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    A mixed toxidrome presenting with bilateral ptosis with normal pupils: The first case in the literature.
    J Family Med Prim Care 2016 Jul-Sep;5(3):682-684
    Department of Medicine, BAPS Trust Hospital, Dabhoi, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
    Snakebite is an environmental hazard associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Two main types of toxicity occur due to snakebite, namely vasculotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Neurotoxic snakebites present mainly with bilateral ptosis with dilated pupils and/or difficulty in breathing. Read More

    Coagulopathy and extensive local swelling following Green pit viper (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) envenoming in Sri Lanka.
    Toxicon 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Trimeresurus trigonocephalus (Sri Lankan Green pit viper) is a moderately venomous arboreal snake endemic to Sri Lanka. Even though, its bites are not uncommon, published reports of such cases are limited to three in literature. We report three cases of coagulopathy following Green pit viper bites and treatment with fresh frozen plasma. Read More

    Clinacanthus nutans: a review on ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological properties.
    Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):1093-1113
    a Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link , Gadong , Brunei Darussalam.
    Context: Medicinal plants have attracted global attention for their hidden therapeutic potential. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f) Lindau (Acanthaceae) (CN) is endemic in Southeast Asia. Read More

    Contributing Factors for Complications and Outcomes in Patients With Snakebite: Experience in a Medical Center in Southern Taiwan.
    Ann Plast Surg 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    From the *Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung; and †National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
    Objectives: Snakebite usually results in various complications, such as significant soft tissue damage, infection, hematological, and neurological deficit. Surgical intervention, usually, is indicated in patients with tissue necrosis, infection, and compartment syndrome. To identify the contributing factors for complications and outcomes in different patients with snakebite so that outcomes can be evaluated and treatment of such patients can be initiated at the earliest. Read More

    Medicinal plants used to treat snakebite in Central America: Review and assessment of scientific evidence.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Feb 4. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Natural Capital and Plant Health Department, Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AB, UK; Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, Franklin-Wilkins Building, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK.
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. Read More

    A retrospective review of rattlesnake bites in 100 children.
    Minerva Pediatr 2017 Apr;69(2):121-128
    Emergency Service, Children's' Hospital of the State of Sonora (HIES), Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.
    Background: A retrospective review of clinical features and treatment of children hospitalized for rattlesnake bite.

    Methods: One hundred clinical records were reviewed. Variables included: age, gender, season of the year, signs, symptoms, poisoning grade, complications, treatment and sequelae. Read More

    Kidney Failure Due to Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Snakebite.
    Iran J Kidney Dis 2017 01;11(1):66-69
    Department of Nephrology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Treatment of snakebite complications is challenging, as it is difficult to distinguish what kind of antivenins should be used. Kidney failure as a result of rhabdomyolysis or hemolysis may happen due to accumulated fluids that increase the pressure in the abdomen. This case report describes acute kidney failure probably due to intra-abdominal hypertension following an unknown bite. Read More

    Recombinant snakebite antivenoms: A cost-competitive solution to a neglected tropical disease?
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 3;11(2):e0005361. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health burden in tropical parts of the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, neglect has led to a scarcity of antivenoms threatening the lives and limbs of snakebite victims. Technological advances within antivenom are warranted, but should be evaluated not only on their possible therapeutic impact, but also on their cost-competitiveness. Read More

    Inhibition of Snake Venom Metalloproteinase by β-Lactoglobulin Peptide from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Colostrum.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    DOS in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, 570 006, India.
    Bioactive peptide research has experienced considerable therapeutic interest owing to varied physiological functions, efficacy in excretion, and tolerability of peptides. Colostrum is a rich natural source of bioactive peptides with many properties elucidated such as anti-thrombotic, anti-hypertensive, opioid, immunomodulatory, etc. In this study, a variant peptide derived from β-lactoglobulin from buffalo colostrum was evaluated for the anti-ophidian property by targeting snake venom metalloproteinases. Read More

