasticity in the central nervous system using neuroimaging techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmrj.12167DOI Listing

Effects of resveratrol in the signaling of neuropathic pain involving P2X3 in the dorsal root ganglion of rats.

Acta Neurol Belg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmaceutics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, No. 88 Jiankang Road, Weihui, 453100, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Neuropathic pain is a major public health problem because it has a considerable impact on life quality of patients. Neuropathic pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, which causes unpleasant and abnormal sensation (dysesthesia), an increased response to painful stimuli (hyperalgesia), and pain in response to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain (allodynia). P2X receptors from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) play a crucial role in facilitating pain transmission at peripheral and spinal sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-019-01126-2DOI Listing

Intraoperative evaluation of cervical nerve root avulsion using ultra-high-frequency ultrasound system.

Case Reports Plast Surg Hand Surg 2019 2;6(1):43-46. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Avulsion of C5 and C7 nerve roots was confirmed intraoperatively in a 21 year old male presenting after motor vehicle accident with confirmed absence of somatosensory evoked potentials upon stimulation via ultra-high-frequency ultrasound (70 MHz). Ultra-high-frequency ultrasound can be used as a reliable tool to directly visualise nerve injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23320885.2019.1583569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450574PMC

Investigations on maladaptive plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex of unilateral upper limb CRPS I patients.

Restor Neurol Neurosci 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Functional Imaging Unit, Center for Diagnostic Radiology, University of Greifswald, Germany.

Background: Patients with a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the upper limb show a sensory and motor impairment of the hand. Decreased intra-cortical-inhibition (ICI) of the motor representation of the affected hand muscle and decreased somatosensory hand representation size were related to maladaptive plasticity.

Objective: To achieve new insights about CRPS we examined whether these alterations were present in a single cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/RNN-180886DOI Listing

Long-term effects of neonatal pain.

Authors:
Suellen M Walker

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Clinical Neurosciences (Pain Research), UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, United Kingdom; Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trustvd, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Pain experienced during neonatal intensive care management can influence neurodevelopmental outcome and the somatosensory and/or emotional components of pain response in later life. Alterations in biological factors (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2019.04.005DOI Listing

The impact of elevated body mass on brain responses during appetitive prediction error in postpartum women.

Physiol Behav 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States of America; Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States of America. Electronic address:

Repeated exposure to highly palatable foods and elevated weight promote: 1) insensitivity to punishment in striatal regions and, 2) increased willingness to work for food. We hypothesized that BMI would be positively associated with negative prediction error BOLD response in the occipital cortex. Additionally, we postulated that food reinforcement value would be negatively associated with negative prediction error BOLD response in the orbital frontal cortex and amygdala. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Multimodal intraoperative monitoring during surgical correction of scoliosis to avoid neurologic damage.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Apr;98(15):e15067

Department of Orthopaedic.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of multimodal intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) system in patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Twelve patients who underwent posterior surgical correction of scoliosis for CS and AIS from June 2014 to July 2018 were enrolled in this study. During the operation, we monitored the functional status of the spinal cord by MIOM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015067DOI Listing

Somatosensory predictors of response to pregabalin in painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

Pain 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO.

Painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating and treatment-resistant sequela of many chemotherapeutic medications. Ligands of α2δ subunits of voltage-gated Ca channels, such as pregabalin, have shown efficacy in reducing mechanical sensitivity in animal models of neuropathic pain. In addition, some data suggest that pregabalin may be more efficacious in relieving neuropathic pain in subjects with increased sensitivity to pinprick. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001577DOI Listing

High-threshold primary afferent supply of spinal lamina X neurons.

Pain 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Sensory Signaling, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, Kiev, Ukraine.

The spinal grey matter region around the central canal, lamina X, is critically involved in somatosensory processing and visceral nociception. Although several classes of primary afferent fibers terminate or decussate in this area, little is known about organization and functional significance of the afferent supply of lamina X neurons. Using the hemisected ex-vivo spinal cord preparation, we show that virtually all lamina X neurons receive primary afferent inputs, which are predominantly mediated by the high-threshold Aδ fibers and C fibers. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006396-900000000-9869
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001586DOI Listing
April 2019
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Anterior insular cortex plays a critical role in interoceptive attention.

