609 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Cobra


Neurotoxic envenomation by the South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus): A case report.

Toxicon 2019 Mar 17;159:38-40. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Iroquois Building Suite 400, 3600 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

The South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus, Elapidae) has not previously been reported to cause any neurotoxic envenomations in humans. We recently treated a 44-year-old man who was bitten twice, once in each hand, by a captive South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus) while feeding the female snake who had recently laid eggs. Approximately one hour after receiving the bite, he developed vomiting, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and paralysis of the bulbar and upper extremity muscles, with retention of voluntary motor control in the lower extremities. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.01.001DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Naja annulifera Snake: New insights into the venom components and pathogenesis of envenomation.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 18;13(1):e0007017. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Naja annulifera is a medically important venomous snake occurring in some of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Accidental bites result in severe coagulation disturbances, systemic inflammation and heart damage, as reported in dogs, and death, by respiratory arrest, in humans. Despite the medical importance of N. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338361PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Impact of Venom on the Production of Methaemoglobin.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 15;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 15.

School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB, UK.

Snakebite envenomation is an affliction currently estimated to be killing upwards of 100,000 people annually. Snakebite is associated with a diverse pathophysiology due to the magnitude of variation in venom composition that is observed worldwide. The haemolytic (i. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/10/12/539
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316634PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Snakebite Mitigation Project of the Madras Crocodile Bank/Centre for Herpetology, India: background and a brief summary of activities.

Authors:
Romulus Whitaker

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Project Manager (India), Global Snakebite Initiative, East Coast Road, Mamallapuram, Chennai, India.

Snakebite is a serious problem in rural India where several highly venomous species are commonly found in and around agricultural areas where prey such as rodents and amphibians are abundant. Four snake species, referred to as the Big Four, are responsible for the most serious and fatal bites: spectacled cobra (Naja naja), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). A polyvalent antivenom is made to treat these bites but public awareness and distribution of this life-saving drug is inadequate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/try130DOI Listing
December 2018

Coagulotoxic Cobras: Clinical Implications of Strong Anticoagulant Actions of African Spitting Naja Venoms That Are Not Neutralised by Antivenom but Are by LY315920 (Varespladib).

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 4;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Snakebite is a global tropical disease that has long had huge implications for human health and well-being. Despite its long-standing medical importance, it has been the most neglected of tropical diseases. Reflective of this is that many aspects of the pathology have been underinvestigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316626PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Mud in the blood: Novel potent anticoagulant coagulotoxicity in the venoms of the Australian elapid snake genus Denisonia (mud adders) and relative antivenom efficacy.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Mar 28;302:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

FaunaVet Wildlife Consultancy, Glass House Mountains, QLD, 4518, Australia. Electronic address:

Due to their potent coagulotoxicity, Australian elapid venoms are unique relative to non-Australian members of the Elapidae snake family. The majority of Australian elapids possess potent procoagulant venom, while only a few species have been identified as possessing anticoagulant venoms. The majority of research to-date has concentrated on large species with range distributions overlapping major city centres, such as brown snakes (Pseudonaja spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.11.015DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

First reported case of thrombocytopenia from a Heterodon nasicus envenomation.

Toxicon 2019 Jan 19;157:12-17. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center - Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, CO, USA.

Context: The vast majority of the 2.5 million annual worldwide venomous snakebites are attributed to Viperidae or Elapidae envenomations. Of the nearly 2000 Colubridae species described, only a handful are known to cause medically significant envenomations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.11.295DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Incidence of snakebites in 3 different geographic regions in Thua Thien Hue province, central Vietnam: Green pit vipers and cobras cause the majority of bites.

Toxicon 2018 Dec 15;156:61-65. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute for Community Health Research, College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University, Hue, Viet Nam.

Background: The annual incidence of snakebites in Vietnam is not known and only few publications about snakebite envenoming and medically relevant snakes can be found in English language literature. The present community-based surveys provide data on incidence of snakebites in three different geographic regions of Thua Thien Hue (TT Hue) province, central Vietnam and snake species responsible for bites in this region.