    Performance of the 20-minute whole blood clotting test in detecting venom induced consumption coagulopathy from Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) bites.
    Thromb Haemost 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Geoffrey K. Isbister, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, c/o Calvary Mater Newcastle, Edith Street, Waratah NSW 2298, Australia, Tel.: +612 4921 1211, Fax: +612 4921 1870, E-mail:
    The 20-minute whole blood clotting test (WBCT20) is used as a bedside diagnostic test for coagulopathic snake envenoming. We aimed to assess the performance of the WBCT20 in diagnosis of venom induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) in Russell's viper envenoming. Adult patients admitted with suspected snake bites were recruited from two hospitals. Read More

    Exploration of immunoglobulin transcriptomes from mice immunized with three-finger toxins and phospholipases A2 from the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus.
    PeerJ 2017 24;5:e2924. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica , San José , Costa Rica.
    Snakebite envenomings represent a neglected public health issue in many parts of the rural tropical world. Animal-derived antivenoms have existed for more than a hundred years and are effective in neutralizing snake venom toxins when timely administered. However, the low immunogenicity of many small but potent snake venom toxins represents a challenge for obtaining a balanced immune response against the medically relevant components of the venom. Read More

    The prognostic value of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in patients with snake bites for clinical outcomes and complications.
    Saudi J Biol Sci 2017 Feb 19;24(2):362-366. Epub 2015 Oct 19.
    Dicle University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Diyarbakır, Turkey.
    Introduction: Snake bites have cardiotoxicity, neurotoxic, myotoxic, nephrotoxic, and hemotoxic features. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) provides valuable information for the determination of the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between NLR with the development of complications and duration of hospital stay in snakebite cases. Read More

    Bites by the Monocled Cobra, Naja kaouthia, in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh: Epidemiology, Clinical Features of Envenoming and Management of 70 Identified Cases.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jan 30. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Medical Toxicology Centre and Institute of Neurosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
    We describe 70 cases of monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) bite admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. The biting snakes were identified by examining the dead snake and/or detecting N. kaouthia venom antigens in patients' serum. Read More

    Active immunization of cattle with a bothropic toxoid does not abrogate envenomation by Bothrops asper venom, but increases the likelihood of survival.
    Biologicals 2017 Jan 22. Epub 2017 Jan 22.
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address:
    This study assessed the protective effect of active immunization of cattle to prevent the envenomation induced by B. asper venom. Two groups of oxen were immunized with a bothropic toxoid and challenged by an intramuscular injection of either 10 or 50 mg B. Read More

    Classifying snakebite in South Africa: Validating a scoring system.
    S Afr Med J 2016 Dec 21;107(1):46-51. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Objective: To develop and validate a scoring system for managing snakebites in South Africa (SA).

    Methods: We studied all snakebite admissions to a regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, SA. The primary outcome was an active treatment intervention (ATI) defined as antivenom treatment or any surgical procedure. Read More

    A randomized controlled trial of fresh frozen plasma for coagulopathy in Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) envenoming.
    J Thromb Haemost 2017 Jan 20. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Essentials Russell's viper envenoming is a major health issue in South Asia and causes coagulopathy. We studied the effect of fresh frozen plasma and two antivenom doses on correcting coagulopathy. Fresh frozen plasma did not hasten recovery of coagulopathy. Read More

    Kinetics Extraction Modelling and Antiproliferative Activity of Clinacanthus nutans Water Extract.
    ScientificWorldJournal 2016 26;2016:7370536. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Clinacanthus nutans is widely grown in tropical Asia and locally known "belalai gajah" or Sabah snake grass. It has been used as a natural product to treat skin rashes, snake bites, lesion caused by herpes, diabetes, fever, and cancer. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to determine the maximum yield and time of exhaustive flavonoids extraction using Peleg's model and to evaluate potential of antiproliferative activity on human lung cancer cell (A549). Read More

    Evaluation of antivenom therapy for Vipera palaestinae bites in children: experience of two large, tertiary care pediatric hospitals.
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Apr 20;55(4):235-240. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    a Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics , Dana-Dwek Children Hospital, Sackler School of Medicine, University of Tel Aviv , Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Antivenom has been successfully used to treat systemic and progressive, local manifestations of envenomation inflicted by Vipera (V.) palaestinae, the most common venomous snake in Israel. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fixed dose V. Read More

