811,789 results match your criteria Social studies of science[Journal]


[The multifaceted concept of mental disorder].

Authors:
Heinz Häfner

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Zentralinstitut für Seelische Gesundheit, AG Schizophrenieforschung; Medizinische Fakultät Mannheim / Universität Heidelberg.

The concept of mental disorder has many facets. Specific concepts of disease or disorder stand for individual entities, classified as diagnoses. Ideally, they are based on discrete physical, neurobiological or - as is the case with hereditary diseases - genetic findings. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Peak Oxygen Uptake in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: A Meta-Analysis.

Int J Sports Med 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Health and Social Care, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

To evaluate the magnitude of the difference in VO between patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and apparently healthy controls, 7 databases (Cochrane, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Scopus, Medline) were searched for articles published up to March 2018. Search terms included "chronic fatigue syndrom*"AND ("peak" OR "maxim*" OR "max") AND ("oxygen uptake" OR "oxygen consumption" OR "VO2peak" or "VO2max". Eligibility criteria were adults>18 y with clinically diagnosed CFS/ME, with VO measured in a maximal test and compared against an apparently healthy control group. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Ambient PM air pollution and cardiovascular disease prevalence: Insights from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 14;123:310-317. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental and Health risk Assessment, Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Backgrounds: Evidence on the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is scarce in developing countries. Moreover, few studies assessed the role of the PM (≤1. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The role of neighborhoods in household food insufficiency: Considering interactions between physical disorder, low social capital, violence, and perceptions of danger.

Soc Sci Med 2018 Dec 10;221:58-67. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

The University of Texas at San Antonio, United States.

Rationale: Food insecurity is a significant public health concern, with implications for community and individual health and well-being. Although a growing body of literature points to the role of neighborhoods in household food insecurity, studies using nationally representative samples to explore interactions between neighborhood risks - including violence and danger - are lacking.

Objective: The present study examines whether interactions between physical disorder, low social capital, and violence/danger in the neighborhood have significant implications for the risk of household food insufficiency using a large, nationally representative sample of U. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Social housing protects against age-related working memory decline independently of physical enrichment in rats.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 23;75:117-125. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Psychology Department, Providence College, Providence, RI, USA.

Longitudinal human studies suggest that as we age, sociality provides protective benefits against cognitive decline. However, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. Rodent studies, which are ideal for studying cognition, fail to examine the independent effects of social housing while controlling for physical enrichment in all groups. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Schizophrenia patients are impaired in recognition task but more for intentionality than physical causality.

Conscious Cogn 2018 Dec 14;67:98-107. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratoire HANDIReSP (EA4047), Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-En-Yvelines, Versailles, France; Service de Psychiatrie de l'Adulte et d'Addictologie, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

It is now largely accepted that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit to attribute mental states to others, such as intentions, needs and motivations but also to perform memory tasks. According to one hypothesis, these impairments may be due to an early visual attention deficit during the encounter of social stimuli. Another hypothesis posits a robust correlation between intention attribution and autobiographical memory that results in impaired recollection of past events making it difficult to infer others' intentions. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Chronic stress exposure and daily stress appraisals relate to biological aging marker p16.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 7;102:139-148. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, 300 Medical Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Psychology, University of California, 502 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Previous research has linked exposure to adverse social conditions with DNA damage and accelerated telomere shortening, raising the possibility that chronic stress may impact biological aging pathways, ultimately increasing risk for age-related diseases. Less clear, however, is whether these stress-related effects extend to additional hallmarks of biological aging, including cellular senescence, a stable state of cell cycle arrest. The present study aimed to investigate associations between psychosocial stress and two markers of cellular aging-leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and cellular senescence signal p16. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Resting state functional connectivity and neural correlates of face-name encoding in patients with ischemic vascular lesions with and without the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus.

Cortex 2018 Nov 26;113:15-28. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Face-name association is a relevant ability for social interactions and involves the ventral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, particularly in the left hemisphere, bilateral hippocampal, fusiform gyrus and occipital regions. Previous studies demonstrated the primary role of the hippocampus for this ability in healthy subjects. However, no study has examined the participation of the left inferior frontal area, specially the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in patients with ischemic vascular lesions. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Gaze allocation in face-to-face communication is affected primarily by task structure and social context, not stimulus-driven factors.

