723 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Cobra

Evaluation of the merit of the methanolic extract of to supplement anti-snake venom in reversing secondary hemostatic abnormalities induced venom.

3 Biotech 2021 May 21;11(5):228. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka India.

Increasing evidence suggests a sizable involvement of hemotoxins in the morbidity associated with envenomation by the Indian spectacled cobra, (N.N). This study investigates the ability of Indian polyvalent anti-snake venom (ASV), methanolic extract of (MAP) and their combination in reversing the hemostatic abnormalities, viz. Read More

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Anticoagulant Activity of Venom Is Mediated by Phospholipase A2 Toxins and Inhibited by Varespladib.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 23;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Amsterdam Institute of Molecular and Life Sciences (AIMMS), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Bites from elapid snakes typically result in neurotoxic symptoms in snakebite victims. Neurotoxins are, therefore, often the focus of research relating to understanding the pathogenesis of elapid bites. However, recent evidence suggests that some elapid snake venoms contain anticoagulant toxins which may help neurotoxic components spread more rapidly. Read More

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Optic Neuritis After a Snakebite: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

Ochsner J 2021 ;21(1):90-92

Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Snakebite is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in India, particularly in rural regions. Of the 57 known venomous species of snakes in India, the 4 most dangerous snakes are the cobra, the common krait, the Russell viper, and the saw-scaled viper. Of these, the snakes commonly implicated with neurotoxicity are the cobra and the common krait-both elapidae. Read More

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January 2021

Acute myasthenic syndrome following coral snake envenomation in the Caribbean: a harbinger for admission to the intensive care unit.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 25;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Medicine, University of the West Indies at Saint Augustine, Saint Augustine, Tunapuna-Piarco, Trinidad and Tobago.

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Two case reports of local envenoming by the Spotted grass snake, Psammophylax rhombeatus (Linnæus, 1758) (Serpentes, Psammophiidae).

Toxicon 2021 May 8;195:24-28. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Toxinology, Women's and Children's Hospital, 72 King William St., North Adelaide, South Australia, 5000, Australia.

Two cases of bites by a South African psammophiid snake, Psammophylax rhombeatus, are described and analyzed. These are the first detailed reports of local envenoming by a Psammophylax spp. While handling a wild-collected 1 m P. Read More

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Rapid and Efficient Enrichment of Snake Venoms from Human Plasma Using a Strong Cation Exchange Tip Column to Improve Snakebite Diagnosis.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 02 13;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan.

Snake envenomation is a serious public health issue in many tropical and subtropical countries. Accurate diagnosis and immediate antivenom treatment are critical for effective management. However, the venom concentration in the victims' plasma is usually low, representing one of the bottlenecks in developing clinically applicable assays for venom detection and snakebite diagnosis. Read More

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February 2021

The role of a point-of-care ultrasound protocol in facilitating clinical decisions for snakebite envenomation in Taiwan: a pilot study.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Feb 19:1-14. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: The incidence of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) following snakebite envenomation may be seriously overestimated in Taiwan. Snakebite-induced ACS is difficult to determine solely by clinical examination. Snakebite patients previously underwent surgical intervention based on speculation and general clinical examinations suggesting ACS presentations instead of direct intracompartmental pressure (IP) measurement prior to fasciotomy. Read More

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February 2021

Cardiotoxic Effects of Micrurus surinamensis (Cuvier, 1817) Snake Venom.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2021 Jun 9;21(6):462-471. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Micrurus surinamensis is a coral snake from the Elapidae family of wide distribution in Amazonia Forest. Its venom contains neurotoxins that induce muscular and respiratory paralysis; however, its cardiovascular action is not yet characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiotoxic effects caused by M. Read More

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Snake bite associated with acute kidney injury.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Pediatric Renal and Solid Organ Transplant Unit, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-known life-threatening systemic effect of snake envenomation which commonly happens secondary to snake bites from families of Viperidae and Elapidae. Enzymatic toxins in snake venom result in injuries to all kidney cell types including glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and kidney vasculature. Pathogenesis of kidney injury due to snake envenomation includes ischaemia secondary to decreased kidney blood flow caused by systemic bleeding and vascular leakage, proteolytic degradation of the glomerular basement membrane by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), deposition of microthrombi in the kidney microvasculature (thrombotic microangiopathy), direct cytotoxic action of venom, systemic myotoxicity (rhabdomyolysis) and accumulation of large amounts of myoglobin in kidney tubules. Read More