    Vipera ammodytes bites treated with antivenom ViperaTAb: a case series with pharmacokinetic evaluation.
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Apr 17;55(4):241-248. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    c Centre for Research and Knowledge Transfer in Biotechnology, University of Zagreb , Zagreb , Croatia.
    Context: In clinical practice it is difficult to differentiate between V. berus and V. ammodytes venomous bites. Read More

    Melatonin inhibits snake venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress and augments treatment efficacy.
    Acta Trop 2017 Jan 12;169:14-25. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Studies in Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Mysore, India. Electronic address:
    Snakebite is a neglected health hazard. Its patho-physiology has largely been focused on systemic and local toxicities; whereas, venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress has long been ignored. Antivenom therapy although neutralizes venom lethality and saves many lives, remains ineffective against oxidative stress. Read More

    Two rare case reports of confirmed Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) envenoming in Sri Lanka.
    Toxicon 2017 Mar 4;127:44-48. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Medical Unit, Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka.
    The Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) is a deadly venomous elapid snake endemic to Sri Lanka. Its habitat is mainly in the wet zone of the island. Despite its frequent encounters in and near human dwellings, reports of envenoming are rare and limited to four in the literature. Read More

    Snake Venom Metalloproteinases and Their Peptide Inhibitors from Myanmar Russell's Viper Venom.
    Toxins (Basel) 2016 Dec 30;9(1). Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK.
    Russell's viper bites are potentially fatal from severe bleeding, renal failure and capillary leakage. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are attributed to these effects. In addition to specific antivenom therapy, endogenous inhibitors from snakes are of interest in studies of new treatment modalities for neutralization of the effect of toxins. Read More

    A Survey of Snakebite Knowledge among Field Forces in China.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 Dec 26;14(1). Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    Department of Emergency Nursing, School of Nursing, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.
    Background: A snakebite is a neglected extrinsic injury associated with high morbidity and global mortality. Members of Chinese field forces are at high risk of snakebites, and their perception and knowledge of snakebites are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess perception and knowledge of snakebites in field forces in southeast China; Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted in July 2016. Read More

    Crystal structure of a phospholipase A2 from Bothrops asper venom: Insights into a new putative "myotoxic cluster".
    Biochimie 2017 Feb 27;133:95-102. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Departamento de Física e Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP - Univ. Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Snake venoms from the Viperidae and Elapidae families often have several phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), which may display different functions despite having a similar structural scaffold. These proteins are considered an important target for the development of drugs against local myotoxic damage because they are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy. PLA2s from these venoms are generally divided into two classes: (i) catalytic PLA2s (or Asp49-PLA2s) and (ii) non-catalytic PLA2-like toxins (or Lys49-PLA2s). Read More

    Pitfalls to avoid when using phage display for snake toxins.
    Toxicon 2017 Feb 23;126:79-89. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies are thus warranted, and phage display technology may be a promising avenue for bringing antivenoms into the modern era of biologics. Although phage display technology represents a robust and high-throughput approach for the discovery of antibody-based antitoxins, several pitfalls may present themselves when animal toxins are used as targets for phage display selection. Read More

    An overview of Bothrops erythromelas venom.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2016 Nov-Dec;49(6):680-686
    Laboratório de Imunologia Celular Aplicada à Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rondônia, Porto Velho, Brazil.
    This review discusses studies on the venom of Bothrops erythromelas published over the past 36 years. During this period, many contributions have been made to understand the venomous snake, its venom, and its experimental and clinical effects better. The following chronological overview is based on 29 articles that were published between 1979 and 2015, with emphasis on diverse areas. Read More

    The potential of aqueous extracts of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) to inhibit the biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom: A comparison of specimens collected in the states of Pará and Amazonas, Brazil.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Jan 18;196:168-177. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
    Programa Multi-institucional de Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil; Laboratório de Imunoquímica, Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil.
    Ethnopharmacological Importance: The effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) specimems collected in Santarém, PA, against some biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom (BaV) has been scientifically proven. Here, we analyzed the components and assessed the anti-snakebite potential of aqueous extracts of bark of B. Read More

