183 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Brown


Acute Hemolytic Anemia Caused by Loxoscelism Treated With Plasmapheresis: A Case Report.

J Med Cases 2022 May 23;13(5):219-224. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.

The bite of a brown recluse spider () is usually associated with skin necrosis; however, it can lead to more significant morbidity including acute hemolytic anemia, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and death. Here we highlight a case using plasmapheresis as treatment for acute hemolytic anemia caused by the bite of a brown recluse spider. A 49-year-old male presented to the emergency room 5 days after suffering a spider bite due to worsening symptoms. Read More

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Evaluation of lethality and cytotoxic effects induced by (large brown spitting cobra) venom and the envenomation-neutralizing efficacy of selected commercial antivenoms in Kenya.

Toxicon X 2022 Jun 4;14:100125. Epub 2022 May 4.

Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Neutralization of lethality in mice model at the preclinical level has been established by the World Health Organization as the gold standard for the evaluation of antivenom efficacy. The assessment of the neutralization profiles of antivenoms helps to discern the efficacy or otherwise of these antivenoms at neutralizing the toxic effects induced by medically significant snake venoms. However, for many antivenoms, information on their preclinical efficacy remains limited. Read More

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Emerging Paradigms in Type 2 Immunity.

Annu Rev Immunol 2022 04;40:443-467

Laboratory of Mucosal Immunology and Immunoregulation, VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent, Belgium; email:

A principal purpose of type 2 immunity was thought to be defense against large parasites, but it also functions in the restoration of homeostasis, such as toxin clearance following snake bites. In other cases, like allergy, the type 2 T helper (Th2) cytokines and cells present in the environment are detrimental and cause diseases. In recent years, the recognition of cell heterogeneity within Th2-associated cell populations has revealed specific functions of cells with a particular phenotype or gene signature. Read More

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North American Envenomation Syndromes.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2022 May;40(2):313-326

Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner University Medical Center Phoenix, 1012 East Willetta Street, Fl 2, Phoenix, AZ 85006, USA; University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

This review discusses the distinct envenomation syndromes produced by North American species of snakes and arthropods, specifically the Crotalinae subfamily of snakes, which includes cottonmouths, copperheads, and rattlesnakes; coral snakes; Latrodectus and Loxosceles species of arachnid; and Centruroides sculpturatus, the only species of North American scorpion capable of producing an envenomation syndrome. The authors discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and presentation of these syndromes and emphasize the varying degrees to which these syndromes can manifest clinically. Finally, the management of each envenomation syndrome is addressed. Read More

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A review of 91 canine and feline red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation cases and lessons for improved management.

Aust Vet J 2022 Mar 23. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Pet Intensive Care Unit, 1-15 Lexington Rd, Underwood, Queensland, 4119, Australia.

Introduction: Most cases of red-bellied black snake (RBBS) envenomation in dogs respond favourably to treatment comprising of tiger-brown snake antivenom (TBAV), intravenous fluid therapy, analgesia and, if indicated, mechanical ventilation and/or blood transfusion. However, there remains a subset of patients who develop fatal complications despite intensive treatment and risk factors for these occurring remain unknown. Here we present a retrospective cross-sectional survey of 91 canine and feline RBBS envenomation cases. Read More

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Diethyl Azelate for the Treatment of Brown Recluse Spider Bite, a Neglected Orphan Indication.

In Vivo 2022 Jan-Feb;36(1):86-93

New Frontier Labs LLC, San Antonio, TX, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Brown recluse spider bite releases hemolytic and cytotoxic phospholipase D to the wound that may cause necrosis or even death. We examined diethyl azelate (DEA), a plasma membrane fluidizer with a broad range of immunomodulatory activities, as a potential treatment for the brown recluse spider bite.

Materials And Methods: Topical DEA was used in emergency to treat brown recluse spider bites in a human subject. Read More

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January 2022

In cold blood: Observational descriptive review of Eastern Massasauga rattlesnake bites reported to a single poison center over time.