Methodology/results: The cross-sectional community based surveys were conducted from March to July 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.11.009DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Proteomics analysis to compare the venom composition between Naja naja and Naja kaouthia from the same geographical location of eastern India: Correlation with pathophysiology of envenomation and immunological cross-reactivity towards commercial polyantivenom.

Expert Rev Proteomics 2018 Nov 31;15(11):949-961. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

a Microbial Biotechnology and Protein Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology , Tezpur University , Tezpur , India.

Background: Cobra bite is frequently reported across the Indian subcontinent and is associated with a high rate of death and morbidity. In eastern India (EI) Naja naja and Naja kaouthia are reported to be the two most abundant species of cobra.

Research Design And Methods: The venom proteome composition of N. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14789450.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14789450.2018.1538799DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

Defining the pathogenic threat of envenoming by South African shield-nosed and coral snakes (genus Aspidelaps), and revealing the likely efficacy of available antivenom.

J Proteomics 2018 Oct 2. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Parasitology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK. Electronic address:

While envenoming by the southern African shield-nosed or coral snakes (genus Aspidelaps) has caused fatalities, bites are uncommon. Consequently, this venom is not used in the mixture of snake venoms used to immunise horses for the manufacture of regional SAIMR (South African Institute for Medical Research) polyvalent antivenom. Aspidelaps species are even excluded from the manufacturer's list of venomous snakes that can be treated by this highly effective product. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18743919183036
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2018.09.019DOI Listing
October 2018
21 Reads

Engineered nanoparticles bind elapid snake venom toxins and inhibit venom-induced dermonecrosis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 10 4;12(10):e0006736. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.

Envenomings by snakebites constitute a serious and challenging global health issue. The mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenomings is the parenteral administration of animal-derived antivenoms. Significantly, antivenoms are only partially effective in the control of local tissue damage. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006736
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171825PMC
October 2018
16 Reads

In vivo neutralization of dendrotoxin-mediated neurotoxicity of black mamba venom by oligoclonal human IgG antibodies.

Nat Commun 2018 10 2;9(1):3928. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

IONTAS Ltd., Iconix Park, London Road, Pampisford, Cambridgeshire, CB22 3EG, United Kingdom.

The black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) is one of the most feared snake species of the African savanna. It has a potent, fast-acting neurotoxic venom comprised of dendrotoxins and α-neurotoxins associated with high fatality in untreated victims. Current antivenoms are both scarce on the African continent and present a number of drawbacks as they are derived from the plasma of hyper-immunized large mammals. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06086-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06086-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6168529PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Organic and Peptidyl Constituents of Snake Venoms: The Picture Is Vastly More Complex Than We Imagined.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Sep 26;10(10). Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Division of Faculty Affairs and Ecology and Evolution Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Kunigami-gun, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan.

Small metabolites and peptides in 17 snake venoms (Elapidae, Viperinae, and Crotalinae), were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each venom contains >900 metabolites and peptides. Many small organic compounds are present at levels that are probably significant in prey envenomation, given that their known pharmacologies are consistent with snake envenomation strategies. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/10/10/392
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215107PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Characterization of Chicken-Derived Single Chain Antibody Fragments against Venom of .

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Sep 21;10(10). Epub 2018 Sep 21.

School of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.

Traditional, horse-derived antivenin is currently the most efficient treatment against snake bites. However, it is costly and has unpredictable side effects. Thus, alternative, cost-effective strategies for producing antivenin are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215181PMC
September 2018
11 Reads

Points & Pearls: Emergency department management of North American snake envenomations

Emerg Med Pract 2018 Sep 1;20(19 Suppl):1-2. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY

There are approximately 10,000 emergency department visits in the United States for snakebites every year, and one-third of those involve venomous species. Venomous North American indigenous snakes include species from the Crotalinae (pit vipers) and Elapidae (coral snakes) subfamilies. Treatment relies on supportive care, plus antivenom for select cases. Read More

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September 2018
10 Reads

Emergency department management of North American snake envenomations.

Emerg Med Pract 2018 Sep 1;20(9):1-26. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Emergency Medicine/Clinical Toxicology Fellow, Florida Poison Information Center at Jacksonville, University of Florida Health, Jacksonville, FL.

