174 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Brown


Diagnosis and Treatment of Snake Envenomation in Dogs in Queensland, Australia.

Vet Sci 2021 Jan 20;8(2). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia.

Australia has some of the most venous snakes in the world, and envenomations of domestic dogs are common, but clinical signs as well as the diagnostic procedures and treatments of snake envenomations are poorly described. Therefore, we invited veterinary clinics in the state of Queensland, Australia, to provide detailed data on snake envenomation cases in dogs. A total of 230 cases were reported from 19 veterinary hospitals, with an average of 12. Read More

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January 2021

Successful treatment of a potentially fatal eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation in a dog with tiger-brown snake antivenom with serial quantification of venom antigen and antivenom concentrations in serum and urine.

Aust Vet J 2021 May 13;99(5):139-145. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Pet Intensive Care Unit (Pet ICU), Underwood, Queensland, 4119, Australia.

Case Report: A successfully treated case of eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation in a Jack Russel Terrier dog is described with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration pre- and post-treatment. Early presentation, prompt administration of tiger-brown snake antivenom, hospitalisation and critical care monitoring lead to low morbidity and rapid recovery from a potentially fatal envenomation. Retrospective measurement of urine and serum venom and antivenom provided insight into the potential severity of the case and rapid efficacy of antivenom. Read More

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Snake venom proteome of Protobothrops mucrosquamatus in Taiwan: Delaying venom-induced lethality in a rodent model by inhibition of phospholipase A activity with varespladib.

J Proteomics 2021 03 25;234:104084. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yeezen General Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, also known as the brown spotted pit viper or Taiwanese habu, is a medically significant venomous snake in Taiwan, especially in the northern area. To more fully understand the proteome profile of P. mucrosquamatus, we characterized its venom composition using a bottom-up proteomic approach. Read More

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Snakebite associated thrombotic microangiopathy: a systematic review of clinical features, outcomes, and evidence for interventions including plasmapheresis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 12 8;14(12):e0008936. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is an important but poorly understood complication of snakebite associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). Numerous treatments have been attempted based on limited evidence. Read More

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December 2020

Phospholipase A2 (PLA) as an Early Indicator of Envenomation in Australian Elapid Snakebites (ASP-27).

Biomedicines 2020 Oct 29;8(11). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2298, Australia.

Early diagnosis of snake envenomation is essential, especially neurotoxicity and myotoxicity. We investigated the diagnostic value of serum phospholipase (PLA) in Australian snakebites. In total, 115 envenomated and 80 non-envenomated patients were recruited over 2 years, in which an early blood sample was available pre-antivenom. Read More

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October 2020

Proteomic Investigations of Two Pakistani Snake Venoms Species Unravel the Venom Complexity, Posttranslational Modifications, and Presence of Extracellular Vesicles.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 10 22;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Laboratory for Structural Biology of Infection and Inflammation, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Build. 22a, Notkestr. 85, University of Hamburg, 22603 Hamburg, Germany.

Latest advancement of omics technologies allows in-depth characterization of venom compositions. In the present work we present a proteomic study of two snake venoms of the genus i.e. Read More

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October 2020

Cooperative rescue of a juvenile capuchin (Cebus imitator) from a Boa constrictor.

Sci Rep 2020 10 8;10(1):16814. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Anthropology, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA, 70118, USA.

The threat of predation by snakes is considered to have played a significant role in the evolution of primate sensory systems and behavior. However, we know relatively little about individual and group responses given the rarity of observed predation events. Here we report an observed (filmed) predation attempt by an adult Boa constrictor (~ 2 m) on a juvenile white-faced capuchin (Cebus imitator) in the Sector Santa Rosa of the Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Read More

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October 2020

Intramyocardial haematoma causing right ventricular outflow obstruction after brown snake (Pseudonaja species) envenomation in a dog.

Aust Vet J 2020 Sep 8;98(9):455-461. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia.

A 15-month-old, male neutered Staffordshire Bull Terrier cross was presented to its referring veterinarian collapsed and agonal. He was immediately intubated, manually ventilated, and treatment commenced for presumptive snake envenomation with two vials of Tiger/Multi-Brown Snake Antivenom (minimum 7000 units/vial). The dog was transferred to a referral hospital intubated. Read More

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September 2020

Trends in snakebite deaths in India from 2000 to 2019 in a nationally representative mortality study.

