45 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Overview

Epidemiological overview of snakebites in the Baja California peninsula, Mexico (2003-2018).

Gac Med Mex 2021 ;157(6):559-565

Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California.

Introduction: Ophidian accident is a global public health problem. In Mexico, there is a high incidence of snakebites, which cause medical complications that can leave severe sequelae.

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological overview of snake venom poisoning in the Baja California (BC) peninsula within the 2003-2018 period. Read More

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February 2022

The potential of phenolic acids in therapy against snakebites: A review.

Toxicon 2022 Mar 31;208:1-12. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Laboratory of Technology and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology (Tecbiofar), College of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Avenue General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, S/N, Petrópolis, Natal, 59012-570, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ophidism is a serious health problem worldwide and is included in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) list of Neglected Tropical Diseases. Although snakebite envenoming requires emergency treatment, currently the only treatment recommended by WHO is serotherapy, which has some disadvantages such as low access to the rural population, low effectiveness in neutralizing local effects, and high cost. In this context, new alternatives for the treatment of snakebites are required. Read More

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The clinical course and treatment of black mamba ( envenomations: a narrative review.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Oct 5;59(10):860-868. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Medical Physiology, Division of Heart & Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Context: The black mamba ( is, due to its extremely toxic venom, one of the most dangerous snake species in Sub-Saharan Africa. A bite is a medical emergency and requires adequate action to prevent severe complications. However, there are no comprehensive reviews available based on clinical cases, and no readily accessible guidelines for standardized treatment. Read More

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October 2021

Snakebite Envenoming Diagnosis and Diagnostics.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:661457. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Snakebite envenoming is predominantly an occupational disease of the rural tropics, causing death or permanent disability to hundreds of thousands of victims annually. The diagnosis of snakebite envenoming is commonly based on a combination of patient history and a syndromic approach. However, the availability of auxiliary diagnostic tests at the disposal of the clinicians vary from country to country, and the level of experience within snakebite diagnosis and intervention may be quite different for clinicians from different hospitals. Read More

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October 2021

Overview of snakebite in Brazil: Possible drivers and a tool for risk mapping.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 01 29;15(1):e0009044. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Ministry of Health of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Snakebite envenoming affects close to 2.7 million people globally every year. In Brazil, snakebites are reported to the Ministry of Health surveillance system and cases receive antivenom free of charge. Read More

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January 2021

Prospective review of cytotoxic snakebite envenomation in a paediatric population.

Toxicon 2021 Jan 17;190:73-78. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Surgery, Ngwelezana Hospital, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa.

Cytotoxic snakebite envenomation is prevalent in Kwazulu-Natal and may be associated with significant physical disability. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the effects of cytotoxic envenomation in children. The patient population were all patients attending the Emergency Department at Ngwelezana Tertiary Hospital with snakebite from December 2014 to March 2015. Read More

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January 2021

Interventions for the management of snakebite envenoming: An overview of systematic reviews.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 10 13;14(10):e0008727. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease that leads to more than 120,000 deaths every year. In 2019, World Health Organization (WHO) launched a strategy to decrease its global burden by 2030. There is a range of issues around different interventions for the management of snakebite. Read More

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October 2020

Edema, hyperalgesia and myonecrosis induced by Brazilian bothropic venoms: overview of the last decade.

Toxicon 2020 Nov 23;187:10-18. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), Uberlândia, MG, Brazil.

Snakebite accidents are considered serious public health problems. They are often neglected, and individuals who have received insufficient treatment are subjected to various disabling alterations. Snake venoms are secretions composed of biologically active molecules capable of triggering local and systemic effects in envenomation victims. Read More

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November 2020

Snake three-finger α-neurotoxins and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: molecules, mechanisms and medicine.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 11 23;181:114168. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

School of Medical Science, Griffith Health Group, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Snake venom three-finger α-neurotoxins (α-3FNTx) act on postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) to produce skeletal muscle paralysis. The discovery of the archetypal α-bungarotoxin (α-BgTx), almost six decades ago, exponentially expanded our knowledge of membrane receptors and ion channels. This included the localisation, isolation and characterization of the first receptor (nAChR); and by extension, the pathophysiology and pharmacology of neuromuscular transmission and associated pathologies such as myasthenia gravis, as well as our understanding of the role of α-3FNTxs in snakebite envenomation leading to novel concepts of targeted treatment. Read More

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November 2020

Caring for patients with venomous Crotalinae snakebites.

Nursing 2020 Feb;50(2):56-60

Ariel Miller is a nursing student at Sacramento State University in Sacramento, Calif., as well as a wildlife biologist and environmental planner; Bridget Parsh is a professor of nursing at Sacramento State University.