Cognition 2018 Dec 14;184:28-43. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Developmental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Gaze allocation to human faces has recently been shown to be greatly dependent on the social context. However, what has not been considered explicitly here, is how gaze allocation may be supportive of the specific task that individuals carry out. In the present study, we combined these two insights. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Ambient ozone exposure and depressive symptoms in adolescents: Results of the GINIplus and LISA birth cohorts.

Environ Res 2018 Dec 7;170:73-81. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich; Comprehensive Pneumology Center (CPC) Munich, member DZL, German Center for Lung Research, Munich, Germany; Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Depression has been associated with air pollution, as reported by animal and epidemiological studies. However, the relationship between ozone exposure and depression, especially among adolescents, is scarcely investigated.

Objectives: The study aimed to analyze associations between ozone exposure and depressive symptoms among German adolescents. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Mechanistic modelling of Radium-223 treatment of bone metastases.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Cancer Research & Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7AE, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Despite the effectiveness of RaCl for treating patients with symptomatic bone metastatic disease, its mechanisms of action are still unclear. Even established dosimetric approaches differ considerably in their conclusions. In silico tumour models bring a new perspective to this as they can quantitatively simulate the interaction of α-particles with the target(s). Read More

View Article
December 2018

A tale of two steroids: the importance of the androgens DHEA and DHEAS for early neurodevelopment.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Health & Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University - Bundoora Campus, Melbourne, 3083, Australia. Electronic address:

DHEA and DHEAS are neuroactive neurosteroids that interact with several major receptor system in the brain, including sigma (σ), glutamate, and GABA-A receptors. It has been recognized as early as 1952, that the loss of DHEA/DHEAS in adult life is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders (eg schizophrenia, depression). However, the mechanistic role for DHEA/DHEAS in any of these domains remains speculative, not the least because the presence of these androgens in the adrenal gland and brain is largely confined to humans and only some non-human primates. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Effects of the mere presence of conspecifics on the motor performance of rats: Higher speed and lower accuracy.

Behav Processes 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Faculty of Psychology, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe-shi, Kyoto, 610-0394, Japan.

Many studies on humans and animals have shown that the mere presence of another individual or individuals accelerates the motor performance speed of the subject individual. However, it has not been well investigated whether the mere presence of another individual affects the accuracy of motor performance in animals. In this study, we developed a novel task (run-and-pull task) to simultaneously investigate both the speed and accuracy of motor performance in rats and examined the effect of the mere presence of another rat on the task performance of the subject rat. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Comparing Stress and Arousal Systems in Response to Different Social Contexts in Children with ASD.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States; Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States.

Response to psychological stress can vary based on the extent to which the context is perceived as stressful, especially under different social conditions. The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare physiological stress (cortisol) and regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) of 10-12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 31) or typical development (TD, n = 25) when exposed to two social stress protocols. The extent to which perceived emotion (affect recognition) and anxiety (state and trait) mediate the stress response was also explored. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the long-term effects of repeated social defeat stress on the rewarding and psychomotor properties of cocaine in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Unidad de Investigación Psicobiología de las Drogodependencias, Departamento de Psicobiologia, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Exposure to social stress increases the vulnerability of experimental animals to the rewarding effects of cocaine and it has been suggested that the glutamatergic system could be involved in these effects of stress. The aim of this work is to determine the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the influence of social stress on the conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization induced by cocaine. Mice treated with saline or NMDA antagonist memantine (5 or 10 mg/kg) underwent repeated social defeat or were kept in the exploration control condition. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Distinct neural responses to social and semantic violations: An N400 study.

Int J Psychophysiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Stony Brook University, United States of America.

We investigated event-related brain potential correlates of encountering context-incongruent social information. Building on evidence that information semantically incongruent with its context elicits an N400 response (a prominent negative-going deflection in the ongoing electroencephalogram; EEG), we hypothesized that statements incongruent (relative to congruent) with basic standards of amicable treatment by others (e.g. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling mitigates the impact of acute social stress.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Neuroscience Institute, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, United States. Electronic address:

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to promote fear learning as well as avoidant behavioral responses to chronic social defeat stress, but, conversely, this peptide can also have antidepressant effects and can reduce depressant-like symptoms such as social avoidance. The purpose of this study was to use a variety of approaches to determine whether BDNF acting on tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) promotes or prevents avoidant phenotypes in hamsters and mice that have experienced acute social defeat stress. We utilized systemic and brain region-dependent manipulation of BDNF signaling before or immediately following social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters, TrkB knock-in mice, and C57Bl/6J mice and measured the subsequent behavioral response to a novel opponent. Read More

View Article
December 2018

An Approach for Guiding the Development and Assessing the Interdisciplinarity of New Methodologies for Community Disaster Resilience.

