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    Coagulating Colubrids: Evolutionary, Pathophysiological and Biodiscovery Implications of Venom Variations between Boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and Twig Snake (Thelotornis mossambicanus).
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 May 19;9(5). Epub 2017 May 19.
    Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.
    Venoms can deleteriously affect any physiological system reachable by the bloodstream, including directly interfering with the coagulation cascade. Such coagulopathic toxins may be anticoagulants or procoagulants. Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. Read More

    Production and preclinical assessment of camelid immunoglobulins against Echis sochureki venom from desert of Rajasthan, India.
    Toxicon 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    National Research Centre on Camel, Bikaner, 334003, Rajasthan, India.
    Snakebite is a significant cause of death and disability in subsistent farming populations of rural India. Antivenom is the most effective treatment of envenoming and is manufactured from IgG of venom-immunised horses. Because of complex fiscal reasons, the production, testing and delivery of antivenoms designed to treat envenoming by the most medically-important snakes in the region has been questioned time to time. Read More

    Dose of antivenom for the treatment of snakebite with neurotoxic envenoming: Evidence from a randomised controlled trial in Nepal.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 16;11(5):e0005612. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Currently, there is inadequate evidence on which to base clinical management of neurotoxic snakebite envenoming, especially in the choice of initial antivenom dosage. This randomised controlled trial compared the effectiveness and safety of high versus low initial antivenom dosage in victims of neurotoxic envenoming.

    Methodology/ Principal Findings: This was a balanced, randomised, double-blind trial that was conducted in three health care centers located in the Terai plains of Nepal. Read More

    Antivenomics as a tool to improve the neutralizing capacity of the crotalic antivenom: a study with crotamine.
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2017 12;23:28. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Laboratório de Hemostase e Venenos, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brasil.
    Background: Snakebite treatment requires administration of an appropriate antivenom that should contain antibodies capable of neutralizing the venom. To achieve this goal, antivenom production must start from a suitable immunization protocol and proper venom mixtures. In Brazil, antivenom against South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) bites is produced by public institutions based on the guidelines defined by the regulatory agency of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, ANVISA. Read More

    Preclinical Evaluation of the Efficacy of Antivenoms for Snakebite Envenoming: State-of-the-Art and Challenges Ahead.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 May 13;9(5). Epub 2017 May 13.
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia 46010, Spain.
    Animal-derived antivenoms constitute the mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming. The efficacy of antivenoms to neutralize toxicity of medically-relevant snake venoms has to be demonstrated through meticulous preclinical testing before their introduction into the clinical setting. The gold standard in the preclinical assessment and quality control of antivenoms is the neutralization of venom-induced lethality. Read More

    Third Generation Antivenomics: Pushing the Limits of the In Vitro Preclinical Assessment of Antivenoms.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 May 10;9(5). Epub 2017 May 10.
    Laboratorio de Venómica Estructural y Funcional, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Jaime Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
    Second generation antivenomics is a translational venomics approach designed to complement in vivo preclinical neutralization assays. It provides qualitative and quantitative information on the set of homologous and heterologous venom proteins presenting antivenom-recognized epitopes and those exhibiting impaired immunoreactivity. In a situation of worrying antivenom shortage in many tropical and sub-tropical regions with high snakebite mortality and morbidity rates, such knowledge has the potential to facilitate the optimal deployment of currently existing antivenoms and to aid in the rational design of novel broad specificity antidotes. Read More

    A Horned Viper Bite Victim with PRES.
    Case Rep Neurol Med 2017 10;2017:1835796. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
    Neurological complications of snake bites have been well documented in the literature as neuromuscular paralysis and cerebrovascular complications; posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome was rarely described. A 23-year-old lady presented near full term of her pregnancy with a horned snake Cerastes cerastes bite; after successful delivery she started complaining of altered mental status and visual disturbance with ulceration over the site of the snake bite. On admission, the patient had Glasgow Coma Score of 12, blood pressure 130/80 mmHg, temperature 38°C, sinus tachycardia at 120 beats per minute, severe dehydration, and reduction in visual acuity to "hand motion" in both eyes with poor light projection and sluggish pupillary reactions. Read More