Elife 2019 Apr 15;8. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Psychology, Queens College, The City University of New York, New York, United States.

Accumulating evidence indicates that the anterior insular cortex (AIC) mediates interoceptive attention, which refers to attention towards physiological signals arising from the body. However, the necessity of the AIC in this process has not been demonstrated. Using a novel task that directs attention toward breathing rhythm, we assessed the involvement of the AIC in interoceptive attention in healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined the necessity of the AIC in interoceptive attention in patients with AIC lesions. Read More

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https://elifesciences.org/articles/42265
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.42265DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

A cross-modality enhancement of defensive flight via parvalbumin neurons in zona incerta.

Elife 2019 Apr 15;8. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.

The ability to adjust defensive behavior is critical for animal survival in dynamic environments. However, neural circuits underlying the modulation of innate defensive behavior remain not well-understood. In particular, environmental threats are commonly associated with cues of multiple sensory modalities. Read More

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https://elifesciences.org/articles/42728
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.42728DOI Listing
April 2019
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Changes in structural network topology correlate with severity of hallucinatory behavior in Parkinson's disease.

Netw Neurosci 2019 1;3(2):521-538. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Inefficient integration between bottom-up visual input and higher order visual processing regions is implicated in visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we investigated white matter contributions to this perceptual imbalance hypothesis. Twenty-nine PD patients were assessed for hallucinatory behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/netn_a_00078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444885PMC

Neural Networks for Modeling Neural Spiking in S1 Cortex.

Front Syst Neurosci 2019 29;13:13. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Physiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States.

Somatosensation is composed of two distinct modalities: touch, arising from sensors in the skin, and proprioception, resulting primarily from sensors in the muscles, combined with these same cutaneous sensors. In contrast to the wealth of information about touch, we know quite less about the nature of the signals giving rise to proprioception at the cortical level. Likewise, while there is considerable interest in developing encoding models of touch-related neurons for application to brain machine interfaces, much less emphasis has been placed on an analogous proprioceptive interface. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnsys.2019.00013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2019.00013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449471PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Peripheral Nerve Activation Evokes Machine-Learnable Signals in the Dorsal Column Nuclei.

Front Syst Neurosci 2019 20;13:11. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

School of Medical Sciences, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The brainstem dorsal column nuclei (DCN) are essential to inform the brain of tactile and proprioceptive events experienced by the body. However, little is known about how ascending somatosensory information is represented in the DCN. Our objective was to investigate the usefulness of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) DCN signal features (SFs) in predicting the nerve from which signals were evoked. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2019.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448039PMC

Opposing Influence of Sensory and Motor Cortical Input on Striatal Circuitry and Choice Behavior.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address:

The striatum is the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia and is a key site of sensorimotor integration. While the striatum receives extensive excitatory afferents from the cerebral cortex, the influence of different cortical areas on striatal circuitry and behavior is unknown. Here, we find that corticostriatal inputs from whisker-related primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortex differentially innervate projection neurons and interneurons in the dorsal striatum and exert opposing effects on sensory-guided behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.028DOI Listing

Multimodality Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Severe Thoracic Deformity PVCR Correction.

World Neurosurg 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Spine Center, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Multimodal intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) has been proposed as an effective way to reduce permanent neurologic injury during spinal deformity surgery. However, few studies have reported evoked potential changes at different surgical stages of thoracic posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR).

Methods: A total of 82 cases with severe thoracic deformity (Yang's A type) treated by PVCR in a single institution between January 2010 and March 2015 were reviewed. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18788750193081
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.140DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Adults with probable developmental coordination disorder selectively process early visual, but not tactile information during action preparation. An electrophysiological study.

