100 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Coral


Unveiling toxicological aspects of venom from the Aesculapian False Coral Snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii.

Toxicon 2019 Apr 15;164:71-81. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto Nacional de Medicina Tropical (INMeT), Neuquén y Jujuy s/n, 3370, Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. Electronic address:

Most colubrid snake venoms have been poorly studied, despite the fact that they represent a great resource for biological, ecological, toxinological and pharmacological research. Herein, we explore the venom delivery system of the Aesculapian False Coral Snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii as well as some biochemical and toxicological properties of its venom. Its Duvernoy's venom gland is composed of serous secretory cells arranged in densely packed secretory tubules, and the most striking feature of its fang is their double-curved shape, exhibiting a beveled bladelike appearance near the tips. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.04.007DOI Listing

New insights into the phylogeographic distribution of the 3FTx/PLA venom dichotomy across genus Micrurus in South America.

J Proteomics 2019 May 1;200:90-101. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Evolutionary and Translational Venomics Laboratory, CSIC, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Micrurus is a monophyletic genus of venomous coral snakes of the family Elapidae. The ~80 recognized species within this genus are endemic to the Americas, and are distributed from southeastern United States to northern Argentina. Although relatively few bites are recorded due to their reclusive nature, semi-fossorial habits, and their occurrence in sparsely populated areas, coral snakes possess powerful venoms that target the cholinergic system and, if early treatment is missed, can cause neuromuscular paralysis, respiratory failure, and death by asphyxiation within hours of envenoming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2019.03.014DOI Listing
May 2019
4 Reads

Use of infrared thermography in a case of systemic envenomation by the coral snake Micrurus frontalis (Duméril et al., 1854) in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Toxicon 2019 May 21;163:70-73. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Laboratório de Herpetologia, Instituto Butantan, Av. Dr. Vital Brasil 1500, 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Infrared thermography is a technique that quantifies the thermal (infrared) radiation emitted by an object and produces a high-resolution, digital thermal image of it. Medically, this technique is used to visualize the body's surface temperature distribution in a non-invasive, safe, and convenient fashion. However, to the best of our knowledge, the use of infrared thermography for assessing the systemic effects of envenomation by coral snakes has not been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.03.016DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Snake Eyes: Coral Snake Neurotoxicity Associated With Ocular Absorption of Venom and Successful Treatment With Exotic Antivenom.

J Emerg Med 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Baylor Scott and White Medical Center - Temple, Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, Texas.

Background: Coral snake bites from Micrurus fulvius and Micrurus tener account for < 1% of all snake bites in North America. Coral snake envenomation may cause significant neurotoxicity, including respiratory insufficiency, and its onset may be delayed up to 13 h.

Case Report: We present a unique patient encounter of M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2019.01.019DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Antivenom effect on lymphatic absorption and pharmacokinetics of coral snake venom using a large animal model.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Feb 18:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

a Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioprocesos , Instituto de Biotecnología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , Cuernavaca , México.

Context: Historically, administration and dosing of antivenom (AV) have been guided primarily by physician judgment because of incomplete understanding of the envenomation process. As demonstrated previously, lymphatic absorption plays a major role in the availability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of coral snake venom injected subcutaneously, which suggests that absorption from subcutaneous tissue is the limiting step for venom bioavailability, supporting the notion that the bite site is an ongoing venom depot. This feature may underlie the recurrence phenomena reported in viperid envenomation that appear to result from a mismatch between venom and AV PK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1550199DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Neurotoxic envenomation by the South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus): A case report.

Toxicon 2019 Mar 17;159:38-40. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Iroquois Building Suite 400, 3600 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

The South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus, Elapidae) has not previously been reported to cause any neurotoxic envenomations in humans. We recently treated a 44-year-old man who was bitten twice, once in each hand, by a captive South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus) while feeding the female snake who had recently laid eggs. Approximately one hour after receiving the bite, he developed vomiting, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and paralysis of the bulbar and upper extremity muscles, with retention of voluntary motor control in the lower extremities. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.01.001DOI Listing
March 2019
17 Reads

Factors that can influence the survival rates of coral snakes (Micrurus corallinus) for antivenom production.

