141 results match your criteria Snapping Hip Syndrome


Editorial Commentary: The Indication and Technique of Iliotibial Band Release for External Snapping Hip During Hip Arthroscopy in Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome.

Arthroscopy 2022 Jun;38(6):1900-1903

The Fourth Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) often have extra-articular disorders, such as external snapping hip (ESH). We recommend that obvious ESH be addressed by endoscopic transversal iliotibial band (ITB) release during hip arthroscopy for FAIS because the residual serious snapping caused by ESH negatively affects the outcome of hip arthroscopy. However, for mild ESH without indications for severe trochanteric bursitis on magnetic resonance imaging, we still propose that physical therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, or local injection be performed for pain relief. Read More

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Arthroscopic treatment of type I and II greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2022 Jun 11;108(4):103312. Epub 2022 May 11.

Ramsay Santé, centre orthopédique Santy, hôpital privé Jean Mermoz, 24, avenue Paul-Santy, 69008 Lyon, France. Electronic address:

The goal of this study was to describe and evaluate endoscopic bursectomy combined with fascia lata lengthening in the treatment of type I and II greater trochanteric pain syndrome recalcitrant to conservative management. This was a retrospective study of 20 patients (7 type I, 13 type II) reviewed with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. The mean follow-up was 44±11 [26-65] months. Read More

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Editorial Commentary: It Is Imperative to Fix Symptomatic Hip Gluteus Medius Tears at Time of Femoroacetabular Impingement: Why Ignore This Pain in the Butt?

Arthroscopy 2022 05;38(5):1506-1508

Akron, Ohio.

The hip can have a multitude of different pathologies leading to different symptoms. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome, historically attributed to bursitis, has been largely found to be associated with lesions of the gluteus medius and minimus tendons, and the prevalence of gluteus medius pathology in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is as high as one-third of the FAI population. If a patient is found to have significant clinical symptoms of both FAI and a gluteus medius tear, it is imperative to fix both pathologies. Read More

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Competitive Athletes with Femoroacetabular Impingement and Painful Internal Snapping Treated Arthroscopically with Intrabursal Iliopsoas Fractional Lengthening: High Rate of Return to Sport and Favorable Midterm Functional Outcomes.

Am J Sports Med 2022 05 19;50(6):1591-1602. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Athletes with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) who undergo hip arthroscopy with iliopsoas fractional lengthening (IFL) in the context of painful internal snapping have demonstrated favorable patient-reported outcomes (PROs), return to sport (RTS), and resolution of internal snapping symptoms at short term follow-up. Midterm outcomes have not been established.

Purposes: (1) To report minimum 5-year PROs and RTS rate in competitive athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS and intra-bursal IFL for painful internal snapping and (2) to compare these clinical results with those of a propensity score-matched control group of competitive athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopy without painful internal snapping and IFL. Read More

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Classification Based Treatment of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome (GTPS) with Integration of the Movement System.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2022 1;17(3):508-518. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Physical Therapy, Duquesne University.

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) refers to pain in the lateral hip and thigh and can encompass multiple diagnoses including external snapping hip (coxa saltans), also known as proximal iliotibial band syndrome, trochanteric bursitis, and gluteus medius (GMed) or gluteus minimus (GMin) tendinopathy or tearing. GTPS presents clinicians with a similar diagnostic challenge as non-specific low back pain with special tests being unable to identify the specific pathoanatomical structure involved and do little to guide the clinician in prescription of treatment interventions. Like the low back, the development of GTPS has been linked to faulty mechanics during functional activities, mainly the loss of pelvic control in the frontal place secondary to hip abductor weakness or pain with hip abductor activation. Read More

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Mid- to long-term clinical outcomes of arthroscopic surgery for external snapping hip syndrome.

J Hip Preserv Surg 2021 Jul 24;8(2):172-176. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, No. 5, Fuxing Street, Guishan District, Taoyuan City 333, Taiwan.

This study evaluated the outcomes of arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of external snapping hip at 2- to 10-year follow-ups. Eighteen patients with refractory external snapping hip treated by arthroscopic surgery were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent unsuccessful conservative treatment for more than 3 months before surgery. Read More

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Patients With Concomitant Painful External Snapping Hip and Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndromes Reported Complete Snapping Resolution With Release of the Gluteus Maximus and Iliotibial Band, and Comparable Minimum 2-Year Outcomes to a Propensity-Matched Control Group.

