74 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Sea


Venom Proteome of Spine-Bellied Sea Snake () from Penang, Malaysia: Toxicity Correlation, Immunoprofiling and Cross-Neutralization by Sea Snake Antivenom.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 23;11(1). Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

The venom proteome of (synonym: ) from Penang, Malaysia was investigated with nano-electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LCMS/MS) of the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) venom fractions. Thirty distinct protein forms were identified as toxins from ten families. The three major protein families were phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂, 62. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356285PMC
December 2018
1 Read
2.480 Impact Factor

An unusual case of gross myoglobinuria in a child following Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) envenomation.

Toxicon 2019 Jan 16;157:77-79. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, 20400, Sri Lanka.

Overt myoglobinuria associated with myotoxicity is a classic feature of sea snake envenomation. Russell's viper bites usually result in coagulopathy, neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity but rarely myotoxicity has been reported, especially in the Sri Lankan variety (Daboia russelii). All those studies have demonstrated mild degree myotoxicity with microscopic level myoglobinuria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.11.299DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

Neurotoxicity fingerprinting of venoms using on-line microfluidic AChBP profiling.

Toxicon 2018 Jun 4;148:213-222. Epub 2018 May 4.

AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Venoms from snakes are rich sources of highly active proteins with potent affinity towards a variety of enzymes and receptors. Of the many distinct toxicities caused by envenomation, neurotoxicity plays an important role in the paralysis of prey by snakes as well as by venomous sea snails and insects. In order to improve the analytical discovery component of venom toxicity profiling, this paper describes the implementation of microfluidic high-resolution screening (HRS) to obtain neurotoxicity fingerprints from venoms that facilitates identification of the neurotoxic components of envenomation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.04.022DOI Listing
June 2018
7 Reads

Marine Envenomation.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2017 May 15;35(2):321-337. Epub 2017 Mar 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Alway Building M121, MC 5119, Stanford, CA 94305-2200, USA.

Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338627163011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emc.2016.12.004DOI Listing
May 2017
23 Reads

How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 03 13;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 13.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins9030103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5371858PMC
March 2017
22 Reads

Revisiting Notechis scutatus venom: on shotgun proteomics and neutralization by the "bivalent" Sea Snake Antivenom.

J Proteomics 2016 07 6;144:33-8. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Unlabelled: Recent advances in proteomics enable deep profiling of the compositional details of snake venoms for improved understanding on envenomation pathophysiology and immunological neutralization. In this study, the venom of Australian tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) was trypsin-digested in solution and subjected to nano-ESI-LCMS/MS. Applying a relative quantitative proteomic approach, the findings revealed a proteome comprising 42 toxin subtypes clustered into 12 protein families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2016.06.004DOI Listing
July 2016
20 Reads
3.890 Impact Factor

Fatal neurotoxic envenomation following the bite of a greater black krait (Bungarus niger) in Nepal: a case report.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2016 3;22:19. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Background: Neurotoxic envenomation following bites by kraits (Bungarus species) is a leading cause of snakebite mortality in South Asia. Over a long time, this had been attributed only to one species, the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus). However, recent research has provided increasing evidence of the involvement of several krait species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40409-016-0073-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891907PMC
June 2016
7 Reads

[Special challenges in the highest-elevation acute-care hospital in Europe].

Authors:
Donat Marugg

Rev Med Suisse 2015 Apr;11(471):948-52

Oberengadin Hospital in Samedan is faced with particular challenges, as the highest-elevation acute-care hospital in Europe (1750 m = 5,740 ft above sea level). The factors responsible for this are elevation-related and meteorological/climatic influences, as well as seasonal variations in Südbünden's demographic structure due to tourism. Read More

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April 2015
2 Reads

Antivenom cross-neutralization of the venoms of Hydrophis schistosus and Hydrophis curtus, two common sea snakes in Malaysian waters.

Toxins (Basel) 2015 Feb 16;7(2):572-81. Epub 2015 Feb 16.

