662 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Cobra


Local envenoming by the schokari sand racer, Psammophis schokari forskål, 1775 (serpentes, psammophiidae) and a brief review of reported bites by sand racers (Psammophis spp.).

Toxicon 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Toxinology, Women's and Children's Hospital, 72, King William St., North Adelaide, South Australia, 5000, Australia.

A recent case of a bite by a psammophiid snake, Psammophis schokari, is described and analyzed. This is the first report of local envenoming by this species. The 1 m long P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.06.020DOI Listing

Quantitative proteomics to reveal the composition of Southern India spectacled cobra (Naja naja) venom and its immunological cross-reactivity towards commercial antivenom.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 May 19;160:224-232. Epub 2020 May 19.

Microbial Biotechnology and Protein Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam, India. Electronic address:

Indian cobra (Naja naja) envenomation is frequently reported across Indian subcontinent. Geographical differences in the venom composition of a particular species of snake often leads to inconsistencies in the antivenom neutralization. Consequently, determining the venom proteome from every locale is necessary for the production of effective antivenom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.106DOI Listing

Clinical Features, Bacteriology, and Antibiotic Treatment Among Patients with Presumed Naja Bites in Vietnam.

Wilderness Environ Med 2020 Jun 22;31(2):151-156. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Poison Control Center, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Introduction: Clinical and bacteriological features of cobra (Naja) bites are still relatively unknown in Vietnam. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of local wounds in patients with presumed Naja spp bite, as well as their antibiotic treatment.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on presumed Naja bite patients who were admitted to Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2020.01.002DOI Listing

A case of acute hypogonadism following taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) envenomation.

Toxicon 2020 Jun 11;180:28-30. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Cairns Hospital, 165 Esplanade, Cairns, Queensland, 4870, Australia; The Kirby Institute, Wallace Wurth Building, University of New South Wales, High St, Kensington, NSW, 2052, Australia. Electronic address:

A previously well man developed acute, marked tender bilateral gynaecomastia two months after confirmed taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) envenomation. He had had laboratory evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) including microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. Scrotal ultrasound revealed bilateral testicular atrophy, his serum testosterone was repeatedly low, while his luteinising and follicle stimulating hormone were elevated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.04.004DOI Listing

Retraction Note: Severe Viperidae envenomation complicated by a state of shock, acute kidney injury, and gangrene presenting late at the emergency department: a case report.

BMC Emerg Med 2020 03 30;20(1):23. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Emergency medicine, Anesthesiology and critical care, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

The authors have retracted this case report [1] because the head of the snake shown in Figure 1 and described as being that of a viper (Echis occellatus) is identical to the head of a snake shown in Figure 1 of a different case report [2] where it was identified as being Naja melanoleuca, a member of the Elapidae family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12873-020-00318-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106662PMC

An Appraisal of Antidotes' Effectiveness: Evidence of the Use of Phyto-Antidotes and Biotechnological Advancements.

Molecules 2020 Mar 26;25(7). Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, P.O. Box 1334, Durban 4000, South Africa.

Poisoning is the greatest source of avoidable death in the world and can result from industrial exhausts, incessant bush burning, drug overdose, accidental toxication or snake envenomation. Since the advent of Albert Calmette's cobra venom antidote, efforts have been geared towards antidotes development for various poisons to date. While there are resources and facilities to tackle poisoning in urban areas, rural areas and developing countries are challenged with poisoning management due to either the absence of or inadequate facilities and this has paved the way for phyto-antidotes, some of which have been scientifically validated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181008PMC

Functional venomics of the Big-4 snakes of Pakistan.

Toxicon 2020 May 12;179:60-71. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS), University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan. Electronic address:

In South Asia, the "Big-4" venomous snakes Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus, Daboia russelii, and Echis carinatus are so-called because they are the most medically important snakes in the region. Antivenom is the only effective treatment option for snakebite envenoming but antivenom is not produced domestically in Pakistan making the country reliant on polyvalent products imported from India and Saudi Arabia. The present study investigated the toxin composition and activity of the venoms of Pakistani specimens by means of proteomic and physio/pharmacological experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.03.001DOI Listing
May 2020
2.492 Impact Factor

Snake C-Type Lectins Potentially Contribute to the Prey Immobilization in and Venoms.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 Feb 6;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Key Laboratory of bioactive peptides of Yunnan Province/Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, China.

