6,094 results match your criteria Snakebite


Snakebite-associated thrombotic microangiopathy: an Australian prospective cohort study [ASP30].

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Jul 30:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.

Background: Snakebite-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) occurs in a subset of patients with venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) following snakebite. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the commonest end-organ manifestation of TMA. The epidemiology, diagnostic features, outcomes, and effectiveness of interventions including therapeutic plasma-exchange (TPE), in snakebite-associated TMA are poorly understood. Read More

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Knowledge on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of snakebite envenoming among doctors in snakebite-dense regions in Sri Lanka.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Clinical Medicine.

Background: Sri Lanka is one of the highest envenoming reporting countries globally with >80 000 snakebites per year. Among other factors, knowledge of snakebite among doctors predominantly determines patient outcomes.

Methods: Using a pretested 72-item self-administered questionnaire, we assessed knowledge on identifying common snake species, signs of envenoming and management of venomous snakebites among 280 doctors working in eight state hospitals in regions where snakebite prevalence is highest in Sri Lanka. Read More

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Estimating epidemiological and economic burden and community derived disability weights for snake bite in Kerala: a study protocol.

F1000Res 2021 1;10:167. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, NW1 2DA, UK.

In India, lack of data and underreporting of cases and deaths due to snakebite makes it difficult to estimate its socio-economic burden. Previous studies measuring economic burden of snakebite in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) using different approaches have been conducted, but none  in India. The proposed study aims to provide evidence on disability weights, epidemiological and economic burden due to snakebites in Kerala state, India. Read More

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Serious Adverse Reactions to Anti-snake Venom in Children with Snake Envenomation: An Underappreciated Contributor to Snakebite Mortality?

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 Jun;25(6):720-723

Department of Pediatrics Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Puducherry, India.

Background: Deaths due to snakebites and serious adverse reactions to anti-snake venom (ASV) are both underreported in India. Serious adverse reactions to ASV are common, contributing significantly to mortality and morbidity. We conducted a study to determine the frequency of occurrence of severe adverse reactions to ASV in children and study the various risk factors and their outcomes. Read More

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A Review of the Phytochemistry, Ethnobotany, Toxicology, and Pharmacological Potentials of L. (Bignoniaceae).

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 7;2021:6683708. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4001, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

is an economical and medicinal plant of wide indigenous uses including hypertension, diarrhea, respiratory ailments, stomach troubles, infertility problems, cancer, and snakebite. Despite these attributes, is largely underutilized, notwithstanding the few progresses made to date. Here, we reviewed the available findings on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, toxicology, and pharmacology, as well as other economic benefits of the plant. Read More

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Synergism of in vitro plasmodicidal activity of phospholipase A2 isoforms isolated from panamanian Bothrops asper venom.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Jul 21:109581. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centro de Estudos de Biomoléculas Aplicadas à Saúde, CEBio, Laboratório de Biotecnologia de Proteínas e Compostos Bioativos da Amazônia Ocidental, LaBioProt, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Unidade Rondônia, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil; Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Experimental, Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Epidemiologia da Amazônia Ocidental (INCT-EpiAmO), Brazil; Centro Universitário São Lucas, UniSL, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil. Electronic address:

Bothrops asper is one of the most important snake species in Central America, mainly because of its medical importance in countries like Ecuador, Panama and Costa Rica, where this species causes a high number of snakebite accidents. Several basic phospholipases A (PLAs) have been previously characterized from B. asper venom, but few studies have been carried out with its acidic isoforms. Read More

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Visual Hallucinations After a Russell's Viper Bite.

Wilderness Environ Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chennai Medical College Hospital & Research Center, Irungalur, Trichy, India.

Visual hallucinations (VHs) are extremely rare in snakebites. We report a case of Russell's viper bite in an otherwise healthy 55-y-old woman who presented to a hospital in south India with established clinical features of systemic and local envenomation, including coagulation failure, without any neurologic manifestations on admission. She reported simple VH on the third day, which abruptly stopped on the fifth day without any specific medications. Read More

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No Change in the Use of Antivenom in Copperhead Snakebites in Ohio.