    Good vibrations: Assessing the stability of snake venom composition after researcher-induced disturbance in the laboratory.
    Toxicon 2017 May 6;133:127-135. Epub 2017 May 6.
    Department of Biological Sciences, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA.
    Phenotypic plasticity contributes to intraspecific variation in traits of many animal species. Venom is an integral trait to the success and survival of many snake species, and potential plasticity in venom composition is important to account for in the context of basic research as well as in human medicine for treating the various symptoms of snakebite and producing effective anti-venoms. Researchers may unknowingly induce changes in venom variation by subjecting snakes to novel disturbances and potential stressors. Read More

    Interfang Distances of Rattlesnakes: Sexual, Interspecific, and Body Size-related Variation, and Implications for Snakebite Research and Management.
    Wilderness Environ Med 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Earth and Biological Sciences, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (Drs Hayes, Corbit, and Herbert, and Mr Cardwell); Department of Biology, Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA (Dr Herbert).
    Objectives: Snakebite severity corresponds to size of snake because the amount of venom a snake injects is positively associated with snake size. Because fang marks are often present on snakebite patients, we tested whether the relationship between snake length and distance between fang puncture wounds can be generalized for rattlesnakes of genus Crotalus.

    Methods: We measured 2 interfang distances from 79 rattlesnakes of both sexes, 5 species, and varying body length: 1) distance between fang bases in anesthetized snakes, and 2) distance between fang punctures in a membrane-covered beaker bitten defensively. Read More

    Freeze-dried EchiTAb+ICP antivenom formulated with sucrose is more resistant to thermal stress than the liquid formulation stabilized with sorbitol.
    Toxicon 2017 May 3;133:123-126. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address:
    EchiTAb + ICP is a pan-African antivenom used for the treatment of snakebite envenomation in rural sub-Saharan African communities, where the cold chain can be difficult to maintain. To develop a formulation of EchiTAb + ICP that can be distributed and stored without refrigeration, we submitted three different formulations of EchiTAb + ICP: control (i.e. Read More

    Venomics of Bungarus caeruleus (Indian krait): Comparable venom profiles, variable immunoreactivities among specimens from Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan.
    J Proteomics 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    The Indian krait (Bungarus caeruleus) is one of the "Big Four" venomous snakes widely distributed in South Asia. The present venomic study reveals that its venom (Sri Lankan origin) is predominated by phospholipases A2 (68.2% of total proteins), in which at least 8. Read More

    Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiography characterization of heart rhythm in Vipera berus-envenomed dogs.
    Acta Vet Scand 2017 May 3;59(1):28. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7084, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Background: Vipera berus has a worldwide distribution and causes high morbidity in dogs annually. A complication to envenomation may be cardiac arrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, types, and timing of arrhythmias, using 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography (24-AECG), in dogs bitten by V. Read More

    Differential transcript profile of inhibitors with potential anti-venom role in the liver of juvenile and adult Bothrops jararaca snake.
    PeerJ 2017 27;5:e3203. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Laboratório de Herpetologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Snakes belonging to the Bothrops genus are vastly distributed in Central and South America and are responsible for most cases of reported snake bites in Latin America. The clinical manifestations of the envenomation caused by this genus are due to three major activities-proteolytic, hemorrhagic and coagulant-mediated by metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, phospholipases A2 and other toxic compounds present in snake venom. Interestingly, it was observed that snakes are resistant to the toxic effects of its own and other snake's venoms. Read More

    Epidemiological study of snakebites in Ardabil Province (Iran).
    Electron Physician 2017 Mar 25;9(3):3986-3990. Epub 2017 Mar 25.
    Fellowship of Medical Toxicology, Associate Professor, Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Moallem Avenue, Birjand, Iran.
    Introduction: Average annual incidence of snakebite worldwide is between 5.5 to 1.2 million, and at least 125,000 of them are fatal. Read More

    "Dry bite" in venomous snakes: A review.
    Toxicon 2017 Apr 27;133:63-67. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Alva's Health Centre, Moodabidri 574227, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:
    It is quite interesting that when a venomous snake bites a person and the victim does not suffer from any signs or symptoms of envenomation. A good percentage of venomous snake bites in humans do occur without venom injection. This phenomenon is termed as "Dry" bite in clinical medicine. Read More