There are approximately 10,000 emergency department visits in the United States for snakebites every year, and one-third of those involve venomous species. Venomous North American indigenous snakes include species from the Crotalinae (pit vipers) and Elapidae (coral snakes) subfamilies. Treatment relies on supportive care, plus antivenom for select cases. Read More

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September 2018
11 Reads

Severe haemolysis and spherocytosis in a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and successful treatment with a bivalent whole equine IgG antivenom and blood transfusion.

Toxicon 2018 Sep 6;151:79-83. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

QML Vetnostics, Murarrie, Queensland, 4172, Australia.

This case report describes a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphriacus) that experienced severe and life-threatening haemolysis. The dog presented with hypersalivation, facial swelling, mildly prolonged activated clotting time and the absence of neurological deficits. Envenomation was confirmed by positive identification of the snake and retrospective measurement of RBBS specific venom antigen (24 ng/mL) in serum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.07.005DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Epidemiological study of snakebite cases in Brazilian Western Amazonia.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 May-Jun;51(3):338-346

Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Porto Velho, RO, Brasil.

Introduction: Brazil has the largest number of snakebite cases in South America, of which the large majority is concentrated in the Midwest and North.

Methods: In this descriptive observational study, we assessed the epidemiological and clinical snakebite cases referred to the Centro de Medicina Tropical de Rondônia from September 2008 to September 2010.

Results: We followed up 92 cases from admission until discharge, namely 81 (88%) men and 11 (12%) women, with a mean age of 37 years, and mainly from rural areas (91. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0489-2017DOI Listing
July 2018
20 Reads

Proteomic characterization of six Taiwanese snake venoms: Identification of species-specific proteins and development of a SISCAPA-MRM assay for cobra venom factors.

J Proteomics 2018 Sep 19;187:59-68. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan; Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan; Liver Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan; Research Center for Food and Cosmetic Safety, Research Center for Chinese Herbal Medicine, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Deinagkistrodon acutus, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Daboia russelii siamensis, Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra are the six medically important venomous snake species in Taiwan. In this study, we characterized and compared their venom protein profiles using proteomic approaches. The major snake venom proteins were identified by GeLC-MS/MS and the total venom proteome was characterized by in-solution digestion coupled with LC-MS/MS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2018.06.003DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Severe acute pulmonary haemorrhage and haemoptysis in ten dogs following eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation: Clinical signs, treatment and outcomes.

Toxicon 2018 Aug 29;150:188-194. Epub 2018 May 29.

Pet Intensive Care Unit (Pet ICU), Underwood, Queensland 4119, Australia.

This report describes a series of ten cases of fulminant pulmonary haemorrhage in dogs following envenomation by the eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in south eastern Queensland, Australia. All cases were presented for veterinary treatment during 2011-2018 at a specialist veterinary emergency centre. Each case received prompt antivenom treatment and supportive care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.05.020DOI Listing
August 2018
19 Reads

Persistent hyponatraemia following suspected krait envenomation in a 5 year old Sri Lankan child: a case report

Ceylon Med J 2018 03;63(1):24-25

Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v63i1.8620DOI Listing
March 2018
1 Read

Unresolved issues in the understanding of the pathogenesis of local tissue damage induced by snake venoms.

Toxicon 2018 Jun 23;148:123-131. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22959, USA.

Snakebite envenoming by viperid species, and by some elapids, is characterized by a complex pattern of tissue damage at the anatomical site of venom injection. In severe cases, tissue destruction may be so extensive as to lead to permanent sequelae, with serious pathophysiological, social and psychological consequences. Significant advances have been performed in the study of venom-induced tissue damage, including identification and characterization of the toxins involved, insights into the mechanisms of action of venoms and toxins, and study of tissue responses to venom-induced injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.04.016DOI Listing
June 2018
33 Reads

Snake venoms from Angola: Intra-specific variations and immunogenicity.

