811,510 results match your criteria Social science & medicine 1982[Journal]
Curr Opin Psychol 2018 Nov 30;27:88-92. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Sociology, Stanford University, United States.
An emerging idea in psychopathology conceives of disorders as networks of mutually-reinforcing symptoms that constitute the disorder rather than simply reflect it. This is similar to how social scientists already view socioeconomic status, and has affinities to how physical health problems compound in later life. Social, psychological, and physical conditions might therefore be thought of as networks of problems with 'causal bridges' that span different levels and bring low SES, mental health challenges, and physical health problems into pervasive relationships with one another. Read More
Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2018 Dec 6;81:111-118. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
National School of Public Health/Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Department of Epidemiology and Quantitative Methods, Rua Leopoldo Bulhões, 1480/room 817b, Manguinhos, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of frailty, according to Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) and CHS index, to investigate the correlation between both instruments and to identify the factors associated with this condition in older users of primary health care.
Methods: This is a sectional study with 302 individuals aged 60 years or more of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Sociodemographic, health, functional dependence and lifestyle variables were collected. Read More
Thromb Res 2018 Dec 6;174:40-47. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Center for Molecular Cardiology, Laboratory for Platelet Research, University of Zurich, Schlieren, Switzerland; Department of Internal Medicine, Cantonal Hospital of Baden, Baden, Switzerland. Electronic address:
Introduction: Gut microbiota-dependent trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) correlates with arterial thrombotic events including myocardial infarction and stroke, and mortality. However, the association of TMAO with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and mortality remains unknown.
Methods: TMAO plasma levels were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography in 859 patients aged ≥65 years with acute VTE and categorized into low (<2. Read More
J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 7;109:178-184. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, 316 Physics Rd #262, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.
During adolescence, peer approval becomes increasingly important and may be perceived as contingent upon appearance in girls. Concurrently, girls experience hormonal changes, including an increase in progesterone. Progesterone has been implicated in affiliative behavior but inconsistently associated with body image concerns. Read More
J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 6;109:173-177. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Australia; School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Metro North Mental Health, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Australia.
Low physical activity is a major public health concern. There has been extensive research examining the role of physical activity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the onset of mental illness. However, fewer studies have reported how mental disorders affect future physical activity. Read More
Curr Opin Psychol 2018 Nov 28;29:71-75. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Icelandic Vision Laboratory, School of Humanitites and Social Sciences, University of Akureyri. Hafnarstræti 97, Akureyri IS600, Iceland.
Humans possess a primitive memory system for attention deployments that allows quick reorientation of visual attention to stimuli that are relevant to behavior at any given moment. We review recent evidence regarding such attentional priming effects from a number of different perspectives. We discuss recent findings on the time course and duration of such effects, the potential interaction of priming and top-down attentional guidance; how priming can be used to probe the nature of visual representations and attentional templates; findings on the basic nature of priming effects and recent relevant findings on so-called serial dependencies that share many characteristics with attentional priming. Read More
Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2018 Dec 8;56:28-35. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Violence Prevention Research Program, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. Electronic address:
Objective: This study investigated patient- and area-level characteristics associated with adolescent emergency department (ED) patients' risk of subsequent ED visits for self-harm.
Method: Retrospective analysis of adolescent patients presenting to a California ED in 2010 (n = 480,706) was conducted using statewide, all-payer, individually linkable administrative data. We examined associations between multiple predictors of interest (patient sociodemographic factors, prior ED utilization, and residential mobility; and area-level characteristics) and odds of a self-harm ED visit in 2010. Read More
Soc Sci Med 2018 Dec 6;221:9-18. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Institute for Global Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
Cash transfer programmes form an integral part of nutrition, health, and social protection policies worldwide, but the mechanisms through which they achieve their health and nutritional impacts are incompletely understood. We present results from a process evaluation of a combined participatory women's groups and cash transfer programme to improve low birth weight in rural Nepal. We explored the ways in which context, implementation, and mechanism of the intervention affected beneficiary women's agency over cash transfers. Read More
Soc Sci Med 2018 Dec 1;221:19-26. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Department of Sociology, McGill University, Room 712, Leacock Building, 855 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T7, Canada. Electronic address:
The potential medical risks to egg donors, in addition to the concern over the commodification of life, has led to debates surrounding the ethics of paying donors. In Canada, payment for eggs is prohibited by law; however, what is considered payment is contentious and has yet to be defined. The lack of legislative clarity coupled with increased ethical concerns over paying a donor has shifted egg donation from a medically-controlled procedure to a legal and social endeavor involving multiple professionals. Read More
Eat Behav 2018 Dec 6;32:31-36. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
Research among Western adult and adolescent males suggests that sociocultural influences are implicated in the drive for muscularity and weight-change behaviors. However, few studies have examined these relationships among adolescent boys from non-Western backgrounds. The current study sought to assess the psychometric properties of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4), a 22-item, 5-factor measure of sociocultural influence on appearance ideals, among Japanese (n = 984) adolescent boys. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 6;271:526-531. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
College of Humanities, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, China.