    Clinical Serum Therapy: Benefits, Cautions, and Potential Applications.
    Keio J Med 2017 Apr 28. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Blood serum from immunized humans or animals (e.g., horses) contains relevant antibodies and has been used as serum therapy to treat many diseases or envenomation events. Read More

    The Compartment Syndrome Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis due to Rattlesnake Bite: A Case Report.
    Balkan Med J 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Background: Snakebite is a health issue specific to some parts of the world, especially in the tropical area, where it produces many victims. The main clinical damage caused by snake bite involves hemotoxic, neurotoxic and myotoxic reactions. It is also established that the importance of systemic impairment varies according to individual factors and are related to organ dysfunction, shock or hypotension. Read More

    Human fatalities caused by animal attacks: A six-year autopsy study.
    Med Leg J 2017 Jan 1:25817217707166. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Indira Gandhi Govt. Medical College & Hospital, Nagpur, India.
    Deaths caused by animal attacks in urban as well as rural areas are rising. With dwindling forest cover and with more interaction of animals with humans in day-to-day life, we need to understand the reasons, manner and causes of these fatal events. We studied 151 cases of fatal animal/human conflicts and in particular, the manner and mechanism of causation of injuries with respect to different types of animals. Read More

    Rattlesnake Crotalus molossus nigrescens venom induces oxidative stress on human erythrocytes.
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2017 21;23:24. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Anillo Envolvente del PRONAF y Estocolmo s/n, C. P. 32310. A. P. 1595-D Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua Mexico.
    Background: Globally, snake envenomation is a well-known cause of death and morbidity. In many cases of snakebite, myonecrosis, dermonecrosis, hemorrhage and neurotoxicity are present. Some of these symptoms may be provoked by the envenomation itself, but others are secondary effects of the produced oxidative stress that enhances the damage produced by the venom toxins. Read More

    Haemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteases and human ADAMs cleave LRP5/6, which disrupts cell-cell adhesions in vitro and induces haemorrhage in vivo.
    FEBS J 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Japan.
    Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are members of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteins, as they possess similar domains. SVMPs are known to elicit snake venom-induced haemorrhage; however, the target proteins and cleavage sites are not known. In this work, we identified a target protein of vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1), an SVMP, relevant to its ability to induce haemorrhage. Read More

    Thromboelastography Utilization in Delayed Recurrent Coagulopathy after Severe Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake Envenomation.
    Am Surg 2017 Apr;83(4):332-336
    Venomous snakebites are fairly common in the United States and can present with a wide range of symptoms. A 48-year-old man presented after Eastern Diamondback rattlesnake envenomation. His hospital course was complicated by right leg compartment syndrome and delayed recurrent coagulopathy, requiring multiple doses of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (CroFab) antivenom and transfusions. Read More

    Antivenom for Neuromuscular Paralysis Resulting From Snake Envenoming.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 Apr 19;9(4). Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Antivenom therapy is currently the standard practice for treating neuromuscular dysfunction in snake envenoming. We reviewed the clinical and experimental evidence-base for the efficacy and effectiveness of antivenom in snakebite neurotoxicity. The main site of snake neurotoxins is the neuromuscular junction, and the majority are either: (1) pre-synaptic neurotoxins irreversibly damaging the presynaptic terminal; or (2) post-synaptic neurotoxins that bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Read More

    [Bitten by an exotic venomous snake].
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2017 ;161(0):D822
    Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht.
    Background: Patients who have been bitten by an exotic venomous snake are at risk of severe morbidity and a fatal outcome following an incorrect risk-assessment. Treatment with an antivenom can be necessary and can turn out to be lifesaving. In the Netherlands there are only a few cases of bites from exotic venomous snakes each year. Read More

    Predictors of depression among patients receiving treatment for snakebite in General Hospital, Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria: August 2015.
    Int J Ment Health Syst 2017 13;11:26. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Medicine, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
    Background: Snakebite though neglected, affects 5 million people yearly. More neglected is the psychological effect of envenomation. We determined prevalence and pattern of depression among patients admitted into snakebite wards of Kaltungo General Hospital Nigeria, and percentage recognized by clinicians. Read More