J Anim Sci 2019 Feb;97(2):972-980

Laboratório de Herpetologia do Instituto Butantan, CEP, São Paulo, Brazil.

Envenoming and deaths resulting from snakebites are a particularly important public health problem in rural tropical areas of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and New Guinea. In 2015, The Lancet highlighted snake-bite envenoming as a neglected tropical disease and urged the world to increase antivenom production. In Brazil, around 20,000 snakebites occur per year affecting mostly agricultural workers and children, of which 1% is caused by coral snakes (Micrurus sp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358253PMC
February 2019

Defining the pathogenic threat of envenoming by South African shield-nosed and coral snakes (genus Aspidelaps), and revealing the likely efficacy of available antivenom.

J Proteomics 2019 Apr 2;198:186-198. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Parasitology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK. Electronic address:

While envenoming by the southern African shield-nosed or coral snakes (genus Aspidelaps) has caused fatalities, bites are uncommon. Consequently, this venom is not used in the mixture of snake venoms used to immunise horses for the manufacture of regional SAIMR (South African Institute for Medical Research) polyvalent antivenom. Aspidelaps species are even excluded from the manufacturer's list of venomous snakes that can be treated by this highly effective product. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18743919183036
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2018.09.019DOI Listing
April 2019
28 Reads

First Case Report of a Near Lethal Envenomation by a (Solomons Coral Snake) in the Solomon Islands.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Aug 21;3(3). Epub 2018 Aug 21.

RN Kantonspital Basel 4031, Switzerland.

Venomous snake bites in the Solomon Islands can be very dangerous due to lack of access to health care. There are no documented case reports of envenomation by snake bites in the Solomon Islands. This case report highlights the management of a patient with potentially lethal neurotoxicity secondary to a (Solomons coral snake) in a low resource setting. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2414-6366/3/3/90
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161246PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

Points & Pearls: Emergency department management of North American snake envenomations

Emerg Med Pract 2018 Sep 1;20(19 Suppl):1-2. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY

There are approximately 10,000 emergency department visits in the United States for snakebites every year, and one-third of those involve venomous species. Venomous North American indigenous snakes include species from the Crotalinae (pit vipers) and Elapidae (coral snakes) subfamilies. Treatment relies on supportive care, plus antivenom for select cases. Read More

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September 2018
11 Reads

Emergency department management of North American snake envenomations.

Emerg Med Pract 2018 Sep 1;20(9):1-26. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Emergency Medicine/Clinical Toxicology Fellow, Florida Poison Information Center at Jacksonville, University of Florida Health, Jacksonville, FL.

There are approximately 10,000 emergency department visits in the United States for snakebites every year, and one-third of those involve venomous species. Venomous North American indigenous snakes include species from the Crotalinae (pit vipers) and Elapidae (coral snakes) subfamilies. Treatment relies on supportive care, plus antivenom for select cases. Read More

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September 2018
16 Reads

True or false coral snake: is it worth the risk? A case report.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2018 10;24:10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

2Laboratory of Pharmacology of Toxins, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brazil.

Background: Bites provoked by the genus represent less than 1% of snakebite cases notified in Brazil, a tiny fraction compared with other genus such as and , which together represent almost 80% of accidents. In addition to their less aggressive behavior, habits and morphology of coral snakes are determinant factors for such low incidence of accidents. Although bites are rare, victims must be rescued and hospitalized in a short period of time, because this type of envenoming may evolve to a progressive muscle weakness and acute respiratory failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40409-018-0148-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894131PMC
April 2018
4 Reads

Cloning and sequencing of three-finger toxins from the venom glands of four Micrurus species from Mexico and heterologous expression of an alpha-neurotoxin from Micrurus diastema.

Biochimie 2018 Apr 31;147:114-121. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad # 2001, Colonia Chamilpa, CP: 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Electronic address:

The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) represent an extremely diverse protein family in elapid venoms, where the short chain α-neurotoxins are the most relevant toxin group from the clinical point of view. Essentially, the 3FTxs variability and the low proportions of α-neurotoxins in the venoms of North American coral snakes make it difficult to obtain effective elapid antivenoms against the envenomation symptoms caused mainly by these α-neurotoxins. In this work, thirty 3FTx transcript sequences were obtained from the venom glands of four coral snake species from Mexico (M. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03009084183002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2018.01.006DOI Listing
April 2018
7 Reads

Snakebite by Micrurus averyi (Schmidt, 1939) in the Brazilian Amazon basin: Case report.