Snake venoms contain components selected to immobilize prey. The venoms from Elapidae mainly contain neurotoxins, which are critical for rapid prey paralysis, while the venoms from Viperidae and Colubridae may contain fewer neurotoxins but are likely to induce circulatory disorders. Here, we show that the venoms from and are comparable to those of in prey immobilization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076790PMC
February 2020

Terrestrial venomous snakes and snakebites in the Arab countries of the Middle East.

Toxicon 2020 Apr 27;177:1-15. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The 12 Arab countries of the Middle East are inhabited by 21 species of terrestrial venomous snakes of varying medical importance. This review considers these species, consisting of 16 viperids, 3 elapids and 2 atractaspidines. Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen report the largest numbers of snakebites and envenomings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.01.012DOI Listing

Metabolites from the citrus extracts inhibit the activity of selected proteins in Indian Cobra (Naja naja) venom.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Apr 15;252:112575. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

School of Biosciences and Technology (SBST), Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Snakebite is a severe problem in many parts of the world, specifically in tropical and subtropical regions. A range of medicinal plant extracts are administered for treating snake bite. Of the many common plants, extracts of Citrus species have been documented to be used for treating snake bite and have been shown to decrease the snake venom toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112575DOI Listing

Variations in neurotoxicity and proteome profile of Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) venoms.

PLoS One 2019 30;14(12):e0227122. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand.

Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) is a medically important snake species found in Southeast Asia. The neurotoxic effects of envenoming present as flaccid paralysis of skeletal muscles. It is unclear whether geographical variation in venom composition plays a significant role in the degree of clinical neurotoxicity. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227122PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6936869PMC

Geographical variations in king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom from Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and China: On venom lethality, antivenom immunoreactivity and in vivo neutralization.

Acta Trop 2020 Mar 17;203:105311. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Venom Research & Toxicology Lab, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The wide distribution of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), a medically important venomous snake in Asia could be associated with geographical variation in the toxicity and antigenicity of the venom. This study investigated the lethality of king cobra venoms (KCV) from four geographical locales (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, China), and the immunological binding as well as in vivo neutralization activities of three antivenom products (Thai Ophiophagus hannah monovalent antivenom, OHMAV; Indonesian Serum Anti Bisa Ular, SABU; Chinese Naja atra monovalent antivenom, NAMAV) toward the venoms. The Indonesian and Chinese KCV were more lethal (median lethal dose, LD ~0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105311DOI Listing
March 2020
2.270 Impact Factor

Beyond the 'big four': Venom profiling of the medically important yet neglected Indian snakes reveals disturbing antivenom deficiencies.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 12 5;13(12):e0007899. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Evolutionary Venomics Lab. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Snakebite in India causes the highest annual rates of death (46,000) and disability (140,000) than any other country. Antivenom is the mainstay treatment of snakebite, whose manufacturing protocols, in essence, have remained unchanged for over a century. In India, a polyvalent antivenom is produced for the treatment of envenomations from the so called 'big four' snakes: the spectacled cobra (Naja naja), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6894822PMC
December 2019

Coral snake bites in Brazilian Amazonia: Perpetrating species, epidemiology and clinical aspects.

Toxicon 2020 Feb 27;175:7-18. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Universidade Federal do Amazonas - UFAM, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Av. General Rodrigo Octavio, 1200, Coroado I, 69067-005, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

Coral snakes constitute a relatively diverse and little known group of venomous snakes. So far, data for this kind of snakebite in the Amazon region are based only on case reports. This study takes advantage of novel data from the Brazilian Health Ministry database from 2010 to 2015 and presents a review of the cases reported in the literature regarding the Amazonian biome both from Brazil and nearby countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.11.011DOI Listing
February 2020

Naja atra venom-spit ophthalmia in Taiwan: An epidemiological survey from 1990 to 2016.