Hum Mov Sci 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting motor coordination in children and adults. Here, EEG signals elicited by visual and tactile stimuli were recorded while adult participants with and without probable DCD (pDCD) performed a motor task. The task cued reaching movements towards a location in visible peripersonal space as well as an area of unseen personal space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2019.02.018DOI Listing

Reaching trajectories unravel modality-dependent temporal dynamics of the automatic process in the Simon task: a model-based approach.

Psychol Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, POB 39040, 6997801, Tel Aviv, Israel.

The Simon effect represents a phenomenon in which the location of the stimuli affects the speed and accuracy of the response, despite being irrelevant for the task demands. This is believed to be due to an automatic activation of a response corresponding to the location of the stimuli, which conflicts with the controlled decision process based on relevant stimuli features. Previously, differences in the nature of the Simon effect (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01177-3DOI Listing

Michigan Neural Distinctiveness (MiND) study protocol: investigating the scope, causes, and consequences of age-related neural dedifferentiation.

BMC Neurol 2019 Apr 12;19(1):61. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Background: Aging is often associated with behavioral impairments, but some people age more gracefully than others. Why? One factor that may play a role is individual differences in the distinctiveness of neural representations. Previous research has found that neural activation patterns in visual cortex in response to different visual stimuli are often more similar (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-019-1294-6DOI Listing

Decoding Movements from Cortical Ensemble Activity Using a Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Network.

Neural Comput 2019 Apr 12:1-29. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Departments of Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Psychology and Neuroscience, Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, U.S.A.; and Edmund and Lily Safra International Institute of Neuroscience, Natal Brazil 59066060

Although many real-time neural decoding algorithms have been proposed for brain-machine interface (BMI) applications over the years, an optimal, consensual approach remains elusive. Recent advances in deep learning algorithms provide new opportunities for improving the design of BMI decoders, including the use of recurrent artificial neural networks to decode neuronal ensemble activity in real time. Here, we developed a long-short term memory (LSTM) decoder for extracting movement kinematics from the activity of large ( N = 134-402) populations of neurons, sampled simultaneously from multiple cortical areas, in rhesus monkeys performing motor tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/neco_a_01189DOI Listing

Controlling Complexity of Cerebral Cortex Simulations, II: Streamlined Microcircuits.

Neural Comput 2019 Apr 12:1-19. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Clinical Neurosciences, Neurology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki 00029, Finland

Recently, Markram et al. (2015) presented a model of the rat somatosensory microcircuit (Markram model). Their model is high in anatomical and physiological detail, and its simulation requires supercomputers. Read More

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https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/10.1162/neco_a_01188
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/neco_a_01188DOI Listing
April 2019
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10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation over posterior parietal cortex facilitates tactile temporal order judgment.

Behav Brain Res 2019 Apr 9:111899. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan; Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan.

The temporal order judgment (TOJ) task has been widely used to investigate spatial attentional bias and the sensitivity of temporal discrimination during the processing of bilateral tactile information. Previous studies have shown that TOJ is impaired in patients who are suffering from chronic pain, stroke, and Parkinson's disease. In addition, studies have indicated that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is involved in the TOJ task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.111899DOI Listing

Region-Specific Effects of Trigeminal Capsaicin Stimulation.

J Oral Facial Pain Headache 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Aims: To investigate the region-specific effects of painful trigeminal capsaicin stimulation in healthy participants.

Methods: Twenty healthy participants (10 men and 10 women) participated in four sessions in which they received application of 0.05 mL Vaseline (placebo) or capsaicin cream (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/ofph.2303DOI Listing

Visual input drives increased occipital responsiveness and harmonized oscillations in multiple cortical areas in migraineurs.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Apr 3;23:101815. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Migraineurs are hypersensitive for most sensory domains like visual, auditory or somatosensory processing even outside of attacks. This behavioral peculiarity is mirrored by findings of cortical hyper-responsivity already in the interictal state. Using repetitive visual stimulation to elicit steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) in 30 interictal episodic migraineurs and 30 controls we show hyper-responsivity of the visual cortex in the migraineurs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101815DOI Listing

Blocking tactile input to one finger using anaesthetic enhances touch perception and learning in other fingers.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr;148(4):713-727

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London.

