25,873 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Brown


Factors that can influence the survival rates of coral snakes (Micrurus corallinus) for antivenom production.

J Anim Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratório de Herpetologia do Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brazil, São Paulo - Brasil.

Envenoming and deaths resulting from snakebites are a particularly important public health problem in rural tropical areas of Africa, Asia, Latin America and New Guinea. In 2015 The Lancet highlighted snake-bite envenoming as a neglected tropical disease and urged the world to increase antivenom production. In Brazil around 20,000 snakebites occur per year affecting mostly agricultural workers and children, of which 1% are caused by coral snakes (Micrurus sp). Read More

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December 2018

Ecological significance of dorsal polymorphism in a Batesian mimic snake.

Curr Zool 2018 Dec 10;64(6):745-753. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

Batesian mimicry is the process in which harmless species adopt the appearance of a dangerous, aposematic species. In some prey species, both Batesian mimetic and non-Batesian morphs coexist, presupposing that both morphs have to be evolutionarily advantageous. The viperine snake, , exhibits a zigzag dorsal pattern and antipredatory behavior that mimics European vipers. Read More

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December 2018

Preferential attentional engagement drives attentional bias to snakes in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and humans (Homo sapiens).

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 11;8(1):17773. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

In humans, attentional biases have been shown to negative (dangerous animals, physical threat) and positive (high caloric food, alcohol) stimuli. However, it is not clear whether these attentional biases reflect on stimulus driven, bottom up, or goal driven, top down, attentional processes. Here we show that, like humans, Japanese macaques show an attentional bias to snakes in a dot probe task (Experiment 1). Read More

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December 2018

Kinetic investigations and stability studies of two L-amino acid oxidases.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2018 4;24:37. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (FCFRP-USP), Avenida do Café, s/n, B. Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP CEP 14040-903 Brazil.

Background: L-amino acid oxidases isolated from snake venoms (SV-LAAOs) are enzymes that have great therapeutic potential and are currently being investigated as tools for developing new strategies to treat various diseases, including cancer and bacterial infections. The main objective of this study was to make a brief evaluation of the enzymatic stability of two LAAOs, one isolated from (BjussuLAAO-II) and the other from (BmooLAAO-I) venoms.

Methods And Results: The enzymatic activity and stability of both LAAOs were evaluated by microplate colorimetric assays, for which BjussuLAAO-II and BmooLAAO-I were incubated with different L-amino acid substrates, in the presence of different ions, and at different pH ranges and temperatures. Read More

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December 2018
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Antivenomic approach of different venoms.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2018 26;24:34. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

1Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. do Café s/n, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-903 Brazil.

Background: Our group has previously performed a proteomic study verifying that individual variations can occur among venoms. These variations may lead to differences in venom toxicity and may result in lack of neutralization of some components by antivenom. In this way, this study aimed to evaluate the Brazilian anticrotalic serum capacity in recognizing twenty-two venoms, as well as their fractions. Read More

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November 2018

Practice and lived experience of menstrual exiles (Chhaupadi) among adolescent girls in far-western Nepal.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208260. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Health Promotion and Policy, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, United States of America.

Background: Menstrual exile, also known as Chhaupadi, is a tradition of "untouchability" in far-western Nepal. Forbidden from touching other people and objects, women and girls are required to live away from the community, typically in a livestock shed, during menstruation. We assessed the lived experiences of Chhaupadi among Nepalese adolescent girls in the far-western Achham district of Nepal, observed the safety and sanitation of their living spaces during Chhaupadi, and assessed the perceptions of local adult stakeholders towards the practice of Chhaupadi. Read More

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December 2018
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Evaluation Of Vasoactivity After Haemotoxic Snake Venom Administration.

Toxicon 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Physiology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Komenského 57, 041 81, Košice, Slovakia. Electronic address:

The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model in medical research and fulfils the requirements laid out in the 3 R's. The CAM, contains a dense network of blood vessels, essential for embryo development but also makes the chick embryo an invaluable resource for the study of angiogenesis and the haemotoxicity of substances. Non-neurotoxic snake venom is responsible worldwide for numerous deaths but also has been found to have a vast range of medicinal benefit. Read More

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December 2018

Novel Paranannizziopsis species in a Wagler's viper (Tropidolaemus wagleri), tentacled snakes (Erpeton tentaculatum), and a rhinoceros snake (Rhynchophis boulengeri) in a zoological collection.