Toxicon 2018 Jun 16;148:85-94. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Snakebite is a public health problem in many countries of world. These accidents are considered a Neglected Tropical Disease and are responsible for a high morbidity and mortality index in the South and Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Angolan snake venoms are poorly investigated and no specific antivenom against them is available in the country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.04.013DOI Listing

Short-chain consensus alpha-neurotoxin: a synthetic 60-mer peptide with generic traits and enhanced immunogenic properties.

Amino Acids 2018 Jul 6;50(7):885-895. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM, Apartado Postal 510-3, 61500, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

The three-fingered toxin family and more precisely short-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type I α-neurotoxins) are crucial in defining the elapid envenomation process, but paradoxically, they are barely neutralized by current elapid snake antivenoms. This work has been focused on the primary structural identity among Type I neurotoxins in order to create a consensus short-chain α-neurotoxin with conserved characteristics. A multiple sequence alignment considering the twelve most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from the venoms of the elapid genera Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, Walterinnesia, Naja, Dendroaspis and Micrurus led us to propose a short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin, here named ScNtx. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-018-2556-0DOI Listing
July 2018
15 Reads

Lethal toxic Dose (i.p LD50), total protein contents and comparative hemolytic potential of (99mTc labeled & non-labeled) Naja naja karachiensis venom.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Mar;31(2(Suppl.)):685-689

Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Department of Genetics, Kremlevskaya Street, Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia.

Recent recognition about snake bite envenomation on June, 2017 as neglected tropical disease under category-A by World Health Organization advocated again its undeniable importance. Present circumstances reasoned to work on a neglected subspecies of Naja naja, i.e. Read More

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March 2018
13 Reads

Tumescent contravenom: murine model for prehospital treatment of Naja naja neurotoxic snake envenomation.

Int J Dermatol 2018 May 20;57(5):605-610. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Dermatology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background: Snake envenomation is a neglected global health problem. There is a need for a prehospital treatment of neurotoxic snakebite that prolongs survival and allows time for a victim to reach a hospital for antivenom therapy. Tumescent epinephrine consists of a large volume of dilute epinephrine (2 mg/l) injected subcutaneously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13877DOI Listing
May 2018
7 Reads

Cloning and sequencing of three-finger toxins from the venom glands of four Micrurus species from Mexico and heterologous expression of an alpha-neurotoxin from Micrurus diastema.

Biochimie 2018 Apr 31;147:114-121. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad # 2001, Colonia Chamilpa, CP: 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Electronic address:

The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) represent an extremely diverse protein family in elapid venoms, where the short chain α-neurotoxins are the most relevant toxin group from the clinical point of view. Essentially, the 3FTxs variability and the low proportions of α-neurotoxins in the venoms of North American coral snakes make it difficult to obtain effective elapid antivenoms against the envenomation symptoms caused mainly by these α-neurotoxins. In this work, thirty 3FTx transcript sequences were obtained from the venom glands of four coral snake species from Mexico (M. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03009084183002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2018.01.006DOI Listing
April 2018
7 Reads

Antitoxin activity of aqueous extract of root against venom.

Indian J Pharmacol 2017 Jul-Aug;49(4):275-281

Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, Ooty, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objectives: Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for root extract was tested for the present research by and approaches on toxin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijp.IJP_708_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5754934PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Painless Krait Bite in a Sleeping Victim: Delayed Diagnosis and High Mortality.

J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Nov;65(11):102

Senior Resident, Dr. RPGMC Kangra, Tanda.

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November 2017
5 Reads

Snake Venom PLA, a Promising Target for Broad-Spectrum Antivenom Drug Development.

Biomed Res Int 2017 29;2017:6592820. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China.

Snakebite envenomation is a neglected global health problem, causing substantial mortality, disability, and psychological morbidity, especially in rural tropical and subtropical zones. Antivenin is currently the only specific medicine for envenomation. However, it is restricted by cold storage, snakebite diagnosis, and high price. Read More

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https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6592820/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/6592820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5727668PMC
August 2018
4 Reads

Secreted Phospholipases A₂ from Animal Venoms in Pain and Analgesia.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 12 19;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Laboratory of Pain and Signaling, Butantan Institute, Av. Vital Brasil, 1500, 05503-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Animal venoms comprise a complex mixture of components that affect several biological systems. Based on the high selectivity for their molecular targets, these components are also a rich source of potential therapeutic agents. Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A₂ (sPLA₂s). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins9120406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5744126PMC
December 2017
9 Reads

Local morbidity from red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus, Elapidae) envenoming: Two cases and a brief review of management.