    Snakebite mediated acute kidney injury, prognostic predictors, oxidative and carbonyl stress: A prospective study.
    Indian J Nephrol 2016 Nov-Dec;26(6):427-433
    Department of Biochemistry, NRS Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Snake bite is an occupational hazard in India and important preventable cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study was done to estimate the magnitude of snakebite-induced AKI (SAKI) who required renal replacement therapy, prognostic predictors, and final outcome, and to measure the oxidative and carbonyl stress (CS) level in SAKI patient who underwent hemodialysis (HD). All SAKI patients dialyzed between April 2010 and July 2011 in NRS Medical College were included. Read More

    Childhood Victims of Snakebites: 2000-2013.
    Pediatrics 2016 Nov;138(5)
    North Texas Poison Control Center, Parkland Health & Hospital System, Dallas, Texas; and.
    Background: Snakebites are not a reportable condition (to state health departments), and 1 major assessment of US children with snakebites was published 50 years ago. Increasing urbanization, population shifts south and west, newer antivenom therapy, and the importation of exotic snakes may have changed snakebites. Poison control centers are often consulted on treatment and collect surveillance data. Read More

    Severe Snakebite Envenoming in Intensive Care.
    Prague Med Rep 2016 ;117(4):153-163
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Snakebites by exotic venomous snakes can cause serious or even life-threatening envenoming. In Europe and North America most victims are breeders, with a few snakebites from wild native American rattlesnakes. The envenomed victims may present in organ and/or system failure with muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, circulatory instability, acute kidney injury, severe coagulation disorder, and local disability - compartment syndrome and necrosis. Read More

    Comparison of green pit viper and Agkistrodon halys antivenom in inhibition of coagulopathy due to Trimeresurus albolabris venom: an in-vitro study using human plasma.
    Hong Kong Med J 2017 Feb 2;23(1):13-8. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Fauna Conservation Department, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Tai Po, Hong Kong.
    Introduction: There are two antivenoms that may be administered in Hong Kong following a bite by Trimeresurus albolabris: the green pit viper antivenom from the Thai Red Cross Society in Thailand and the Agkistrodon halys antivenom from the Shanghai Institute of Biological Products in China. Both are recommended by the Central Coordinating Committee of Accident and Emergency Services of the Hospital Authority for treating patients with a bite by Trimeresurus albolabris. The choice of which antivenom to use is based on physician preference. Read More

    Australian taipan (Oxyuranus spp.) envenoming: clinical effects and potential benefits of early antivenom therapy - Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-25).
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Feb 30;55(2):115-122. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
    a Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle , Newcastle , Australia.
    Context: Taipans (Oxyuranus spp.) are medically important venomous snakes from Australia and Papua New Guinea. The objective of this study was to describe taipan envenoming in Australian and its response to antivenom. Read More

    Protective Effect of the Sulfated Agaran Isolated from the Red Seaweed Laurencia aldingensis Against Toxic Effects of the Venom of the Snake, Lachesis muta.
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2016 Dec 25;18(6):619-629. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 24020-141, Brazil.
    Snakebite is a serious occupational hazard affecting mainly rural populations of tropical and subtropical developing countries. Lachesis muta (Bushmaster) bites are extremely serious but are rarely reported in the literature. Bushmaster envenomings are characterized by intense local pain, edema, neurotoxicity, hypotension, local hemorrhage, and dramatic systemic alterations. Read More

    Priority Actions and Progress to Substantially and Sustainably Reduce the Mortality, Morbidity and Socioeconomic Burden of Tropical Snakebite.
    Toxins (Basel) 2016 Nov 24;8(12). Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501-2060, Costa Rica.
    The deliberations and conclusions of a Hinxton Retreat convened in September 2015, entitled "Mechanisms to reverse the public health neglect of snakebite victims" are reported. The participants recommended that the following priority actions be included in strategies to reduce the global impact of snake envenoming: (a) collection of accurate global snakebite incidence, mortality and morbidity data to underpin advocacy efforts and help design public health campaigns; (b) promotion of (i) public education prevention campaigns; (ii) transport systems to improve access to hospitals and (iii) establishment of regional antivenom-efficacy testing facilities to ensure antivenoms' effectiveness and safety; Read More