Arthroscopy 2022 Jun 14;38(6):1890-1899. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.; American Hip Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.; AMITA Health St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, Illinois, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To report minimum 2-year patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) following primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) and painful external snapping hip (ESH) treatment and ESH resolution, and to compare these PROMs to a benchmark FAIS propensity-matched control group without ESH.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed between November 2009 and April 2018. Patients were eligible if they were preoperatively diagnosed with FAIS and painful ESH and received primary hip arthroscopy to address these pathologies. Read More

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Endoscopic gluteus maximus tendon release for external snapping hip syndrome: a functional assessment.

J Orthop Traumatol 2021 Nov 10;22(1):45. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, DAME University of Udine, ASUFC, Udine, Italy.

Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the clinical follow-up of patients with external snapping hip syndrome (ESHS) treated with endoscopic gluteus maximus tendon release and to compare the residual muscular strength and thigh circumference as an indirect outcome measure.

Methods: Patients of all ages with external snapping hip syndrome were treated with endoscopic gluteus maximus tendon release. Outcome measures evaluated included: visual analog scale (VAS), modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), and Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS). Read More

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November 2021

Snapping Hip Syndrome: A Comprehensive Update.

Orthop Rev (Pavia) 2021 22;13(2):25088. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Louisiana State University Health Science Center Shreveport.

Purpose Of Review: This is a comprehensive literature review regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of snapping hip syndrome (SHS). It covers the diverse etiology of the syndrome and management steps from conservative to more advanced surgical techniques.

Recent Findings: Recent advances in imaging modalities may help in diagnosing and treating SHS. Read More

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Hip Gluteus Medius Tears Are Associated With Lower Femoral Neck-Shaft Angles and Higher Acetabular Center-Edge Angles.

Arthroscopy 2022 05 20;38(5):1496-1505. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Sports Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Institute of Sports Medicine of Peking University and Beijing Key Laboratory of Sports Injuries, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: 1) To assess the possible relationship between the morphology of femur or acetabulum and the gluteus medius pathology. 2) To analyze the outcome of isolated arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) for patients with radiographic gluteus medius tear.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of FAI patients who underwent arthroscopy between January 2016 to December 2019. Read More

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External snapping hip syndrome is associated with an increased femoral offset.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Orthopaedics, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Forchstrasse 340, 8008, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: External snapping hip syndrome (ESH) is postulated to be one of the causes of greater trochanteric pain syndrome, which also includes greater trochanteric bursitis and tendinopathy or tears of the hip abductor mechanism. However, it was not yet described what kind of bony morphology can cause the snapping and whether symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals have different imaging features.

Purpose: It was the purpose of this study to look for predisposing morphological factors for ESH and to differentiate between painful and asymptomatic snapping. Read More

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September 2021

Hip Pain: Imaging of Intra-articular and Extra-articular Causes.

Clin Sports Med 2021 Oct;40(4):713-729

University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, TC 2910, Ann Arbor, MI 48103, USA. Electronic address:

Hip pain is a common and complex clinical entity. The causes of hip injuries in athletes are many and diverse, requiring efficient, accurate diagnosis for proper management. Imaging is an important step in the clinical evaluation of hip pain, and familiarity with multiple imaging modalities as well as characteristic imaging findings is a helpful tool for sports medicine clinicians. Read More

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October 2021

Platelet-rich plasma versus steroids injections for greater trochanter pain syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Br Med Bull 2021 09;139(1):86-99

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (SA), Italy.

Introduction: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is characterized by a persistent and debilitating pain around the greater trochanter. GTPS can be caused by a combination of gluteus medius or minimus tendinopathy, snapping hip or trochanteric bursitis.

Source Of Data: Recent published literatures identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. Read More

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September 2021

The Application of Arthroscopic Techniques in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hip-Related Conditions in China.

Orthop Surg 2021 Aug 5;13(6):1697-1706. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Sports Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Institute of Sports Medicine of Peking University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Sports Injuries, Beijing, China.

The hip joint is the largest weight-bearing joint in the body and is surrounded by dense capsules and thick muscles. Hip arthroscopic techniques are suitable for the treatment of hip-related conditions. These minimally invasive techniques have rapidly developed in China since 2007. Read More

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Multiple iliopsoas tendons: a cadaveric study and treatment implications for internal snapping hip syndrome.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2022 Jun 4;142(6):1147-1154. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Young Adult Hip Service, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Addenbrooke's - Cambridge University Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.