J Chin Med Assoc 2020 Jan;83(1):77-83

Institute of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Venomous snakebites are common during hot seasons in Taiwan. However, rarely is venom spat directly into the subject's eyes, causing eye injury. Despite being uncommon, analytical data regarding venom-spit ophthalmia in Taiwan have been lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000223DOI Listing
January 2020

Spitting cobra (Naja nigricincta nigricincta) bites complicated by rhabdomyolysis, possible intravascular haemolysis, and coagulopathy.

S Afr Med J 2019 Sep 30;109(10):736-740. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Anaesthetist, Private Practice, Windhoek, Namibia; Member of the Namibian Snakebite Interest Group.

Zebra snake (Naja nigricincta nigricincta) bite is a significant health problem in Namibia. Although fatalities are thought to be rare, the severe cytotoxic effects and debilitating consequences of neglected bites are well documented. The focus of our treatment has always been the urgent treatment of necrosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2019.v109i10.14103DOI Listing
September 2019

Retrospective evaluation of Micrurus fulvius (Eastern coral snake) envenomation and the use of mechanical ventilation in dogs and a cat (2011-2016): 8 cases.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2019 Nov 18;29(6):662-667. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Objective: To describe the use of mechanical ventilation (MV) in the management of Eastern coral snake envenomation in 7 dogs and a cat.

Design: Retrospective study (2011-2016).

Setting: University teaching hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vec.12892DOI Listing
November 2019
1 Read

Development of a human scFv antibody targeting the lethal Iranian cobra (Naja oxiana) snake venom.

Toxicon 2019 Dec 14;171:78-85. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Biotechnology Research Center, Venom and Biotherapeutics Molecules Laboratory, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Snakebite is one of the health concerns worldwide. Naja oxiana is one of the venomous snakes with a high mortality rate. Anti-serum therapy is the only treatment of the victims. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.10.006DOI Listing
December 2019
2 Reads

Contribution of endothelial cell and macrophage activation in the alterations induced by the venom of Micrurus tener tener in C57BL/6 mice.

Mol Immunol 2019 12 7;116:45-55. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Laboratorio de Fisiopatología, Centro de Medicina Experimental, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Caracas, Venezuela. Electronic address:

An acute inflammatory response, cellular infiltrates, anemia, hemorrhage and endogenous fibrinolysis activation were previously described in C57BL/6 mice injected with M. tener tener venom (Mtt). As the endothelium and innate immunity may participate in these disturbances and due to our poor understanding of the alterations produced by these venoms when the neurotoxic component is not predominant, we evaluated the effects in an in vitro model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2019.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945503PMC
December 2019
1 Read
2.973 Impact Factor

Cardiogenic Shock due to Kounis Syndrome following Cobra Bite.

Case Rep Crit Care 2019 4;2019:5185716. Epub 2019 Aug 4.

Critical Care Medicine National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka.

Kounis syndrome is associated with mast cell activation resulting in acute coronary syndrome secondary to an allergic insult. Various drugs such as antibiotics, analgesics, and environmental exposures such as bee, wasp sting, and poison ivy are known to induce Kounis syndrome. A 68-year-old man admitted with a cobra bite on both hands to emergency care unit and sustained cardiorespiratory arrest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5185716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699288PMC

Clinical implications of convergent procoagulant toxicity and differential antivenom efficacy in Australian elapid snake venoms.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Nov 20;316:171-182. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Australian elapid snakes are some of the most venomous snakes in the world and are unique among venomous snakes in having mutated forms of the blood clotting factor X in an activated form (FXa) as a key venom component. In human bite victims, an overdose of this activated clotting enzyme results in the systemic consumption of fibrinogen due to the large amounts of endogenous thrombin generated by the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin by venom FXa. Within Australian elapids, such procoagulant venom is currently known from the tiger snake clade (Hoplocephalus, Notechis, Paroplocephalus, and Tropidechis species), brown/taipan (Oxyuranus and Pseudonaja species) clade, and the red-bellied black snake Pseudechis porphyriacus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.08.014DOI Listing
November 2019
3 Reads

Risks and realities of single vial antivenom recommendations for envenoming by Australian elapid snakes.