Authors:
Elaina J Sutley

Risk Anal 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

There are critical and preventable inequalities in disaster impacts and postdisaster recovery. To formulate solutions for minimizing or preventing these unequal impacts, there is a great need for interdisciplinary methodologies that use social factors to set project scopes and drive engineering analyses and designs. At present time, however, limited guidance exists on how to develop and execute interdisciplinary methodologies, especially related to the study of community disaster resilience. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Cost-Effectiveness of Buprenorphine-Naloxone Versus Extended-Release Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Relapse.

Ann Intern Med 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (S.M.M., J.A.L., P.J.J., B.R.S.).

Background: Not enough evidence exists to compare buprenorphine-naloxone with extended-release naltrexone for treating opioid use disorder.

Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine-naloxone versus extended-release naltrexone.

Design: Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a previously reported randomized clinical trial of 570 adults in 8 U. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Do male and female soccer players differ in helping? A study on prosocial behavior among young players.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209168. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Social and Organizational Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Acting prosocially can be quite challenging in one of the most salient intergroup contexts in contemporary society: Soccer. When winning is the ultimate goal, balancing self-interest with helping a fellow player in distress can be a tough decision; yet it happens. To date, we know little about what motivates soccer players to offer such help in the heat of the game. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The effectiveness of art therapy for anxiety in adults: A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208716. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Faculty of Health, University of Applied Sciences Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Anxiety disorders are one of the most diagnosed mental health disorders. Common treatment consists of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. In clinical practice, also art therapy is additionally provided to patients with anxiety (disorders), among others because treatment as usual is not sufficiently effective for a large group of patients. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Public acceptability of development in the Northern Forest of Vermont, USA-The influence of wildlife information, recreation involvement, and demographic characteristics.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0203515. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife, Barre, Vermont, United States of America.

Increasing development such as roads and houses will alter future landscapes and result in biological, social, and economic trade-offs. Managing development requires information on the public's acceptability of development and understanding which factors shape acceptability. In this study, we examined three questions: 1) What is the public's acceptability of development? 2) Is acceptability of development influenced by wildlife information? and 3) Is the maximum amount of acceptable development influenced by views about wildlife, involvement in outdoor recreation, and demographic factors? We conducted a visual-preference survey of 9,000 households in Vermont, USA that asked about acceptable levels of development, acceptability of wildlife, involvement in recreation, and individual and town demographics. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Not one Brexit: How local context and social processes influence policy analysis.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208451. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Scotland's Rural College, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

This paper develops an empirical agent-based model to assess the impacts of Brexit on Scottish cattle farms. We first identify several trends and processes among Scottish cattle farms that were ongoing before Brexit: the lack of succession, the rise of leisure farming, the trend to diversify and industrialise, and, finally, the phenomenon of the "disappearing middle", characterised by the decline of medium-sized farms and the polarization of farm sizes. We then study the potential impact of Brexit amid the local context and those ongoing social processes. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Insights into life after sport for Spanish Olympians: Gender and career path perspectives.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209433. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Social Sciences Applied to Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Sport Sciences Faculty, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The aims of this study were: i) to examine if Dual Career (DC) pathways are independent of gender, ii) to evaluate whether those athletes who followed a DC experienced less difficulty in their integration into the labor force than the athletes devoted entirely to sport regardless of gender, as well as iii) to analyze whether the type of career path chosen was related with the current labor status, and if differences exist between men and women athletes. A quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was used based on an ad hoc questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-eight retired Olympic athletes completed a questionnaire. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Familial episodic limb pain in kindreds with novel Nav1.9 mutations.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208516. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