Toxicon 2022 Jan 13;206:14-20. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Michigan Poison & Drug Information Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 550 East Canfield Street, Suite 354, Detroit, MI, USA. Electronic address:

The Eastern Massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) is a pit viper indigenous to the Great Lakes region and the only venomous snake native to Michigan. It is small-to-medium, thick-bodied with dark brown, bow-tie shaped blotches. Its behavior is described as reclusive and docile and it prefers damp habitats. Read More

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January 2022

Snakebite-associated thrombotic microangiopathy: an Australian prospective cohort study [ASP30].

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Feb 30;60(2):205-213. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.

Background: Snakebite-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) occurs in a subset of patients with venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) following snakebite. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the commonest end-organ manifestation of TMA. The epidemiology, diagnostic features, outcomes, and effectiveness of interventions including therapeutic plasma-exchange (TPE), in snakebite-associated TMA are poorly understood. Read More

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February 2022

Schistocyte quantitation, thrombotic microangiopathy and acute kidney injury in Australian snakebite coagulopathy [ASP28].

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Oct 22;43(5):959-965. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: The major systemic manifestation of hemotoxicity in human snakebite envenoming is venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC). A subset of patients with VICC develop thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), in which acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs. We aimed to investigate the association between schistocytosis in snakebite patients with VICC and AKI, compared to non-envenomed patients. Read More

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October 2021

Diagnosis and Treatment of Snake Envenomation in Dogs in Queensland, Australia.

Vet Sci 2021 Jan 20;8(2). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia.

Australia has some of the most venous snakes in the world, and envenomations of domestic dogs are common, but clinical signs as well as the diagnostic procedures and treatments of snake envenomations are poorly described. Therefore, we invited veterinary clinics in the state of Queensland, Australia, to provide detailed data on snake envenomation cases in dogs. A total of 230 cases were reported from 19 veterinary hospitals, with an average of 12. Read More

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January 2021

Successful treatment of a potentially fatal eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation in a dog with tiger-brown snake antivenom with serial quantification of venom antigen and antivenom concentrations in serum and urine.

Aust Vet J 2021 May 13;99(5):139-145. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Pet Intensive Care Unit (Pet ICU), Underwood, Queensland, 4119, Australia.

Case Report: A successfully treated case of eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation in a Jack Russel Terrier dog is described with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration pre- and post-treatment. Early presentation, prompt administration of tiger-brown snake antivenom, hospitalisation and critical care monitoring lead to low morbidity and rapid recovery from a potentially fatal envenomation. Retrospective measurement of urine and serum venom and antivenom provided insight into the potential severity of the case and rapid efficacy of antivenom. Read More

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Snake venom proteome of Protobothrops mucrosquamatus in Taiwan: Delaying venom-induced lethality in a rodent model by inhibition of phospholipase A activity with varespladib.

J Proteomics 2021 03 25;234:104084. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yeezen General Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, also known as the brown spotted pit viper or Taiwanese habu, is a medically significant venomous snake in Taiwan, especially in the northern area. To more fully understand the proteome profile of P. mucrosquamatus, we characterized its venom composition using a bottom-up proteomic approach. Read More

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Snakebite associated thrombotic microangiopathy: a systematic review of clinical features, outcomes, and evidence for interventions including plasmapheresis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 12 8;14(12):e0008936. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is an important but poorly understood complication of snakebite associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). Numerous treatments have been attempted based on limited evidence. Read More

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December 2020

Phospholipase A2 (PLA) as an Early Indicator of Envenomation in Australian Elapid Snakebites (ASP-27).

Biomedicines 2020 Oct 29;8(11). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2298, Australia.

Early diagnosis of snake envenomation is essential, especially neurotoxicity and myotoxicity. We investigated the diagnostic value of serum phospholipase (PLA) in Australian snakebites. In total, 115 envenomated and 80 non-envenomated patients were recruited over 2 years, in which an early blood sample was available pre-antivenom. Read More

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October 2020

Proteomic Investigations of Two Pakistani Snake Venoms Species Unravel the Venom Complexity, Posttranslational Modifications, and Presence of Extracellular Vesicles.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 10 22;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Laboratory for Structural Biology of Infection and Inflammation, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Build. 22a, Notkestr. 85, University of Hamburg, 22603 Hamburg, Germany.

Latest advancement of omics technologies allows in-depth characterization of venom compositions. In the present work we present a proteomic study of two snake venoms of the genus i.e. Read More

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October 2020

Cooperative rescue of a juvenile capuchin (Cebus imitator) from a Boa constrictor.