Venomous snakebites are surprisingly common in the US. This article provides an overview of what to do when a patient has been bitten by a North American pit viper, a venomous subset of indigenous snakes. Read More

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February 2020

Measurements of Cell Death Induced by Snake and Spider's Venoms and Derived Toxins.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2068:239-268

Faculty of Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Institute for Drug Research, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Snake and spider envenomation have a considerable impact on public health. Their pathology is induced by a variety of toxins composing the venom which induce cytotoxicity to cells of different organs by several cell death pathways. Described in this chapter are methods in vitro used to assess venoms and toxin-induced cell death using mammalian cell cultures. Read More

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December 2020

Wild banana [Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman.]: Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological overview.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Apr 25;233:218-233. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

National Innovation Foundation-India (Autonomous Body of Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India), Grambharti, Amarapur, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382650, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman. (Family: Musaceae), commonly known as "Wild Banana" is well recorded as popular ethnomedicine for medicinal and nutritional uses by different people and communities native to India, Ethiopia, Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. Read More

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An overview of the immune modulating effects of enzymatic toxins from snake venoms.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Apr 20;109:664-671. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of organic and inorganic compounds, including proteins belonging to the protease (serine and metalloproteinases), oxidase (L-amino acid oxidases), and phospholipase (especially phospholipases A) enzyme classes. These toxins account for the serious deleterious effects of snake envenomations, such as tissue necrosis, neurotoxicity, and hemorrhage. In addition to their toxic effects, snake venom toxins have served as important tools for investigating the mechanisms underlying envenomation and discovering new pharmacologically active compounds with immunotherapeutic potential. Read More

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Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 12 22;10(1). Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Center for Bioinformatics and Molecular Simulations (CBSM), Universidad de Talca, 3460000 Talca, Chile.

Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Read More

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December 2017

Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Local Tissue Damage Induced by Snake Venoms: An Overview from Traditional Use to Pharmacological Evidence.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 21;2017:5748256. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Laboratório de Tecnologia & Biotecnologia Farmacêutica (TecBioFar), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN, Brazil.

Snakebites are a serious problem in public health due to their high morbimortality. Most of snake venoms produce intense local tissue damage, which could lead to temporary or permanent disability in victims. The available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, whose effectiveness is reduced against these effects. Read More

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The medical threat of mamba envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa revealed by genus-wide analysis of venom composition, toxicity and antivenomics profiling of available antivenoms.

J Proteomics 2018 02 24;172:173-189. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Jaume Roig 11, 46010, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Mambas (genus Dendroaspis) are among the most feared of the medically important elapid snakes found in sub-Saharan Africa, but many facets of their biology, including the diversity of venom composition, remain relatively understudied. Here, we present a reconstruction of mamba phylogeny, alongside genus-wide venom gland transcriptomic and high-resolution top-down venomic analyses. Whereas the green mambas, D. Read More

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February 2018

Haemotoxic snake venoms: their functional activity, impact on snakebite victims and pharmaceutical promise.

Br J Haematol 2017 06 24;177(6):947-959. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Parasitology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Snake venoms are mixtures of numerous proteinacious components that exert diverse functional activities on a variety of physiological targets. Because the toxic constituents found in venom vary from species to species, snakebite victims can present with a variety of life-threatening pathologies related to the neurotoxic, cytotoxic and haemotoxic effects of venom. Of the 1·8 million people envenomed by snakes every year, up to 125 000 die, while hundreds of thousands survive only to suffer with life-changing long-term morbidity. Read More

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Injury trends from envenoming in Australia, 2000-2013.

Intern Med J 2017 Feb;47(2):170-176

Department of Epidemiology and Preventative Medicine, Monash Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Accidental injury is a major public health problem in developed countries with 20 years elapsed since a national overview of venomous bites undertaken in Australia.

Aim: Provide the first contemporary epidemiological insight into venomous injuries based on demographics and geography nationally in Australia in the period 2000-2013.

Methods: An analysis of national hospitalisation and mortality data was undertaken to examine the incidence of injury and death due to envenoming in Australia. Read More

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February 2017

A Tricky Trait: Applying the Fruits of the "Function Debate" in the Philosophy of Biology to the "Venom Debate" in the Science of Toxinology.

Toxins (Basel) 2016 09 7;8(9). Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Bioloigical Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD, 4072 Brisbane, Australia.

The "function debate" in the philosophy of biology and the "venom debate" in the science of toxinology are conceptually related. Venom systems are complex multifunctional traits that have evolved independently numerous times throughout the animal kingdom. No single concept of function, amongst those popularly defended, appears adequate to describe these systems in all their evolutionary contexts and extant variations. Read More

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September 2016

From Fangs to Pharmacology: The Future of Snakebite Envenoming Therapy.

Curr Pharm Des 2016 ;22(34):5270-5293

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

The snake is the symbol of medicine due to its association with Asclepius, the Greek God of medicine, and so with good reasons. More than 725 species of venomous snakes have toxins specifically evolved to exert potent bioactivity in prey or victims, and snakebites constitute a public health hazard of high impact in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and parts of Oceania. Parenteral administration of antivenoms is the mainstay in snakebite envenoming therapy. Read More

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December 2017

Snake venom galactoside-binding lectins: a structural and functional overview.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2015 24;21:35. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, SP CEP 14040-903 Brazil.