Low self-esteem is an important factor influencing mobile phone addiction, which has been well documented. However, little research focused on the mechanism underlying the association between self-esteem and mobile phone addiction. We hypothesized that social anxiety and interpersonal sensitivity may mediate the relationship between self-esteem and mobile phone addiction. Read More
Contemp Clin Trials 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Dr. La Jolla, CA 92093-090, USA; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9300 Campus Pointe Drive, MC 7433, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:
Background: Young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) have unmet needs for managing hot flashes, fertility-related concerns, sexual health and contraception.
Purpose: Describe the design and participant characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of the survivorship care plan on reproductive health (SCP-R) intervention on improving hot flashes, fertility-related concerns, sexual health, and contraception in YBCS.
Methods: SCP-R is a web-based intervention with text message support encompassing evidence- based practices on four reproductive health issues. Read More
Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 12;88:307-316. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition, Research Center for Child Development, School of Psychology, Capital Normal University, China.
The current study examined the mediating effect of maternal negative expressiveness as well as the moderating effects of infant inhibitory control (IC) in the association between maternal childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and infant behavior problems. Drawing from 207 families from mainland China, 2-wave data were reported in this study when the infants were 6 months (T1) and 14 (T2) months. Mothers (Mean age = 32. Read More
Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 12;88:275-287. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
School of Arts & Sciences, University of Houston-Victoria, 3007 N. Ben Wilson, Victoria, TX, 77904, United States. Electronic address:
Background: Forensic interviewers are at a heightened risk for secondary traumatic stress (STS) due to their frequent interactions with victims of child maltreatment (Bonach & Heckert, 2012). To date, however, few studies have examined the negative effects of this work on interviewers' social and emotional well-being.
Objective: The present study seeks to explore the effect of STS on the relationships of forensic interviewers, including those with friends, family, and their respective children. Read More
Eur J Med Genet 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Social & Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, United States.
Effective communication, where all parties share a common understanding, is necessary to realize the promise of Genomic Medicine. It is especially salient given the imperative to increase the participation of diverse populations in genomics research and to expand the reach of clinical genomics. We have previously shown that cancer genetic counseling is suboptimal for patients with limited health literacy. Read More
Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Acute stress is known to modulate episodic memory, but little is known about the extent to, and the circumstances under, which stress affects encoding of item vs. inter-item associative information for words of different valences. Furthermore, the precise neuro-cognitive mechanisms underlying stress effects on episodic encoding in humans are largely unknown. Read More
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
University of Portsmouth School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Laboratory of Social Cognitive Neuroscience, IDOCAL, Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
The impact of sex and the menstrual cycle phase on the autonomic response to psychosocial stress remains controversial. This study explored autonomic nervous system activity through salivary alpha-amylase, heart rate, and heart rate variability responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in healthy young people. The sample was composed of 25 men, 26 women in the luteal phase, and 25 women in the follicular phase, from 18 to 25 years of age. Read More
Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA; Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA. Electronic address:
Accumulating evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be conceptualized within a framework of reward processing impairments. The "Social Motivation Theory of Autism" posits that reduced motivation to interact with people and decreased pleasure derived from social interactions may derail typical social development and contribute to the emergence of core social communication deficits in ASD. Neuroinflammation may disrupt the development of mesolimbic dopaminergic systems that are critical for optimal functioning of social reward processing systems. Read More
Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Applied Biophotonics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
The production of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from stem cells holds a great promise for future clinical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) derived from the adult human olfactory mucosa can be easily isolated and expanded in culture while maintaining their immense plasticity. In addition to reduced ethical concerns, OE-MSCs could be transplanted across allogeneic barriers, making them desirable stem cells for clinical applications. Read More
Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, 52074, Aachen, Germany; JARA Institute Brain Structure Function Relationship Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine (INM 10), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany.
