84 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Sea

Preparation and Evaluation of a Horse Antiserum against the Venom of Sea Snake from Hainan, China.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 Apr 1;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Marine Biomedicine and Polar Medicine, Naval Characteristic Medical Center, Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Sea snake venom is extremely toxic, and it can induce severe respiratory failure and cause high mortality. The most effective first aid treatment for sea snake bites is to inject antivenom as soon as possible. However, in China, there are only four types of terrestrial snake antivenoms, none of which are effective in the treatment of sea snake bites. Read More

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Australian Sea Snake Envenoming Causes Myotoxicity and Non-Specific Systemic Symptoms - Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-24).

Front Pharmacol 2022 21;13:816795. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Sea snakes are venomous snakes found in the warm parts of the Indo-Pacific, including around Australia. Most sea snake envenoming causes myotoxicity, but previous Australian case reports describe neurotoxicity. We aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical presentation of Australian sea snake envenoming and the effectiveness of antivenom. Read More

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Combined proteomic strategies for in-depth venomic analysis of the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus) from Songkhla Lake, Thailand.

J Proteomics 2022 05 10;259:104559. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Center of Excellence in Systems Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

This study focuses on comprehensive characterization of the venom proteome of the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus) from Songkhla Lake, Thailand. H. schistosus can be considered as the deadliest sea snake commonly found in the Pacific and Indian oceans. Read More

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Visual Hallucinations After a Russell's Viper Bite.

Wilderness Environ Med 2021 Sep 21;32(3):351-354. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chennai Medical College Hospital & Research Center, Irungalur, Trichy, India.

Visual hallucinations (VHs) are extremely rare in snakebites. We report a case of Russell's viper bite in an otherwise healthy 55-y-old woman who presented to a hospital in south India with established clinical features of systemic and local envenomation, including coagulation failure, without any neurologic manifestations on admission. She reported simple VH on the third day, which abruptly stopped on the fifth day without any specific medications. Read More

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September 2021

Venom-gland transcriptomic, venomic, and antivenomic profiles of the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus) from the South China Sea.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 8;22(1):520. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Hangzhou Key Laboratory for Animal Adaptation and Evolution, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 311121, Zhejiang, China.

Background: A comprehensive evaluation of the -omic profiles of venom is important for understanding the potential function and evolution of snake venom. Here, we conducted an integrated multi-omics-analysis to unveil the venom-transcriptomic and venomic profiles in a same group of spine-bellied sea snakes (Hydrophis curtus) from the South China Sea, where the snake is a widespread species and might generate regionally-specific venom potentially harmful to human activities. The capacity of two heterologous antivenoms to immunocapture the H. Read More

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Fatal Sea Snake Envenomation.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2021 Dec;42(4):401-404

Abstract: A 23-year-old man working on a prawn trawler off the Northern Australian coast was bitten on the right hand by a black-banded sea snake (Laticauda colubrina), resulting in the rapid onset of ptosis, blurred vision, and respiratory difficulties with convulsions, loss of consciousness, and death. Resuscitation was unsuccessful. No antivenom was available because of the remote location. Read More

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December 2021

Venom-Gland Transcriptomics of Spine-Bellied Sea Snake () from Penang, Malaysia-Next-Generation Sequencing, Functional Annotation and Toxinological Correlation.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 02 9;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Protein and Interactomics Lab, Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

Envenomation resulted from sea snake bite is a highly lethal health hazard in Southeast Asia. Although commonly caused by sea snakes of Hydrophiinae, each species is evolutionarily distinct and thus, unveiling the toxin gene diversity within individual species is important. Applying next-generation sequencing, this study investigated the venom-gland transcriptome of (spine-bellied sea snake) from Penang, West Malaysia. Read More

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February 2021

Case Reports of Two Interesting Patients with Sea Snake Envenomation.

J Assoc Physicians India 2020 Dec;68(12):78-81

Assistant Professor, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

Sea Snakes have the most potent venom among snakes known to mankind and a few species are implicated in human fatalities.1 Commonest Sea snake in the Indian Sea is Enhydrina Schistosa.2 Mortality is high in spite of therapy because of multiple complications. Read More

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December 2020

Fatal and Nonfatal Snakebite Injuries Reported in the United States.

South Med J 2020 Oct;113(10):514-519

From the College of Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, Marilyn Goss Haskell Innovative One Health Solutions, Raleigh, North Carolina, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Objectives: Venomous and nonvenomous snakes are found throughout the United States. Two families of venomous snakes are indigenous to this country: the Viperidae, or pit vipers (rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, and copperheads), and the Elapidae (three species of coral snakes and a sea snake). Bites from captive nonindigenous venomous snakes such as cobras also may present at medical facilities, given the interest in exotic pet ownership in the United States. Read More

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October 2020

Preparation and detection of sea snake antisera raised in rabbits.

