28,646 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Mohave Rattle

The application of forensic proteomics to identify an unknown snake venom in a deceased toddler.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 May 4;323:110820. Epub 2021 May 4.

Michael Smith Laboratories and Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, 2185 E Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address:

Proteomics is the global analysis of proteins in a sample, and its methodologies are commonly applied in life science research. Despite its wide applicability however, proteomics is rarely used as a tool in criminal investigations. Here we present a case where the technique provided key evidence in a case that involved the death of a two-year old girl. Read More

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Scorpion Venom Antimicrobial Peptides Induce Siderophore Biosynthesis and Oxidative Stress Responses in Escherichia coli.

mSphere 2021 May 12;6(3). Epub 2021 May 12.

Biomolecular Sciences Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom

The increasing development of microbial resistance to classical antimicrobial agents has led to the search for novel antimicrobials. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from scorpion and snake venoms offer an attractive source for the development of novel therapeutics. Smp24 (24 amino acids [aa]) and Smp43 (43 aa) are broad-spectrum AMPs that have been identified from the venom gland of the Egyptian scorpion and subsequently characterized. Read More

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Nahua biocultural richness: an ethnoherpetological perspective.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2021 May 12;17(1):33. Epub 2021 May 12.

Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad, IIES, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro 8701, 58190, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

Background: Mexico harbours one of the greatest biocultural diversities of the world, where multiple social and natural elements and systems form complex networks of interactions in which both culture and nature are mutually influenced. Biocultural states and processes are studied by ethnosciences, among them ethnoherpetology, which seeks understanding material and non-material expressions of the interactions between humans, amphibians, and reptiles. Herpetofauna has been part of the magic-religious world and source of goods for Mesoamerican cultures. Read More

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The Occurrence of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Northern Georgia Wild and Captive Snake Populations.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

University of North Georgia, 82 College Circle, Dahlonega, Georgia 30597, USA.

Ophidiomycosis, or snake fungal disease, is an emerging wildlife disease caused by the Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola fungus. The fungus can result in high mortality rates among infected snakes and has been documented across much of the eastern US, including southern Georgia. However, little is known about ophidiomycosis in northern Georgia. Read More

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Multi-scale assessment of functional connectivity: Landscape genetics of eastern indigo snakes in an anthropogenically fragmented landscape in central Florida.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Environmental Conservation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.

Landscape features can strongly influence gene flow and the strength and direction of these effects may vary across spatial scales. However, few studies have evaluated methodological approaches for selecting spatial scales in landscape genetics analyses, in part because of computational challenges associated with optimizing landscape resistance surfaces (LRS). We used the federally threatened eastern indigo snake (Drymarchon couperi) in central Florida as a case study with which to compare the importance of landscape features and their scales-of-effect in influencing gene flow. Read More

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Sexual dimorphism and skull size and shape in the highly specialized snake species, (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae).

PeerJ 2021 20;9:e11311. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Comparative Anatomy, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.

Background: Snakes exhibit sexual dimorphism in both head size and shape. Such differences are often attributed to different reproductive roles and feeding habits. We aim to investigate how sexual dimorphism is displayed in the highly specialised fish-egg-eating snake, , by analysing two complementary features: body size and skull morphology. Read More

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Development and characterization of two equine formulations towards SARS-CoV-2 proteins for the potential treatment of COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 05 10;11(1):9825. Epub 2021 May 10.

Facultad de Microbiología, Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

In the current global emergency due to SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, passive immunotherapy emerges as a promising treatment for COVID-19. Among animal-derived products, equine formulations are still the cornerstone therapy for treating envenomations due to animal bites and stings. Therefore, drawing upon decades of experience in manufacturing snake antivenom, we developed and preclinically evaluated two anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal equine formulations as potential alternative therapy for COVID-19. Read More

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Tracking the recruitment and evolution of snake toxins using the evolutionary context provided by the genome.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Laboratório de Toxinologia Aplicada, Center of Toxins, Immune-Response and Cell Signaling, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo 05503-900, Brazil;

Venom is a key adaptive innovation in snakes, and how nonvenom genes were co-opted to become part of the toxin arsenal is a significant evolutionary question. While this process has been investigated through the phylogenetic reconstruction of toxin sequences, evidence provided by the genomic context of toxin genes remains less explored. To investigate the process of toxin recruitment, we sequenced the genome of , a clinically relevant pitviper. Read More

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A Quest for a Universal Plasma-Derived Antivenom Against All Elapid Neurotoxic Snake Venoms.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:668328. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

This review describes the research aimed at the development of universal antivenom against elapid neurotoxic snake venoms. The antivenoms produced in Thailand in the 1980s were of low potency, especially against the elapid venoms. This was thought to be due to the low immunogenicity of the α-neurotoxins, which are the most lethal toxins in these venoms. Read More

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Pediatric Snakebites: Comparing Patients in Two Geographic Locations in the United States.