Centre for Marine & Coastal Studies (CEMACS), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Sea snake envenomation is a serious occupational hazard in tropical waters. In Malaysia, the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus, formerly known as Enhydrina schistosa) and the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus, formerly known as Lapemis curtus or Lapemis hardwickii) are two commonly encountered species. Australian CSL sea snake antivenom is the definitive treatment for sea snake envenomation; it is unfortunately extremely costly locally and is not widely available or adequately stocked in local hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins7020572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4344642PMC
February 2015
2 Reads
2.480 Impact Factor

Marine envenomations.

Aust Fam Physician 2015 Jan-Feb;44(1-2):28-32

BMed, FACEM, Emergency Staff Specialist and Clinical Toxicology Fellow, Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Hospital, Newcastle, NSW.

Background: Marine stings are common but most are minor and do not require medical intervention. Severe and systemic marine envenoming is uncommon, but includes box jellyfish stings, Irukandji syndrome, major stingray trauma and blue-ringed octopus envenoming. Almost all marine injuries are caused by jellyfish stings, and penetrating injuries from spiny fish, stingrays or sea urchins. Read More

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September 2016
2 Reads

Sea snake harvest in the gulf of Thailand.

Conserv Biol 2014 Dec;28(6):1677-87

Institute of Oceanography, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human-snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12387DOI Listing
December 2014
2 Reads

+Ophitoxaemia and myocardial infarction--the issues during primary angioplasty: a review.

BMJ Case Rep 2014 Oct 23;2014. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Department of Cardiology, Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

'The Big four' are the most poisonous snakes in India, and especially in Kerala. These include the cobra, the viper, the krait and the sea snake. Most of the poisonous snakebites in India occur in Kerala. Read More

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http://casereports.bmj.com/content/2014/bcr-2013-201912.full
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http://casereports.bmj.com/cgi/doi/10.1136/bcr-2013-201912
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-201912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4208131PMC
October 2014
2 Reads

Preclinical efficacy of Australian antivenoms against the venom of the small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka, from Papua New Guinea: an antivenomics and neutralization study.

J Proteomics 2014 Oct 28;110:198-208. Epub 2014 Jun 28.

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address:

Unlabelled: There is no specific antivenom for the treatment of envenoming by the small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka, a dangerous fossorial species endemic to Papua New Guinea, Irian Jaya (West Papua) and neighbouring islands. This study evaluated one marine (sea snake) and four terrestrial (tiger snake, brown snake, black snake and polyvalent) antivenoms, manufactured in Australia by bioCSL Limited, for their ability to immunoreact ('antivenomic' analysis) and neutralize enzymatic and toxic activities of M. ikaheka venom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2014.06.016DOI Listing
October 2014
21 Reads

Marine envenomations.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2014 Feb;32(1):223-43

Department of Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emc.2013.09.009DOI Listing
February 2014
10 Reads

Enhydrina schistosa (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) the most dangerous sea snake in Sri Lanka: three case studies of severe envenoming.

Toxicon 2014 Jan 12;77:78-86. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

15/1, Dolosbage Road, Gampola, Sri Lanka.

Sea snakes are highly venomous and inhabit tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Enhydrina schistosa is a common species of sea snake that lives in the coastal waters, lagoons, river mouths and estuaries from the Persian Gulf through Sri Lanka and to Southeast Asia. It is considered one of the most aggressive sea snakes in Sri Lanka where fishermen and people wading are at high risk. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101130041
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.10.031DOI Listing
January 2014
5 Reads

A case of a sea snake bite resulting in fatal envenoming.

Ceylon Med J 2012 Dec;57(4):174-5

Medical Ward, Colombo North Teaching Hospital, Ragama, Sri Lanka.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v57i4.5089DOI Listing
December 2012
2 Reads

Molecular evidence that the deadliest sea snake Enhydrina schistosa (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) consists of two convergent species.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2013 Jan 5;66(1):262-9. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Darling Building, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5005, Australia.

