792 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Cobra


Protective effects of novel diazepinone derivatives in snake venom induced sterile inflammation in experimental animals.

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 Jun 18:175095. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Snake envenomation leads to the formation of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are mediated by endogenous intracellular molecules. These are recognized by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and can induce sterile inflammation.

Aims: In the present study, we aim at understanding the mechanisms involved in DAMPs induced sterile inflammation to unravel the novel therapeutic strategies for treating snake bites. Read More

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Developing a computational pharmacokinetic model of systemic snakebite envenomation and antivenom treatment.

Toxicon 2022 Jun 15;215:77-90. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Engineering Mathematics, Ada Lovelace Building, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TW, UK. Electronic address:

Snakebite envenomation is responsible for over 100,000 deaths and 400,000 cases of disability annually, most of which are preventable through access to safe and effective antivenoms. Snake venom toxins span a wide molecular weight range, influencing their absorption, distribution, and elimination within the body. In recent years, a range of scaffolds have been applied to antivenom development. Read More

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discovery of a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes lethality of cobra snake venom.

MAbs 2022 Jan-Dec;14(1):2085536

IONTAS Ltd .; Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom.

The monocled cobra () is among the most feared snakes in Southeast Asia due to its toxicity, which is predominantly derived from long-chain α-neurotoxins. The only specific treatment for snakebite envenoming is antivenom based on animal-derived polyclonal antibodies. Despite the lifesaving importance of these medicines, major limitations in safety, supply consistency, and efficacy create a need for improved treatments. Read More

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Immunogenicity of snake α-neurotoxins and the CD4 T cell epitopes.

Toxicon 2022 Jul 21;214:136-144. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. Electronic address:

Snakebite envenomation is an important medical problem in numerous parts of the world causing about 2.7 million envenomations and between 81,000 and 138,000 deaths ayear. Antivenoms (AVs) are time proven effective therapeutics for snakebite envenomation. Read More

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Bacterial Adaptation to Venom in Snakes and Arachnida.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jun 23;10(3):e0240821. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom.

Animal venoms are considered sterile sources of antimicrobial compounds with strong membrane-disrupting activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, venomous bite wound infections are common in developing nations. Investigating the envenomation organ and venom microbiota of five snake and two spider species, we observed venom community structures that depend on the host venomous animal species and evidenced recovery of viable microorganisms from black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) and Indian ornamental tarantula (Poecilotheria regalis) venoms. Read More

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Evaluation of lethality and cytotoxic effects induced by (large brown spitting cobra) venom and the envenomation-neutralizing efficacy of selected commercial antivenoms in Kenya.

Toxicon X 2022 Jun 4;14:100125. Epub 2022 May 4.

Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Neutralization of lethality in mice model at the preclinical level has been established by the World Health Organization as the gold standard for the evaluation of antivenom efficacy. The assessment of the neutralization profiles of antivenoms helps to discern the efficacy or otherwise of these antivenoms at neutralizing the toxic effects induced by medically significant snake venoms. However, for many antivenoms, information on their preclinical efficacy remains limited. Read More

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Malayan kraits (Bungarus candidus) show affinity to anthropogenic structures in a human dominated landscape.

Sci Rep 2022 05 3;12(1):7139. Epub 2022 May 3.

School of Biology, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Muang Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000, Thailand.

Animal movement can impact human-wildlife conflict by influencing encounter and detection rates. We assess the movement and space use of the highly venomous and medically important Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) on a suburban university campus. We radio-tracked 14 kraits for an average of 114 days (min: 19, max: 218), during which we located individuals an average of 106 times (min: 21, max: 229) each. Read More

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Development and Characterization of Anti- Three-Finger Toxins (3FTxs)-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies and Evaluation of Their In Vitro Inhibition Activity.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 04 16;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.