Toxicon 2018 Jan 24;141:51-54. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Escola Superior de Saúde, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Carlos Borborema, Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

Micrurus snakes, commonly known as coral snakes, are responsible for 0.4% of the snakebites envenomings in Brazil. In this report, we describe a case of envenoming by Micrurus averyi, the black-headed coral snake, recorded in the western Brazilian Amazon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.11.012DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

Neurogenic mediators contribute to local edema induced by Micrurus lemniscatus venom.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 21;11(11):e0005874. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Butantan Institute, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background/aims: Micrurus is one of the four snake genera of medical importance in Brazil. Coral snakes have a broad geographic distribution from the southern United States to Argentina. Micrurine envenomation is characterized by neurotoxic symptoms leading to dyspnea and death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5716551PMC
November 2017
16 Reads

Envenomation by Micrurus psyches in French Guiana.

Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2017 Oct 14;110(4):276-280. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Département de biologie médicale, hôpital d'instruction des armées Bégin, 94300, Saint-Mandé, France.

We report here the first known envenomation by Micrurus psyches, the so-called Carib coral snake, which occurred on April 2016 in the surroundings of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Western French Guiana. Besides local neurological symptoms, it featured unexpected electrocardiogram changes, which were emergence of a first-degree atrioventricular block and biphasic T waves, both transient. NewWorld elapid venoms were not known for being cardiotoxic so far. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13149-017-0567-9DOI Listing
October 2017
4 Reads

Molecular cloning and structural modelling of gamma-phospholipase A inhibitors from Bothrops atrox and Micrurus lemniscatus snakes.

Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Oct 18;103:525-532. Epub 2017 May 18.

Centro de Estudos de Biomoléculas Aplicadas a Saúde, CEBio, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Fiocruz Rondônia and Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Rondônia, UNIR, 76812-245 Porto Velho, RO, Brazil; Centro Universitário São Lucas, UNISL, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil. Electronic address:

Phospholipases A inhibitors (PLIs) produced by venomous and non-venomous snakes play essential role in this resistance. These endogenous inhibitors may be classified by their fold in PLIα, PLIβ and PLIγ. Phospholipases A (PLAs) develop myonecrosis in snake envenomation, a consequence that is not efficiently neutralized by antivenom treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.05.076DOI Listing
October 2017
33 Reads

North American Snake Envenomation.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2017 May;35(2):339-354

Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, UC San Diego Health, 200 West Arbor Drive # 8676, San Diego, CA 92103, USA.

Native US snakes that produce clinically significant envenomation can be divided into 2 groups, crotalids and elapids. The crotalids include rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, and copperheads. Crotalid envenomation can result in significant local tissue damage as well as thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emc.2016.12.003DOI Listing
May 2017
6 Reads

Primary structures and partial toxicological characterization of two phospholipases A from Micrurus mipartitus and Micrurus dumerilii coral snake venoms.

Biochimie 2017 Jun 14;137:88-98. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Snake venom phospholipases A (PLA) share high sequence identities and a conserved structural scaffold, but show important functional differences. Only a few PLAs have been purified and characterized from coral snake (Micrurus spp.) venoms, and their role in envenomation remains largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2017.03.008DOI Listing
June 2017
2 Reads

Envenomation by the red-tailed coral snake () in Colombia.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2017 14;23. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

Background: Although the red-tailed coral snake () is widely distributed in Colombia and its venom is highly neurotoxic and life threatening, envenomation by this species is rare. Therefore, this report may shed some light on the clinical presentation of bites.

Case Presentations: Herein, we describe two cases of patients bitten by red-tailed coral snakes, illustrating the clinical presentation of the victims, the outcomes and treatment provided. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40409-017-0100-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5307858PMC
February 2017

Heterologous expression, protein folding and antibody recognition of a neurotoxin from the Mexican coral snake Micrurus laticorallis.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2016 9;22(1):25. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Av. Universidad 2001, Cuernavaca, 62210 Morelos Mexico.