We previously performed genetic analysis in six unrelated families with infantile limb pain episodes, characterized by cold-induced deterioration and mitigation in adolescence, and reported two new mutations p.R222H/S in SCN11A responsible for these episodes. As no term described this syndrome (familial episodic pain: FEP) in Japanese, we named it as". Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Who self-medicates? Results from structural equation modeling in the Greater Paris area, France.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208632. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Social Epidemiology, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique (UMRS 1136), INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Objectives: Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of self-medication among the Paris adult population and to identify the factors associated with self-medication.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data collected from the SIRS cohort (a French acronym for "Health, inequalities and social ruptures") in 2005 in the Paris metropolitan area using a face-to-face administration questionnaire among a representative sample of 3,023 French-speaking adults. Structural equation models were used to investigate the factors associated with self-medication in the overall population and according to income. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Comparison of visual assessment and computer image analysis of intracoronary thrombus type by optical coherence tomography.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209110. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Heart Hospital, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Analysis of intracoronary thrombus type by optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is highly subjective. We aimed to compare a newly developed image analysis method to subjective visual classification of thrombus type identified by OCT.

Methods: Thirty patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction were included. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Dissonance reduction as emotion regulation: Attitude change is related to positive emotions in the induced compliance paradigm.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209012. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychology, Division of Personality, Social, and Developmental Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

The aim of this study was to clarify how positive and negative emotions are related to the common attitude-change effect in cognitive dissonance research. Drawing on appraisal theories of emotion, and emotion-regulation research, we predicted that negative emotions would be inversely related to attitude change, whereas positive emotions would be positively related to attitude change in the induced compliance paradigm. In two studies, participants (N = 44; N = 106) wrote a counter-attitudinal essay under the perception of high choice, and were later asked to state their emotions in relation to writing this essay, as well as to state their attitude. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Exposure to phthalates aggravates pulmonary function and airway inflammation in asthmatic children.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208553. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Environmental Health Center for Atopic Diseases, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Introduction: Studies on the associations between phthalate exposures and respiratory outcomes are limited. We investigated the association of phthalates exposure with pulmonary function and airway inflammation in asthmatic children.

Methods: Fifty-six children with asthma living in Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea aged 6-16 years were enrolled. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Indomethacin blocks the increased conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine induced by repeated social defeat.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209291. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.

It is well established that repeated social defeat stress can induce negative long-term consequences such as increased anxiety-like behavior and enhances the reinforcing effect of psychostimulants in rodents. In the current study, we evaluated how the immune system may play a role in these long-term effects of stress. A total of 148 OF1 mice were divided into different experimental groups according to stress condition (exploration or social defeat) and pre-treatment (saline, 5 or 10 mg/kg of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin) before each social defeat or exploration episode. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Health seeking for chronic lung disease in central Malawi: Adapting existing models using insights from a qualitative study.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208188. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Background: Chronic lung diseases contribute to the growing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden and are increasing, particularly in many low and middle-income countries (LMIC) in sub-Saharan African. Early engagement with health systems in chronic lung disease management is critical to maintain quality of life and prevent further damage. Our study sought to understand health seeking behaviour in relation to chronic lung disease and TB in a rural district in Malawi. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Standing Tall: Feasibility of a Modified Ride-On Car That Encourages Standing.

Pediatr Phys Ther 2019 Jan;31(1):E6-E13

Social Mobility Lab (Drs Logan and Catena and Mss Hospodar, Yohn, and Govindan), College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon; Go Baby Go Lab (Ms Sabet), College of Health Sciences, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio; Pediatric Mobility Lab and Design Studio (Dr Galloway), Department of Physical Therapy and Biomechanics and Movement Sciences Program, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of infants with Down syndrome to use a modified ride-on car with seated and standing modes.

Methods: Participants included 4 infants with Down syndrome. Families were asked to provide at least 8 minutes of modified ride-on car driving per day, at least 5 times per week throughout the 9-month intervention. Read More

View Article
January 2019
1 Read

Williams syndrome: recent advances in our understanding of cognitive, social and psychological functioning.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Since the last review of Williams syndrome in Current Opinion (2001) there have been many advances in knowledge about the cognitive, social and psychological impairments that characterize the disorder. The present review focuses on current research in these areas.

Recent Findings: Williams syndrome is associated with a wide range of cognitive, linguistic, social and other difficulties. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Measuring Outcomes of Ethics Consultation: Empirical and Ethical Challenges.

