6,517 results match your criteria Snakebite


N.P. Taylor and Airy Shaw (Rutaceae): A Critical Appriasal of its Ethnobotanical and Pharmacological Activities.

Front Plant Sci 2022 29;13:930687. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

N.P. Taylor and Airy Shaw (Rutaceae) is a perennial, aromatic, gregarious wild ornamental shrub native to the Western Himalaya. Read More

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Snake envenomation: not your average acute kidney injury.

Intern Med J 2022 Aug;52(8):1446-1447

Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

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An artificial intelligence model to identify snakes from across the world: Opportunities and challenges for global health and herpetology.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 Aug 15;16(8):e0010647. Epub 2022 Aug 15.

Institute of Global Health, Department of Community Health and Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that kills an estimated 81,000 to 138,000 people and disables another 400,000 globally every year. The World Health Organization aims to halve this burden by 2030. To achieve this ambitious goal, we need to close the data gap in snake ecology and snakebite epidemiology and give healthcare providers up-to-date knowledge and access to better diagnostic tools. Read More

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Intrageneric cross-reactivity of monospecific rabbit antisera against venoms of the medically most important Bitis spp. and Echis spp. African snakes.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 Aug 12;16(8):e0010643. Epub 2022 Aug 12.

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Background: Snakebite envenomation exerts a heavy toll in sub-Saharan Africa. The design and production of effective polyspecific antivenoms for this region demand a better understanding of the immunological characteristics of the different venoms from the most medically important snakes, to select the most appropriate venom combinations for generating antivenoms of wide neutralizing scope. Bitis spp. Read More

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The potential of Brazilian native plant species used in the therapy for snakebites: A literature review.

Toxicon 2022 Aug 8;217:17-40. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Laboratório de Toxicologia, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90620-170, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90610-000, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Snakebite envenoming is a potentially fatal disease categorized as a neglected public health issue for not receiving the appropriate attention from national and international health authorities. The most affected people by this problem usually live in poor rural communities, where medical resources are often sparse and, in some instances, there is even a scarcity of serum therapy. The administration of the appropriate antivenom is the only specific treatment available, however it has limited efficacy against venom-induced local effects. Read More

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A bite by the emerald snake, Hapsidophrys smaragdinus Schlegel, 1837 (Colubridae, Colubrinae) causing atopic eczema with comments on the formal documentation of non-front-fanged snakebites.

Toxicon 2022 Aug 5;217:41-45. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité, (UMR 7205 Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UPMC EPHE, Sorbonne Universités), CP30, 25 Rue Cuvier, 75005, Paris, France.

The mixed quality evidence about non-front-fanged snake bites has included unsupported speculation and presumption; the possible role of atopy and/or primary hypersensitivity have often been prematurely discounted. Described is a medically insignificant bite by a captive African emerald snake, Hapsidophrys smaragdinus Schlegel, 1837 (Colubridae, Colubrinae) that caused the development of moderate Type IV hypersensitivity; the 44-year-old male victim experienced persistent pruritis and an erythematous bite site maculopapular dermatitis that slowly resolved and required 6 days for full resolution. The victim had received several previous medically insignificant bites from non-front-fanged snakes. Read More

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Biological and medical aspects related to the yellow-bellied sea snake Hydrophis platurus (Linnaeus, 1766): A view from Colombia.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2022 Aug 5;49:102410. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Universidad del Valle. Cali, Colombia.

In Colombia, 317 species of snakes have been recognized, of which 51 (17%) have medical importance due to the toxicity of their venom. A total of 95% of envenomations are caused by snakes of the family Viperidae and 5% of the family Elapidae. The latter form of envenomation is mainly caused by snakes of the genus Micrurus. Read More

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Utilization of gallic acid to inhibit some toxic activities caused by Bothrops jararaca or B. jararacussu snake venoms.

Toxicon 2022 Aug 2;217:5-12. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Laboratório de Venenos e Toxinas e Avaliação de Inibidores, Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, 24020-141, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Programa de Pós-graduação Em Ciências Biomédicas (Fisiologia e Farmacologia), Instituto Biomédico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, 24210-130, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Programa de Pós-graduação Em Ciências e Biotecnologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, 24020-141, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Snake bite envenoming is a serious public health issue, affecting thousands of people worldwide every year, especially in rural communities of tropical and subtropical countries. Injection of venom into victims may cause hemorrhaging, blood coagulation imbalance, inflammation, pain, edema, muscle necrosis, and eventually, death. The official validated treatment recommended by governments is the administration of antivenom that efficiently prevents morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Arabian Levantine viper bite induces thrombocytopenia - a case report.

J Med Life 2022 Jun;15(6):867-870

Department of Hematology and Oncology, King Hussein Medical City, Amman, Jordan.