Elife 2020 07 7;9. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Centre for Global Health Research, Unity Health Toronto, and Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The World Health Organization call to halve global snakebite deaths by 2030 will require substantial progress in India. We analyzed 2833 snakebite deaths from 611,483 verbal autopsies in the nationally representative Indian Million Death Study from 2001 to 2014, and conducted a systematic literature review from 2000 to 2019 covering 87,590 snakebites. We estimate that India had 1. Read More

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Utilization of thromboelastograms in management of envenomation.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Mar 4;59(3):256-259. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Background: Crotalinae (pit viper) envenomations are frequently encountered in North American emergency departments. Cases can be complicated by ambiguity in initial species identification as well as timing and duration of current antivenin treatment. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG) has emerged as an enhanced real-time monitoring parameter for snake envenomations that may aid in management of venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy. Read More

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Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in 17 dogs: clinical signs, coagulation changes, haematological abnormalities, venom antigen levels and outcomes following treatment with a tiger-brown snake antivenom.

Aust Vet J 2020 Jul 10;98(7):319-325. Epub 2020 May 10.

Pet Intensive Care Unit, Underwood, Queensland, Australia.

Background: This report describes 17 cases of red-bellied black snake envenomation (RBBS; Pseudechis porphyriacus) in dogs in south-eastern Queensland. Patients were prospectively enrolled for the treatment with a new tiger-brown snake antivenom 8000 units, (TBAV; Padula Serums Pty Ltd, VIC, Australia).

Case Report: Clinical diagnosis of RBBS envenomation was made by either snake venom detection kit, snake identification using scale counting, or owner observed dog-snake interaction in patients with clinical signs of envenomation. Read More

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Pets in peril: The relative susceptibility of cats and dogs to procoagulant snake venoms.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Oct 3;236:108769. Epub 2020 May 3.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Snakebite is a common occurrence for pet cats and dogs worldwide and can be fatal. In Australia the eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) is responsible for an estimated 76% of reported snakebite cases to domestic pets nationally each year, with the primary pathology being venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy. While only 31% of dogs survive P. Read More

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October 2020

National Estimates of Noncanine Bite and Sting Injuries Treated in US Hospital Emergency Departments, 2011-2015.

South Med J 2020 May;113(5):232-239

From the Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Raleigh, Marilyn Goss Haskell, Innovative One Health Solutions, Raleigh, North Carolina, and the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Objectives: Injuries resulting from contact with animals are a significant public health concern. This study quantifies and updates nonfatal bite and sting injuries by noncanine sources using the most recent data available (2011-2015) from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program with the purpose of using these updates to better understand public health consequences and prevention techniques. Increased rates of bites and stings can be expected in this study's time frame, possibly caused by the increasing human population expanding into animal territories, as well as changes in animal geographic distribution and pet ownership. Read More

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Risk factors for developing acute compartment syndrome in the pediatric population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2020 Jul 27;30(5):839-844. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is often difficult to diagnose in pediatric patients due to their erratic symptomatology. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify at-risk patients to facilitate a prompt diagnosis. This study aims to identify risk factors for the development of ACS in the pediatric population. Read More

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Clinical implications of convergent procoagulant toxicity and differential antivenom efficacy in Australian elapid snake venoms.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Nov 20;316:171-182. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Australian elapid snakes are some of the most venomous snakes in the world and are unique among venomous snakes in having mutated forms of the blood clotting factor X in an activated form (FXa) as a key venom component. In human bite victims, an overdose of this activated clotting enzyme results in the systemic consumption of fibrinogen due to the large amounts of endogenous thrombin generated by the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin by venom FXa. Within Australian elapids, such procoagulant venom is currently known from the tiger snake clade (Hoplocephalus, Notechis, Paroplocephalus, and Tropidechis species), brown/taipan (Oxyuranus and Pseudonaja species) clade, and the red-bellied black snake Pseudechis porphyriacus. Read More

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November 2019

Multiple thromboembolic strokes in a toddler associated with Australian Eastern Brown snake envenomation.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Aug 18;14(8):1052-1055. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Medical Imaging Department, Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4814, Australia.