Toxicon 2018 Feb 19;142:34-41. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Toxinology Department, Women's and Children's Hospital, 72 King William St, North Adelaide, South Australia 5006, Australia; Department of Paediatrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Adelaide School of Medicine, 30 Frome Street, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.

The red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus, Elapidae) is one of several species of venomous snakes most commonly implicated in human and domestic animal envenoming in Australia. Human systemic envenoming can present with myotoxicity that may include myoglobinuria; hemoglobinuria and intravascular hemolysis; thrombocytopenia, anticoagulant coagulopathy, and, rarely, mild cranial nerve palsies. Pseudechis porphyriacus envenoming can also feature significant local morbidity such as ecchymoses, bleeding, pain and necrosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.12.047DOI Listing
February 2018
15 Reads

Analysis of the efficacy of Taiwanese freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom against Naja kaouthia, Naja siamensis and Ophiophagus hannah through proteomics and animal model approaches.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 12 15;11(12):e0006138. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

In Southeast Asia, envenoming resulting from cobra snakebites is an important public health issue in many regions, and antivenom therapy is the standard treatment for the snakebite. Because these cobras share a close evolutionary history, the amino acid sequences of major venom components in different snakes are very similar. Therefore, either monovalent or polyvalent antivenoms may offer paraspecific protection against envenomation of humans by several different snakes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5747474PMC
December 2017
7 Reads

Snakebite by Micrurus averyi (Schmidt, 1939) in the Brazilian Amazon basin: Case report.

Toxicon 2018 Jan 24;141:51-54. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Escola Superior de Saúde, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Carlos Borborema, Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

Micrurus snakes, commonly known as coral snakes, are responsible for 0.4% of the snakebites envenomings in Brazil. In this report, we describe a case of envenoming by Micrurus averyi, the black-headed coral snake, recorded in the western Brazilian Amazon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.11.012DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

Confirmed Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) envenoming in Sri Lanka resulting in neuromuscular paralysis: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2017 Nov 24;11(1):330. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Department of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Background: Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) is a venomous elapid snake endemic to Sri Lanka. It inhabits shaded home gardens and forests in the wet zone of Sri Lanka and might creep into houses in the night. Despite frequent encounters with humans, reports of envenoming are very rare. Read More

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https://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-017-1503-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5701456PMC
November 2017
15 Reads

Neurogenic mediators contribute to local edema induced by Micrurus lemniscatus venom.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 21;11(11):e0005874. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Butantan Institute, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background/aims: Micrurus is one of the four snake genera of medical importance in Brazil. Coral snakes have a broad geographic distribution from the southern United States to Argentina. Micrurine envenomation is characterized by neurotoxic symptoms leading to dyspnea and death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5716551PMC
November 2017
13 Reads

Australian elapid snake envenomation in cats: Clinical priorities and approach.

J Feline Med Surg 2017 Nov;19(11):1131-1147

Centre for Animal Referral and Emergency, Melbourne, Australia.

Practical relevance: No fewer than 140 species of terrestrial snakes reside in Australia, 92 of which possess venom glands. With the exception of the brown tree snake, the venom-producing snakes belong to the family Elapidae. The venom of a number of elapid species is more toxic than that of the Indian cobra and eastern diamondback rattle snake, which has earned Australia its reputation for being home to the world's most venomous snakes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X17735761DOI Listing
November 2017
29 Reads

Development of dot-ELISA for the detection of venoms of major Indian venomous snakes.

Toxicon 2017 Dec 9;139:66-73. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Department of Antitoxin and Sera, Haffkine Biopharmaceutical Corporation Limited, Pune, India.