Sci Rep 2020 10 8;10(1):16814. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Anthropology, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA, 70118, USA.

The threat of predation by snakes is considered to have played a significant role in the evolution of primate sensory systems and behavior. However, we know relatively little about individual and group responses given the rarity of observed predation events. Here we report an observed (filmed) predation attempt by an adult Boa constrictor (~ 2 m) on a juvenile white-faced capuchin (Cebus imitator) in the Sector Santa Rosa of the Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Read More

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October 2020

Intramyocardial haematoma causing right ventricular outflow obstruction after brown snake (Pseudonaja species) envenomation in a dog.

Aust Vet J 2020 Sep 8;98(9):455-461. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia.

A 15-month-old, male neutered Staffordshire Bull Terrier cross was presented to its referring veterinarian collapsed and agonal. He was immediately intubated, manually ventilated, and treatment commenced for presumptive snake envenomation with two vials of Tiger/Multi-Brown Snake Antivenom (minimum 7000 units/vial). The dog was transferred to a referral hospital intubated. Read More

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September 2020

Trends in snakebite deaths in India from 2000 to 2019 in a nationally representative mortality study.

Elife 2020 07 7;9. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Centre for Global Health Research, Unity Health Toronto, and Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The World Health Organization call to halve global snakebite deaths by 2030 will require substantial progress in India. We analyzed 2833 snakebite deaths from 611,483 verbal autopsies in the nationally representative Indian Million Death Study from 2001 to 2014, and conducted a systematic literature review from 2000 to 2019 covering 87,590 snakebites. We estimate that India had 1. Read More

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Utilization of thromboelastograms in management of envenomation.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Mar 4;59(3):256-259. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Background: Crotalinae (pit viper) envenomations are frequently encountered in North American emergency departments. Cases can be complicated by ambiguity in initial species identification as well as timing and duration of current antivenin treatment. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG) has emerged as an enhanced real-time monitoring parameter for snake envenomations that may aid in management of venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy. Read More

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Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in 17 dogs: clinical signs, coagulation changes, haematological abnormalities, venom antigen levels and outcomes following treatment with a tiger-brown snake antivenom.

Aust Vet J 2020 Jul 10;98(7):319-325. Epub 2020 May 10.

Pet Intensive Care Unit, Underwood, Queensland, Australia.

Background: This report describes 17 cases of red-bellied black snake envenomation (RBBS; Pseudechis porphyriacus) in dogs in south-eastern Queensland. Patients were prospectively enrolled for the treatment with a new tiger-brown snake antivenom 8000 units, (TBAV; Padula Serums Pty Ltd, VIC, Australia).

Case Report: Clinical diagnosis of RBBS envenomation was made by either snake venom detection kit, snake identification using scale counting, or owner observed dog-snake interaction in patients with clinical signs of envenomation. Read More

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Pets in peril: The relative susceptibility of cats and dogs to procoagulant snake venoms.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Oct 3;236:108769. Epub 2020 May 3.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Snakebite is a common occurrence for pet cats and dogs worldwide and can be fatal. In Australia the eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) is responsible for an estimated 76% of reported snakebite cases to domestic pets nationally each year, with the primary pathology being venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy. While only 31% of dogs survive P. Read More

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October 2020

National Estimates of Noncanine Bite and Sting Injuries Treated in US Hospital Emergency Departments, 2011-2015.

South Med J 2020 May;113(5):232-239

From the Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Raleigh, Marilyn Goss Haskell, Innovative One Health Solutions, Raleigh, North Carolina, and the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Objectives: Injuries resulting from contact with animals are a significant public health concern. This study quantifies and updates nonfatal bite and sting injuries by noncanine sources using the most recent data available (2011-2015) from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program with the purpose of using these updates to better understand public health consequences and prevention techniques. Increased rates of bites and stings can be expected in this study's time frame, possibly caused by the increasing human population expanding into animal territories, as well as changes in animal geographic distribution and pet ownership. Read More