Antivenom immunotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for snakebite envenoming. Most parts of the world affected by snakebite envenoming depend on broad-spectrum polyspecific antivenoms that are known to contain a low content of case-specific efficacious immunoglobulins. Thus, advances in toxin-specific antibodies production hold much promise in future therapeutic strategies of snakebite envenoming. Read More

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The Effect of Australian and Asian Commercial Antivenoms in Reversing the Post-Synaptic Neurotoxicity of , and Venoms In Vitro.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 04 13;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

Despite antivenoms being the only established specific treatment for neuromuscular paralysis arising from snake envenoming, their ability to reverse the post-synaptic neurotoxicity in snake envenoming is poorly understood. We investigated the ability of five commercial antivenoms i.e. Read More

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Anti-Neurotoxins from in the Development of Coral Snake Antivenoms.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 04 9;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Grupo de Investigación en Toxinología, Alternativas Terapéuticas y Alimentarias, Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Alimentarias, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin 1226, Colombia.

In Colombia, the genus includes 30 species, of which and are the most widely distributed. causes less than 3% of the approximately 5000 cases of snakebite per year. The elapid envenomation caused by the snakes from the genus, are characterized by the severity of their clinical manifestations, due to the venom neurotoxic components such as three-finger toxins (3FTx) and phospholipases (PLA). Read More

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Preparation and Evaluation of a Horse Antiserum against the Venom of Sea Snake from Hainan, China.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 04 1;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Marine Biomedicine and Polar Medicine, Naval Characteristic Medical Center, Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Sea snake venom is extremely toxic, and it can induce severe respiratory failure and cause high mortality. The most effective first aid treatment for sea snake bites is to inject antivenom as soon as possible. However, in China, there are only four types of terrestrial snake antivenoms, none of which are effective in the treatment of sea snake bites. Read More

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Profiling the Murine Acute Phase and Inflammatory Responses to African Snake Venom: An Approach to Inform Acute Snakebite Pathology.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 03 22;14(4). Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Centre for Snakebite Research and Interventions, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.

Snake envenoming causes rapid systemic and local effects that often result in fatal or long-term disability outcomes. It seems likely that acute phase and inflammatory responses contribute to these haemorrhagic, coagulopathic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic and local tissue destructive pathologies. However, the contributory role of acute phase/inflammatory responses to envenoming is under-researched and poorly understood-particularly for envenoming by sub-Saharan African venomous snakes. Read More

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Use of geospatial analyses to address snakebite hotspots in mid-northern Brazil - A direction to health planning in shortfall biodiversity knowledge areas.

Toxicon 2022 Jul 4;213:43-51. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade, Ambiente e Saúde, Caxias, MA, 65604-380, Brazil; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Center and Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Box 461, SE-405-30, Göteborg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Knowing the distribution of venomous snakes of medical importance is essential to identify areas at risk for snakebites. Thus, we used an integrative approach based on the application of geographic distribution data of venomous snakes, species distribution modeling (SDM), spatial organization of snakebites, and information on human population density for mapping the potential distribution of snakes and identifying areas at risk of snakebites in the state of Maranhão (mid-northern Brazil). From a compiled database of venomous snake records deposited in biological collections and the literature, we predict the potential distribution of venomous snakes in Maranhão, a state whose diversity and geographic distribution of venomous snake species are poorly known. Read More

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Cobra envenomation in an elderly female mimicking brain death- A case report.

J Family Med Prim Care 2022 Jan 31;11(1):340-343. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Snake bite envenomation is one of the most toxicology-related cause that can mimic brain death. This is a case report of 73-year-old elderly female, a hypertensive on treatment, who presented with chief complaints of cobra snake bite on the dorsum of right hand. On admission, patient had dyspnea, bilateral ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. Read More

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January 2022

Dramatic neuromuscular paralysis following occult snakebites: An awareness for the primary care physician.

J Family Med Prim Care 2022 Jan 31;11(1):386-389. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Neurology, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

Neurotoxic snakebites are a common emergency in tropical countries and account for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Manifestations vary from mild ptosis and ophthalmoplegia to severe flaccid paralysis with ventilatory failure. At times, the neuromuscular paralysis may be severe enough for patients to be misdiagnosed as a locked-in syndrome or brain dead. Read More

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January 2022

Combined proteomic strategies for in-depth venomic analysis of the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus) from Songkhla Lake, Thailand.