We present a striking case of phenotypic convergence within the speciose and taxonomically unstable Hydrophis group of viviparous sea snakes. Enhydrina schistosa, the 'beaked sea snake', is abundant in coastal and inshore habitats throughout the Asian and Australian regions, where it is responsible for the large majority of recorded deaths and injuries from sea snake bites. Analyses of five independent mitochondrial and nuclear loci for populations spanning Australia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka indicate that this 'species' actually consists of two distinct lineages in Asia and Australia that are not closest relatives. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S105579031200388
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.09.031DOI Listing
January 2013
10 Reads

Territorial behavior in Taiwanese kukrisnakes (Oligodon formosanus).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 May 18;108(18):7455-9. Epub 2011 Apr 18.

Department of Zoology, National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung 404, Taiwan.

The independent evolutionary origin of a complex trait, within a lineage otherwise lacking it, provides a powerful opportunity to test hypotheses on selective forces. Territorial defense of an area containing resources (such as food or shelter) is widespread in lizards but not snakes. Our studies on an insular population of Taiwanese kukrisnakes (Oligodon formosanus) show that females of this species actively defend sea turtle nests by repelling conspecifics for long periods (weeks) until the turtle eggs hatch or are consumed. Read More

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http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1101804108
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1101804108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088593PMC
May 2011
8 Reads

Exotic pathology of the hand and foot. A pictorial review.

JBR-BTR 2008 Jul-Aug;91(4):160-5

Department of Radiology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium.

In this article, the imaging findings of the most frequently encountered import pathology of the hand and foot are reviewed, including leprosy, loiasis, snake bites or penetration of spines of sea urchins in the hand and foot. Our objective is to familiarize the radiologist of the Western countries with these diseases, which are still prevalent in developing areas. Due to the rising traveling to foreign countries and continuous immigration, it is important that these disorders be considered in the differential diagnosis in a specific population of asylum-seekers, economic refugees and any other group of persons traveling around the globe. Read More

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November 2008
6 Reads

Snakebite nephrotoxicity in Asia.

Semin Nephrol 2008 Jul;28(4):363-72

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Snakebites have the highest incidence in Asia and represent an important health problem. Clinical renal manifestations include proteinuria, hematuria, pigmenturia, and renal failure. Nephropathy usually is caused by bites by snakes with hemotoxic or myotoxic venoms. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S027092950800083
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semnephrol.2008.04.005DOI Listing
July 2008
4 Reads

Medically important venomous animals: biology, prevention, first aid, and clinical management.

Clin Infect Dis 2006 Nov 4;43(10):1309-17. Epub 2006 Oct 4.

Section of Clinical Tropical Medicine, University Hospital, Heidelberg, D-69120, Germany.

Venomous animals are a significant health problem for rural populations in many parts of the world. Given the current level of the international mobility of individuals and the inquisitiveness of travelers, clinicians and travel clinics need to be able to give advice on the prevention, first aid, and clinical management of envenoming. Health professionals often feel overwhelmed by the taxonomy of venomous animals; however, venomous animals can be grouped, using a simple set of criteria, into cnidarians, venomous fish, sea snakes, scorpions, spiders, hymenoterans, and venomous terrestrial snakes. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-lookup/doi/10.1086/5082
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/508279DOI Listing
November 2006
12 Reads

Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia.

Toxicon 2006 Dec 9;48(7):738-54. Epub 2006 Aug 9.

Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.

It was not until the last decade of the 19th century that an experimental approach (led by Bancroft in Queensland and Martin in Sydney and Melbourne) brought a higher plane of scientific objectivity to usher in the modern era of Australian toxinology. This Australia era, 1895-1905, coincided with and in some respects was the result of the new knowledge emerging from Europe and the Americas of the therapeutic effects of antitoxins. The subsequent systematic study of Australian venoms and toxins through to the 1930s and beyond, by Tidswell, Fairley, Ross, Kellaway and Cleland, set the foundation for Australia's leading reputation in venom research. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101060028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.08.001DOI Listing
December 2006
3 Reads

[Venomous and poisonous animals--I. Overview].

Med Trop (Mars) 2006 Jun;66(3):215-20

l'IRD, CP 9214, La Paz, Bolivie.