Brain plasticity is a key mechanism for learning and recovery. A striking example of plasticity in the adult brain occurs following input loss, for example, following amputation, whereby the deprived zone is "invaded" by new representations. Although it has long been assumed that such reorganization leads to functional benefits for the invading representation, the behavioral evidence is controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000514DOI Listing

Real-time Passive Brain Monitoring System Using Near-Field Microwave Radiometry.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Objective: Near-field microwave radiometry has emerged as a tool for real time passive monitoring of local brain activation possibly attributed to local changes in blood flow that correspond to temperature and/or conductivity changes. The aim of this study is to design and evaluate a prototype system based on microwave radiometry intended to detect local changes of temperature and conductivity in depth in brain tissues. A novel radiometric system that comprises a four port total power Dicke-switch sensitive receiver that operates at 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2019.2909994DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Somatosensory interactions reveal feature-dependent computations.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, United States.

Our ability to perceive and discriminate textures is based on the processing of high-frequency vibrations generated on the fingertip as it is scanned across a surface. Although much is known about the processing of vibration amplitude and frequency information when cutaneous stimulation is experienced at a single location on the body, how these stimulus features are processed when touch occurs at multiple locations is poorly understood. We evaluated participants ability to discriminate tactile cues on one hand while they ignored distractor cues experienced on their other hand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00168.2019DOI Listing

Case Studies in Neuroscience: The central and somatosensory contributions to finger inter-dependence and coordination: A study of a "deafferented person".

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, United States.

We tested finger force interdependence and multi-finger force-stabilizing synergies in a patient with large-fiber peripheral neuropathy ("deafferented person"). The subject performed a range of tasks involving accurate force production with one finger and with four fingers. In one-finger tasks, non-task fingers showed unintentional force production (enslaving) with an atypical pattern: Very large indices for the lateral (index and little) fingers and relatively small indices for the central (middle and ring) fingers. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00153.2019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00153.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Human Umbilical Cord Therapy Improves Long-Term Behavioral Outcomes Following Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury.

Front Physiol 2019 22;10:283. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Hypoxic ischemic (HI) insult in term babies at labor or birth can cause long-term neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy (CP). The current standard treatment for term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is hypothermia. Because hypothermia is only partially effective, novel therapies are required to improve outcomes further. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440382PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Differences in glutamate uptake between cortical regions impact neuronal NMDA receptor activation.

Commun Biol 2019 5;2:127. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

1Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Removal of synaptically-released glutamate by astrocytes is necessary to spatially and temporally limit neuronal activation. Recent evidence suggests that astrocytes may have specialized functions in specific circuits, but the extent and significance of such specialization are unclear. By performing direct patch-clamp recordings and two-photon glutamate imaging, we report that in the somatosensory cortex, glutamate uptake by astrocytes is slower during sustained synaptic stimulation when compared to lower stimulation frequencies. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-019-0367-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0367-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451009PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Cell type and circuit modules in the spinal cord.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 4;56:175-184. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Gene Expression Laboratory and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

The spinal cord contains an extraordinarily diverse population of interconnected neurons to process somatosensory information and execute movement. Studies of the embryonic spinal cord have elucidated basic principles underlying the specification of spinal cord neurons, while adult and postnatal studies have provided insight into cell type function and circuitry. However, the overarching principles that bridge molecularly defined subtypes with their connectivity, physiology, and function remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Neuronal diversity in the somatosensory system: bridging the gap between cell type and function.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 3;56:167-174. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

A recent flurry of genetic studies in mice have provided key insights into how the somatosensory system is organized at a cellular level to encode itch, pain, temperature, and touch. These studies are largely predicated on the idea that functional cell types can be identified by their unique developmental provenance and gene expression profile. However, the extent to which gene expression profiles can be correlated with functional cell types and circuit organization remains an open question. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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Implicitly and explicitly assessed anxiety: No relationships with recognition of and brain response to facial emotions.