Toxicon 2020 Oct 20;186:168-174. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, Jiangsu, China; Hainan Key Laboratory of Herpetological Research, College of Fisheries and Life Sciences, Hainan Tropical Ocean University, Sanya, 572022, Hainan, China. Electronic address:

Antivenoms are currently the most effective medication used in the treatment of snakebites. However, there were relatively few studies on preparation of antivenoms targeting sea snakes, especially common sea snakes in China. In this study, we sought to prepare and detect mono- and bispecific antisera raised in rabbits against venoms of two sea snakes, Hydrophis cyanocinctus and H. Read More

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October 2020

Venom Proteome of Spine-Bellied Sea Snake () from Penang, Malaysia: Toxicity Correlation, Immunoprofiling and Cross-Neutralization by Sea Snake Antivenom.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 12 23;11(1). Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

The venom proteome of (synonym: ) from Penang, Malaysia was investigated with nano-electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LCMS/MS) of the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) venom fractions. Thirty distinct protein forms were identified as toxins from ten families. The three major protein families were phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂, 62. Read More

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December 2018

An unusual case of gross myoglobinuria in a child following Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) envenomation.

Toxicon 2019 Jan 16;157:77-79. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, 20400, Sri Lanka.

Overt myoglobinuria associated with myotoxicity is a classic feature of sea snake envenomation. Russell's viper bites usually result in coagulopathy, neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity but rarely myotoxicity has been reported, especially in the Sri Lankan variety (Daboia russelii). All those studies have demonstrated mild degree myotoxicity with microscopic level myoglobinuria. Read More

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January 2019

Neurotoxicity fingerprinting of venoms using on-line microfluidic AChBP profiling.

Toxicon 2018 Jun 4;148:213-222. Epub 2018 May 4.

AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Venoms from snakes are rich sources of highly active proteins with potent affinity towards a variety of enzymes and receptors. Of the many distinct toxicities caused by envenomation, neurotoxicity plays an important role in the paralysis of prey by snakes as well as by venomous sea snails and insects. In order to improve the analytical discovery component of venom toxicity profiling, this paper describes the implementation of microfluidic high-resolution screening (HRS) to obtain neurotoxicity fingerprints from venoms that facilitates identification of the neurotoxic components of envenomation. Read More

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Marine Envenomation.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2017 May 15;35(2):321-337. Epub 2017 Mar 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Alway Building M121, MC 5119, Stanford, CA 94305-2200, USA.

Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. Read More

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How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 03 13;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 13.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. Read More

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Revisiting Notechis scutatus venom: on shotgun proteomics and neutralization by the "bivalent" Sea Snake Antivenom.

J Proteomics 2016 07 6;144:33-8. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Unlabelled: Recent advances in proteomics enable deep profiling of the compositional details of snake venoms for improved understanding on envenomation pathophysiology and immunological neutralization. In this study, the venom of Australian tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) was trypsin-digested in solution and subjected to nano-ESI-LCMS/MS. Applying a relative quantitative proteomic approach, the findings revealed a proteome comprising 42 toxin subtypes clustered into 12 protein families. Read More

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Fatal neurotoxic envenomation following the bite of a greater black krait (Bungarus niger) in Nepal: a case report.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2016 3;22:19. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Background: Neurotoxic envenomation following bites by kraits (Bungarus species) is a leading cause of snakebite mortality in South Asia. Over a long time, this had been attributed only to one species, the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus). However, recent research has provided increasing evidence of the involvement of several krait species. Read More

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[Special challenges in the highest-elevation acute-care hospital in Europe].

Donat Marugg

Rev Med Suisse 2015 Apr;11(471):948-52

Oberengadin Hospital in Samedan is faced with particular challenges, as the highest-elevation acute-care hospital in Europe (1750 m = 5,740 ft above sea level). The factors responsible for this are elevation-related and meteorological/climatic influences, as well as seasonal variations in Südbünden's demographic structure due to tourism. Read More

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Antivenom cross-neutralization of the venoms of Hydrophis schistosus and Hydrophis curtus, two common sea snakes in Malaysian waters.

Toxins (Basel) 2015 Feb 16;7(2):572-81. Epub 2015 Feb 16.

Centre for Marine & Coastal Studies (CEMACS), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Sea snake envenomation is a serious occupational hazard in tropical waters. In Malaysia, the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus, formerly known as Enhydrina schistosa) and the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus, formerly known as Lapemis curtus or Lapemis hardwickii) are two commonly encountered species. Australian CSL sea snake antivenom is the definitive treatment for sea snake envenomation; it is unfortunately extremely costly locally and is not widely available or adequately stocked in local hospitals. Read More

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February 2015

Marine envenomations.