Background: The cysteine-rich neurotoxins from elapid venoms are primarily responsible for human and animal envenomation; however, their low concentration in the venom may hamper the production of efficient elapid antivenoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce fully active elapid neurotoxic immunogens for elapid antivenom production.

Method: Cysteine-rich neurotoxins showed recombinant expression in two strains of E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40409-016-0080-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5017122PMC
September 2016
22 Reads

Cross neutralization of coral snake venoms by commercial Australian snake antivenoms.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Jan 5;55(1):33-39. Epub 2016 Sep 5.

f Centro de Biotecnologia , IPEN , São Paulo , Brazil.

Context: Although rare, coral snake envenomation is a serious health threat in Brazil, because of the highly neurotoxic venom and the scarcely available antivenom. The major bottleneck for antivenom production is the low availability of venom. Furthermore, the available serum is not effective against all coral snake species found in Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2016.1222615DOI Listing
January 2017
17 Reads

Micrurus snake species: Venom immunogenicity, antiserum cross-reactivity and neutralization potential.

Toxicon 2016 Jul 1;117:59-68. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Laboratório de Imunoquímica, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Micrurus snakebites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest a few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for these snake envenomations is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom. In Brazil, this antivenom is produced from horses that are immunized with a mixture of Micrurus corallinus and Micrurus frontalis venoms, which are snakes that inhabit the south and southeastern regions of the country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.03.020DOI Listing
July 2016
13 Reads

A Heterologous Multiepitope DNA Prime/Recombinant Protein Boost Immunisation Strategy for the Development of an Antiserum against Micrurus corallinus (Coral Snake) Venom.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Mar 3;10(3):e0004484. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

Centro de Biotecnologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Envenoming by coral snakes (Elapidae: Micrurus), although not abundant, represent a serious health threat in the Americas, especially because antivenoms are scarce. The development of adequate amounts of antielapidic serum for the treatment of accidents caused by snakes like Micrurus corallinus is a challenging task due to characteristics such as low venom yield, fossorial habit, relatively small sizes and ophiophagous diet. These features make it difficult to capture and keep these snakes in captivity for venom collection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4777291PMC
March 2016
12 Reads

Coral snake bites (Micrurus spp.) in Brazil: a review of literature reports.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2016 Mar 25;54(3):222-34. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

a Campinas Poison Control Center, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) , Campinas , São Paulo , Brazil ;

Context: In the Americas, the main representatives of the family Elapidae are coral snakes of the genus Micrurus, of which 33 species are in Brazil. They are the smallest cause of venomous snakebite in Brazil. We analyzed literature reports of coral snake bites in Brazil from 1867 to 2014, and provide a brief review of case series and reports of coral snake bites in the Americas in general. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2015.1135337DOI Listing
March 2016
9 Reads

Unveiling the elusive and exotic: Venomics of the Malayan blue coral snake (Calliophis bivirgata flaviceps).

J Proteomics 2016 Jan 17;132:1-12. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Unlabelled: The venom proteome of the Malayan blue coral snake, Calliophis bivirgata flaviceps from west Malaysia was investigated by 1D-SDS-PAGE and shotgun-LCMS/MS. A total of 23 proteins belonging to 11 protein families were detected from the venom proteome. For the toxin proteins, the venom consists mainly of phospholipase A2 (41. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2015.11.014DOI Listing
January 2016
6 Reads

Efficacy of Trypsin in Treating Coral Snake Envenomation in the Porcine Model.

J Med Toxicol 2015 Dec;11(4):430-2

Department of Emergency Medicine, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, 600 Moye Boulevard, Room 3ED311, Greenville, NC, 27834, USA.

Antivenom is the definitive treatment for venomous snakebites. Alternative treatments warrant investigation because antivenom is sometimes unavailable, expensive, and can have deleterious side effects. This study assesses the efficacy of trypsin to treat coral snake envenomation in an in vivo porcine model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-015-0468-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4675609PMC
December 2015
4 Reads

Identification and characterization of B-cell epitopes of 3FTx and PLA(2) toxins from Micrurus corallinus snake venom.