Med Mycol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Mycology Unit, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut and IISPV, University Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain.

We report several cases of fungal infections in snakes associated with a new species within the genus Paranannizziopsis. Three juvenile Wagler's vipers (Tropidolaemus wagleri) presented with skin abnormalities or ulcerative dermatitis, and two snakes died. Histologic examination of skin from the living viper revealed hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic, and crusting epidermitis with intralesional fungal elements. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

How Snakes Find Prey Underwater: Sea Snakes Use Visual and Chemical Cues for Foraging.

Zoolog Sci 2018 Dec;35(6):483-486

1 Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto University, 2-24 Tanaka Sekiden-cho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8203, Japan.

Fully aquatic adaptation generally leads amniotes to change sensory modalities drastically. Terrestrial snakes rely heavily on chemical cues to locate and recognize prey, but little is known about how sea snakes find prey fishes underwater. Sea snakes of the genus Hydrophis are fish-eating marine elapids which adapted from land to water approximately 5-10 million years ago. Read More

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December 2018
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Coagulotoxic Cobras: Clinical Implications of Strong Anticoagulant Actions of African Spitting Naja Venoms That Are Not Neutralised by Antivenom but Are by LY315920 (Varespladib).

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 4;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Snakebite is a global tropical disease that has long had huge implications for human health and well-being. Despite its long-standing medical importance, it has been the most neglected of tropical diseases. Reflective of this is that many aspects of the pathology have been underinvestigated. Read More

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December 2018

The Harderian gland transcriptomes of Caraiba andreae, Cubophis cantherigerus and Tretanorhinus variabilis, three colubroid snakes from Cuba.

Genomics 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

CIIMAR/CIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos, s/n, Porto 4450-208, Portugal; Department of Biology, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, Porto 4169-007, Portugal. Electronic address:

The Harderian gland is a cephalic structure, widely distributed among vertebrates. In snakes, the Harderian gland is anatomically connected to the vomeronasal organ via the nasolacrimal duct, and in some species can be larger than the eyes. The function of the Harderian gland remains elusive, but it has been proposed to play a role in the production of saliva, pheromones, thermoregulatory lipids and growth factors, among others. Read More

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November 2018

Metabolomic study of natrin-induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Pharmaceutical College, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China. Electronic address:

Natrin, a new member of the cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family purified from the snake venom of Naja naja atra, has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms need further elucidation. In this study, MTT was used to evaluate cell viability. Read More

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November 2018
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Development of sandwich ELISA and lateral flow strip assays for diagnosing clinically significant snakebite in Taiwan.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 3;12(12):e0007014. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

Taiwan is an island located in the south Pacific, a subtropical region that is home to 61 species of snakes. Of these snakes, four species-Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra-account for more than 90% of clinical envenomation cases. Currently, there are two types of bivalent antivenom: hemorrhagic antivenom against the venom of T. Read More

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December 2018

Plant DNases are potent therapeutic agents against Echis carinatus venom-induced tissue necrosis in mice.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Studies in Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysuru, India.

Echis carinatus envenomation leads to severe tissue necrosis at the bitten site by releasing DNA from immune cells that blocks the blood flow. An earlier report has shown that exogenous DNase 1 offers protection against such severe local tissue necrosis. Tricosanthus tricuspidata is a medicinal plant and the paste prepared from its leaves has been used extensively for the treatment of snakebite-induced tissue necrosis. Read More

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December 2018

Biased emotional attention in patients with dental phobia.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignal Analysis, University of Muenster, D-48149, Muenster, Germany.