Aust Fam Physician 2015 Jan-Feb;44(1-2):28-32

BMed, FACEM, Emergency Staff Specialist and Clinical Toxicology Fellow, Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Hospital, Newcastle, NSW.

Background: Marine stings are common but most are minor and do not require medical intervention. Severe and systemic marine envenoming is uncommon, but includes box jellyfish stings, Irukandji syndrome, major stingray trauma and blue-ringed octopus envenoming. Almost all marine injuries are caused by jellyfish stings, and penetrating injuries from spiny fish, stingrays or sea urchins. Read More

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September 2016

Sea snake harvest in the gulf of Thailand.

Conserv Biol 2014 Dec;28(6):1677-87

Institute of Oceanography, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human-snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Read More

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December 2014

+Ophitoxaemia and myocardial infarction--the issues during primary angioplasty: a review.

BMJ Case Rep 2014 Oct 23;2014. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Department of Cardiology, Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

'The Big four' are the most poisonous snakes in India, and especially in Kerala. These include the cobra, the viper, the krait and the sea snake. Most of the poisonous snakebites in India occur in Kerala. Read More

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October 2014

Preclinical efficacy of Australian antivenoms against the venom of the small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka, from Papua New Guinea: an antivenomics and neutralization study.

J Proteomics 2014 Oct 28;110:198-208. Epub 2014 Jun 28.

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address:

There is no specific antivenom for the treatment of envenoming by the small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka, a dangerous fossorial species endemic to Papua New Guinea, Irian Jaya (West Papua) and neighbouring islands. This study evaluated one marine (sea snake) and four terrestrial (tiger snake, brown snake, black snake and polyvalent) antivenoms, manufactured in Australia by bioCSL Limited, for their ability to immunoreact ('antivenomic' analysis) and neutralize enzymatic and toxic activities of M. ikaheka venom. Read More

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October 2014

Marine envenomations.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2014 Feb;32(1):223-43

Department of Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures. Read More

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February 2014

Enhydrina schistosa (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) the most dangerous sea snake in Sri Lanka: three case studies of severe envenoming.

Toxicon 2014 Jan 12;77:78-86. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

15/1, Dolosbage Road, Gampola, Sri Lanka.

Sea snakes are highly venomous and inhabit tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Enhydrina schistosa is a common species of sea snake that lives in the coastal waters, lagoons, river mouths and estuaries from the Persian Gulf through Sri Lanka and to Southeast Asia. It is considered one of the most aggressive sea snakes in Sri Lanka where fishermen and people wading are at high risk. Read More

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January 2014

A case of a sea snake bite resulting in fatal envenoming.

Ceylon Med J 2012 Dec;57(4):174-5

Medical Ward, Colombo North Teaching Hospital, Ragama, Sri Lanka.

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December 2012

Molecular evidence that the deadliest sea snake Enhydrina schistosa (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) consists of two convergent species.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2013 Jan 5;66(1):262-9. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Darling Building, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5005, Australia.

We present a striking case of phenotypic convergence within the speciose and taxonomically unstable Hydrophis group of viviparous sea snakes. Enhydrina schistosa, the 'beaked sea snake', is abundant in coastal and inshore habitats throughout the Asian and Australian regions, where it is responsible for the large majority of recorded deaths and injuries from sea snake bites. Analyses of five independent mitochondrial and nuclear loci for populations spanning Australia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka indicate that this 'species' actually consists of two distinct lineages in Asia and Australia that are not closest relatives. Read More

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January 2013

Territorial behavior in Taiwanese kukrisnakes (Oligodon formosanus).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 May 18;108(18):7455-9. Epub 2011 Apr 18.

Department of Zoology, National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung 404, Taiwan.

The independent evolutionary origin of a complex trait, within a lineage otherwise lacking it, provides a powerful opportunity to test hypotheses on selective forces. Territorial defense of an area containing resources (such as food or shelter) is widespread in lizards but not snakes. Our studies on an insular population of Taiwanese kukrisnakes (Oligodon formosanus) show that females of this species actively defend sea turtle nests by repelling conspecifics for long periods (weeks) until the turtle eggs hatch or are consumed. Read More

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Exotic pathology of the hand and foot. A pictorial review.

JBR-BTR 2008 Jul-Aug;91(4):160-5

Department of Radiology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium.

In this article, the imaging findings of the most frequently encountered import pathology of the hand and foot are reviewed, including leprosy, loiasis, snake bites or penetration of spines of sea urchins in the hand and foot. Our objective is to familiarize the radiologist of the Western countries with these diseases, which are still prevalent in developing areas. Due to the rising traveling to foreign countries and continuous immigration, it is important that these disorders be considered in the differential diagnosis in a specific population of asylum-seekers, economic refugees and any other group of persons traveling around the globe. Read More

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November 2008