Venomous snakes are found in every state and territory in Australia and are amongst the most dangerous in the world. Of Australia's snakes the Eastern Brown snake () is responsible for the majority of the cases of envenomation and death. We describe a case of thromboembolic stroke associated with Eastern Brown snake envenomation in a 2-year-old boy. Read More

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Two pathways for venom toxin entry consequent to injection of an Australian elapid snake venom.

Sci Rep 2019 06 13;9(1):8595. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

Here we test and refute the hypothesis that venom toxins from an Australian elapid, the Eastern Brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis, PTx), solely require lymphatic transport to enter the circulation. Studies were made using anaesthetised non-recovery rats in which a marker dye (India ink) or highly potent PTx venom was injected into the hind paw. The studies required a means of inhibiting lymphatic function, as achieved by cooling of the test hind limb to low temperatures (~3 °C). Read More

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Circulating microvesicles in snakebite patients with microangiopathy.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2019 Jan 22;3(1):121-125. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of Medicine and Public Health University of Newcastle Newcastle New South Wales Australia.

Background: Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy is a common consequence of snake envenoming that can lead to life-threatening hemorrhage, and is associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. The role of microvesicles (MV) in snakebite patients has not been previously investigated.

Objective: To compare changes in subsets of circulating MV levels in snakebite patients with venom induced consumption coagulopathy and with or without microangiopathic hemolysis to those of healthy controls. Read More

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January 2019

Mud in the blood: Novel potent anticoagulant coagulotoxicity in the venoms of the Australian elapid snake genus Denisonia (mud adders) and relative antivenom efficacy.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Mar 28;302:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

FaunaVet Wildlife Consultancy, Glass House Mountains, QLD, 4518, Australia. Electronic address:

Due to their potent coagulotoxicity, Australian elapid venoms are unique relative to non-Australian members of the Elapidae snake family. The majority of Australian elapids possess potent procoagulant venom, while only a few species have been identified as possessing anticoagulant venoms. The majority of research to-date has concentrated on large species with range distributions overlapping major city centres, such as brown snakes (Pseudonaja spp. Read More

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Epidemiology and outcome of acute kidney injury due to venomous animals from a subtropical region of India.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 04 11;57(4):240-245. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

c Community Medicine , Indira Gandhi Medical College , Shimla , India.

Aim: To study the epidemiology and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by venomous animals.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients admitted at Indira Gandhi Medical College Hospital, Shimla, with AKI due to venomous animals over a period of 15 years (January 2003-December 2017). Medical records were evaluated for patient information on demographic factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcome. Read More

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Lower Motor Neuron Disease in Australian Dogs and Cats.

J Vet Med 2018 6;2018:1018230. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science, Gatton, QLD 4350, Australia.

Diseases presenting with lower motor neuron (LMN) signs are frequently seen in small animal veterinary practice in Australia. In addition to the most common causes of LMN disease seen world-wide, such as idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis and myasthenia gravis, there are several conditions presenting with LMN signs that are peculiar to the continent of Australia. These include snake envenomation by tiger ( spp. Read More

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Severe haemolysis and spherocytosis in a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and successful treatment with a bivalent whole equine IgG antivenom and blood transfusion.

Toxicon 2018 Sep 6;151:79-83. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

QML Vetnostics, Murarrie, Queensland, 4172, Australia.

This case report describes a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphriacus) that experienced severe and life-threatening haemolysis. The dog presented with hypersalivation, facial swelling, mildly prolonged activated clotting time and the absence of neurological deficits. Envenomation was confirmed by positive identification of the snake and retrospective measurement of RBBS specific venom antigen (24 ng/mL) in serum. Read More

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September 2018

Severe acute pulmonary haemorrhage and haemoptysis in ten dogs following eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation: Clinical signs, treatment and outcomes.

Toxicon 2018 Aug 29;150:188-194. Epub 2018 May 29.

Pet Intensive Care Unit (Pet ICU), Underwood, Queensland 4119, Australia.

This report describes a series of ten cases of fulminant pulmonary haemorrhage in dogs following envenomation by the eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in south eastern Queensland, Australia. All cases were presented for veterinary treatment during 2011-2018 at a specialist veterinary emergency centre. Each case received prompt antivenom treatment and supportive care. Read More

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Misidentification of copperhead and cottonmouth snakes following snakebites

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 12 24;56(12):1195-1199. Epub 2018 May 24.

d Department of Emergency Medicine , University of Mississippi Medical Center , Jackson , MS , USA.