Toxicon 2015 Jan 29;93:51-60. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address:

The main goal of this work was to develop a strategy to identify B-cell epitopes on four different three finger toxins (3FTX) and one phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Micrurus corallinus snake venom. 3FTx and PLA2 are highly abundant components in Elapidic venoms and are the major responsibles for the toxicity observed in envenomation by coral snakes. Overlapping peptides from the sequence of each toxin were prepared by SPOT method and three different anti-elapidic sera were used to map the epitopes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.10.015DOI Listing
January 2015
1 Read

Long-term efficacy of pressure immobilization bandages in a porcine model of coral snake envenomation.

Am J Emerg Med 2014 Sep 12;32(9):1024-6. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville NC. Electronic address:

Background: Pressure immobilization bandages delay mortality for 8 hours after coral snake envenomation, but long-term efficacy has not been established.

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the long-term efficacy of pressure immobilization bandages after coral snake envenomation in the absence of antivenom therapy.

Methods: A randomized, observational pilot study was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2014.06.002DOI Listing
September 2014
11 Reads

Coral snake bites and envenomation in children: a case series.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2014 Apr;30(4):262-5

From the Division of Critical Care Medicine, Miami Children's Hospital, Miami, FL.

Objective: North America is home to 2 families of venomous snakes, Crotalinae (pit viper family) and Elapidae (coral snake family). Although there are several published reports describing and reviewing the management of pit viper snakebites in children, there are no recent similar publications detailing the clinical course and management of coral snake envenomation.

Methods: Our case series describes the hospital course of children with coral snake bites admitted to our regional pediatric intensive care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000000109DOI Listing
April 2014
6 Reads
0.923 Impact Factor

Epidemiology of snakebite and use of antivenom in Argentina.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2014 May 11;108(5):269-76. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Departamento de Vacunas y Sueros, INPB-ANLIS 'Dr Carlos G. Malbrán', Ministerio de Salud, Argentina.

Background: The incidence and case fatality rate of snakebite in Argentina are poorly known.

Methods: The authors used questionnaires provided with antivenoms by the primary manufacturer of anti-venoms in Argentina.

Results: A total of 8083 completed questionnaires was collected between 1978 and 1998. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/tru038DOI Listing
May 2014
4 Reads

Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius venom toxicity in mice is mainly determined by neurotoxic phospholipases A2.

J Proteomics 2014 Jun 5;105:295-306. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad # 2001, Colonia Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, México. Electronic address:

Unlabelled: Here we show for the first time that the venom from an elapid (Micrurus fulvius) contains three finger toxin (3FTxs) peptides with low toxicity but high content of lethal phospholipases A2 (PLA2). The intravenous venom LD50 in mice was 0.3μg/g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2014.02.027DOI Listing
June 2014
8 Reads

Biochemical characterization of the venom of the coral snake Micrurus tener and comparative biological activities in the mouse and a reptile model.

Toxicon 2014 Jan 23;77:6-15. Epub 2013 Oct 23.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad # 2001, Colonia Chamilpa, CP: 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to identify the venom components that could play a relevant role during envenomation caused by the coral snake Micrurus tener, through its biochemical characterization as well as the analysis of its effects on a murine model. Furthermore, it aimed to evaluate crude venom, in addition to its components, for possible specificity of action on a natural prey model (Conopsis lineata). The toxicity of the crude venom (delivered subcutaneously) showed a significant difference between the Median Lethal Dose (LD₅₀) in mice (4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.10.005DOI Listing
January 2014
2 Reads

Keeping venomous snakes in the Netherlands: a harmless hobby or a public health threat?

Neth J Med 2013 Oct;71(8):437-41

Internist at the Havenziekenhuis and the Institute of Tropical Diseases and the Travel Clinic, Havenziekenhuis, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: To describe the incidence of venomous snakebites and the hospital treatment thereof (if any) amongst private individuals who keep venomous snakes as a hobby.

Structure: Descriptive study.

Method: Private keepers of venomous snakes were invited via the social media Facebook, Hyves, Twitter, Google Plus, Linked In and two large discussion forums to fill in an online questionnaire on a purely voluntary and anonymous basis. Read More

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October 2013
1 Read

Review of Eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius fulvius) exposures managed by the Florida Poison Information Center Network: 1998-2010.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2013 Sep-Oct;51(8):783-8. Epub 2013 Aug 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Nemours Children's Hospital , Orlando, FL , USA.