Snake venom galactoside-binding lectins (SVgalLs) comprise a class of toxins capable of recognizing and interacting with terminal galactoside residues of glycans. In the past 35 years, since the first report on the purification of thrombolectin from Bothrops atrox snake venom, several SVgalLs from Viperidae and Elapidae snake families have been described, as has progressive improvement in the investigation of structural/functional aspects of these lectins. Moreover, the advances of techniques applied in protein-carbohydrate recognition have provided important approaches in order to screen for possible biological targets. Read More

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September 2015

Needs and availability of snake antivenoms: relevance and application of international guidelines.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2015 Apr 4;4(7):447-57. Epub 2015 Apr 4.

Athena Institute, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Snakebite has recently been declared a global public health emergency. Empirical data showing the true burden of snakebite is lacking. Treatment with specific antivenoms is considered the only cure. Read More

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Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2015 May;28(3):1009-13

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Haripur, Pakistan.

Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. Read More

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Effects of snake envenomation: a guide for emergency nurses.

Emerg Nurse 2015 Feb;22(9):24-9

University of South Florida College of Nursing, Tampa, Florida, United States.

Only one species of venomous snake, the adder, is indigenous to the UK, but many people keep venomous snakes as pets and others travel to places, such as the United States, where a wider variety of venomous snakes can be found. Emergency nurses should therefore be prepared to treat bite wounds caused by venomous and non-venomous snakes. This article offers an overview of the most common forms of envenomation in the UK and makes recommendations for the clinical care of people who have sustained snake bites. Read More

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February 2015

Snake Venom Cytotoxins, Phospholipase As, and Zn-dependent Metalloproteinases: Mechanisms of Action and Pharmacological Relevance.

J Clin Toxicol 2014 Jan;4(1):1000181

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968, USA.

Snake venom toxins are responsible for causing severe pathology and toxicity following envenomation including necrosis, apoptosis, neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, profuse hemorrhage, and disruption of blood homeostasis. Clinically, snake venom toxins therefore represent a significant hazard to snakebite victims which underscores the need to produce more efficient anti-venom. Some snake venom toxins, however, have great potential as drugs for treating human diseases. Read More

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January 2014

Snake venom L-amino acid oxidases: trends in pharmacology and biochemistry.

Biomed Res Int 2014 12;2014:196754. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Centro de Estudos de Biomoléculas Aplicadas à Saúde, (CEBio), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz Rondônia e Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Rondônia (UNIR), Porto Velho, RO, Brazil.

L-amino acid oxidases are enzymes found in several organisms, including venoms of snakes, where they contribute to the toxicity of ophidian envenomation. Their toxicity is primarily due to enzymatic activity, but other mechanisms have been proposed recently which require further investigation. L-amino acid oxidases exert biological and pharmacological effects, including actions on platelet aggregation and the induction of apoptosis, hemorrhage, and cytotoxicity. Read More

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January 2015

Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana.

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013 Aug;3(8):668-72; discussion 672

Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. Read More

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Phospholipase A2 inhibitors isolated from medicinal plants: alternative treatment against snakebites.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2013 Jul;13(9):1348-56

Lorane Izabel da Silva Hage Melim Faculdade Seama Av. Ver. José Tupinambá de Almeida, 1201, Jesus de Nazaré, 68908-170, Macapá, AP, Brasil.

Many plants are used in traditional medicine as active agents against various effects of snake bites. Phospholipase A2 enzymes are commonly found in venoms of snakes of the Viperidae and Elaphidae families, which are their main components. This article presents an overview of inhibitors isolated from plants, which show antiophidian properties. Read More

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[Overall pattern of accidents caused by poisonous animals in Colombia, 2006-2010].

Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2012 Oct;14(6):1005-13

Departamento de Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia,

Objective: This study was motivated as only partial knowledge is available (regarding national statistics) about accidents caused by poisonous animals in Colombia. The study was aimed at establishing a base-line concerning accidents reported by phone to the Toxicology Management and Research Information Centre (CIGITOX) from all over Colombia; such data was taken from the centre's data-base following its five years of being in operation(2006-2010).

Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective study, taking information from the CIGITOX database over a five-year period (2006-2010); Excel 2011was used for statistical analysis. Read More

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October 2012

[An overview on envenomings inflicted by the Common adder (Vipera berus) and their treatment in Hungary. Facts and beliefs -- part I].

Orv Hetil 2012 Jul;153(28):1092-105

Debreceni Egyetem Farmakognózia Részleg Debrecen.

Consequences of bites by the Common adder (Vipera berus) were reviewed in this study. Patients bitten by snakes from different populations may develop variable symptoms due to geographical venom variation. The correct diagnosis of snake bites and the knowledge of the distribution of venomous snake taxa have a crucial impact on snake bite therapy. Read More

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