Biased motivated attention towards phobia-relevant pictures is a typical finding in specific phobia. In the visual system, the allocation of motivated attention is indexed by two event-related potential components - the Early Posterior Negativity and the Late Positive Potential. Enhanced Early Posterior Negativity and Late Positive Potential amplitudes are reliably observed in specific phobia such as, for instance, snake, spider or blood-injection-injury phobia and to some extent also in dental phobia. Read More

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December 2018

Composition and natural history of the snakes from the Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio, southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil.

Zookeys 2018 19(797):117-160. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Avenida P.H. Rolfs, S/N, Campus Universitário, CEP 36571-000, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

The Serra da Mantiqueira is one of the least inventoried physiographic areas of southeastern Brazil. There is great potential for detection of endemic species for which little or nothing is known about basic aspects of natural history. The Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio (PESP) within the Serra da Mantiqueira is an area of extreme biological importance because it houses mixed formations of grasslands, ombrophilous forests, and enclaves of Araucaria forests (mixed ombrophilous forest). Read More

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November 2018

Crystal structure of the complex between venom toxin and serum inhibitor from viperidae snake.

J Biol Chem 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,, Hokkaido University, Japan.

Venomous snakes have endogenous proteins that neutralize the toxicity of their venom components. We previously identified five small serum proteins (SSP-1-SSP-5) from a highly venomous snake belonging to the family Viperidae as inhibitors of various toxins from snake venom. The endogenous inhibitors belong to the prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) family. Read More

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November 2018

The need for snakes to fully stretch.

Authors:
Elaine Toland

Vet Rec 2018 Dec;183(21):661-662

Animal Protection Agency, Werks Central, 15-17 Middle Street, Brighton BN1 1AL.

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December 2018

Histopathological Findings in the Viscera of Malformed Neotropical Viperids.

J Comp Pathol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

University of São Paulo, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Pathology, Laboratory of Wildlife Comparative Pathology, Av. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, São Paulo, Brazil.

Congenital malformations (CMs) or developmental abnormalities are pathological processes defined as morphological defects that originate during embryonic stages. A wide variety of CMs is observed in reptiles, most of which are incompatible with normal life. Characterization of CMs and their pathogenesis are of great importance for the conservation of reptiles, including neotropical viperids (NVs). Read More

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November 2018

Mud in the blood: Novel potent anticoagulant coagulotoxicity in the venoms of the Australian elapid snake genus Denisonia (mud adders) and relative antivenom efficacy.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Nov 28;302:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

FaunaVet Wildlife Consultancy, Glass House Mountains, QLD, 4518, Australia. Electronic address:

Due to their potent coagulotoxicity, Australian elapid venoms are unique relative to non-Australian members of the Elapidae snake family. The majority of Australian elapids possess potent procoagulant venom, while only a few species have been identified as possessing anticoagulant venoms. The majority of research to-date has concentrated on large species with range distributions overlapping major city centres, such as brown snakes (Pseudonaja spp. Read More

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November 2018
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Enhanced universal quantification of biomolecules using element MS and generic standards: application to intact protein and phosphoprotein determination.

Anal Chem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Tools that provide absolute quantification of biomolecules, particularly of proteins and their post-translational modifications, without needing suitable specific standards, are urgently demanded nowadays. To this end, we have herein most significantly advanced the recently introduced strategy based on CH4 addition to the plasma for absolute quantification of biomolecules with HPLC-ICP-MS. Addition of CO2 has been optimized and finally selected as a safer, and more efficient quantitative strategy, able to provide constant (< 6% error) signal response factor for the six elements assayed (S, P, As, Se, Br, I) under compromise conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Development of endocrine pancreatic islets in embryos of the grass snake Natrix natrix (Lepidosauria, Serpentes).

J Morphol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Animal Histology and Embryology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland.

Differentiation of the pancreatic islets in grass snake Natrix natrix embryos, was analyzed using light, transmission electron microscopy, and immuno-gold labeling. The study focuses on the origin of islets, mode of islet formation, and cell arrangement within islets. Two waves of pancreatic islet formation in grass snake embryos were described. Read More

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December 2018

Evidence for divergent patterns of local selection driving venom variation in Mojave Rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus).