Med J Aust 2019 12 22;211(11):492-493.e1. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, SA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50314DOI Listing
December 2019
3 Reads

Exploring the structural and functional aspects of the phospholipase A from Naja spp.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Nov 14;140:49-58. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, Minas Gerais 37200-000, Brazil.

Naja spp. venom is a natural source of active compounds with therapeutic application potential. Phospholipase A (PLA) is abundant in the venom of Naja spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.125DOI Listing
November 2019
2 Reads

Preliminary Biochemical and Venomic Characterization of the Venom of Phalotris lemniscatus (Serpentes, Colubridae).

Curr Top Med Chem 2019 ;19(22):1981-1989

Departamento de Desarrollo Biotecnologico, Instituto de Higiene, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Background: For many decades, research on snake venom toxinology focused mainly on the venoms of Viperidae and Elapidae species, which were traditionally the only ones considered as venomous. However, much less interest has been given to the venom produced by opisthoglyphous colubrid snakes, since they were typically considered of no clinical relevance.

Objective: The aim of this work is to perform a preliminary biochemical and venomic characterization of the venom of the colubrid snake Phalotris lemniscatus, a species that has been responsible for two relevant cases of envenomation in Uruguay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026619666190802143252DOI Listing
December 2019
3 Reads

Inhibition of snake venom induced sterile inflammation and PLA2 activity by Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles in experimental animals.

Sci Rep 2019 08 1;9(1):11175. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Sterile inflammation (SI) is an essential process in response to snakebite and injury. The venom induced pathophysiological response to sterile inflammation results into many harmful and deleterious effects that ultimately leads to death. The available treatment for snakebite is antiserum which does not provide enough protection against venom-induced pathophysiological changes like haemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and often develop hypersensitive reactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47557-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6671979PMC
August 2019
4 Reads
5.078 Impact Factor

Black Mamba Death: Venom Versus Antivenom?

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2019 Dec;40(4):356-360

From the Department of Forensic Medicine.

We present the case of a male adult who was admitted to an emergency department after having sustained envenomation from a black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis). According to the available history, a single fang hooked his right index finger, post venom extraction. After administering antivenom in the accident and emergency department, further vials were transfused in the intensive care unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAF.0000000000000496DOI Listing
December 2019

Do we know the correct dose of tiger snake antivenom?

Authors:
Shaun Greene

Emerg Med Australas 2019 08;31(4):504-505

Emergency Department, Austin Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.13337DOI Listing

Envenomation by a western green mamba (Dendroaspis viridis) - A report of three episodes in Switzerland.

Toxicon 2019 Oct 26;168:76-82. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.

The African elapid snake genus Dendroaspis comprises four species, with D. polylepsis the most dangerous of them. D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.06.223DOI Listing
October 2019
5 Reads
2.492 Impact Factor

Review article: Let us talk about snakebite management: A discussion on many levels.

Emerg Med Australas 2019 08 17;31(4):542-545. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Department of Medicine, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

We want to discuss antivenom use in snakebite clinical practice guidelines. Coronial reviews in Victoria of two cases of snakebite envenomation, one described in detail below, prompted us to submit this paper for a wider audience and debate. Venom and antivenom levels were measured in the case detailed below, but not in the other. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.13327DOI Listing
August 2019
14 Reads

Proteomic insights into short neurotoxin-driven, highly neurotoxic venom of Philippine cobra (Naja philippinensis) and toxicity correlation of cobra envenomation in Asia.