Current models of aggression suggest that in addition to personality traits and environmental factors, biological vulnerability associated with genetics substantially impacts aggressive behavior. In a functional imaging study, we investigated the influence of the single nucleotide polymorphism of the mu 1 subtype opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), implicated in sociability, on correlates of trait and state aggression to delineate the function of these influences in aggression. A key aim was further to differentiate different aspects of aggressive reactions - namely, the reaction to provocation and the decision to punish an opponent. Read More
J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Nursing Research and Practice Development, Ulster University, and South Eastern Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland.
Aims And Objectives: To review published research into the staff and adult patient experience of person-centred practice in a 100% single-room environment in acute care.
Background: There has been a significant move towards the 100% single-room environment within healthcare systems. Furthermore, there has been a global move for developing person-centred practice in a range of healthcare settings. Read More
Psychooncology 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, Griffith University, Mt Gravatt, Queensland.
Objective: Sun safety is crucial for preventing skin cancer. This study evaluated a school-based intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) which aimed to encourage sun-protective behaviour among adolescents.
Methods: Secondary school students (N=382; 61. Read More
Diabet Med 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Wake Forest School of Medicine.
Aims: To examine (1) the prevalence of depressive symptoms in women with Type 2 diabetes, (2) the associations between depressive symptoms and the following dependent variables: sleep disturbance; physical activity; physical health-related; and global quality of life, and (3) the potential moderating effects of antidepressants and optimism on the relationship between depressive symptoms and dependent variables.
Methods: Participants in the Women's Health Initiative who had Type 2 diabetes and data on depressive symptoms (N=8895) were included in the analyses. In multivariable linear regression models controlling for sociodemographic, medical and psychosocial covariates, we examined the main effect of depressive symptoms, as well as the interactions between depressive symptoms and antidepressant use, and between depressive symptoms and optimism, on sleep disturbance, physical activity, physical health-related quality of life and global quality of life. Read More
Genes Brain Behav 2018 Dec 15:e12547. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
Individuals with autism constitute a variable population whose members are spread along the autism spectrum. Sub-populations within that spectrum exhibit other conditions, such as anxiety, intellectual disabilities, hyperactivity and epilepsy, with different severities and co-occurrences. Among the genes associated with the increased risk for autism is the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism, which impairs one-carbon metabolic pathway efficiency. Read More
J Nurs Scholarsh 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Rho, Professor, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to (a) describe nurse manager (NM) leadership behaviors for evidence-based practice, NM evidence-based practice competencies, and unit climates for evidence-based practice implementation in acute care, and (b) test for differences in NMs' and staff nurses' (RNs') perceptions.
Design: A multisite cross-sectional design was used to collect data from a sample of 24 NMs and 553 RNs from 24 adult medical-surgical units in seven U.S. Read More
J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Public Health, Section for Clinical Social Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Denmark.
Aims And Objectives: To explore patients' experiences and perspectives of their challenges and needs regarding their return to everyday life after allogeneic non-myeloablative haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (NMA-HSCT).
Background: NMA-HSCT can cure patients with malignant blood diseases, but during the following years the majority of patients suffer from serious side effects and complications. Hence, it is a major challenge for patients treated with NMA-HSCT to rehabilitate, maintain physical and psychosocial functioning and return to a life in restored balance. Read More
J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Oslo Metropolitan University.
Aims And Objectives: To gather insight in conditions important to an understanding of undocumented migrants' life situations and more specifically to explore undocumented migrants' quality of life and how we can understand the various domains of quality of life related to demographics, living conditions, migration history and inflicted burden.
Background: Undocumented migrants suffer from economic hardship and acculturative stress, limited psychological and social support and at the same time restricted access to health care and social welfare.