Wilderness Environ Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Introduction: Historically, copperhead snake (Agkistrodon contortrix) envenomations were not treated with antivenom owing to related adverse events and little benefit. However, recent studies have shown improved outcomes with antivenom use. We hypothesized that the frequency of antivenom use for copperhead envenomation in Ohio has increased as benefits of administration became more widely known. Read More

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Snakebite and local envenomation by treated without antivenom.

Acute Med Surg 2021 Jan-Dec;8(1):e674. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Emergency Medicine Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital Tokyo Japan.

Background: When snake breeders are bitten by rare snakes, deciding whether to administer snake antivenom can be challenging.

Case Presentation: A 50-year-old man was bitten on the right finger by . The next day, his right upper limb exhibited pronounced local manifestations of envenomation. Read More

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Comment to: Snakebite management in a pediatric patient: More doubts than certainties.

Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Servicio de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor, Hospital Universitario Central de la Defensa Gómez Ulla, Madrid, Spain.

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Prevention and improvement of clinical management of snakebite in Southern Asian countries: A proposed road map.

Toxicon 2021 Jul 16;200:140-152. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, 80639-0017, USA.

In the Southern Asian countries, snakebite takes a substantial toll in terms of human life, inflicts acute morbidity and long term disability both physical and psychological, and therefore represents a neglected socio-economic problem and severe health issue that requires immediate medical attention. The 'Big Four' venomous snakes, viz. Daboia russelii, Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus and Echis carinatus, are prominent, medically important species and are the most dangerous snakes of this region; therefore, the commercial polyvalent antivenom (PAV) contains antibodies against the venoms of these snakes. Read More

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The first reported snakebite by an African snake-eater, Polemon spp. (Atractaspididae, Aparallactinae); Local envenoming by Reinhardt's snake-eater, Polemon acanthias (Reinhardt, 1860).

Toxicon 2021 Jul 16;200:92-95. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7205, MNHN, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles, Institut de Systématique, Evolution et Biodiversité, CP 30, 57, Rue Cuvier, F-75005, Paris, France.

The first reported snakebite by an African snake-eater, Polemon spp. (Atractaspididae, Aparallactinae); Local envenoming by Reinhardt's snake-eater, Polemon acanthias (Reinhardt, 1860). Toxicon XX, xxx. Read More

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The Burden of Snakebite in Rural Communities in Kenya: A Household Survey.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Health Action International, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Annually, about 2.7 million snakebite envenomings occur worldwide, primarily affecting those living in rural regions. Effective treatment exists but is scarce, and traditional treatments are commonly used. Read More

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Citizen science and online data: Opportunities and challenges for snake ecology and action against snakebite.

Toxicon X 2021 Jul 22;9-10:100071. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Global Biology, Birr, Switzerland.

The secretive behavior and life history of snakes makes studying their biology, distribution, and the epidemiology of venomous snakebite challenging. One of the most useful, most versatile, and easiest to collect types of biological data are photographs, particularly those that are connected with geographic location and date-time metadata. Photos verify occurrence records, provide data on phenotypes and ecology, and are often used to illustrate new species descriptions, field guides and identification keys, as well as in training humans and computer vision algorithms to identify snakes. Read More

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Evaluation of a Treatment Algorithm for Tsushima Mamushi (Gloydius tsushimaensis) Snakebites, After its Introduction to Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan.

Intern Med 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yokohama City University, Japan.

Objective Tsushima mamushi (Gloydius tsushimaensis) is an endemic species of snake inhabiting only Tsushima Island, a remote Japanese island. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study of G. tsushimaensis bites for the first time and developed a therapeutic algorithm that unified treatment on the island and is still in use today. Read More

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Botanical treatments for snakebite in rural Ghana: A narrative review.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 15:114432. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Biological, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: In the countryside, there are some limitations with the use of venom antisera to manage snake bites. Due to poor access to healthcare and as a result of the difficulty in receiving treatment for cases of snake bites, most rural people in Ghana, a West African country, rely on plant medicine as a first aid to manage cases of venomous snakebite. This calls for more research into the species of plants used to medically manage snakebite envenomation. Read More

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Evaluation of the systemic alterations triggers by Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii snake venom.