Purpose: This cadaveric study aimed at describing the anatomical variations of the iliopsoas complex.

Methods: The iliopsoas complex was dissected unilaterally in 28 formalin-embalmed cadavers-13 males and 15 females with a mean age of 85.6 years. Read More

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Editorial Commentary: An Optimal Classification System to Guide Prognosis and Treatment in Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Now We're Speaking the Same Language.

Authors:
Joshua D Harris

Arthroscopy 2021 07;37(7):2137-2139

The optimal classification system in arthroscopic and related surgery research and clinical practice should be clinically relevant, descriptive, reproducible, simple, inexpensive, safe, and widely applicable. For the hip, classification systems that characterize intra-articular disorders like femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome, dysplasia, labral tears, and articular cartilage disease predominate the literature. Recently, awareness of peritrochanteric and other extra-articular disorders has increasingly led to greater recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of what has been historically known as "just bursitis". Read More

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Arthroscopic Treatment for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome with External Snapping Hip: A Comparison Study of Matched Case Series.

Orthop Surg 2021 Aug 17;13(6):1730-1738. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Fourth Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of hip arthroscopy combined with endoscopic iliotibial band (ITB) release in patients with both femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome and external snapping hip (ESH).

Methods: Retrospectively review the preoperative and minimum of 2-year follow-up data of patients with both FAI syndrome and ESH who underwent endoscopic ITB release during hip arthroscopy (FAI + ESH group) from January 2014 to December 2018. The same number of age- and gender-matched FAI syndrome patients without ESH undergoing hip arthroscopy were enrolled in the control group (FAI group). Read More

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Ultrasound-guided surgery for lateral snapping hip: a novel ultraminimally invasive surgical technique.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 May 19;16(1):322. Epub 2021 May 19.

Avanfi Institute and Unit for Ultrasound-guided Surgery, Hospital Beata María Ana, Calle de Donoso Cortes 80, 28015, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Greater trochanteric pain syndrome encompasses a range of causes of lateral hip pain including greater trochanteric bursitis, tendinopathy and tears of the gluteus minimus and medius, and lateral snapping hip (LSH). Surgical options for LSH range from open surgery to endoscopic surgery, including a diamond-shaped cut or a simple transversal release to gluteus maximus tendon release. Resection of an area of proximal iliotibial band (ITB) and step-cut or z-plasty lengthening have not proven superior to transverse release of the ITB. Read More

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Borderline Dysplastic Female Patients With Painful Internal Snapping Improve Clinical Outcomes At Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up Following Hip Arthroscopy With Femoroplasty, Labral Repair, Iliopsoas Fractional Lengthening, and Capsular Plication: A Propensity-Matched Controlled Comparison.

Arthroscopy 2021 08 23;37(8):2473-2484. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

American Hip Institute, Chicago; AMITA Health St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, Illinois, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purposes: To report minimum 2-year follow-up patient-reported outcome scores (PROs) in borderline dysplastic female patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy with femoroplasty, labral repair, iliopsoas fractional lengthening, and plication of the capsule (FLIP procedure) for cam-type femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS), labral tear, and painful internal snapping and to compare these PROs to a propensity-matched borderline dysplastic control group without painful internal snapping.

Methods: Data were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for cam-type FAIS and labral tear between September 2008 and May 2017. Females with borderline dysplasia (lateral center-edge angle of ≥18° to ≤25°) and painful internal snapping, who underwent the FLIP procedure, with minimum 2-year PROs for modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sports-Specific Subscale, patient satisfaction, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were included. Read More

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Endoscopic Iliotibial Band Release During Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome and External Snapping Hip Had Better Patient-Reported Outcomes: A Retrospective Comparative Study.

Arthroscopy 2021 06 2;37(6):1845-1852. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Fourth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome and external snapping hip (ESH) treated with hip arthroscopy with or without endoscopic iliotibial band (ITB) release.

Methods: Retrospective review case series with both FAI syndrome and ESH who underwent surgical treatment under same indications. According to the primary operation that was determined by patients themselves, the patients undergoing ITB release during hip arthroscopy for FAI syndrome were enrolled in the ITB-R group, and patients undergoing hip arthroscopy without ITB release were enrolled in non-ITB-R group. Read More

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VIDEO: Dynamic Ultrasound for Snapping Hip Syndrome.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 02 23;216(2):446. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, UCLA-Santa Monica Medical Center and Orthopaedic Hospital, 1250 16th St, Ste 2340, Santa Monica, CA 90404.