Design: An exploratory mixed methods design using primarily quantitative data with a qualitative component was implemented. Read More
Sociol Health Illn 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, USA.
An unprecedented mortality crisis befell the former socialist countries between 1989 and 1995, representing one of the greatest demographic shocks of the period after the Second World War. While it is likely that country-level variation in the post-socialist mortality crisis in Eastern Europe can be explained by a constellation of political and socio-economic factors, no comprehensive review of the existing scholarly attempts at explaining these factors exists. We review 39 cross-national multi-variable peer reviewed studies of social determinants of mortality in post-socialist Europe in order to assess the social factors behind the post-socialist mortality crisis, determine the gaps in the existing literature and to make suggestions for future research. Read More
Am J Community Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, USA.
Community psychology's history has traditionally been described within the context of U.S. history, silencing contributions from people of color from the Americas, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and Africa. Read More
Arch Sex Behav 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Leuven School for Mass Communication Research, Faculty of Social Sciences, KU Leuven, Parkstraat 45, 3000, Louvain, Belgium.
Matern Child Health J 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Communication, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, USA.
Introduction As mounting evidence underscores the importance of both men and women taking steps before pregnancy to improve reproductive outcomes, public health priorities are shifting toward a more gender-inclusive program of promoting preconception health (PCH). This study examined whether prescriptive gender stereotypes, defined as men's and women's beliefs about PCH behavioral norms each gender should uphold, were positively associated with intentions to engage in behaviors to protect a future child's health. Methods Data came from a June 2017 online survey of 609 U. Read More
Hum Nat 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA.
Identifying the determinants of reproductive success in small-scale societies is critical for understanding how natural selection has shaped human evolution and behavior. The available evidence suggests that status-accruing behaviors such as hunting and prosociality are pathways to reproductive success, but social egalitarianism may diminish this pathway. Here we introduce a mixed longitudinal/cross-sectional dataset based on 45 years of research with the Batek, a population of egalitarian rain forest hunter-gatherers in Peninsular Malaysia, and use it to test the effects of four predictors of lifetime reproductive success: (i) foraging return rate, (ii) sharing proclivity, (iii) cooperative foraging tendency, and (iv) kin presence. Read More
J Immigr Minor Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 15, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
Immigrant African gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at risk for substance use and adverse mental health outcomes due to negative experiences in home and host countries. Little is known about correlates of substance use and mental health outcomes in this population. We explored pre- and post-migratory factors associated with substance use and depression in recently migrated African GBM. Read More
Ecohealth 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Groupe de recherche en épidémiologie des zoonoses et santé publique, Université de Montréal, 3200 Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, J2S 7C6, Canada.
Dogs have been an integral part of the Inuit social and cultural environment for generations, but their presence also generates public health risks such as bites and exposure to zoonotic diseases such as rabies. In Nunavik, Canada, some prevention and control interventions targeting dogs have been implemented but have not demonstrated their effectiveness in a long-term sustainable perspective. This study was conducted in one Inuit community of Nunavik and used mixed methods to get a better understanding of factors that affect human and dog health, dog-related risks for humans and perceptions of dogs in Inuit communities using an interdisciplinary perspective in line with the Ecohealth approach. Read More
J Behav Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often receive self-management support from adult children, siblings or close friends residing outside of their home. However, the role of out-of-home support in patients' self-management and well-being is unclear. Patients (N = 313) with HbA1c > 7. Read More
Z Gerontol Geriatr 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
AG6 Versorgungsforschung & Pflegewissenschaft, Fakultät für Gesundheitswissenschaften, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstraße 25, 33615, Bielefeld, Deutschland.
Background: Even when they are in need of care, old people prefer to stay in their community. An appropriate design of nonresidential and residential care services close to people's home is crucial for supporting them. In the model project "Pflege stationär-Weiterdenken!" (Nursing home care-think ahead!) nursing homes offer extended services to old people in the community. Read More
Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17887. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Weill Cornell Medicine Qatar, Doha, Qatar.
The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials was to assess the effect of ezetimibe on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Only randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating the impact of ezetimibe treatment on cholesterol lowering that include lipoprotein(a) measurement were searched in PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases (from inception to February 26, 2018). A random-effects model and generic inverse variance method were used for quantitative data synthesis. Read More
Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17842. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Social Cognition in Human-Robot Interaction, via Enrico Melen 83, 16152, Genova, Italy.