Introduction: Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth or water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakes account for the majority of venomous snakebites in the southern United States. Cottonmouth snakes are generally considered to have more potent venom. Copperheads are considered less venomous and there is some controversy as to whether or not bites from copperhead snakes need to be treated with antivenom. Read More

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December 2018

The snakebite problem and antivenom crisis from a health-economic perspective.

Toxicon 2018 Aug 19;150:115-123. Epub 2018 May 19.

Wesley Hospital, Auchenflower, Qld., 4066, Australia; Australian Venom Research Unit, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

The scourge of snakebite has been well documented but largely ignored by the global health community for several decades, especially the role that economics has played in causing and exacerbating this crisis. Every year millions of people in low and middle-income countries face death, disability and disadvantage from snakebite envenoming (SBE) without access to appropriate treatment. Health-economic factors pervade every aspect of this neglected problem. Read More

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Australian elapid snake envenomation in cats: Clinical priorities and approach.

J Feline Med Surg 2017 Nov;19(11):1131-1147

Centre for Animal Referral and Emergency, Melbourne, Australia.

Practical relevance: No fewer than 140 species of terrestrial snakes reside in Australia, 92 of which possess venom glands. With the exception of the brown tree snake, the venom-producing snakes belong to the family Elapidae. The venom of a number of elapid species is more toxic than that of the Indian cobra and eastern diamondback rattle snake, which has earned Australia its reputation for being home to the world's most venomous snakes. Read More

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November 2017

Severe neurotoxicity requiring mechanical ventilation in a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and successful treatment with an experimental bivalent whole equine IgG antivenom.

Toxicon 2017 Nov 4;138:159-164. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Veterinary Specialist Services and Animal Emergency Service, Underwood, Queensland, 4119, Australia.

Snakebite in dogs from Pseudechis porphyriacus (red-bellied black snake; RBBS) is a common envenomation treated by veterinarians in Australia where this snake occurs. This case report describes the successful treatment of a clinically severe RBBS envenomation in a dog with an experimental bivalent equine whole IgG antivenom and mechanical ventilation, following its presentation in a cyanotic state. The cause of the cyanosis and respiratory distress was considered due to paralysis from neurotoxins in RBBS venom. Read More

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November 2017

Eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation in dogs and cats: Clinical signs, coagulation changes, brown snake venom antigen levels and treatment with a novel caprylic acid fractionated bivalent whole IgG equine antivenom.

Toxicon 2017 Nov 19;138:89-97. Epub 2017 Aug 19.

Veterinary Specialist Services, Underwood, Queensland, Australia.

This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of 16 confirmed cases of snakebite from the Australian eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in dogs and cats. The clinical signs, brown snake venom antigen concentrations, coagulation parameters, and treatment outcomes following administration of an experimental caprylic acid fractionated bivalent whole IgG antivenom are documented. A brown snake venom antigen specific sandwich ELISA was used to retrospectively quantify venom levels in serum and urine. Read More

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November 2017

The Australian Snakebite Project, 2005-2015 (ASP-20).

Med J Aust 2017 Aug;207(3):119-125

University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW.

Objective: To describe the epidemiology, treatment and adverse events after snakebite in Australia.

Design: Prospective, multicentre study of data on patients with snakebites recruited to the Australian Snakebite Project (2005-2015) and data from the National Coronial Information System. Setting, participants: Patients presenting to Australian hospitals with suspected or confirmed snakebites from July 2005 to June 2015 and consenting to participation. Read More

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Clinicopathological spectrum of snake bite-induced acute kidney injury from India.

World J Nephrol 2017 May;6(3):150-161

Sanjay Vikrant, Ajay Jaryal, Department of Nephrology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Himachal Pradesh, Shimla 171001, India.

Aim: To study the clinico-pathological spectrum of snake bite-induced acute kidney injury (AKI).

Methods: A retrospective study of patients admitted at Indira Gandhi Medical College Hospital, Shimla with snake bite-induced AKI from July 2003 to June 2016. Medical records were evaluated for patient's information on demographic, clinical characteristics, complications and outcome. Read More

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