The purpose of this video article is to review the dynamic sonographic assessment of snapping hip syndrome. The video focuses on the extraarticular forms of snapping hip and discusses their possible causes, ultrasound features, and treatment options. The dynamic sonographic technique for evaluating snapping hip syndrome is shown with live scanning videos. Read More

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February 2021

Pathogenesis and contemporary diagnoses for lateral hip pain: a scoping review.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Aug 19;29(8):2408-2416. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Addenbrooke's - Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Box 37, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.

Purpose: Recent advances in diagnostic imaging techniques and soft tissue endoscopy now allow for precise diagnosis and management of extra-articular hip pathology. The aim of this scoping review is to present an evidence-based update of the relevant literature focussing only on the pathoanatomy, clinical assessment and the diagnosis of pathology in the peritrochanteric space.

Methods: A literature search was performed on PubMed to include articles which reported on the anatomy and diagnosis of greater trochanteric pain syndrome, trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius tears and external snapping hip syndrome. Read More

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Non-surgical treatment as the first step to manage peritrochanteric space disorders.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Aug 21;29(8):2417-2423. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Purpose: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) or lateral hip pain terms include external snapping hip, trochanteric bursitis and gluteus medius or minimus pathology. The aim of this review is to update the most recent knowledge about non-surgical management of peritrochanteric disorders.

Methods: A literature review was performed including articles most relevant in the last years that were focused in non-surgical treatment of peritrochanteric disorders. Read More

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External Snapping Hip Syndrome Endoscopic Treatment: "Fan-like" Technique as a Stepwise, Tailor-made Solution.

Arthrosc Tech 2020 Oct 1;9(10):e1553-e1557. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

ORTIM Orthopaedic Clinic, Bialystok, Poland.

Classically, external snapping hip syndrome (ESHS) is considered to be caused by friction of a tight iliotibial band (ITB) over the greater trochanter (GT), which leads to pain, inflammation, and palpable or audible snapping. Surgical treatment remains a gold standard in patients resistant to conservative measures. Many surgical procedures addressing ESHS exist in the literature, but the vast majority of them involve only plasties of the ITB. Read More

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October 2020

Surgical interventions for external snapping hip syndrome.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Aug 16;29(8):2386-2393. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Purpose: Snapping hip is a common clinical condition, characterized by an audible or palpable snap of the hip joint. When the snap is perceived at the lateral side of the hip, this condition is known as external snapping hip or lateral coxa saltans, which is usually asymptomatic. Snapping hip syndrome (SHS) refers to a painful snap, which is more common in athletes who require increased hip range of motion. Read More

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Low rate of adverse events in a randomized controlled trial addressing the surgical treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Jun 2;29(6):2015-2020. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McMaster University, 1200 Main St W, 4E15, Hamilton, ON, L8N 3Z5, Canada.

Purpose: The femoroacetabular impingement randomised controlled trial (FIRST) is a multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT), comparing arthroscopic osteochondroplasty with arthroscopic lavage in adults aged 18-50 years diagnosed with non-arthritic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome. The purpose of the present study is to report the prevalence, distribution and severity of adverse events during and within 24-month follow-up period.

Methods: Of the 220 patients included, 6 were adjudicated as ineligible, for a total of 214 patients included in the final analysis. Read More

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Bifid iliopsoas tendon as a cause for internal snapping hip syndrome: A case report.

J Clin Ultrasound 2020 Jul 24;48(6):346-349. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Snapping hip syndrome, or coxa saltans, can result in significant clinical manifestations in patients including pain and limited mobility. A variety of both intra- and extra-articular pathologies have been implicated in snapping hip, including an anatomic variant known as the bifid iliopsoas tendon which has been briefly described in the literature. We report a case of a bifid iliopsoas tendon leading to internal snapping hip syndrome which was ultimately successfully treated with surgical release, including review of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and dynamic sonographic findings. Read More

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Platelet-Rich Plasma Versus Surgery for the Management of Recalcitrant Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

Arthroscopy 2020 03 25;36(3):875-888. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

American Hip Institute, Des Plaines, Illinois, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To perform a systematic review of the outcomes of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as an in-office procedure versus surgical treatment for recalcitrant greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS).

Methods: The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched in June 2019 following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement. Clinical studies on patients with recalcitrant GTPS treated with PRP or surgery were included. Read More

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