Venomous animals that are able to innoculate or inject venom and poisonous animals that cannot inject venom but are toxic when ingested belong to all zoological groups. They can be encountered worldwide in any ecosystem on land and at sea but they are more common and more dangerous in tropical areas. This first article of a series to appear in the next issues of Medecine Tropicale presents an overview of species involved in envenomations and poisonings. Read More

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June 2006
3 Reads

Retrospective prevalence of snakebites from Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) (1999-2003).

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2006 Jan;37(1):200-5

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

A hospital based retrospective study of the prevalence of snakebite cases at Hospital Kuala Lumpur was carried out over a five-year period from 1999 to 2003. A total of 126 snakebite cases were recorded. The highest admission for snakebites was recorded in 2001 (29 cases). Read More

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January 2006
2 Reads

Diagnosis and management of injuries from dangerous marine life.

Authors:
Thomas P Brown

MedGenMed 2005 Aug 28;7(3). Epub 2005 Aug 28.

Naval Hospital, Pensacola, Florida, USA.

Injuries from marine life encompass a wide spectrum, from mild stings to severe bites. Fortunately most of the injuries are mild, although some may be significant, resulting in death. Most of these injuries can be treated by family physicians with a knowledge of the cause of the pathology. Read More

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August 2005
3 Reads

Prevalence of snake bites in Kangar District Hospital, Perlis, west Malaysia: a retrospective study (January 1999-December 2000).

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2004 Dec;35(4):962-5

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The records of 284 snake bite cases presenting to the Kangar District Hospital, Perlis, west Malaysia, from January 1999 till December 2000 were carefully reviewed. Data on prevalence and types of snake bites, were recorded. The majority of the cases were among Malays (60. Read More

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December 2004
2 Reads

Two Sri Lankan cases of identified sea snake bites, without envenoming.

Toxicon 2005 Jun 14;45(7):861-3. Epub 2005 Apr 14.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Sea snakes are among the most venomous creatures encountered around coasts and reefs, in estuaries, rivers and at sea. Their venoms are more toxic than those of land snakes. However, they are rarely aggressive or menacing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.02.010DOI Listing
June 2005
1 Read

Phospholipase A2 in cnidaria.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2004 Dec;139(4):731-5

Department of Pathology, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is an enzyme present in snake and other venoms and body fluids. We measured PLA2 catalytic activity in tissue homogenates of 22 species representing the classes Anthozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. High PLA2 levels were found in the hydrozoan fire coral Millepora sp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2004.09.006DOI Listing
December 2004
2 Reads

Renal function following sea snake venom (Lapemis hardwicki) administration in dogs treated with sodium bicarbonate solution.

J Nat Toxins 2002 May;11(2):111-21

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Thai Red Cross Society, Patumwan, Bangkok.

The effects of sea snake venom (SSV) on renal function were studied in two groups of anesthetized experimental dogs pretreated with intravenous infusion of 4.2 gm% NaHCO3 solution. Animals were envenomated by intramuscular injection of SSV at a dosage of 0. Read More

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May 2002
5 Reads

Vipera berus adder bite in the water, complicated by rapid shock. A case history.

Eur J Pediatr Surg 2001 Oct;11(5):358-60

Department of Paediatric Surgery, Turku University Central Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

A case of a child who presented with severe and rapid shock after receiving a common adder (vipera berus berus) bite in sea water is presented. Although most poisonous snakebites in Europe tend to be relatively minor and uncomplicated, the present case highlights the need to regard all viper bites as life-threatening accidents, before proved otherwise by a medical professional. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2001-18545DOI Listing
October 2001
23 Reads

[Medicine inspired by poverty].

Authors:
H Barnard

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2000 May;144(20):949-51

Netherlands-Flemish Institute, Caïro, Egypte.

Since his arrival in Egypt in 1994 the author joined a number of archaeological expeditions as a surveyor and part-time physician. During this latter activity he came into contact with the beliefs and practices of the local workmen and those of the Ababda Bedouin in particular. Living a harsh life in the southern part of the Egyptian Eastern Desert, their medicine seems to be inspired by poverty. Read More

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May 2000
4 Reads

Bites and stings from venomous animals: a global overview.