    Arthropod Envenomation in North America.
    Emerg Med Clin North Am 2017 May;35(2):355-375
    Section of Emergency Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Read More

    North American Snake Envenomation.
    Emerg Med Clin North Am 2017 May;35(2):339-354
    Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, UC San Diego Health, 200 West Arbor Drive # 8676, San Diego, CA 92103, USA.
    Native US snakes that produce clinically significant envenomation can be divided into 2 groups, crotalids and elapids. The crotalids include rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, and copperheads. Crotalid envenomation can result in significant local tissue damage as well as thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Read More

    Marine Envenomation.
    Emerg Med Clin North Am 2017 May 15;35(2):321-337. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Alway Building M121, MC 5119, Stanford, CA 94305-2200, USA.
    Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. Read More

    Peptidomimetic hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors abrogate local and systemic toxicity induced by Echis ocellatus (saw-scaled) snake venom.
    Toxicon 2017 Jun 8;132:40-49. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address:
    The ability of two peptidomimetic hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors, Batimastat and Marimastat, to abrogate toxic and proteinase activities of the venom of Echis ocellatus from Cameroon and Ghana was assessed. Since this venom largely relies for its toxicity on the action of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the hypothesis was raised that toxicity could be largely eliminated by using SVMP inhibitors. Both hydroxamate molecules inhibited local and pulmonary hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, defibrinogenating, and proteinase activities of the venoms in conditions in which venom and inhibitors were incubated prior to the test. Read More

    Preparation and neutralization efficacy of IgY antibodies raised against Deinagkistrodon acutus venom.
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2017 4;23:22. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Animal Toxin Group, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Animal Biology, Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Bioactive Substances, Engineering Research Center of Active Substances and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Chongqing, 401331 China.
    Background: The five-paced pit viper (Deinagkistrodon acutus), endemic to China and northern Vietnam, is responsible for most snakebites in the Chinese territory. Antivenom produced from horses is the main treatment for snakebites, but it may cause numerous clinical side effects and have other disadvantages involved in their production such as the welfare of animals. The present study was conducted aiming to develop an alternative antibody (IgY) from the egg yolk of leghorn chickens immunized with snake venom. Read More

    Wound infection secondary to snakebite.
    S Afr Med J 2017 Mar 29;107(4):315-319. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Paediatric Surgery, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; College of Health Sciences, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Background: Snakebites can produce severe local and systemic septic complications as well as being associated with significant overall morbidity and even mortality.

    Objective: A prospective audit was undertaken to determine the bacterial causation of wound infection secondary to snakebite, and attempt to quantify the burden of disease.

    Methods: The audit was undertaken at Ngwelezane Hospital, which provides both regional and tertiary services for north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, over a 4-month period. Read More

    Hemorrhagic stroke secondary to Bothrops spp. venom: A case report.
    Toxicon 2017 Jun 1;132:6-8. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    Department of Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience and Behavior Program, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The Bothrops spp. venom contain metalloproteinases that contributes to vascular and hemorrhagic effects. This case report describes a 58 years-old patient from the city of Dona Inês, Paraiba, Brazil victim of an ophidian accident by Bothrops spp. Read More

    Prevention of krait bites by sleeping above ground: preliminary results from an observational pilot study.
    J Occup Med Toxicol 2017 27;12:10. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, 25, Kynsey Road, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka.
    Introduction: Neurotoxic envenoming following the bites of kraits (Bungarus spp.) is a common cause of death in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and elsewhere in South Asia. Most of these bites occur at night and are inflicted on people sleeping on the ground. Read More

    The genus Achyranthes: A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 May 25;203:260-278. Epub 2017 Mar 25.
    Hong-Hui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University College of Medicine, Xi'an 710054, PR China.
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Achyranthes L. (Amaranthaceae), also known as Chaff Flower and Niuxi/, mainly includes two famous medicinal species namely A. bidentata and A. Read More

    Deinagkistrodon acutus envenomation: a report of three cases.
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2017 23;23:20. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 201 Sec. 2, Shipai Road., Taipei, 112 Taiwan.
    Background: Deinagkistrodon acutus envenomation is associated with severe hematological and wound complications but is rarely described.