Crit Care Med 2019 Jan;47(1):e67-e68

Institute for History and Ethics of Medicine, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany University of Applied Sciences for Diakonia, Bielefeld, Germany; and Institute for educational and health-care research in the health sector (InBVG), Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, Bielefeld, Germany Institute for Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany Centre for Social Science and Global Health University of Amsterdam, AHTC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Department of Palliative Medicine, Munich University Hospital, LMU Munich, München, Germany.

View Article
January 2019
1 Read

Who is Engaged at Work? A large-Scale Study in 30 European Countries.

J Occup Environ Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Workability and Working Careers, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 B, BOX 40, 00032 Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland (Hakanen, Ropponen), Research Unit Occupational & Organizational Psychology and Professional Learning, KU Leuven, Dekenstraat 2 - box 3725, 3000 Leuven, Belgium (Schaufeli, Witte), Department of Social, Health & Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, Padualaan14, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands (Schaufeli), Optentia Research Focus Area, North-West University, Vaal Triangle Campus, PO Box 1174, Vanderbijlpark, 1900 South Africa (Witte).

Objective: The aim was to investigate differences in the levels of work engagement across demographic and work- and organization-related factors, and their relative importance for work engagement.

Methods: The study was based on a sample of 17 498 male and 17 897 female employees from the sixth European Working Conditions Survey collected in 2015. Linear regression models and dominance analysis were used. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Binge Drinking's Effects on the Developing Brain-Animal Models.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):77-86

Susanne Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Ph.D., is a science writer and editor affiliated with CSR Inc., Arlington, Virginia. Linda Patia Spear, Ph.D., is a distinguished professor, Department of Psychology, State University of New York, and the director of the Developmental Exposure Alcohol Research Center, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York.

Adolescence typically is a time of experimentation, including alcohol use and, particularly, binge drinking. Because the brain is still developing during adolescence, such exposure could have long-lasting effects. Animal models and adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) paradigms have been used to help elucidate the consequences of adolescent binge drinking. Read More

View Article
January 2018

Gender Differences in Binge Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):57-76

Richard W. Wilsnack, Ph.D., is a professor emeritus in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Sharon C. Wilsnack, Ph.D., is the Chester Fritz Distinguished Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Gerhard Gmel, Ph.D., is a professor, University of Lausanne, and is affiliated with the Alcohol Treatment Center, University of Lausanne Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. He is also an invited professor, University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom. Lori Wolfgang Kantor, M.A., is a science writer at CSR, Incorporated.

Just as binge drinking rates differ for men and women, the predictors and consequences of binge drinking vary by gender as well. This article examines these differences and how binge drinking definitions and research samples and methods may influence findings. It also describes the relationship between age and binge drinking among men and women, and how drinking culture and environment affect this relationship. Read More

View Article
January 2018

High-Intensity Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):49-55

Megan E. Patrick, Ph.D., is a research associate professor at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Beth Azar, M.A., is a science writer for Alcohol Research: Current Reviews.

Binge drinking thresholds have long been set at four or more drinks for women and five or more drinks for men over the course of a few hours. However, a significant number of people regularly consume much higher amounts of alcohol: double or even triple the standard binge drinking threshold. Researchers have begun to distinguish between typical binge drinking and this kind of "high-intensity drinking," which is common among certain types of binge drinkers and is often associated with special occasions, including holidays, sporting events, and, notably, 21st birthdays. Read More

View Article
January 2018

The Epidemiology of Binge Drinking Among College-Age Individuals in the United States.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):23-30

Heather Krieger, M.A., is a graduate student; Chelsie M. Young, Ph.D., is a post-doctoral researcher; Amber M. Anthenien, M.S., is a graduate student; and Clayton Neighbors, Ph.D., is a professor, all in the Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas.

Rates of alcohol consumption continue to be a concern, particularly for individuals who are college age. Drinking patterns have changed over time, with the frequency of binge drinking (consuming four/five or more drinks for women/men) remaining high (30% to 40%). Young adults in the college age range are developmentally and socially at higher risk for drinking at binge levels. Read More

View Article
January 2018

The Temporal Dimension in Maternal Sensitivity Predicting Organized Attachment in Children.

Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci 2019 Jan;23(1):137-171

National Distance Education University, Madrid, Spain.