Authors:
J White

Ther Drug Monit 2000 Feb;22(1):65-8

Toxinology Department, Women's and Children 's Hospital, North Adelaide, Australia.

Venomous and poisonous animals are a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. This Seminar will cover selected aspects of these animals, their venoms/poisons, and their clinical impact on humankind, from a global perspective, but with a distinctive Australian flavor and a clinical emphasis. Venomous snakes are found throughout most of the world, including many oceans, and have evolved a variety of highly effective toxins and methods of delivery. Read More

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February 2000
8 Reads

Nephrotoxicity in snake envenomation.

J Nat Toxins 1999 Jun;8(2):271-7

Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Bangkok, Thailand.

There is a broad spectrum of renal involvement following snake envenomation. At the clinical level the renal manifestation may be absent or minimal. Mild proteinuria with abnormal urinary sediment may be observed. Read More

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June 1999
6 Reads

Resistance of eels (Gymnothorax) to the venom of sea kraits (Laticauda colubrina): a test of coevolution.

Authors:
H Heatwole J Powell

Toxicon 1998 Apr;36(4):619-25

Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695-7617, USA.

Eels of the genus Gymnothorax from the Pacific are selectively preyed upon by banded sea kraits (Laticauda colubrina) and have been reported to sustain massive doses of sea krait venom without ill effect. By contrast, the present study found that Gymnothorax moringa from the Caribbean, where no sea snakes occur, are sensitive to sea krait venom, with doses as low as 0.01 mg dry wt of venom/kg wet wt of eel resulting in signs of envenomation, and doses as small as 0. Read More

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April 1998
2 Reads

Hugh Alistair Reid OBE MD: investigation and treatment of snake bite.

Authors:
B J Hawgood

Toxicon 1998 Mar;36(3):431-46

Alistair Reid was an outstanding clinician, epidemiologist and scientist. At the Penang General Hospital, Malaya, his careful observation of sea snake poisoning revealed that sea snake venoms were myotoxic in man leading to generalized rhabdomyolysis, and were not neurotoxic as observed in animals. In 1961, Reid founded and became the first Honorary Director of the Penang Institute of Snake and Venom Research. Read More

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March 1998
6 Reads

Venomous snakebite in Thailand. I: Medically important snakes.

Mil Med 1998 May;163(5):310-7

Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Faculty of Medicine and of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Thailand has an abundance of venomous snakes. Among the neurotoxic family Elapidae, there are three species of the genus Naja (cobras), three of the genus Bungarus (kraits), and the king cobra of the genus Ophiophagus. Other Elapidae snakes in Thailand include sea snakes and Asian coral snakes of the genus Calliophis. Read More

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May 1998
5 Reads

The nephrotoxicity of fractionated components of Aipysurus laevis venom.

Authors:
S Ryan J Yong

Exp Toxicol Pathol 1997 Feb;49(1-2):47-55

Department of Anatomical Pathology, Prince Henry Hospital, Little Bay, New South Wales, Australia.

Six major venom fractions were obtained when crude Aipysurus laevis (Olive sea snake) venom was fractionated by standard HPLC techniques. Subcutaneous doses of between 9.5-20. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09402993978005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0940-2993(97)80057-7DOI Listing
February 1997
3 Reads

A case of human bite by the pelagic sea snake, Pelamis platurus (Serpentes: Hydrophiidae).

Authors:
A Solórzano

Rev Biol Trop 1995 Apr-Dec;43(1-3):321-2

Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José.

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December 1996
4 Reads

Bite of a sea snake (Hydrophis spiralis): a case report from Sri Lanka.

J Trop Med Hyg 1994 Aug;97(4):195-8

General Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

A rare case of sea-snake bite resulting in envenoming is reported. Comparison is made with clinical features of sea-snake envenoming as described in the literature. Some of the unusual features observed in our patient were the occurrence of pain at the site of the bite, regional lymph node enlargement and absence of muscle pain and tenderness. Read More

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August 1994
5 Reads

Medical studies of poisonous land and sea snakes.

Authors:
J A Vick

J Clin Pharmacol 1994 Jun;34(6):709-12

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC.