Snakebites have been reported to induce hematological complications. Thrombocytopenia usually occurs secondary to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and coagulopathy induced by the snake bite. However, thrombocytopenia can develop after the snake bite, even in the absence of significant coagulopathy. Read More

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The molecular mechanism of snake short-chain α-neurotoxin binding to muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

Nat Commun 2022 Aug 4;13(1):4543. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Laboratory of Structural Neurobiology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Bites by elapid snakes (e.g. cobras) can result in life-threatening paralysis caused by venom neurotoxins blocking neuromuscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Read More

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A retrospective study of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of snakebite in Napo Province, Ecuadorian Amazon.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, Km 7 Via Muyuna, Tena, Napo 150150, Ecuador.

Background: Snakebite envenoming remains a relevant public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. In Ecuador, this is particularly true in an area of great diversity like the Amazon region. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these accidents in this area. Read More

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Case Report: Management of an Uncommon Crotaline Snakebite (Ovophis makazayazaya).

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2022 Aug 1. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Division of Clinical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Ovophis makazayazaya bite is an uncommon cause of snakebite that humans may sustain as a result of the continuous overexploitation of forest habitats and excessive development in Taiwan. Although the Taiwanese government has produced four antivenoms against medically important snakebite accidents, O. makazayazaya is not among the snakes for which an antivenom has been produced. Read More

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Anti-Metalloprotease P-I Single-Domain Antibodies: Tools for Next-Generation Snakebite Antivenoms.

Biomed Res Int 2022 19;2022:2748962. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz Ceará, Eusébio, 61760-000 Ceará, Brazil.

In order to address the global antivenom crisis, novel antivenoms need to present high therapeutic efficacy, broad neutralization ability against systemic and local damage, sufficient safety, and cost-effectiveness. Due to biological characteristics of camelid single-domain antibodies (VHH) such as high affinity, their ability to penetrate dense tissues, and facility for genetic manipulation, their application in antivenoms has expanded considerably. VHHs that are active against the metalloprotease BjussuMP-II from the snake were selected. Read More

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Identification of Daboia siamensis venome using integrated multi-omics data.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 30;12(1):13140. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Center of Excellence in Systems Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Snakebite, classified by World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease, causes more than 100,000 deaths and 2 million injuries per year. Currently, available antivenoms do not bind with strong specificity to target toxins, which means that severe complications can still occur despite treatment. Moreover, the cost of antivenom is expensive. Read More

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The Amazonian Tropical Bites Research Initiative, a hope for resolving zoonotic neglected tropical diseases in the One Health era.

Int Health 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Centro de InvestigacionesTecnologicas, Biomedicas y Medioambientales-CITBM, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, 15081, Peru.

Background: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) disproportionately affect populations living in resource-limited settings. In the Amazon basin, substantial numbers of NTDs are zoonotic, transmitted by vertebrate (dogs, bats, snakes) and invertebrate species (sand flies and triatomine insects). However, no dedicated consortia exist to find commonalities in the risk factors for or mitigations against bite-associated NTDs such as rabies, snake envenoming, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis in the region. Read More

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Snakebites caused by the genera Bothrops and Lachesis in the Brazilian Amazon: a study of factors associated with severe cases and death.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2022 25;55:e05582021. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Universidade de Brasília, Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Background: Snakebites are a major problem in developing countries owing to their high morbidity rates, severity, and sequelae. In Brazil, most cases of envenomation are caused by Bothrops and Lachesis snakes. The present study aimed to evaluate variables associated with death, systemic complications, and amputations in victims of envenomation due to Bothrops or Lachesis snake. Read More

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Prediction of Compartment Syndrome after Snakebite by Diastolic Retrograde Arterial Flow: A Case Report.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Jul 26;58(8). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei 231, Taiwan.

Post-snakebite compartment syndrome (PSCS) is an uncommon but dangerous condition. Compartment syndrome-like symptoms after snakebite by () are not effective in guiding fasciotomy. Objective evaluation of intracompartmental pressure measurements in patients with suspected PSCS is recommended. Read More

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Snakebite envenomation-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome presenting with Bálint syndrome.

Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2022 Jul 22. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Madrid, Spain; Department of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

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In Vitro Toxicity of Chinese Russell's Viper () Venom and Neutralisation by Antivenoms.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 07 20;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

(Russell's viper) is a highly venomous and medically important snake in China, as well as much of Asia. There is minimal information on the pharmacological activity of the venom of the Chinese species, and currently no commercially available specific antivenom in China. This has led to the use of non-specific antivenoms to treat envenomation. Read More

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Neurotoxicity and Other Clinical Manifestations of a Common European Adder ( Bite in Romania.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 07 18;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Poison Control Centre and National Toxicology Information Centre, Toxicology Unit, IRCCS, Maugeri Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Most cases of envenomation by common European vipers () have not been reported to have neurotoxic manifestations. However, these manifestations have been demonstrated in some cases of envenomation by subspecies of , found in the Carpathian Basin region of south-eastern Europe. Here, we report the case of a 5-year-old girl from the south of Romania who presented symptoms of neurotoxicity, as well as other systemic and local symptoms, after being bitten by an adder of the subspecies. Read More

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A First Look at the Inhibitory Potential of (Araceae) Ethanolic Extract for Snakebite Envenomation.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 07 17;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 17.