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Risk factors for developing acute compartment syndrome in the pediatric population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2020 Jul 27;30(5):839-844. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is often difficult to diagnose in pediatric patients due to their erratic symptomatology. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify at-risk patients to facilitate a prompt diagnosis. This study aims to identify risk factors for the development of ACS in the pediatric population. Read More

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Clinical implications of convergent procoagulant toxicity and differential antivenom efficacy in Australian elapid snake venoms.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Nov 20;316:171-182. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Australian elapid snakes are some of the most venomous snakes in the world and are unique among venomous snakes in having mutated forms of the blood clotting factor X in an activated form (FXa) as a key venom component. In human bite victims, an overdose of this activated clotting enzyme results in the systemic consumption of fibrinogen due to the large amounts of endogenous thrombin generated by the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin by venom FXa. Within Australian elapids, such procoagulant venom is currently known from the tiger snake clade (Hoplocephalus, Notechis, Paroplocephalus, and Tropidechis species), brown/taipan (Oxyuranus and Pseudonaja species) clade, and the red-bellied black snake Pseudechis porphyriacus. Read More

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November 2019

Multiple thromboembolic strokes in a toddler associated with Australian Eastern Brown snake envenomation.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Aug 18;14(8):1052-1055. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Medical Imaging Department, Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4814, Australia.

Venomous snakes are found in every state and territory in Australia and are amongst the most dangerous in the world. Of Australia's snakes the Eastern Brown snake () is responsible for the majority of the cases of envenomation and death. We describe a case of thromboembolic stroke associated with Eastern Brown snake envenomation in a 2-year-old boy. Read More

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Two pathways for venom toxin entry consequent to injection of an Australian elapid snake venom.

Sci Rep 2019 06 13;9(1):8595. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

Here we test and refute the hypothesis that venom toxins from an Australian elapid, the Eastern Brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis, PTx), solely require lymphatic transport to enter the circulation. Studies were made using anaesthetised non-recovery rats in which a marker dye (India ink) or highly potent PTx venom was injected into the hind paw. The studies required a means of inhibiting lymphatic function, as achieved by cooling of the test hind limb to low temperatures (~3 °C). Read More

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Circulating microvesicles in snakebite patients with microangiopathy.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2019 Jan 22;3(1):121-125. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of Medicine and Public Health University of Newcastle Newcastle New South Wales Australia.

Background: Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy is a common consequence of snake envenoming that can lead to life-threatening hemorrhage, and is associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. The role of microvesicles (MV) in snakebite patients has not been previously investigated.

Objective: To compare changes in subsets of circulating MV levels in snakebite patients with venom induced consumption coagulopathy and with or without microangiopathic hemolysis to those of healthy controls. Read More

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January 2019

Mud in the blood: Novel potent anticoagulant coagulotoxicity in the venoms of the Australian elapid snake genus Denisonia (mud adders) and relative antivenom efficacy.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Mar 28;302:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

FaunaVet Wildlife Consultancy, Glass House Mountains, QLD, 4518, Australia. Electronic address:

Due to their potent coagulotoxicity, Australian elapid venoms are unique relative to non-Australian members of the Elapidae snake family. The majority of Australian elapids possess potent procoagulant venom, while only a few species have been identified as possessing anticoagulant venoms. The majority of research to-date has concentrated on large species with range distributions overlapping major city centres, such as brown snakes (Pseudonaja spp. Read More

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Epidemiology and outcome of acute kidney injury due to venomous animals from a subtropical region of India.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 04 11;57(4):240-245. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

c Community Medicine , Indira Gandhi Medical College , Shimla , India.

Aim: To study the epidemiology and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by venomous animals.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients admitted at Indira Gandhi Medical College Hospital, Shimla, with AKI due to venomous animals over a period of 15 years (January 2003-December 2017). Medical records were evaluated for patient information on demographic factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcome. Read More

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Lower Motor Neuron Disease in Australian Dogs and Cats.

J Vet Med 2018 6;2018:1018230. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science, Gatton, QLD 4350, Australia.

Diseases presenting with lower motor neuron (LMN) signs are frequently seen in small animal veterinary practice in Australia. In addition to the most common causes of LMN disease seen world-wide, such as idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis and myasthenia gravis, there are several conditions presenting with LMN signs that are peculiar to the continent of Australia. These include snake envenomation by tiger ( spp. Read More

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