J Surg Res 2021 May 6;265:297-302. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. Electronic address:

Background: Management of children with snakebites may vary based on subjective criteria, geographic, and climatic factors. We reviewed the incidence and management of snakebite injuries in children at two tertiary referral centers in separate geographic and climatic location to assess differences in management and outcomes of these patients.

Methods: After institutional review board approval, a retrospective chart review was performed for patients ≤18 years with snakebite injuries at emergency departments (ED) of two American College of Surgeons verified trauma centers (2006-2013). Read More

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[Management of snake venom spray to the eye].

J Fr Ophtalmol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Service d'ophtalmologie de l'hôpital d'instruction des Armées Omar Bongo Ondimba, BP 20404, Libreville, Gabon.

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[Effect of protein C activator from venom on early adaptive immune response of septic rats].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Apr;41(4):514-520

School of Pharmacy, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of protein C activator (PCA) from venom (AAV) in modulating early adaptive immune response of septic rats.

Objective: Rat models of sepsis were established by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg/kg) in 36 SD rats, which were divided into 6 groups (=6) for sample collection at 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h after LPS injection, with 6 rats injected with saline as the control group. Another 36 rats were divided into two groups, and 30 min after LPS injection, the rats were treated with SEW2871 (a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 agonist; 0. Read More

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Envenomation by the Spotted Harlequin Snake, Homoroselaps lacteus (Linnaeus) 1754 (Serpentes: Atractaspidinae).

Toxicon 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Harvey Ecological, Greendale Park, Howick, South Africa.

Two cases of envenomation from the small, semi-fossorial, front-fanged colubrid Homoroselaps lacteus are presented and the recent literature reviewed. In addition to local oedema and lymphadenopathy, the development of significant subcutaneous loco-regional bruising suggest that damage to capillary basement membrane and possibly other underlying anti-haemostatic effects may pertain to the clinical syndrome. Although local clinical effects may appear dramatic, due to the small volumes of venom that can be injected, it is considered that envenomation is unlikely to cause life-threatening effects. Read More

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Photoresponsive porous ZnO-based broad-spectrum venom first-aid treatment.

Biomater Sci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330088, China. and The National Engineering Research Center for Bioengineering Drugs and the Technologies: Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330088, China.

A venomous snakebite is an emergency. However, antivenoms are rare and very similar, difficult to produce and preserve, and almost impossible to be used for emergency treatment. Therefore, it would be of great significance to develop convenient, efficient and broad-spectrum snake venom neutralizing nano-materials. Read More

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Supervised Learning Computer Vision Benchmark for Snake Species Identification From Photographs: Implications for Herpetology and Global Health.

Front Artif Intell 2021 20;4:582110. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

We trained a computer vision algorithm to identify 45 species of snakes from photos and compared its performance to that of humans. Both human and algorithm performance is substantially better than randomly guessing (null probability of guessing correctly given 45 classes = 2.2%). Read More

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Evaluation of the merit of the methanolic extract of to supplement anti-snake venom in reversing secondary hemostatic abnormalities induced venom.

3 Biotech 2021 May 21;11(5):228. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka India.

Increasing evidence suggests a sizable involvement of hemotoxins in the morbidity associated with envenomation by the Indian spectacled cobra, (N.N). This study investigates the ability of Indian polyvalent anti-snake venom (ASV), methanolic extract of (MAP) and their combination in reversing the hemostatic abnormalities, viz. Read More

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Ecomorphological diversification of squamates in the Cretaceous.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201961. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK.

Squamates (lizards and snakes) are highly successful modern vertebrates, with over 10 000 species. Squamates have a long history, dating back to at least 240 million years ago (Ma), and showing increasing species richness in the Late Cretaceous (84 Ma) and Early Palaeogene (66-55 Ma). We confirm that the major expansion of dietary functional morphology happened before these diversifications, in the mid-Cretaceous, 110-90 Ma. Read More

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Remarkable intrapopulation venom variability in the monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia) unveils neglected aspects of India's snakebite problem.

J Proteomics 2021 May 4;242:104256. Epub 2021 May 4.

Evolutionary Venomics Lab, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

Interpopulation venom variation has been widely documented in snakes across large geographical distances. This variability is known to markedly influence the effectiveness of snakebite therapy, as antivenoms manufactured against one population may not be effective against others. In contrast, the extent of intrapopulation venom variability, especially at finer geographical scales, remains largely uninvestigated. Read More

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Toxicon research paper Structural and bioinformatic analyses of Azemiops venom serine proteases reveal close phylogeographic relationships to pitvipers from eastern China and the New World.

Toxicon 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Biological Chemistry,Academia Sinica,Taipei, Taiwan.