This study analyzed Maternal Sensitivity in the interaction of mother-infant dyads to distinguish different dynamics associated with their attachment group membership - Insecure-Avoidant (A), Secure (B), or Insecure-Resistant (C), with no Disorganized traits - that they developed at 15 months. Participants were 26 eight-month old infants interacting with their mothers in a free-play setting. The analyses used sequential streams of infant actions and maternal responses, and state-space grids to study the temporal organization of the sequences. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Monitoring Nonlinear Dynamics of Change in a Single Case of Psychodynamic Play Therapy.

Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci 2019 Jan;23(1):113-135

Sapienza University of Rome, Italy and NCU Italian University, London, UK.

A systematic single case study with a mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology was conducted to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of change in play profiles of a child in psychodynamic play therapy. The first aim of the study was to cluster the different features of play characteristics (i.e. Read More

View Article
January 2019
1 Read

Fractal Self-Structure and Psychological Resilience.

Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci 2019 Jan;23(1):57-78

Chapman University, Orange, CA.

Since the mid 1980's, mainstream social psychology investigations of self-complexity and psychopathology have produced contradictory results. These results are likely the result of a lack of theoretical and methodological grounding in complexity theory. The current study proposes that the self has an interconnected fractal structure, and that this structure may be reflected within inverse-power law (IPL) distributions of response times to self-related questions. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Frailty in seropositive rheumatoid arthritis patients of working age: a cross-sectional study.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre of Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: The prevalence of frailty has been widely researched in the elderly population. However, data about people of working age are scarce. The aim of this paper was to assess the prevalence of prefrailty and frailty in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients of working age, and to assess factors associated with prefrailty/frailty. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Cognitive-behavioural and social factors do not predict recurrent secondary healthcare use in patients with fibromyalgia: a longitudinal study.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Rheumatology, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Healthcare use in fibromyalgia (FM) is relatively high. Besides disease-related variables, cognitive-behavioural factors have been concurrently associated with healthcare use. It is unknown whether cognitive-behavioural and social factors also predict future healthcare use. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Sustainable location and route planning with GIS for waste sorting centers, case study: Kerman, Iran.

Waste Manag Res 2018 Dec 17:734242X18815950. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

2 Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

One of the important issues in the world is the significant growth of waste production, including waste that is not biodegradable in nature. According to the Kerman Municipality, 440 tonnes of municipal waste is collected daily in Kerman consisting of five major parts of paper, plastic, metal, glass, and wet waste. The major problems of municipal solid waste disposal are soil erosion, air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Mental health and academic impacts of intimate partner violence among IHE-attending women.

J Am Coll Health 2018 Dec 17:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Institute on Domestic Violence & Sexual Assault, Steve Hicks School of Social Work , The University of Texas at Austin , Austin , TX , USA.

Objective: The study assesses the prevalence of physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) among female college students, and associated mental health and academic outcomes.

Participants: Participants (n = 6,818) were randomly selected female students attending one of eight campuses of a University System in the Southwest. Their mean age was 25, and 45% identified as Hispanic/Latina. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Disaster waste management after the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake: A mini-review of earthquake waste management and the Kumamoto experience.

Waste Manag Res 2018 Dec 17:734242X18815948. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

3 Ministry of Environment, Japan.

Millions of tons of debris can be generated by natural disasters, impacting the surrounding environment and posing health risks to the public. Proper handling and treatment of such waste is essential to overcome potential hazards as well as to reduce the burden on natural resources during the reconstruction phase. Disaster waste management can have social, economic, and environmental benefits if planned effectively. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Shared illness appraisal and self-efficacy among adults with type 1 diabetes.

J Health Psychol 2018 Dec 17:1359105318817895. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

2 The University of Utah, USA.

We examined the interaction between shared illness appraisal and self-efficacy among couples in which one partner was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes ( n = 199). We hypothesized that the relation between self-efficacy and health would be weakened under conditions of shared rather than individual appraisal. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that partner shared illness appraisal interacted with the self-efficacy of the person with type 1 diabetes to predict overall psychological distress and daily diabetes stressors in the predicted direction. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Mediating effect of psychological suzhi on the relationship between perceived social support and self-esteem.

J Health Psychol 2018 Dec 17:1359105318807962. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1 Southwest University, China.

This study examined the mediating role of psychological suzhi on the relationship between perceived social support and self-esteem in a sample of 612 Chinese secondary school students (grades 7-12, mean age 15.20 ± 1.73 years). Read More

View Article
December 2018
  • Page 1 of 16236