Neuroscience 2019 Apr 3;408:1-13. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University of Leipzig, Semmelweisstr, 10, Leipzig 04103, Germany.

Trait anxiety, the disposition to experience anxiety, is known to facilitate perception of threats. Trait anxious individuals seem to identify threatening stimuli such as fearful facial expressions more accurately, especially when presented under temporal constraints. In past studies on anxiety and emotion face recognition, only self-report or explicit measures of anxiety have been administered. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064522193023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.03.059DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Special Considerations in the Surgical Management of Proximal Anterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysms.

World Neurosurg 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China. Electronic address:

Background: The proximal anterior cerebral artery (A1) aneurysms are difficult to clip because of their frequent proximity to perforators, location behind the parent artery, or adherence to surrounding structures.

Material And Methods: We retrospectively review a consecutive series of patients with A1 aneurysms and report the clinical status, radiological findings, treatment methods and outcome.

Results: This series included 19 male and 12 female patients with a mean age of 50 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.259DOI Listing
April 2019
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Development of a Traumatic Cervical Dislocation Spinal Cord Injury Model with Residual Compression in the Rat.

J Neurosci Methods 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Orthopaedic and Injury Biomechanics Group, Departments of Orthopaedics and Mechanical Engineering, International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, University of British Columbia, 818 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Pre-clinical spinal cord injury models do not represent the wide range of biomechanical factors seen in human injuries, such as spinal level, injury mechanism, velocity of spinal cord impact, and residual compression. These factors may be responsible for differences observed between experimental and clinical study results, especially related to the controversial issue of timing of surgical decompression.

New Method: Somatosensory Evoked Potentials were used to: a) characterize residual compression depths in a dislocation model, and b) evaluate the physiological effect of whether or not the spinal cord was decompressed following the initial injury, prior to the application of residual compression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2019.03.010DOI Listing
April 2019
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The effects of explosion sound on the brain based on electroencephalogram signals.

Int J Environ Health Res 2019 Apr 5:1-17. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

c Faculty of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering , Shahrood University of Technology , Shahrood , Iran.

In this paper, the brain reactions to explosion sound are investigated. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of 17 people were recorded. Subjects were selected from three groups: staff who did not face explosion before, blasting employees of surface, and underground mining workers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2019.1599326DOI Listing

Influence of Textured Indoor Footwear on Posture Stability of Older Women Based on Center-of-Pressure Measurements.

Hum Factors 2019 Apr 5:18720819837414. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, China.

Objective:: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of indoor footwear with a textured surface to improve control of balance and reduce excessive plantar pressure in older women.

Background:: Balance instability is a common condition in older people. Textured insoles with protrusions on the entire insole have been examined for enhancing somatosensory feedback in the elderly to improve control over balance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720819837414DOI Listing

Management of brainstem haemorrhages.

Swiss Med Wkly 2019 Mar 5;149:w20062. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Among spontaneous intracranial haemorrhages, primary non-traumatic brainstem haemorrhages are associated with the highest mortality rate. Patients classically present with rapid neurological deterioration. Previous studies have found that the severity of initial neurological symptoms and hydrocephalus are predictors of poor outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2019.20062DOI Listing
March 2019
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Neurobiological mechanisms of TENS-induced analgesia.

Neuroimage 2019 Apr 1;195:396-408. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK; Department of Pain Management, The State Key Clinical Specialty in Pain Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Pain inhibition by additional somatosensory input is the rationale for the widespread use of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) to relieve pain. Two main types of TENS produce analgesia in animal models: high-frequency (∼50-100 Hz) and low-intensity 'conventional' TENS, and low-frequency (∼2-4 Hz) and high-intensity 'acupuncture-like' TENS. However, TENS efficacy in human participants is debated, raising the question of whether the analgesic mechanisms identified in animal models are valid in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.03.077DOI Listing