The semi-fossil and pit-less Azemiops feae is possibly the most primitive crotalid species. Here, we have cloned and sequenced cDNAs encoding four serine proteases (vSPs) from the venom glands of Chinese A. feae. Read More

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Paediatric cases of Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) bites and some similar looking non-venomous snakebites in Sri Lanka: misidentification and antivenom administration.

Toxicon 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) of the family Elapidae is a highly venomous endemic species inhabiting in the wet zone and some parts of the intermediate climatic zones of Sri Lanka. Clinical records of its bites are rare and limited to five case reports in the literature. It is of interest to note that there are several non-venomous snakes in Sri Lanka having similar morphological appearance to kraits causing identification difficulties which lead to unnecessary, unindicated administration of antivenom. Read More

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The Snake Pit: Mixing Marx with Freud in Hollywood.

Ben Harris

Hist Psychol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology.

In 1948, the motion picture was released to popular and critical acclaim. Directed by Anatole Litvak, the film told of the mental illness and recovery of one patient, who survived overcrowding and understaffing and was treated by a neo-Freudian psychiatrist known as Dr. Kik. Read More

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New aspects in snake venom toxicology.

Hermann M Bolt

Arch Toxicol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Ardeystr. 67, 44139, Dortmund, Germany.

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Saw-scaled viper envenoming complicated with acute myocardial infarction.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 10;9:2050313X211007705. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

National Hospital of Sri Lanka and Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

The saw-scaled viper () is considered to be a venomous snake which is especially seen in Northern Sri Lanka. Systemic manifestations are rare and reported complications include coagulopathy and renal impairment. The cardiac toxicity following snakebites is rare and cardiac involvement following the saw-scaled viper bites is extremely rare. Read More

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Clinico-epidemiology of Hypnale zara (hump-nosed pit viper) envenoming in Sri Lanka.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Background: Hump-nosed vipers of the genus Hypnale are the most common cause of venomous snakebites in Sri Lanka. The genus includes three species: Hypnale hypnale, Hypnale zara and Hypnale nepa. Of them, H. Read More

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Three-Finger Toxins from Brazilian Coral Snakes: From Molecular Framework to Insights in Biological Function.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratório de Hemostase e Venenos-Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Leopoldo de Meis (IBqM) and Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagem (Inbeb)-Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil.

Studies on 3FTxs around the world are showing the amazing diversity in these proteins both in structure and function. In Brazil, we have not realized the broad variety of their amino acid sequences and probable diversified structures and targets. In this context, this work aims to conduct an in silico systematic study on available 3FTxs found in Micrurus species from Brazil. Read More

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Assessment of pharmacological activities of Lygodium microphyllum Cav. leaves in the management of pain, inflammation, pyrexia, diarrhea, and helminths: In vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 1;139:111644. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.

Lygodium microphyllum Cav. (Family: Lygodiaceae) is a perennial, snake fern and an invasive weed in Florida and also known as old world climbing fern. This study is intended to evaluate the antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of Lygodium microphyllum Cav. Read More

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Successful and unsuccessful nonsurgical removal of ingested golf balls and an artificial egg in four rat snakes ().

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021 May;258(10):1135-1141

Case Description: 4 wild adult rat snakes () were evaluated after ingesting spherical or ovoid foreign bodies.

Clinical Findings: Physical examination revealed a large, firm mass at the level of the stomach in each snake. Radiographic findings were consistent with ingestion of a golf ball (3 snakes) or an artificial egg (1 snake). Read More

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Bacterial infection secondary to Trimeresurus species bites: A retrospective cohort study in a university hospital in Bangkok.

Emerg Med Australas 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objectives: Trimeresurus spp. (green pit viper [GPV]) inhabit several Southeast Asian countries. They account for more than 90% of snake envenomations in Bangkok. Read More

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How Mitonuclear Discordance and Geographic Variation Have Confounded Species Boundaries in a Widely Studied Snake.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Apr 30:107194. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 USA.

As DNA sequencing technologies and methods for delimiting species with genomic data become more accessible and numerous, researchers have more tools than ever to investigate questions in systematics and phylogeography. However, easy access to sophisticated computational tools is not without its drawbacks. Choosing the right approach for one's question can be challenging when presented with multitudinous options, some of which fail to distinguish between species and intraspecific population structure. Read More

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Hesperetin as an inhibitor of the snake venom serine protease from Bothrops jararaca.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 30;198:64-72. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Biological Chemistry Laboratory, Organic Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

The majority (90%) of the snakebite envenomation in Brazil accounts for Bothrops from the Viperidae family. Some snake venom serine proteases provoke blood coagulation in ophidian accident victims because of their fibrinolytic activity, one of those proteases from Bothrops jararaca (B. jararaca) has been chosen for this study. Read More

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