J Proteomics 2022 05 10;259:104559. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Center of Excellence in Systems Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

This study focuses on comprehensive characterization of the venom proteome of the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus) from Songkhla Lake, Thailand. H. schistosus can be considered as the deadliest sea snake commonly found in the Pacific and Indian oceans. Read More

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Local Cytotoxic Effects in Cobra Envenoming: A Pilot Study.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 02 7;14(2). Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Division of Toxicology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan.

The cobra (genus ()) is one of the most common venomous snakes. Due to its frequency and deadly complications of muscle paralysis, local necrosis, and chronic musculoskeletal disability, it should not be ignored. The pathology of devastating tissue destruction, even though specific antivenoms exist, is not fully clear. Read More

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February 2022

Lance-Adams syndrome: An unusual complication of snakebite envenomation.

Toxicon 2022 Apr 12;209:50-55. Epub 2022 Feb 12.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital "12 de Octubre", Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Madrid, Spain; Department of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Neuroparalytic snakebite envenomation is common in tropics and sub-tropics. The clinical history is sometimes unclear and misleading, leading to delay in diagnosis and initiation of life-saving treatments. It often gets so delayed that the patient may end up in neuromuscular respiratory failure. Read More

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The development of surgical risk score and evaluation of necrotizing soft tissue infection in 161 Naja atra envenomed patients.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 02 10;16(2):e0010066. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Naja atra bites cause wound necrosis, secondary infection, and necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) requiring repetitive surgeries. Little information is known about the predictors for surgery after these bites.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 161 patients envenomed by N. Read More

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February 2022

Exotic venomous snakebites in Switzerland reported to the National Poisons Information Centre over 22 years.

Swiss Med Wkly 2022 01 20;152:w30117. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

National Poisons Information Centre, Tox Info Suisse, Associated Institute of the University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Objective: The private keeping of exotic venomous snakes is legally permitted in Switzerland. The aim of the present study was to characterise the epidemiological and clinical features of bites by exotic venomous snakes over a period of 22 years in Switzerland.

Methods: We included all calls related to exotic snakebites recorded at the Swiss National Poisons Information Centre (Tox Info Suisse) from 1997 to 2018. Read More

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January 2022

A paper microfluidic device based colorimetric sensor for the detection and discrimination of elapid viper envenomation.

Analyst 2022 Feb 14;147(4):685-694. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Aptamer Technology and Diagnostics Laboratory, Multidisciplinary Clinical and Translational Research Group, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI), Faridabad, Haryana 121001, India.

Snake bites are a neglected tropical disease, causing mortality and severe damage to various vital organs like the nervous system, kidneys and heart. There is increasing interest in designing new antivenom treatments that are more specific to particular groups (either taxonomic or regional) of species, given the increasing evidence that current polyvalent Indian antivenom is ineffective in many situations. Under these circumstances, being able to detect the species, or a group of species, responsible for the envenomation becomes important. Read More

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February 2022

King Cobra and snakebite envenomation: on the natural history, human-snake relationship and medical importance of .

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2021 5;27:e20210051. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Protein and Interactomics Laboratory, Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

King Cobra () has a significant place in many cultures, and is a medically important venomous snake in the world. Envenomation by this snake is highly lethal, manifested mainly by neurotoxicity and local tissue damage. King Cobra may be part of a larger species complex, and is widely distributed across Southeast Asia, southern China, northern and eastern regions as well as the Western Ghats of India, indicating potential geographical variation in venom composition. Read More

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January 2022

Snake Venom Proteomics of Samar Cobra (Naja samarensis) from the Southern Philippines: Short Alpha-Neurotoxins as the Dominant Lethal Component Weakly Cross-Neutralized by the Philippine Cobra Antivenom.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:727756. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Venom Research and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The Samar Cobra, , is endemic to the southern Philippines and is a WHO-listed Category 1 venomous snake species of medical importance. Envenomation caused by results in neurotoxicity, while there is no species-specific antivenom available for its treatment. The composition and neutralization of venom remain largely unknown to date. Read More

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December 2021

First record of snakebites by Micrurus ortoni and Micrurus hemprichii (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Colombia and Perú

Biomedica 2021 12 15;41(4):631-642. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Grupo de Nutrición, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

We report two snakebites by Micrurus ortoni in Colombia and one by M. hemprichii in Perú. In two of the cases, we observed mild to moderate motor neurological involvement and in all patients, there was a marked sensory effect with hyperesthesia and hyperalgesia radiating from the bite site to the entire ipsilateral hemibody. Read More

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December 2021

Varespladib (LY315920) rescued mice from fatal neurotoxicity caused by venoms of five major Asiatic kraits (Bungarus spp.) in an experimental envenoming and rescue model.