The comparative toxicity and pathophysiology of thirteen (13) of poisonous snakes indigenous to the area in and around Saudi Arabia were determined. Four snakes from the Viperidae family, six from the Elapidae family, and three representative sea snakes from the family Hydrophiodae were included. Anesthetized adult Beagle dogs and anesthetized monkeys were used in the study. Read More

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June 1994
4 Reads

Changes in serum components induced by venoms of marine animals.

Authors:
J M Alam R Qasim

Pak J Pharm Sci 1993 Jan;6(1):81-7

Marine Biochemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, M.A.H.Q. Biological Research Centre, University of Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

Serum enzyme and chemical component levels were investigated in a rat model after experimental envenomation by venoms of coelentrate, Physalia species, four sea-snakes, Hydrophis spiralis, H. Cyanocinctus, H. Lapemoides and Lapemis curtus and a gastropod molluse Conus coronatus. Read More

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January 1993
4 Reads

1991 Sir Henry Wellcome Medal and Prize recipient. Medical studies of the poisonous land and sea snakes found in and around Saudi Arabia.

Authors:
J A Vick

Mil Med 1992 Apr;157(4):159-62

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC 20012.

Studies were carried out to determine the comparative toxicity and pathophysiology of 13 of the more poisonous snakes indigenous to Saudi Arabia. Included were four snakes from the Viperidae family, six from the Elapidae family, and three representative sea snakes from the family Hydrophidae. Anesthetized adult beagle dogs and anesthetized monkeys were used in the study. Read More

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April 1992
2 Reads

Sea snake envenomation.

Med J Aust 1991 Dec 2-16;155(11-12):850

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January 1992
4 Reads

Admissions for suspected snake bite to the Perth adult teaching hospitals, 1979 to 1988.

Med J Aust 1991 Dec 2-16;155(11-12):761-4

Department of Emergency Medicine, Fremantle Hospital, WA.

Objective: To describe the epidemiology of snake bite in Perth, and the likelihood of envenomation.

Design: Information from case notes was retrospectively analysed.

Setting: Emergency medicine, teaching hospitals. Read More

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January 1992
3 Reads

Snake bite in Kelantanese children: a five year experience.

Toxicon 1990 ;28(2):225-30

Department of Paediatrics, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences, Kelantan.

The records associated with 83 children from 16 months to 12 years of age who were admitted with snake bite to Kota Bharu General Hospital and University Hospital, Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 5 year period were reviewed. Elapid bites were more common than viper bites while sea-snake bites were not recorded. Symptoms were relatively mild, the common clinical features being pain and local swelling. Read More

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June 1990
3 Reads

Effects of venom of the olive sea snake, Aipysurus laevis, on the behaviour and ventilation of three species of prey fish.

Toxicon 1990 ;28(12):1469-78

Desert and Marine Environment Research Center, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, U.A.E.

Venom from the olive sea snake, Aipysurus laevis, was injected into three species of prey fish, Chromis nitida, Dascyllus aruanus and Istiblennius meleagris. Their behaviour and ventilatory patterns were observed for 48 hr. Six progressive stages of envenomation, involving impairment of the locomotory and ventilatory systems, were identified. Read More

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May 1991
1 Read

Snake-bite-induced acute renal failure in India.

Authors:
K S Chugh

Kidney Int 1989 Mar;35(3):891-907

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Acute renal failure complicates the course in 5% to 30% of victims of severe viper poisoning. No consensus exists on the single mechanism causing acute renal failure after viper bite. It is known, however, that viper venom induces several clinical abnormalities that favor the development of acute renal failure. Read More

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March 1989
5 Reads

Sea snake envenomation in Goa.

J Assoc Physicians India 1987 Nov;35(11):787-8

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November 1987
6 Reads

Biotoxicology of sea snake venoms.

Authors:
A T Tu

Ann Emerg Med 1987 Sep;16(9):1023-8

Sea snakes are the most abundant venomous reptiles, found throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Divided into two subfamilies, Laticaudinae and Hydrophiinae, all sea snakes are poisonous. Venoms are highly toxic, as indicated by low LD50 values in test animals. Read More

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September 1987
5 Reads