Context: Envenomation by the Eastern coral snake is rare but may be associated with significant morbidity. While effective, acquisition of North American Coral Snake Antivenin (NACSAV) is difficult because production was discontinued for many years.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to characterize coral snake exposures in Florida and determine the effects of varying treatment paradigms on patient outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2013.828841DOI Listing
November 2013
1 Read

Envenoming by coral snakes (Micrurus) in Argentina, during the period between 1979-2003.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2013 Jan-Feb;55(1):13-8

Laboratorio de Toxinopatología, Centro de Patología Experimental y Aplicada, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, CABA, Argentina.

Envenomation by coral snakes (Micrurus sp.) is one of the most dangerous injuries in America and it is considered as a serious medical emergency, however bites by these snakes appear to be rare. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical signs and antivenom use in Argentina during the period between 1979-2003. Read More

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June 2013
2 Reads

A retrospective evaluation of coral snake envenomation in dogs and cats: 20 cases (1996-2011).

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2012 Dec 15;22(6):682-9. Epub 2012 Nov 15.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Objective: To describe the clinical signs, treatment, and outcomes of dogs and cats following envenomation by the eastern coral snake and to report our clinical experience with the use of Coralmyn.

Design: Retrospective study (1996-2011).

Setting: University teaching hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-4431.2012.00806.xDOI Listing
December 2012
4 Reads

Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins.

BMC Immunol 2012 Jan 16;13. Epub 2012 Jan 16.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, Av, Vital Brazil, 1500, São Paulo, 05503-900, Brazil.

Background: The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae), comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2172-13-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3398285PMC
January 2012

Venomous snakebites.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2011 18;47(8):461-7. Epub 2011 Nov 18.

Department of Intensive Care, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eivenių 2, 50028 Kaunas, Lithuania.

More than 5 million people are bitten by venomous snakes annually and more than 100,000 of them die. In Europe, one person dies due to envenomation every 3 years. There is only one venomous snake species in Lithuania--the common adder (Vipera berus)--which belongs to the Viperidae family; however, there are some exotic poisonous snakes in the zoos and private collections, such as those belonging to the Elapidae family (cobras, mambas, coral snakes, etc. Read More

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February 2012
7 Reads

Recognizing dangerous snakes in the United States and Canada: a novel 3-step identification method.

Wilderness Environ Med 2011 Dec 1;22(4):304-8. Epub 2011 Oct 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA.

The rapid and accurate recognition of dangerously venomous snakes following bites is crucial to making appropriate decisions regarding first aid, evacuation, and treatment. Past recommendations for identification of dangerous North American pit vipers have often required subjective determinations of head shape or relied on traits shared with some nondangerous species (elliptical pupils and undivided subcaudal scales). Heat-sensitive facial pits are diagnostic but require close examination of the dangerous head, and cephalic traits are useless when working with a decapitated carcass. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2011.07.001DOI Listing
December 2011
1 Read

Current management of copperhead snakebite.

J Am Coll Surg 2011 Apr;212(4):470-4; discussion 474-5

East Texas Medical Center, Crockett, Texas 75835, USA.

Background: Several thousand snakebites occur annually in the US, but fewer than 10 deaths occur. Most deaths are from envenomations by rattlesnakes (Crotalus species), but deaths from copperhead and water moccasin (Agkistrodon species) are rare.

Study Design: All snakebites presented to East Texas Medical Center, Crockett, a level III trauma center, from 1995 to 2010 were reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2010.12.049DOI Listing
April 2011
3 Reads

Envenomation by Micrurus coral snakes in the Brazilian Amazon region: report of two cases.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2010 Nov-Dec;52(6):333-7

Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Universidade Federal do Pará, Brazil.

Two cases of proven coral snake bites were reported in Belém, Pará State, Brazil. The first case was a severe one caused by Micrurus surinamensis. The patient required mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure. Read More

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August 2011
4 Reads

A localizing circumferential compression device increases survival after coral snake envenomation to the torso of an animal model.