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 4;8(1):17622. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, 4110 Libra Drive, Orlando, FL, 32816, USA.

Snake venoms represent an enriched system for investigating the evolutionary processes that lead to complex and dynamic trophic adaptations. It has long been hypothesized that natural selection may drive geographic variation in venom composition, yet previous studies have lacked the population genetic context to examine these patterns. We leverage range-wide sampling of Mojave Rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus) and use a combination of venom, morphological, phylogenetic, population genetic, and environmental data to characterize the striking dichotomy of neurotoxic (Type A) and hemorrhagic (Type B) venoms throughout the range of this species. Read More

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December 2018

Human Monoclonal scFvs that Neutralize Fribrinogenolytic Activity of Kaouthiagin, a Zinc-Metalloproteinase in Cobra () Venom.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 3;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center of Research Excellence on Therapeutic Proteins and Antibody Engineering, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.

Snake venom-metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are the primary factors that disturb hemostasis and cause hemorrhage in the venomous snake bitten subjects. Kaouthiagin is a unique SVMP that binds and cleaves von Willebrand factor (vWF) at a specific peptide bond leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation, which enhances the hemorrhage. Kaouthiagin is a low abundant venom component of Thai cobra (); thus, most horse-derived antivenins used for cobra bite treatment do not contain adequate anti-kaouthiagin. Read More

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December 2018

Ontogenetic Change in the Venom of Mexican Black-Tailed Rattlesnakes ().

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 1;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Av. Universidad s/n. Fracc. Filadelfia, C.P. 35010 Gómez Palacio, Dgo., Mexico.

Ontogenetic changes in venom composition have important ecological implications due the relevance of venom in prey acquisition and defense. Additionally, intraspecific venom variation has direct medical consequences for the treatment of snakebite. However, ontogenetic changes are not well documented in most species. Read More

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December 2018

Unraveling the influences of climate change in Lepidosauria (Reptilia).

J Therm Biol 2018 Dec 15;78:401-414. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

In recent decades, changes in climate have caused impacts on natural and human systems on all continents and across the oceans and many species have shifted their geographic ranges, seasonal activities, migration patterns, abundances and interactions in response to these changes. Projections of future climate change are uncertain, but the Earth's warming is likely to exceed 4.8 °C by the end of 21th century. Read More

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December 2018
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High oxidative stress despite low energy metabolism and vice versa: Insights through temperature acclimation in an ectotherm.

J Therm Biol 2018 Dec 7;78:36-41. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków, Poland.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are inescapable byproducts of energy metabolism and may cause costly damage to biomolecules. Organisms have evolved different means to counter oxidative stress, such as modulation of ROS production, neutralization of produced ROS through free radical scavenging and the repair or removal of the damaged structures. A positive relationship between metabolic rate and ROS production is commonly expected, but the oxidative burden of aerobic metabolism remains poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018

Cytotoxic and inflammatory potential of a phospholipase A from snake venom.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2018 23;24:33. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

1Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (FCFRP-USP), Avenida do Café, s/n, B. Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-903 Brazil.

Background: Snake venom phospholipases A (PLAs) have been reported to induce myotoxic, neurotoxic, hemolytic, edematogenic, cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects. This work aimed at the isolation and functional characterization of a PLA isolated from venom, named BJ-PLA-I.

Methods And Results: For its purification, three consecutive chromatographic steps were used (Sephacryl S-200, Source 15Q and Mono Q 5/50 GL). Read More

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November 2018
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Purification and enzymatic characterization of a novel metalloprotease from snake venom.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2018 22;24:32. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

1Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Av. do Café s/n°, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-903 Brazil.

Background: (Lmr) is the largest venomous snake in Latin America and its venom contains mainly enzymatic components, such as serine and metalloproteases, L-amino acid oxidase and phospholipases A. Metalloproteases comprise a large group of zinc-dependent proteases that cleave basement membrane components such as fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV. These enzymes are responsible for local and systemic changes, including haemorrhage, myonecrosis and inflammation. Read More

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November 2018
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Determination of lethal dose of Aeromonas hydrophila Ah17 strain in snake head fish Channa striata.