    Case Presentation: Herein, we report three cases of victims bitten by D. acutus and indicate that rapid-onset severe coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia are distinct features of D. Read More

    Alpha-type phospholipase A2 inhibitors from snake blood.
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2017 23;23:19. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista), Araraquara, SP Brazil.
    It is of popular and scientific knowledge that toxins from snake venom (among them the PLA2 and myotoxins) are neutralized by various compounds, such as antibodies and proteins purified from animal blood. Venomous and nonvenomous snakes have PLA2 inhibitory proteins, called PLIs, in their blood serum. One hypothesis that could explain the presence of these PLIs in the serum of venomous snakes would be self-protection against the enzymes of their own venom, which eventually could reach the circulatory system. Read More

    Culture-Bound Syndromes of a Brazilian Amazon Riverine population: Tentative correspondence between traditional and conventional medicine terms and possible ethnopharmacological implications.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 May 23;203:80-89. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Center for Ethnobotanical and Ethnopharmacological Studies (CEE) - Institute of Environmental Sciences, Chemical and Pharmaceutical, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Brazil. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: It is not always possible to correlate the "emic" terms to the "etic" ones during ethnopharmacological surveys, especially regarding those related to Culture-Bound Syndromes (CBS). Nevertheless, it is the role of ethnopharmacology to address these correlations, since they are the basis for the understanding of potential bioactives.

    Aim And Objectives: This study reports the clinical manifestations and therapeutic resources used for the treatment of CBS among some riverine inhabitants of Brazilian Amazonia. Read More

    How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting.
    Toxins (Basel) 2017 Mar 13;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.
    The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. Read More

    Reversible atrial fibrillation following Crotalinae envenomation.
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2017 21;23:16. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix, 550 East Van Buren Street, Phoenix, AZ 85004 USA.
    Background: Cardiotoxicity is a documented complication of Crotalinae envenomation. Reported cardiac complications following snake envenomation have included acute myocardial infarction, electrocardiogram abnormalities and arrhythmias. Few reports exist describing arrhythmia induced by viper envenomation and to our knowledge none describe arrhythmia induced by Crotalinae envenomation. Read More

    Immune cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory responses induced by a P-I metalloprotease and a phospholipase A2 from Bothrops atrox venom.
    Mol Immunol 2017 May 16;85:238-247. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Bothrops envenomations can promote severe inflammatory responses by inducing edema, pain, leukocyte recruitment and release of chemical mediators by local cells. In the present study, two toxins from Bothrops atrox venom (the P-I metalloprotease Batroxase and the acidic phospholipase A2 BatroxPLA2) were evaluated in relation to their inflammatory effects induced in vivo and in vitro, mainly focusing on the participation of different immune cells and inflammatory mediators. Both toxins mainly promoted acute inflammatory responses with significant recruitment of neutrophils in the early hours (1-4h) after administration into the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6 mice, and increased infiltration of mononuclear cells especially after 24h. Read More

    Pediatric Acute Compartment Syndrome.
    J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2017 May;25(5):358-364
    From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (Dr. Livingston) and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA (Dr. Glotzbecker and Dr. Shore).
    Pediatric acute compartment syndrome (PACS) is a clinical entity that must be carefully differentiated from the adult version (ie, acute compartment syndrome). Healthcare providers must understand the variable etiologies of PACS, of which trauma is the most common but can also include vascular insult, infection, surgical positioning, neonatal phenomena, overexertion, and snake and insect bites. In addition to the unique etiologies of PACS, providers must also recognize the different signs and symptoms of PACS. Read More

    Capillary leak syndrome: etiologies, pathophysiology, and management.
    Kidney Int 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:
    In various human diseases, an increase in capillary permeability to proteins leads to the loss of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Although sepsis is the disease most commonly associated with this phenomenon, many other diseases can lead to a "sepsis-like" syndrome with manifestations of diffuse pitting edema, exudative serous cavity effusions, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypotension, and, in some cases, hypovolemic shock with multiple-organ failure. The term capillary leak syndrome has been used to describe this constellation of disease manifestations associated with an increased capillary permeability to proteins. Read More