India remained an epicenter for the snakebite-related mortality and morbidities due to widespread agricultural activities across the country and a considerable number of snakebites offended by Indian cobra (Naja naja), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). Presently, there is no selective test available for the detection of snake envenomation in India before the administration of snake antivenin. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop rapid, sensitive assay for the management of snakebite, which can detect venom, responsible snake species and serve as a tool for the reasonable administration of snake antivenin, which have scarcity across the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.10.007DOI Listing
December 2017
5 Reads

Severe neurotoxicity requiring mechanical ventilation in a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and successful treatment with an experimental bivalent whole equine IgG antivenom.

Toxicon 2017 Nov 4;138:159-164. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Veterinary Specialist Services and Animal Emergency Service, Underwood, Queensland, 4119, Australia.

Snakebite in dogs from Pseudechis porphyriacus (red-bellied black snake; RBBS) is a common envenomation treated by veterinarians in Australia where this snake occurs. This case report describes the successful treatment of a clinically severe RBBS envenomation in a dog with an experimental bivalent equine whole IgG antivenom and mechanical ventilation, following its presentation in a cyanotic state. The cause of the cyanosis and respiratory distress was considered due to paralysis from neurotoxins in RBBS venom. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101173027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.09.001DOI Listing
November 2017
2 Reads

The medical threat of mamba envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa revealed by genus-wide analysis of venom composition, toxicity and antivenomics profiling of available antivenoms.

J Proteomics 2018 02 24;172:173-189. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Jaume Roig 11, 46010, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Mambas (genus Dendroaspis) are among the most feared of the medically important elapid snakes found in sub-Saharan Africa, but many facets of their biology, including the diversity of venom composition, remain relatively understudied. Here, we present a reconstruction of mamba phylogeny, alongside genus-wide venom gland transcriptomic and high-resolution top-down venomic analyses. Whereas the green mambas, D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2017.08.016DOI Listing
February 2018
63 Reads

Eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation in dogs and cats: Clinical signs, coagulation changes, brown snake venom antigen levels and treatment with a novel caprylic acid fractionated bivalent whole IgG equine antivenom.

Toxicon 2017 Nov 19;138:89-97. Epub 2017 Aug 19.

Veterinary Specialist Services, Underwood, Queensland, Australia.

This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of 16 confirmed cases of snakebite from the Australian eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in dogs and cats. The clinical signs, brown snake venom antigen concentrations, coagulation parameters, and treatment outcomes following administration of an experimental caprylic acid fractionated bivalent whole IgG antivenom are documented. A brown snake venom antigen specific sandwich ELISA was used to retrospectively quantify venom levels in serum and urine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.08.015DOI Listing
November 2017
1 Read

A prospective cohort study of the effectiveness of the primary hospital management of all snakebites in Kurunegala district of Sri Lanka.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 21;11(8):e0005847. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Introduction: Sri Lanka records substantial numbers of snakebite annually. Primary rural hospitals are important contributors to health care. Health care planning requires a more detailed understanding of snakebite within this part of the health system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5578683PMC
August 2017
10 Reads
1 Citation

Necrotizing fasciitis following venomous snakebites in a tertiary hospital of southwest Taiwan.

Int J Infect Dis 2017 Oct 12;63:30-36. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chia-Yi Chang Gung Memorial Hospita, Taiwan, Republic of China; College of Medicine, Chang Gung University at Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Background: Necrotizing fasciitis following venomous snakebites is uncommon. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial clinical features of necrotizing fasciitis after snakebites, and to identify the risk factors for patients with cellulitis who later developed necrotizing fasciitis.

Methods: Sixteen patients with surgically confirmed necrotizing fasciitis and 25 patients diagnosed with cellulitis following snakebites were retrospectively reviewed over a 6-year period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2017.08.005DOI Listing
October 2017
5 Reads

Envenomation by Micrurus psyches in French Guiana.

Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2017 Oct 14;110(4):276-280. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Département de biologie médicale, hôpital d'instruction des armées Bégin, 94300, Saint-Mandé, France.

We report here the first known envenomation by Micrurus psyches, the so-called Carib coral snake, which occurred on April 2016 in the surroundings of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Western French Guiana. Besides local neurological symptoms, it featured unexpected electrocardiogram changes, which were emergence of a first-degree atrioventricular block and biphasic T waves, both transient. NewWorld elapid venoms were not known for being cardiotoxic so far. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13149-017-0567-9DOI Listing
October 2017
3 Reads

Retrospective evaluation of cats with elapid snake envenomation associated neurotoxicity requiring mechanical ventilation: 12 cases (2005-2014).