Acta Trop 2022 Mar 18;227:106289. Epub 2021 Dec 18.

Protein and Interactomics Laboratory, Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The venoms of Asiatic kraits (Bungarus spp.) contain various neurotoxic phospholipases A (beta-bungarotoxins) which can irreversibly damage motor nerve terminals, resulting in rapidly fatal suffocation by respiratory muscle paralysis or oral airway obstruction. Hence, there is a need of adjunct therapy at the pre-hospital stage to prevent or delay the onset of neurotoxicity, so that antivenom can be given within golden hour before the envenoming becomes antivenom-resistant. Read More

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An integrative view of the toxic potential of Conophis lineatus (Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae), a medically relevant rear-fanged snake.

Toxicon 2022 Jan 15;205:38-52. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA; Department of Forestry and Environmental Conservation, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA. Electronic address:

Most traditional research on snake venoms has focused on front-fanged snake families (Viperidae, Elapidae, and Atractaspididae). However, venom is now generally accepted as being a much more broadly possessed trait within snakes, including species traditionally considered harmless. Unfortunately, due to historical inertia and methodological challenges, the toxin repertoires of non-front-fanged snake families (e. Read More

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January 2022

In vivo treatment with varespladib, a phospholipase A inhibitor, prevents the peripheral neurotoxicity and systemic disorders induced by Micrurus corallinus (coral snake) venom in rats.

Toxicol Lett 2022 Mar 10;356:54-63. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Laboratory of Toxinology and Cardiovascular Research, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Western São Paulo (UNOESTE), Rodovia Raposo Tavares Km 572, B2-205, 19067-175, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil; Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, G4 0RE, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address:

In this study, we investigated the action of varespladib (VPL) alone or in combination with a coral snake antivenom (CAV) on the local and systemic effects induced by Micrurus corallinus venom in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to venom (1.5 mg/kg - i. Read More

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Case Report: Safe Tourniquet Removal in Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) Bites.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 11 1;106(1):338-341. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Emergency Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

The black mamba is known for its notorious potent neurotoxic venom. For this reason, their bites are often erroneously treated in the field with the application of a tourniquet in the hope of delaying systemic spread of the venom. Observational studies have shown that inappropriate tourniquet application is a common, harmful practice. Read More

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November 2021

The Relative Efficacy of Chemically Diverse Small-Molecule Enzyme-Inhibitors Against Anticoagulant Activities of African Spitting Cobra ( Species) Venoms.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:752442. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Science, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, Australia.

African spitting cobras are unique among cobras for their potent anticoagulant venom activity arising from strong inhibition of Factor Xa. This anticoagulant effect is exerted by venom phospholipase A (Group I PLA) toxins whose activity contributes to the lethality of these species. This anticoagulant toxicity is particularly problematic as it is not neutralized by current antivenoms. Read More

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February 2022

Cytotoxin antibody-based colourimetric sensor for field-level differential detection of elapid among big four snake venom.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 10 11;15(10):e0009841. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Animal Biotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Animal Biotechnology, Hyderabad, India.

Development of a rapid, on-site detection tool for snakebite is highly sought after, owing to its clinically and forensically relevant medicolegal significance. Polyvalent antivenom therapy in the management of such envenomation cases is finite due to its poor venom neutralization capabilities as well as diagnostic ramifications manifested as untoward immunological reactions. For precise molecular diagnosis of elapid venoms of the big four snakes, we have developed a lateral flow kit using a monoclonal antibody (AB1; IgG1 - κ chain; Kd: 31 nM) generated against recombinant cytotoxin-7 (rCTX-7; 7. Read More

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October 2021