Microb Pathog 2018 Nov 27;127:7-11. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, 625 021, India. Electronic address:

Aeromonas hydrophila is a major bacterial fish pathogen which causes economic losses in the aquaculture. The study determined the Letha Dose (LD) of A. hydrophila Ah17 strain (isolated from EUS infected Channa striata) in C. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

New Insights on Moojase, a Thrombin-Like Serine Protease from Snake Venom.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Nov 28;10(12). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Laboratório de Toxinologia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-903, Brazil.

Snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs) are enzymes that are capable of interfering in various parts of the blood coagulation cascade, which makes them interesting candidates for the development of new therapeutic drugs. Herein, we isolated and characterized Moojase, a potent coagulant enzyme from snake venom. The toxin was isolated from the crude venom using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

, a new genus and species of onygenalean fungus isolated from shell lesions of freshwater aquatic turtles.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Zoological Pathology Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Brookfield, Illinois, USA.

The fungal order Onygenales includes many pathogens of humans and animals, and recent studies have shown some onygenalean fungi to be significant emerging pathogens of reptiles. Although many of these fungi have similar morphological features in histologic tissue sections, recent molecular analyses have revealed a genetically complex and diverse group of reptile pathogens comprising several genera, most notably , , and Infections by members of these genera have been previously reported in a variety of reptile species, including crocodilians, lizards, snakes, and tuataras with negative impacts on conservation efforts for some reptiles. Despite the well-documented pathogenicity of these fungi in all other extant reptile lineages, infection has not yet been reported in aquatic turtles. Read More

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November 2018

The evil eye effect: vertical pupils are perceived as more threatening.

Cogn Emot 2018 Nov 28:1-12. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

b Baskent University , Department of Psychology , Ankara , Turkey.

Popular culture has many examples of evil characters having vertically pupilled eyes. Humans have a long evolutionary history of rivalry with snakes and their visual systems were evolved to rapidly detect snakes and snake-related cues. Considering such evolutionary background, we hypothesised that humans would perceive vertical pupils, which are characteristics of ambush predators including some of the snakes, as threatening. Read More

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November 2018
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Cardiovascular manifestations and patient outcomes following snake envenomation: a pilot study.

Trop Doct 2018 Nov 28:49475518814019. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of General Medicine, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Cardiotoxicity in snake envenomation has not been adequately explored in the literature. This retrospective, observational study analysed clinical profiles and cardiovascular effects (CVE), with associated outcomes, in snake envenomation. Thirty-four patients were recruited between April 2014 and October 2017. Read More

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November 2018
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Snake eels of the genus Ophichthus (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) from Myanmar (Indian Ocean) with the description of two new species.

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 28;4526(1):71-83. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California 94118-4503, USA..

Two new species of ophichthid eels, subfamily Ophichthinae, are described and illustrated from specimens collected from Myanmar by the R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen. Included are: Ophichthus nansen sp. Read More

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November 2018

Two new genera of hard ticks, Robertsicus n. gen. and Archaeocroton n. gen., and the solution to the mystery of Hoogstraal's and Kaufman's "primitive" tick from the Carpathian Mountains.

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 18;4500(4):543-552. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Parasitology, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia..

We establish two new monotypic genera, Robertsicus n. gen. and Archaeocroton n. Read More

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October 2018
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A review of the relationships of Xenochrophis cerasogaster Cantor, 1839 (Serpentes: Colubridae) to its congeners.

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 5;4514(1):126-136. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Help Earth, 16, RNC Path, Lachitnagar, Guwahati 781007, Assam, India Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, Jalukbari, Guwahati 781014. Assam, India.

We sampled snakes of the genus Xenochrophis from across Northeast India. The snakes were evaluated for both morphological and molecular parameters. Phylogenetic relationship was reconstructed using mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 12s rRNA, ND4). Read More

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November 2018

On the taxonomy and phylogeny of the rare Selangor Mud Snake (Raclitia indica) Gray (Serpentes, Homalopsidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 5;4514(1):53-64. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia..