Acta Trop 2021 Jul 14;222:106047. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Centro de Estudios Cerebrales, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

The systemic effects generated by Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii envenoming, a species found in the northern region of Colombia, is poorly known. The present study aimed to analyze for the first time the mice's behavior, the histological alterations, and changes in biochemical markers levels resulting from the intraperitoneal injection of an LD of P. lansbergii lansbergii snake venom on mice. Read More

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Implications of global environmental change for the burden of snakebite.

Toxicon X 2021 Jul 18;9-10:100069. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Departamento de Sistemas y Procesos Naturales, Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores Unidad Mérida, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Yucatán, Mexico.

Snakebite envenoming is a set of intoxication diseases that disproportionately affect people of poor socioeconomic backgrounds in tropical countries. As it is highly dependent on the environment its burden is expected to shift spatially with global anthropogenic environmental (climate, land use) and demographic change. The mechanisms underlying the changes to snakebite epidemiology are related to factors of snakes and humans. Read More

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The clinical course and treatment of black mamba ( envenomations: a narrative review.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Jul 5:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Medical Physiology, Division of Heart & Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Context: The black mamba ( is, due to its extremely toxic venom, one of the most dangerous snake species in Sub-Saharan Africa. A bite is a medical emergency and requires adequate action to prevent severe complications. However, there are no comprehensive reviews available based on clinical cases, and no readily accessible guidelines for standardized treatment. Read More

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Total flavonoids from Potentilla kleiniana Wight et Arn inhibits biofilm formation and virulence factors production in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 29;279:114383. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518000, China; School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Hanshan Normal University, Chaozhou, 521041, China. Electronic address:

Ethanopharmacological Relevance: Potentilla kleiniana Wight et Arn is a wide-spread wild plant in the mountainous areas in southern China. The whole herb has been used as a traditional herbal medicine to treat fever, arthritis, malaria, insect and snake bites, hepatitis, and traumatic injury. In vitro studies have reported the antibacterial activity use of the plant in traditional medicinal systems. Read More

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Use of freeze-dried trivalent antivenom to neutralize the toxic activities of Bothrops atrox snake venoms from the Amazon.

Toxicon 2021 Jun 29;200:19-22. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Pathophysiology Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, 05503-900, Brazil.

In Brazil, antivenom for snakebite is currently formulated in liquid form and requires storage at 4 °C. Here, a new freeze-dried trivalent antivenom, which would enable cold-chain free storage, was determined to have efficacy in neutralizing the biological activities of Bothrops atrox venoms from Manaus (Brazil) and Leticia (Colombia), exhibiting an efficacy similar to those of currently available liquid Bothrops antivenoms. These results indicate that freeze-dried trivalent antivenom may be beneficial for applications in the Brazilian and Colombian Amazon regions. Read More

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Snakebite biomedical and epidemiological aspects in the department of Cauca, Colombia, 2009-2018

Biomedica 2021 06 29;41(2):314-337. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Secretaría de Salud del Departamento del Cauca, Popayán, Colombia.

Introduction: Snakebite is a relevant public health problem in Colombia, which is evident in epidemiological data at the Latin American level, where it ranks third place in the number of snakebites, after México and Brazil. Objective: To perform a retrospective analysis of snakebite accidents in the department of Cauca between 2009 and 2018 based on the data from the Public Health Surveillance System of Colombia reported to the Health Institute of Cauca. Materials and methods: We compiled and interpreted the information from the compulsory snakebite notification forms for the study’s 10 years period. Read More

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The Search for Natural and Synthetic Inhibitors That Would Complement Antivenoms as Therapeutics for Snakebite Envenoming.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 06 29;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Facultad de Microbiología, Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501, Costa Rica.

A global strategy, under the coordination of the World Health Organization, is being unfolded to reduce the impact of snakebite envenoming. One of the pillars of this strategy is to ensure safe and effective treatments. The mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming is the administration of animal-derived antivenoms. Read More

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Small Angle X-ray Scattering, Molecular Modeling, and Chemometric Studies from a Thrombin-Like (Lmr-47) Enzyme of Venom.