Most experimental protocols examining joint attention with the gaze cueing paradigm are "observational" and "offline", thereby not involving social interaction. We examined whether within a naturalistic online interaction, real-time eye contact influences the gaze cueing effect (GCE). We embedded gaze cueing in an interactive protocol with the iCub humanoid robot. Read More
Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Dec 14;7(1):214. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Center for Research and Innovation, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Nakhon, Pathom, 73170, Thailand.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enteroviruses remains a public health threat, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region during the past two decades. Moreover, the introduction of multiple subgenotypes and the emergence of recombinant viruses is of epidemiological importance. Based on either the full genome or VP1 sequences, 32 enteroviruses (30 from HFMD patients, 1 from an encephalitic patient, and 1 from an asymptomatic contact case) isolated in Thailand between 2006 and 2014 were identified as 25 enterovirus 71 (EV71) isolates (comprising 20 B5, 1 C2, 2 C4a, and 2 C4b subgenotypes) and 7 coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) isolates (comprising 6 B1a and 1 B1b subgenotypes). Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e024262. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
Objectives: Self-management support aims to give people with chronic disease confidence to actively manage their disease, in partnership with their healthcare provider. A meta-review can inform policy-makers and healthcare managers about the effectiveness of self-management support strategies for people with type 2 diabetes, and which interventions work best and for whom.
Design: A meta-review of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was performed adapting Cochrane methodology. Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e024068. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Objective: Home healthcare is the fastest growing arena in the healthcare system but patient safety research in this context is limited. The aim was to explore how patient safety in Swedish specialised home healthcare is described and adressed from multidisciplinary teams' and clinical managers' perspectives.
Design: An explorative qualitative study. Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e023853. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
Introduction: Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) requiring critical care admission (ccAP) impacts negatively on long-term survival.
Objective: To document organ-specific new morbidity and identify risk factors associated with premature mortality after an episode of ccAP.
Design: Cohort study. Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e023676. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
School of Population Health and Environmental Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.
Objectives: Occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech and language therapy are central to rehabilitation after a stroke. The UK has introduced an audited performance target: that 45 min of each therapy should be provided to patients deemed appropriate. We sought to understand how this has influenced delivery of stroke unit therapy. Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e022931. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
Introduction: The rising popularity of social media, since their inception around 20 years ago, has been echoed in the growth of health-related research using data derived from them. This has created a demand for literature reviews to synthesise this emerging evidence base and inform future activities. Existing reviews tend to be narrow in scope, with limited consideration of the different types of data, analytical methods and ethical issues involved. Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e022906. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
Objectives: In recent years, Bangladesh has made remarkable advances in health outcomes; however, the benefits of these gains are unequally shared among citizens and population groups. Dalits ( sweepers), a marginalised traditional working community, have relatively poor access to healthcare services. This study sought to explore the sociopolitical and cultural factors associated with health inequalities among Dalits in an urban setting. Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e022825. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Research Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, UK.
Objectives: We aimed to develop a reliable and valid measure to assess public beliefs in mythical causes of cancer: the Cancer Awareness Measure-MYthical Causes Scale (CAM-MYCS).
Design And Setting: Cancer myth items were generated from a literature review, social media and interviews (n=16). The CAM-MYCS was prepared by reducing items using (a) an online sample (n=527) with exploratory factor analysis and (b) cancer experts with Delhpi methodology (n=13). Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e019572. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Te Kupenga Hauora Māori, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications are more common among Māori and Pacific people compared with other ethnic groups in New Zealand. Comprehensive and sustained approaches that address social determinants of health are required to address this condition, including culturally specific interventions. Currently, New Zealand has no comprehensive T2DM management programme for Māori or Pacific people. Read More
EMBO Rep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany
Aberrant synaptic function is thought to underlie social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Although microRNAs have been shown to regulate synapse development and plasticity, their potential involvement in the control of social behaviour in mammals remains unexplored. Here, we show that deletion of the placental mammal-specific miR379-410 cluster in mice leads to hypersocial behaviour, which is accompanied by increased excitatory synaptic transmission, and exaggerated expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor complexes in the hippocampus. Read More