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February 2021

Illegal online pet trade in venomous snakes and the occurrence of snakebites in Brazil.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 23;193:48-54. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Oxford Wildlife Trade Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, OX3 0BP, United Kingdom; RedeFauna, Rede de Pesquisa Em Diversidade, Conservação e Uso da Fauna da Amazônia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Greater access to the Internet has boosted the online pet trade and especially enabled the trade in niche-targeted groups, such as venomous species. Despite their fearsome reputation, an array of venomous animals, such as snakes, spiders and scorpions arise interest among pet hobbyists, which exposes owners, sellers, and others involved in their transport and maintenance to potentially serious accidents by envenomation. To assess the potential risk to human health posed by the trade and ownership of venomous pet snakes, we examined social media posts trading or portraying native and exotic venomous species as pets (Facebook™ and YouTube™) and official seizures in Brazil between 2015 and 2020. Read More

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Unusually prolonged neuromuscular weakness caused by krait (Bungarus caeruleus) bite: Two case reports.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 23;193:1-3. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Snakebites are common in India and the most common neurotoxic snakebites in India are due to Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) and cobra (Naja naja). Severe envenomation may mimic brain death or a locked-in state with flaccid paralysis in a descending manner and total ophthalmoplegia. Usually, patients who receive timely antivenom and ventilator support recover completely without any sequalae. Read More

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Protein composition and biochemical characterization of venom from Sonoran Coral Snakes (Micruroides euryxanthus).

Biochimie 2021 Mar 21;182:206-216. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad # 2001, Colonia Chamilpa, CP: 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Electronic address:

The elapid genus, Micruroides, is considered the sister clade of all New World coral snakes (Genus Micrurus), is monotypic, and is represented by Sonoran Coral Snakes, Micruroides euryxanthus. Coral snakes of the genus Micrurus have been reported to have venoms that are predominantly composed of phospholipases A (PLA) or three finger toxins (3FTx), but the venoms of the genus Micruroides are almost completely unstudied. Here, we present the first description of the venom of M. Read More

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A Neurotoxic Snake Venom without Phospholipase A: Proteomics and Cross-Neutralization of the Venom from Senegalese Cobra, (Subgenus: ).

Toxins (Basel) 2021 01 14;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

The Senegalese cobra, , is a non-spitting cobra species newly erected from the complex. causes neurotoxic envenomation in Western Africa but its venom properties remain underexplored. Applying a protein decomplexation proteomic approach, this study unveiled the unique complexity of the venom composition. Read More

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January 2021

Successful treatment of a potentially fatal eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation in a dog with tiger-brown snake antivenom with serial quantification of venom antigen and antivenom concentrations in serum and urine.

Aust Vet J 2021 May 13;99(5):139-145. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Pet Intensive Care Unit (Pet ICU), Underwood, Queensland, 4119, Australia.

Case Report: A successfully treated case of eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation in a Jack Russel Terrier dog is described with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration pre- and post-treatment. Early presentation, prompt administration of tiger-brown snake antivenom, hospitalisation and critical care monitoring lead to low morbidity and rapid recovery from a potentially fatal envenomation. Retrospective measurement of urine and serum venom and antivenom provided insight into the potential severity of the case and rapid efficacy of antivenom. Read More

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Assessment of neutralization of Micrurus venoms with a blend of anti-Micrurus tener and anti-ScNtx antibodies.

Vaccine 2021 02 8;39(6):1000-1006. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, Instituto de Biotecnología - UNAM, Av. Universidad 2001, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: Micrurus venoms contain two main groups of toxic protein components: short-chain α-neurotoxins (SNtx) and phospholipases type A (PLA). In North America, generally, the Micrurus venoms have low abundance of SNtx compared to that of PLAs; however, both are highly toxic to mammals, and consequently both can play a major role in the envenomation processes. Concerning the commercial horse-derived antivenoms against Micrurus from the North America region, they contain a relatively large amount of antibodies against PLAs, and a low content of antibodies against short chain α-neurotoxins. Read More

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February 2021

A retrospective evaluation of eastern coral snake envenomation and antivenom administration in cats: 30 cases (2012-2019).