Biomolecules Discovery Group, Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, Km 8 Via Muyuna, Tena 150101, Ecuador.

snakebites are a relevant problem in the Amazon basin. In this biodiverse region, the ethnomedicinal approach plays an important role as an alternative to antivenom therapy. (Araceae) is a plant used for this purpose; however, its neutralizing properties have not been scientifically accessed. Read More

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Envenoming by a Marine Blood Worm ().

Toxins (Basel) 2022 07 17;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 17.

Center for Exploration and Travel Health, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA.

Bites from venomous marine annelid 'bloodworms' (e.g., spp. Read More

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Medical Management after Lancehead Snakebite in North Amazon: A Case Report of Long-Term Disability.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 07 16;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Medical School, Federal University of Roraima, Boa Vista 69310-000, Brazil.

Snakebites are a major public health problem in indigenous communities in Brazil, leading to acute local and systemic damage with resulting deficiencies. Long-term musculoskeletal disabilities related to snakebites have been a neglected area of research. (lancehead) snakes are responsible for most of the permanent sequelae related to snakebites in Latin America. Read More

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Roughness of Production Conditions: Does It Really Affect Stability of IgG-Based Antivenoms?

Toxins (Basel) 2022 07 13;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Centre for Research and Knowledge Transfer in Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Rockefellerova 10, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Antivenoms contain either pure animal IgGs or their fragments as an active substance, and are the only specific therapeutics against envenomation arising from snakebites. Although they are highly needed, the low sustainability of such preparations' manufacture causes constant global shortages. One reason for this is the stability of the product, which contributes not only to the manufacture sustainability, but the product safety as well. Read More

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Evaluating Antivenom Efficacy against Venoms-Screening for In Vitro Alternatives.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 07 13;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 13.

CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Laboratory for the Conservation of Endangered Species, Hyderabad 500048, India.

In India, polyvalent antivenom is the mainstay treatment for snakebite envenoming. Due to batch-to-batch variation in antivenom production, manufacturers have to estimate its efficacy at each stage of IgG purification using the median effective dose which involves 100-120 mice for each batch. There is an urgent need to replace the excessive use of animals in snake antivenom production using in vitro alternatives. Read More

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Exploring the Utility of ssDNA Aptamers Directed against Snake Venom Toxins as New Therapeutics for Snakebite Envenoming.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 07 8;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Chemistry, Alfaisal University, Al Zahrawi Street, Al Maather, Al Takhassusi Road, Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia.

Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease that causes considerable death and disability in the tropical world. Although snakebite can cause a variety of pathologies in victims, haemotoxic effects are particularly common and are typically characterised by haemorrhage and/or venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. Antivenoms are the mainstay therapy for treating the toxic effects of snakebite, but despite saving thousands of lives annually, these therapies are associated with limited cross-snake species efficacy due to venom variation, which ultimately restricts their therapeutic utility to particular geographical regions. Read More

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Exploring the Utility of Recombinant Snake Venom Serine Protease Toxins as Immunogens for Generating Experimental Snakebite Antivenoms.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 06 29;14(7). Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Centre for Snakebite Research & Interventions, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.

Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease that causes high rates of global mortality and morbidity. Although snakebite can cause a variety of pathologies in victims, haemotoxic effects are particularly common and are typically characterised by haemorrhage and/or venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. Despite polyclonal antibody-based antivenoms being the mainstay life-saving therapy for snakebite, they are associated with limited cross-snake species efficacy, as there is often extensive toxin variation between snake venoms, including those used as immunogens for antivenom production. Read More

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Cerebral Complications of Snakebite Envenoming: Case Studies.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 06 27;14(7). Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.

There are an estimated 5.4 million snakebite cases every year. People with snakebite envenoming suffer from severe complications, or even death. Read More

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Generation of Multivalent Nanobody-Based Proteins with Improved Neutralization of Long α-Neurotoxins from Elapid Snakes.

Bioconjug Chem 2022 Aug 23;33(8):1494-1504. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens, Lyngby, Denmark.

Recombinantly produced biotherapeutics hold promise for improving the current standard of care for snakebite envenoming over conventional serotherapy. Nanobodies have performed well in the clinic, and in the context of antivenom, they have shown the ability to neutralize long α-neurotoxins . Here, we showcase a protein engineering approach to increase the valence and hydrodynamic size of neutralizing nanobodies raised against a long α-neurotoxin (α-cobratoxin) from the venom of the monocled cobra. Read More

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Venom composition of and from Indonesia.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2022 6;28:e20210103. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

PT Bio Farma (Persero), Bandung, Indonesia.

Background: Several studies have been published on the characterization of venoms. However, there is still limited information concerning the venom composition of species distributed throughout Indonesia, which contributes to significant snakebite envenomation cases. The present study describes a comparative on the composition of and venoms originated from Indonesia. Read More

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