    Experimental Bothrops atrox envenomation: Efficacy of antivenom therapy and the combination of Bothrops antivenom with dexamethasone.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 17;11(3):e0005458. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Laboratorio de Fisiopatologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Bothrops atrox snakes are the leading cause of snake bites in Northern Brazil. The venom of this snake is not included in the antigen pool used to obtain the Bothrops antivenom. There are discrepancies in reports on the effectiveness of this antivenom to treat victims bitten by B. Read More

    Characterization of Daboia russelii and Naja naja venom neutralizing ability of an undocumented indigenous medication in Sri Lanka.
    J Ayurveda Integr Med 2017 Jan - Mar;8(1):20-26. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Faulty of Medicine, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Ratmalana, 10390, Sri Lanka. Electronic address:
    Background: Indigenous medicinal practice in Sri Lanka talks about powerful compounds extracted from native plants for treating venomous snake bites which are hardly documented in literature but are used by the indigenous doctors for thousand years.

    Objective: We screened the neutralizing ability of a herbal preparation practiced in indigenous medicine of Sri Lanka, consisting of Sansevieria cylindrica, Jatropha podagrica and Citrus aurantiifolia, for its ability to neutralize venom toxins of Naja naja (Common Cobra) and Daboia russelii (Russell's viper).

    Materials And Methods: The venom toxicity was evaluated using a 5-day old chicken embryo model observing the pathophysiology and the mortality for six hours, in the presence or absence of the herbal preparation. Read More

    Clinical and laboratory parameters associated with acute kidney injury in patients with snakebite envenomation: a prospective observational study from Myanmar.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Mar 16;18(1):92. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.
    Background: Snakebite-related acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common community-acquired AKI in tropical countries leading to death and disability. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the occurrence of snakebite-related AKI, (2) assess factors at presentation that are associated with snakebite-related AKI, and (3) determine the outcomes of patients with snakebite-related AKI.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of patients with snake envenomation at the three academic tertiary care hospitals in Yangon, Myanmar between March 2015 and June 2016. Read More

    Protective effect of Dracontium dubium against Bothrops asper venom.
    Biomed Pharmacother 2017 May 11;89:1105-1114. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Biological Evaluation of Promising Substances Group, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Cartagena, Cartagena, 130015, Colombia. Electronic address:
    In Colombia, Bothrops asper is responsible for 70-90% of ophidians accidents reported annually. Envenoming occurs mainly in rural areas where both antivenom and health centers are scarce. Thus, patients are frequently treated by local healers that employ medicinal herbs; including several species belonging to Dracontium genus. Read More

    Can anti-bothropstoxin-I antibodies discriminate between Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu venoms?
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2017 11;23:12. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Laboratório de Hemostase e Venenos, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brasil.
    Background: Snakes of the genus Bothrops, popularly known as pit vipers, are responsible for most cases of snakebite in Brazil. Within this genus, Bothrops jararacussu and B. jararaca deserve special attention due to the severity of their bites and for inhabiting densely populated areas. Read More

    Envenoming by Viridovipera stejnegeri snake: a patient with liver cirrhosis presenting disruption of hemostatic balance.
    J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2017 14;23:10. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of General Surgery, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung Branch, 222, Maijin Road, Keelung, Taiwan.
    Background: In most cases of envenoming by the green habu Viridovipera stejnegeri in Taiwan coagulopathy is not observed.

    Case Presentation: Herein, we describe the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis who developed venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy after V. stejnegeri bite. Read More

    Incidence of fatal snake bite in Australia: A coronial based retrospective study (2000-2016).
    Toxicon 2017 Jun 10;131:11-15. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Introduction: It has been over 20 years since a national review of recorded deaths from snake envenoming. The present study aimed to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of deaths from snake bites in Australia.

    Methods: Deaths were identified from January 2000 to December 2016 from the National Coronial Information System. Read More

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