Toxicon 2021 Feb 13;191:38-43. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

University of Florida Small Animal Hospital, 2089 Southwest 16th Avenue, Gainesville, FL, 32608, United States. Electronic address:

Thirty cats were identified to be have been suspected to have a potential coral snake envenomation after searching medical records from 2012 to 2019 at a university teaching hospital. The records were reviewed and evaluated for signalment, date and time of the snake encounter, elapsed time between encounter and hospital examination, presenting complaint, initial physical examination findings, initial laboratory findings, antivenom dose and duration of administration, adverse reactions to antivenom, additional treatments administered, progression of clinical signs, length of hospitalization, and outcome. Thirteen cats presented with clinical signs consistent with envenomation while 17 cats were treated for possible asymptomatic envenomation, as defined by the owner discovering a live or dead coral snake in their home or on their property. Read More

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February 2021

First-hand knowledge about snakes and snake-bite management: an urgent need.

Nagoya J Med Sci 2020 Nov;82(4):763-774

Department of Genetics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India.

Snake-bite is a well-known but fairly ignored medical problem in India. Lack of precise first aid knowledge for snake-bite is a substantial reason for its severe fatality in human beings. The present study is comprised of a pilot survey that assesses and evaluates the knowledge of people of different occupations (teachers, students, farmers, medical residents, and miscellaneous) about snakes and snake-bite management. Read More

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November 2020

Myalgia as a Symptom of Envenomation by the Eastern Coral Snake, Micrurus Fulvius: A Case Report.

Wilderness Environ Med 2021 Mar 9;32(1):63-69. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Ocala Regional Emergency Department, Ocala Regional Medical Center, Ocala, FL.

We present the case of a patient who developed myalgia as the primary symptom of envenomation by the eastern coral snake, Micrurus fulvius. The patient was evaluated and treated in the emergency department. Physical examination did not demonstrate any neuromuscular abnormalities. Read More

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King cobra bite - Can early decompression prevent digital amputation?

JPRAS Open 2021 Mar 17;27:12-16. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Hands and Plastics Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospitals Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Mindelsohn Way, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom.

King cobra bites are extremely rare in the western world. These bites can be fatal due to the large volume of the venom injected. We report a case of digital ischaemia from a King cobra bite in a young man who was working in a zoo in Netherlands. Read More

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Cytotoxicity of Snake Venoms and Cytotoxins From Two Southeast Asian Cobras (, ): Exploration of Anticancer Potential, Selectivity, and Cell Death Mechanism.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 11;7:583587. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Venom Research and Toxicology Lab, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Venoms of cobras ( spp.) contain high abundances of cytotoxins, which contribute to tissue necrosis in cobra envenomation. The tissue-necrotizing activity of cobra cytotoxins, nevertheless, indicates anticancer potentials. Read More

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November 2020

Immunoreactivity and neutralization study of Chinese Bungarus multicinctus antivenin and lab-prepared anti-bungarotoxin antisera towards purified bungarotoxins and snake venoms.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 11 30;14(11):e0008873. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of The Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Bioactive Peptides of Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Bungarus multicinctus is the most venomous snake distributed in China and neighboring countries of Myanmar, Laos, north Vietnam and Thailand. The high mortality rate of B. multicinctus envenomation is attributed to the lethal components of α-, β-, γ- and κ- bungarotoxins contained in the venom. Read More

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November 2020

Case Reports of Two Interesting Patients with Sea Snake Envenomation.

J Assoc Physicians India 2020 Dec;68(12):78-81

Assistant Professor, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

Sea Snakes have the most potent venom among snakes known to mankind and a few species are implicated in human fatalities.1 Commonest Sea snake in the Indian Sea is Enhydrina Schistosa.2 Mortality is high in spite of therapy because of multiple complications. Read More

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December 2020

Monocled Cobra (Naja kaouthia) Envenomations Requiring Mechanical Ventilation.

J Emerg Med 2021 Feb 19;60(2):197-201. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, Texas.