J Proteomics 2019 08 12;206:103418. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The Philippine cobra, Naja philippinensis, is a WHO Category 1 venomous snake of medical importance responsible for fatal envenomation in the northern Philippines. To elucidate the venom proteome and pathophysiology of envenomation, N. philippinensis venom proteins were decomplexed with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and protein fractions were subsequently digested with trypsin, followed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis and data mining. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2019.103418DOI Listing
August 2019
13 Reads
3.888 Impact Factor

Diagnosis of envenomation by Russell's and Echis carinatus viper: A clinical study at rural Maharashtra state of India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Apr;8(4):1386-1390

Department of Clinical Medicine, Bawaskar Hospital and Clinical Research Center, Mahad, Raigad, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Envenoming by vipers and are common accidents faced by farmers and labors. Both viper venom toxins alter coagulation mechanism in the victim. The dose of snake antivenin to neutralize the venom is empirical and varies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_156_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6510103PMC
April 2019
10 Reads

Recurrent neurotoxic envenoming of cobra bite.

Toxicon 2019 Sep 23;167:180-183. Epub 2019 May 23.

Ramathibodi Poison Center, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Recurrent systemic envenomation in patients who sustained viper bites, and who previously responded to antivenom, is well described in the literature. However, cases of recurrent neurotoxic envenoming after antivenom treatment are rarely reported. We present three patients who were envenomed by a cobra (Naja kaouthia or N. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.05.011DOI Listing
September 2019
12 Reads

Envenomation by Micrurus annellatus bolivianus (Peters, 1871) coral snake in the western Brazilian Amazon.

Toxicon 2019 Aug 21;166:34-38. Epub 2019 May 21.

Laboratório de Herpetologia, Campus Floresta, Universidade Federal do Acre, Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Bites by Micrurus snakes in Brazilian Amazon represent about 0.4% of snakebite registered in that area. There is not information available about the M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.05.008DOI Listing
August 2019
9 Reads

Quantitative proteomic analysis of venom from Southern India common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) and identification of poorly immunogenic toxins by immune-profiling against commercial antivenom.

Expert Rev Proteomics 2019 05 27;16(5):457-469. Epub 2019 Apr 27.

a Microbial Biotechnology and Protein Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology , Tezpur University , Tezpur , India.

Objectives: To study the venom proteome composition of Southern India (SI) Common Krait (Bungarus caeruleus) and immunological cross-reactivity between venom against commercial antivenom.

Methods: Proteomic analysis was done by nano LC-MS/MS and toxins were quantitated by label-free analysis. The immunological cross-reactivity of venom towards polyvalent antivenom (PAV) was assessed by ELISA, Immunoblotting, and immuno-chromatographic methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14789450.2019.1609945DOI Listing
May 2019
6 Reads

New insights into the phylogeographic distribution of the 3FTx/PLA venom dichotomy across genus Micrurus in South America.

J Proteomics 2019 05 1;200:90-101. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Evolutionary and Translational Venomics Laboratory, CSIC, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Micrurus is a monophyletic genus of venomous coral snakes of the family Elapidae. The ~80 recognized species within this genus are endemic to the Americas, and are distributed from southeastern United States to northern Argentina. Although relatively few bites are recorded due to their reclusive nature, semi-fossorial habits, and their occurrence in sparsely populated areas, coral snakes possess powerful venoms that target the cholinergic system and, if early treatment is missed, can cause neuromuscular paralysis, respiratory failure, and death by asphyxiation within hours of envenoming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2019.03.014DOI Listing
May 2019
14 Reads

Use of infrared thermography in a case of systemic envenomation by the coral snake Micrurus frontalis (Duméril et al., 1854) in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Toxicon 2019 May 21;163:70-73. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Laboratório de Herpetologia, Instituto Butantan, Av. Dr. Vital Brasil 1500, 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Infrared thermography is a technique that quantifies the thermal (infrared) radiation emitted by an object and produces a high-resolution, digital thermal image of it. Medically, this technique is used to visualize the body's surface temperature distribution in a non-invasive, safe, and convenient fashion. However, to the best of our knowledge, the use of infrared thermography for assessing the systemic effects of envenomation by coral snakes has not been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.03.016DOI Listing
May 2019
13 Reads

Incidence and treatment of snakebites in West Bengal, India.