Molecules 2021 Jun 28;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Interdisciplinary Medical Research Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil.

Introduction: Snakebite envenomation is considered a neglected tropical disease, and SVTLEs critical elements are involved in serious coagulopathies that occur on envenoming. Although some enzymes of this group have been structurally investigated, it is essential to characterize other proteins to better understand their unique properties such as the 47 kDa (Lmr-47) venom serine protease.

Methods: The structure of Lmr-47 was studied in solution, using SAXS, DLS, CD, and in silico by homology modeling. Read More

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Pharmacological Characterisation of and Viper Venoms Reveal Anticancer (Melanoma) Properties and a Potentially Novel Mode of Fibrinogenolysis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 27;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Translational Venomics Group, Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies in Food, E28049 Madrid, Spain.

Venoms are a rich source of potential lead compounds for drug discovery, and descriptive studies of venom form the first phase of the biodiscovery process. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological potential of crude and snake venoms in haematological disorders and cancer treatment. We assessed their antithrombotic potential using fibrinogen thromboelastography, fibrinogen gels with and without protease inhibitors, and colourimetric fibrinolysis assays. Read More

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Gallic acid anti-myotoxic activity and mechanism of action, a snake venom phospholipase A toxin inhibitor, isolated from the medicinal plant Anacardium humile.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 28;185:494-512. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Laboratório de Biotecnologia de Proteínas e Compostos Bioativos, LABIOPROT, Centro de Estudos de Biomoléculas Aplicadas à Saúde, CEBio, Laboratório de Imunologia Celular Aplicada à Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Unidade Rondônia, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil; Centro Universitário São Lucas, UniSL, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Epidemiologia da Amazônia Ocidental (INCT-EpiAmO), Brazil. Electronic address:

Snakebite envenoming is the cause of an ongoing health crisis in several regions of the world, particularly in tropical and neotropical countries. This scenario creates an urgent necessity for new practical solutions to address the limitations of current therapies. The current study investigated the isolation, phytochemical characterization, and myotoxicity inhibition mechanism of gallic acid (GA), a myotoxin inhibitor obtained from Anacardium humile. Read More

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Mutual enlightenment: A toolbox of concepts and methods for integrating evolutionary and clinical toxinology via snake venomics and the contextual stance.

Toxicon X 2021 Jul 12;9-10:100070. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that may claim over 100,000 human lives annually worldwide. Snakebite occurs as the result of an interaction between a human and a snake that elicits either a defensive response from the snake or, more rarely, a feeding response as the result of mistaken identity. Snakebite envenoming is therefore a biological and, more specifically, an problem. Read More

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Facial paralysis due to a spitting cobra bite.

JPRAS Open 2021 Sep 21;29:93-98. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Plastic-, Reconstructive- and Hand surgery, Erasmus Medical Center, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

The global burden of snakebites is growing, particularly its nonfatal sequelae. Therefore, the World Health Organization reinstated snakebites to its list of Neglected Tropical Diseases. We describe the case of a 4. Read More

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September 2021

Case Report: Treatment of a Severe Puff Adder Snakebite Without Antivenom Administration.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Toyama Prefectural Central Hospital, Emergency Medical Center, Toyama, Japan.

Antivenoms are the treatment of choice for managing lethal snakebites. However, antivenoms may not be available in instances where non-native vipers are kept in captivity. We report a case of a puff adder (Bitis arietans) bite treated without antivenom. Read More

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What is the impact of snakebite envenoming on domestic animals? A nation-wide community-based study in Nepal and Cameroon.

Toxicon X 2021 Jul 5;9-10:100068. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Global Health, Department of Community Health and Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Chemin des mines 9, 1202, Geneva, Switzerland.

Snakebite envenoming is a life-threatening disease in humans and animals and a major public health issue in rural communities of South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Yet the impact of snakebite on domestic animals has been poorly studied. This study aimed to describe the context, clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of snakebite envenoming in domestic animals in Nepal and Cameroon. Read More

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