Background: Bites from nonnative snakes are uncommon, accounting for 1.1% of envenomations reported to poison centers between 2015 and 2018. Here we discuss two monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) envenomations resulting in respiratory failure. Read More

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February 2021

Anticoagulant Micrurus venoms: Targets and neutralization.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Feb 14;337:91-97. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Toxin Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 Australia. Electronic address:

Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease with a massive global burden of injury and death. The best current treatments, antivenoms, are plagued by a number of logistical issues that limit supply and access in remote or poor regions. We explore the anticoagulant properties of venoms from the genus Micrurus (coral snakes), which have been largely unstudied, as well as the effectiveness of antivenom and a small-molecule phospholipase inhibitor-varespladib-at counteracting these effects. Read More

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February 2021

Second case report of slender coral snake (Calliophis melanurus sinhaleyus) envenomation of Sri Lanka.

Toxicon 2021 Jan 2;189:7-9. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradneiya, Sri Lanka.

Bite and envenomation by the slender coral snake (Calliophis melanurus sinhaleyus) is rare in Sri Lanka. This case report describes an authenticated slender coral snake envenomation that occurred in a 32-year-old male. The bite to the middle phalanx of the left index finger was allowed to persist for 10 minutes. Read More

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January 2021

Species-specific and geographical variation in venom composition of two major cobras in Indian subcontinent: Impact on polyvalent antivenom therapy.

Toxicon 2020 Dec 27;188:150-158. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Microbial Biotechnology and Protein Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur, 784028, Assam, India. Electronic address:

While snakebite is a severe problem for several countries throughout the world the Indian subcontinent has witnessed the highest global incidence of snakebite which represents an occupational health hazard. Belonging to the family Elapidae, the Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja), is one of the members of the "Big Four" venomous snakes found throughout the Indian subcontinent. Indian monocled cobra Naja kaouthia is prevalent in eastern and north-eastern India as well as in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan. Read More

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December 2020

Highlights of animal venom research on the geographical variations of toxin components, toxicities and envenomation therapy.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 27;165(Pt B):2994-3006. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, No. 1 Wenhai Road, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Geographical variation of animal venom is common among venomous animals. This kind of intraspecific variation based on geographical location mainly concerned from envenomation cases and brought new problems in animal venom studies, including venom components regulatory mechanisms, differentiation of venom activities, and clinical treatment methods. At present, food is considered as the most related factor influencing venom development. Read More

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December 2020

Proteomic Investigations of Two Pakistani Snake Venoms Species Unravel the Venom Complexity, Posttranslational Modifications, and Presence of Extracellular Vesicles.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 10 22;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Laboratory for Structural Biology of Infection and Inflammation, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Build. 22a, Notkestr. 85, University of Hamburg, 22603 Hamburg, Germany.

Latest advancement of omics technologies allows in-depth characterization of venom compositions. In the present work we present a proteomic study of two snake venoms of the genus i.e. Read More

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October 2020

First Authenticated Case of a Bite by Rare and Elusive Blood-Bellied Coral Snake (Calliophis haematoetron).

Wilderness Environ Med 2020 Dec 5;31(4):466-469. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Internal Medicine Unit, District General Hospital, Matale, Sri Lanka.

Blood-bellied coral snake (Calliophis haematoetron) is a recently discovered forest-dwelling species of elapid hitherto known from 3 specimens found from central Sri Lanka. Herein we describe the first authenticated case of blood-bellied coral snakebite. The victim, an 11-mo-old infant who received the bite while handling the snake at her home, had mild transient swelling at the bite site. Read More

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December 2020

Enzyme immunoassays for detection and quantification of venoms of Sri Lankan snakes: Application in the clinical setting.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 10 5;14(10):e0008668. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

District General Hospital, Monaragala, Sri Lanka.

Background: Detection and quantification of snake venom in envenomed patients' blood is important for identifying the species responsible for the bite, determining administration of antivenom, confirming whether sufficient antivenom has been given, detecting recurrence of envenoming, and in forensic investigation. Currently, snake venom detection is not available in clinical practice in Sri Lanka. This study describes the development of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to differentiate and quantify venoms of Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus), common cobra (Naja naja), Indian krait (Bungarus caeruleus), and hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) in the blood of envenomed patients in Sri Lanka. Read More

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October 2020