J Emerg Med 2011 Jul 26;41(1):102-7. Epub 2010 May 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Pressure immobilization bandages have been shown to delay onset of systemic toxicity after Eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius) envenomation to the distal extremity.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of a novel compression device in delaying onset of systemic toxicity after truncal envenomations with Eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius) venom in a porcine model.

Methods: With University approval, nine juvenile pigs (11 kg to 22 kg) were sedated, anesthetized, and intubated but not paralyzed to ensure continuous spontaneous respirations in a university animal laboratory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2010.04.027DOI Listing
July 2011
3 Reads

A localizing circumferential compression device delayed death after artificial eastern diamondback rattlesnake envenomation to the torso of an animal model in a pilot study.

J Med Toxicol 2010 Jun;6(2):207-11

Department of Emergency Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.

Nearly all prior studies to delay onset of systemic toxicity and death after snake bite use a model of distal extremity envenomation. In the first of a series of planned studies using snake venoms with different toxicity profiles, the application of a novel device in a new model of torso envenomation in the setting of Eastern Coral Snake (Micrurus fulvius) venom (a potent neurotoxin) envenomation showed promise by delaying systemic intoxication. In this pilot study, we investigated this novel localizing circumferential compression (LoCC) device's ability to delay onset of life threatening systemic toxicity after Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) envenomation, a potent hemotoxic and myotoxic venom. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13181-010-0050-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-010-0050-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3550285PMC
June 2010
4 Reads

Frontoxins, three-finger toxins from Micrurus frontalis venom, decrease miniature endplate potential amplitude at frog neuromuscular junction.

Toxicon 2010 Aug 21;56(1):55-63. Epub 2010 Mar 21.

Universidade de Brasília - Pós-graduação em Biologia Animal, Brasília-DF, Brazil.

Neurotoxicity is a major symptom of envenomation caused by Brazilian coral snake Micrurus frontalis. Due to the small amount of material that can be collected, no neurotoxin has been fully sequenced from this venom. In this work we report six new three-finger like toxins isolated from the venom of the coral snake M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2010.02.030DOI Listing

Diversity of Micrurus snake species related to their venom toxic effects and the prospective of antivenom neutralization.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010 Mar 9;4(3):e622. Epub 2010 Mar 9.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest, few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for coral snake envenomation is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom and, in Brazil, it is produced by horse immunization with a mixture of M. corallinus and M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2834742PMC

Temporal analyses of coral snakebite severity published in the American Association of Poison Control Centers' Annual Reports from 1983 through 2007.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2010 Jan;48(1):72-8

Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Introduction: The only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved coral snake antivenom was officially discontinued in 2007, causing ever-diminishing supplies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650903430944DOI Listing
January 2010
9 Reads
1 Citation
3.122 Impact Factor

Envenomations: an overview of clinical toxinology for the primary care physician.

Am Fam Physician 2009 Oct;80(8):793-802

Women's and Children's Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

About 4,000 to 6,000 venomous snakebites occur each year in the United States. Although these envenomations (also known as envenomings) are rarely fatal, about 70 percent require antivenom therapy. Few evidence-based guidelines are available for the management of envenomation. Read More

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October 2009
4 Reads

Death following coral snake bite in the United States--first documented case (with ELISA confirmation of envenomation) in over 40 years.

Toxicon 2009 May;53(6):693-7

Department of Surgery, Stanford University, 701 Welch Rd, Suite C, Palo Alto, CA 94304-5777, USA.

We report the first documented death due to a coral snake (Micrurus species) in the United States (U.S.) in over 40 years. Read More

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May 2009
2 Reads

AAPCC database characterization of native U.S. venomous snake exposures, 2001-2005.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2009 Apr;47(4):327-35

New Mexico Poison and Drug Information Center, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA.

Background: Differences in victim demographics, clinical effects, managements, and outcomes among native viperid (rattlesnake, copperhead, and cottonmouth) and elapid (coral snake) species have not been systematically characterized.

Methods: The database of the American Association of Poison Control Centers from 2001 through 2005 was analyzed.

Results: Between 2001 and 2005, there were 23,676 human exposures (average = 4,735/year) to native venomous snakes in the United States reported to U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650902870277DOI Listing
April 2009
1 Read