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2017 Sep 11;27(5):579-585. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

U-Vet Animal Hospital, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia.

Objective: To retrospectively determine the population and outcome characteristics of a cohort of Australian elapid snake envenomed cats requiring mechanical ventilation (MV).

Design: Retrospective observational study (2005-2014).

Setting: Academic veterinary emergency and critical care service. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vec.12632DOI Listing
September 2017
2 Reads

Elapid snake envenomation in horses: 52 cases (2006-2016).

Equine Vet J 2018 Mar 6;50(2):196-201. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Snake envenomation is a cause of morbidity and mortality in domestic animals worldwide. The clinical features of crotalid snake (pit viper) envenomation are widely reported and well described in horses but elapid snake envenomation is poorly characterised.

Objectives: To describe the presentation, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment and outcome of horses with a diagnosis of elapid snake envenomation in Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.12735DOI Listing

Investigation of the inhibitory potential of phospholipase A inhibitor gamma from Sinonatrix annularis to snake envenomation.

Toxicon 2017 Oct 23;137:83-91. Epub 2017 Jul 23.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Basic Medical Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, China; Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Tumor Pathogens and Molecular Pathology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, China. Electronic address:

SaPLIγ is a novel gamma phospholipase A inhibitor (PLI) recently isolated from Sinonatrix annularis, a Chinese endemic non-venomous snake. To explore the neutralization effects of saPLIγ in snakebite envenomation, a dose equivalent to LD of Deinagkistrodon acutus, Agkistrodon halys and Naja atra venom with/without saPLIγ was inoculated into the gastrocnemius muscle of female Kunming mice. The ability of saPLIγ to inhibit myonecrosis and systemic toxicity were evaluated through investigations of muscle histopathology, and determination of the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme1 (LDH1) and aspartate transferase (AST). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101173023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.07.019DOI Listing
October 2017
22 Reads

Assessment of Cultivable Oral Bacterial Flora from Important Venomous Snakes of India and Their Antibiotic Susceptibilities.

Curr Microbiol 2017 Nov 21;74(11):1278-1286. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Haffkine Biopharmaceutical Corporation Limited, Pune, India.

Snakebite is a common, frequently devastating, occupational, socio-economic hazard, and it has a great impact on the rural population of India. Snakebite is a major cause of the human morbidity and mortality since ancient times, as it not only affects the victim by systemic envenomation but also by wound infections originating from deadly pathogenic microorganisms from the oral cavity of the offending snake. The pathogens from the oral cavity of the snake tend to initiate an infection, resulting in gas gangrene, soft tissue necrosis, and permanent physical disabilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-017-1313-zDOI Listing
November 2017
7 Reads

Snakebite in Taiwan.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jun;96(6):1497-1504

Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

AbstractAlthough specific antivenom is available in Taiwan, respiratory failure and general pain frequently accompany envenomation and there have been few reports on the management of envenomation. We retrospectively analyzed 44 cases of bite admitted to Taichung Veterans General Hospital (VGH) or to Taipei VGH. Demographic data, treatment, and outcome of patients with and without respiratory failure were compared. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5462592PMC
June 2017
22 Reads

Neurotoxicity with persistent unilateral ophthalmoplegia from envenoming by a wild inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus, Elapidae) in remote outback South Australia.

Toxicon 2017 Oct 8;137:15-18. Epub 2017 Jul 8.

Toxinology Department, Women's and Children's Hospital, 72 King William Street, North Adelaide, South Australia, 5006, Australia; Department of Paediatrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Adelaide School of Medicine, 30 Frome Street, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia.

Introduction: A case of life threatening envenoming by a wild specimen of the inland taipan, Oxyuranus microlepidotus, is described. There have been 11 previously well-documented envenomings by O. microlepidotus, but only 2 were inflicted by wild snakes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.07.006DOI Listing
October 2017
7 Reads