    Viperid Envenomation Wound Exudate Contributes to Increased Vascular Permeability via a DAMPs/TLR-4 Mediated Pathway.
    Toxins (Basel) 2016 Nov 24;8(12). Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, P.O. Box 800734, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.
    Viperid snakebite envenomation is characterized by inflammatory events including increase in vascular permeability. A copious exudate is generated in tissue injected with venom, whose proteomics analysis has provided insights into the mechanisms of venom-induced tissue damage. Hereby it is reported that wound exudate itself has the ability to induce increase in vascular permeability in the skin of mice. Read More

    Clinically Significant Envenomation From Postmortem Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix).
    Wilderness Environ Med 2016 Nov 18. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    Division of Clinical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, VCU Medical Center, Richmond, VA (Drs Emswiler and Cumpston); Virginia Poison Center, Richmond, VA (Drs Emswiler and Cumpston); Department of Emergency Medicine, VCU Medical Center, Richmond, VA (Drs Emswiler and Cumpston).
    Over 14,000 copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) bites were reported to United States poison centers between 1983 and 2008, and 1809 cases were reported to poison centers in 2014. The copperhead is primarily found in the southeastern United States and belongs to the pit viper subfamily Crotalinae, which also includes the water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus) and rattlesnakes (Crotalus and Sistrurus genera). Postmortem rattlesnakes have been reported to cause clinically significant envenomation; we report a case of a postmortem copperhead causing clinically significant envenomation after inadvertent puncture with the deceased copperhead fang. Read More

    Ischemic brain infarcts and intracranial haemorrhages following Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) bite in Sri Lanka.
    Toxicon 2017 Jan 19;125:70-73. Epub 2016 Nov 19.
    Medical Unit, Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka.
    Snakebite is an important medical problem in Sri Lanka. Of the deadly venomous snakes, Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is widely distributed and responsible for most of the fatalities of snakebite in the country. It is not uncommon to see atypical manifestations in Russell's viper bite. Read More

    Identification of snake venom allergens by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting.
    Toxicon 2017 Jan 17;125:13-18. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    Research Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China. Electronic address:
    This allergic reaction to snake venom was described to occur in patients after recurrent exposure through bites in amateur and professional snake handlers, which might be underestimated and contribute to fatal snakebites in victim, independently from the toxicity of the venom itself. Few allergens were identified from snake venoms by normal SDS-PAGE, which cannot separate the snake venom completely. In the present study, we identified nine potential allergens by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting (named as allergenomics) in Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venom. Read More

    Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 26;2016:6101742. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    TECBIOFAR, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Read More

    Ornament induced complications in snake bites: Revisiting the "Do it RIGHT" approach.
    J Family Med Prim Care 2016 Apr-Jun;5(2):474-476
    Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
    Limb adorning ornaments (LAO) can exacerbate the local effects of envenoming in case of venomous snake bite. Cultural presuppositions do inhibit victims from removing symbolically/ritually important jewelry even under circumstances that might increase the dangers of envenoming-induced gangrene formation. The recommendation to remove the LAO is usually skipped in guidelines and if at all included the very real hazard is uncommonly documented. Read More

    Safe Handling of Snakes in an ED Setting.
    J Emerg Nurs 2017 Jan 11;43(1):21-23. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    Houston; Katy, TX.
    Efforts to improve consistency in management of snakes and venomous snake bites in the emergency department (ED) can improve patient and staff safety and outcomes, as well as improve surveillance data accuracy. The emergency department at a large academic medical center identified an opportunity to implement a standardized process for snake disposal and identification to reduce staff risk exposure to snake venom from snakes patients brought with them to the ED.