Toxicol Rep 2019 1;6:239-243. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Paschim Medinipur, 721102, West Bengal, India.

Objective: Snake envenomation is a major cause of death and disability in the developing countries. In India and neighboring countries, the four venomous snakes of concern include - Indian cobra(, Common Krait (); Russell's Viper (); Saw Scaled Viper (). We describe the management protocol for snakebite treatment in a tertiary care hospital of district, West Bengal based on case reports of subjects admitted and treated in Ghatal Subdivisional Hospital(GSH) during 2013-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.02.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409390PMC
March 2019
15 Reads

Snake Eyes: Coral Snake Neurotoxicity Associated With Ocular Absorption of Venom and Successful Treatment With Exotic Antivenom.

J Emerg Med 2019 May 14;56(5):519-522. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Baylor Scott and White Medical Center - Temple, Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, Texas.

Background: Coral snake bites from Micrurus fulvius and Micrurus tener account for < 1% of all snake bites in North America. Coral snake envenomation may cause significant neurotoxicity, including respiratory insufficiency, and its onset may be delayed up to 13 h.

Case Report: We present a unique patient encounter of M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2019.01.019DOI Listing
May 2019
8 Reads

Molecular docking and dynamic studies of crepiside E beta glucopyranoside as an inhibitor of snake venom PLA2.

J Mol Model 2019 Mar 8;25(4):88. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Karyavattom, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695581, India.

Alternative treatments from plant-derived small molecules for neutralizing the venom lethality in snake envenomation are prevalent now. Elephantopus scaber, a tropical plant species has been recognized for its various pharmacological activities and especially anti-snake venom property; however, the molecular basis for this property is not understood. It is reported that snake venom PLA2 is a toxic factor with pharmacological effects independent of their catalytic activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-019-3954-2DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Antivenom effect on lymphatic absorption and pharmacokinetics of coral snake venom using a large animal model.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Aug 18;57(8):727-734. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

a Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioprocesos , Instituto de Biotecnología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , Cuernavaca , México.

Historically, administration and dosing of antivenom (AV) have been guided primarily by physician judgment because of incomplete understanding of the envenomation process. As demonstrated previously, lymphatic absorption plays a major role in the availability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of coral snake venom injected subcutaneously, which suggests that absorption from subcutaneous tissue is the limiting step for venom bioavailability, supporting the notion that the bite site is an ongoing venom depot. This feature may underlie the recurrence phenomena reported in viperid envenomation that appear to result from a mismatch between venom and AV PK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1550199DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

Inadequate knowledge about snakebite envenoming symptoms and application of harmful first aid methods in the community in high snakebite incidence areas of Myanmar.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 02 15;13(2):e0007171. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia.

Introduction: Every year millions of people in developing countries suffer from snakebite, causing a large number of deaths and long term complications. Prevention and appropriate first aid could reduce the incidence and improve the health outcomes for those who suffer bites. However, many communities where snakebite is a major issue suffer from a lack of information about prevention and first aid measures that a family or community member could take to prevent severe envenoming, complications and poor outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395000PMC
February 2019
13 Reads

Neurotoxic envenomation by the South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus): A case report.

Toxicon 2019 Mar 17;159:38-40. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Iroquois Building Suite 400, 3600 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

The South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus, Elapidae) has not previously been reported to cause any neurotoxic envenomations in humans. We recently treated a 44-year-old man who was bitten twice, once in each hand, by a captive South African coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus) while feeding the female snake who had recently laid eggs. Approximately one hour after receiving the bite, he developed vomiting, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and paralysis of the bulbar and upper extremity muscles, with retention of voluntary motor control in the lower extremities. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.01.001DOI Listing
March 2019
27 Reads

Naja annulifera Snake: New insights into the venom components and pathogenesis of envenomation.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 18;13(1):e0007017. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Naja annulifera is a medically important venomous snake occurring in some of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Accidental bites result in severe coagulation disturbances, systemic inflammation and heart damage, as reported in dogs, and death, by respiratory arrest, in humans. Despite the medical importance of N. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338361PMC
January 2019
35 Reads

Impact of Venom on the Production of Methaemoglobin.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 12 15;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 15.

School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB, UK.

Snakebite envenomation is an affliction currently estimated to be killing upwards of 100,000 people annually. Snakebite is associated with a diverse pathophysiology due to the magnitude of variation in venom composition that is observed worldwide. The haemolytic (i. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/10/12/539
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316634PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

Snakebite Mitigation Project of the Madras Crocodile Bank/Centre for Herpetology, India: background and a brief summary of activities.

Authors:
Romulus Whitaker

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2019 12;113(12):818-819

Project Manager (India), Global Snakebite Initiative, East Coast Road, Mamallapuram, Chennai, India.

Snakebite is a serious problem in rural India where several highly venomous species are commonly found in and around agricultural areas where prey such as rodents and amphibians are abundant. Four snake species, referred to as the Big Four, are responsible for the most serious and fatal bites: spectacled cobra (Naja naja), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). A polyvalent antivenom is made to treat these bites but public awareness and distribution of this life-saving drug is inadequate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/try130DOI Listing
December 2019
3 Reads

Rational truncation of aptamer for cross-species application to detect krait envenomation.

Sci Rep 2018 12 12;8(1):17795. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Biodesign and Diagnostics, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI), Faridabad, 121001, Haryana, India.

In majority of snakebite cases, the snake responsible for the bite remains unidentified. The traditional snakebite diagnostics method relies upon clinical symptoms and blood coagulation assays that do not provide accurate diagnosis which is important for epidemiological as well as diagnostics point of view. On the other hand, high batch-to-batch variations in antibody performance limit its application for diagnostic assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35985-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290766PMC
December 2018
4 Reads
5.078 Impact Factor

Factors that can influence the survival rates of coral snakes (Micrurus corallinus) for antivenom production.

J Anim Sci 2019 Feb;97(2):972-980

Laboratório de Herpetologia do Instituto Butantan, CEP, São Paulo, Brazil.

Envenoming and deaths resulting from snakebites are a particularly important public health problem in rural tropical areas of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and New Guinea. In 2015, The Lancet highlighted snake-bite envenoming as a neglected tropical disease and urged the world to increase antivenom production. In Brazil, around 20,000 snakebites occur per year affecting mostly agricultural workers and children, of which 1% is caused by coral snakes (Micrurus sp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358253PMC
February 2019
13 Reads

Coagulotoxic Cobras: Clinical Implications of Strong Anticoagulant Actions of African Spitting Naja Venoms That Are Not Neutralised by Antivenom but Are by LY315920 (Varespladib).

Toxins (Basel) 2018 12 4;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Snakebite is a global tropical disease that has long had huge implications for human health and well-being. Despite its long-standing medical importance, it has been the most neglected of tropical diseases. Reflective of this is that many aspects of the pathology have been underinvestigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316626PMC
December 2018
31 Reads

Mud in the blood: Novel potent anticoagulant coagulotoxicity in the venoms of the Australian elapid snake genus Denisonia (mud adders) and relative antivenom efficacy.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Mar 28;302:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

FaunaVet Wildlife Consultancy, Glass House Mountains, QLD, 4518, Australia. Electronic address:

Due to their potent coagulotoxicity, Australian elapid venoms are unique relative to non-Australian members of the Elapidae snake family. The majority of Australian elapids possess potent procoagulant venom, while only a few species have been identified as possessing anticoagulant venoms. The majority of research to-date has concentrated on large species with range distributions overlapping major city centres, such as brown snakes (Pseudonaja spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.11.015DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

Cardiovascular manifestations and patient outcomes following snake envenomation: a pilot study.

Trop Doct 2019 Jan 28;49(1):10-13. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of General Medicine, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Cardiotoxicity in snake envenomation has not been adequately explored in the literature. This retrospective, observational study analysed clinical profiles and cardiovascular effects (CVE), with associated outcomes, in snake envenomation. Thirty-four patients were recruited between April 2014 and October 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475518814019DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads
0.528 Impact Factor