    Methods: A local snake consultation vendor and zoo Herpetologist assisted with development of a process for snake identification and disposal. Read More

    High-throughput immuno-profiling of mamba (Dendroaspis) venom toxin epitopes using high-density peptide microarrays.
    Sci Rep 2016 Nov 8;6:36629. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Bio and Health Informatics, Kgs. Lyngby, 2800, Denmark.
    Snakebite envenoming is a serious condition requiring medical attention and administration of antivenom. Current antivenoms are antibody preparations obtained from the plasma of animals immunised with whole venom(s) and contain antibodies against snake venom toxins, but also against other antigens. In order to better understand the molecular interactions between antivenom antibodies and epitopes on snake venom toxins, a high-throughput immuno-profiling study on all manually curated toxins from Dendroaspis species and selected African Naja species was performed based on custom-made high-density peptide microarrays displaying linear toxin fragments. Read More

    Snakebite Envenoming - A Combined Density Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Analysis of the Publication History.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Nov 7;10(11):e0005046. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    Health Economics and Metrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.
    Estimates suggest that more than 25,000 to 125,000 people die annually from snakebite envenomation worldwide. In contrast to this major disease burden, thorough bibliometric studies do not exist so far that illustrate the overall research activity over a long time span. Therefore, the NewQIS-platform conducted an analysis on snakebite envenoming using the Thomson Reuters database Web of Science. Read More

    Chronic Musculoskeletal Disabilities following Snake Envenoming in Sri Lanka: A Population-Based Study.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Nov 4;10(11):e0005103. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Snakebite is a major public health problem in agricultural communities in the tropics leading to acute local and systemic impairments with resultant disabilities. Snakebite related long-term musculoskeletal disabilities have been a neglected area of research. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study in an agricultural community to describe the chronic musculoskeletal disabilities of snake envenoming. Read More

    Algorithmic approach to the prevention of unnecessary fasciotomy in extremity snake bite.
    Injury 2016 Dec 21;47(12):2822-2827. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Mustafa Kemal University, School of Medicine, Hatay, Turkey. Electronic address:
    Background: In the literature, there is a lack of a consensus about the occurrence of the compartment syndrome due to the snake bites. There are different concepts for the surgical treatment of the threshold value of the chamber pressure. There are many different classifications and assessment criteria for the snakebites. Read More

    Snake bite mortality in children: beyond bite to needle time.
    Arch Dis Child 2016 Nov 2. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India.
    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics and predictors of mortality from snake bite envenomation in children.

    Design: Prospective observational study with a one-group cohort design.

    Setting: Paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Read More

    Coagulation parameters in copperhead compared to other Crotalinae envenomation: secondary analysis of the F(ab')2 versus Fab antivenom trial.
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Feb 3;55(2):109-114. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
    c Department of Emergency Medicine , Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University , Greenville , NC , USA.
    Context: Coagulation derangements in copperhead envenomation are considered less severe than other crotaline envenomations, resulting in recommendations to limit both coagulation testing and antivenom treatment. A prospective, blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of F(ab')2 versus Fab antivenom in crotaline envenomation patients was completed in 2011. We determined the difference between coagulation parameters in copperhead compared to other crotaline envenomations. Read More

    Snakebite in bedroom kills a physician in Cameroon: a case report.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 13;24:231. Epub 2016 Jul 13.
    Cameroon Society of Epidemiology, CaSE, Cameroon; Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Science, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon; Laboratory of Public Health for Research Biotechnologies, Biotechnology Center, UY I, Cameroon.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies snake bites as neglected public health problem affecting mostly tropical and subtropical countries. In Africa there are an estimated 1 million snake bites annually with about half needing a specific treatment. Women, children and farmers in poor rural communities in developing countries are the most affected. Read More

    Development of a new polyspecific antivenom for snakebite envenoming in Sri Lanka: Analysis of its preclinical efficacy as compared to a currently available antivenom.
    Toxicon 2016 Nov 6;122:152-159. Epub 2016 Oct 6.
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address:
    A new whole IgG, freeze-dried, polyspecific antivenom was prepared from the plasma of horses immunized with the venoms of the snakes Daboia russelii, Echis carinatus, Hypnale hypnale, and Naja naja from Sri Lanka. The preclinical neutralizing ability of this antivenom against several toxic and enzymatic activities of these four venoms was analyzed, and compared with that of a batch of VINS antivenom (India) being currently used in Sri Lanka. The activities tested were: lethality, hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, proteinase and phospholipase A2. Read More

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