The taxonomic position of the rare Selangor Mud Snake (Raclitia indica) Gray to other species of homalopsids has remained uncertain due to the scarcity of specimens in collections and the lack of genetic material for comparison. Here we report the first molecular phylogenetic examination of this species based on recently acquired material. The study recovered R. Read More

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November 2018

Microorganisms in the ticks Amblyomma dissimile Koch 1844 and Amblyomma rotundatum Koch 1844 collected from snakes in Brazil.

Med Vet Entomol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Laboratório de Hantaviroses e Rickettsioses, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Knowledge about ticks (Acari) and screening of ticks parasitizing various hosts are necessary to understand the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. The objective of this study was to investigate tick infestations on snakes (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes) arriving at the serpentarium at the Institute Vital Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. Some of the identified ticks were individually tested for the presence of bacteria of the genera Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), Borrelia (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Coxiella (Legionellales: Coxiellaceae), Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae), Ehrlichia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Apicomplexa protozoa of the genera Babesia (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) and Hepatozoon (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae). Read More

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November 2018
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Compensatory gastric stretching following subtotal gastric resection due to gastric adenocarcinoma in a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota).

Aust Vet J 2018 Dec;96(12):481-486

Avian Reptile and Exotic Pet Hospital, School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, 2570, New South Wales, Australia.

Case Report: A 7-year-old male diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota) presented with a 2-month history of anorexia and a discrete intracoelomic mass, approximately 15 cm in length, located 90 cm from the head and approximately two-thirds of the snout to vent length. Physical examination determined the mass was likely to be stomach, testes or the right kidney. Radiographs showed a soft tissue opacity mass in the region of the stomach; fine needle aspirate demonstrated cellular debris admixed with bacteria and degenerate heterophils. Read More

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December 2018

DNA barcodes from snake venom: a broadly applicable method for extraction of DNA from snake venoms.

Biotechniques 2018 Dec;65(6):339-345

School of Biological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, 501 20th Street, Greeley, CO 80639-0017, USA.

DNA barcoding is a simple technique used to develop a large-scale system of classification that is broadly applicable across a wide variety of taxa. DNA-based analysis of snake venoms can provide a system of classification independent of currently accepted taxonomic relationships by generating DNA barcodes specific to each venom sample. DNA purification from dried snake venoms has previously required large amounts of starting material, has resulted in low yields and inconsistent amplification, and was possible with front-fanged snakes only. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of erythrodiol-3-acetate and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol isolated from Humboldtia unijuga.

Nat Prod Res 2018 Nov 26:1-4. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

a Phytochemistry and Phytopharmacology Division , Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute , Thiruvananthapuram , Kerala , India.

Humboldtia unijuga Bedd., endemic to Agasthyamala in Western Ghats in India, is traditionally used by local Kani tribes for chicken pox, head ache and snake bite. This study reports the isolation of erythrodiol-3-acetate (HU-1) and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (HU-2) from H. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Growth rates of juvenile Boa constrictor under two feeding regimes.

Zoo Biol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia.

Many husbandry routines in zoo herpetology are based on tradition, authoritarianism, anecdote, or speculation. However, relatively few empirical studies underlie many very common practices. We compared growth rates among littermates of Boa constrictor raised under two feeding regimes that were identical in terms of the mass of food ingested, but differed in weekly versus bi-weekly schedules. Read More

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November 2018

Wild jackdaws are wary of objects that violate expectations of animacy.

R Soc Open Sci 2018 Oct 24;5(10):181070. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn TR10 9FE, UK.

Nature is composed of self-propelled, animate agents and inanimate objects. Laboratory studies have shown that human infants and a few species discriminate between animate and inanimate objects. This ability is assumed to have evolved to support social cognition and filial imprinting, but its ecological role for wild animals has never been examined. Read More

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October 2018

Native reptiles alter their foraging in the presence of the olfactory cues of invasive mammalian predators.

R Soc Open Sci 2018 Oct 31;5(10):180136. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Institute for Land, Water and Society, School of Environmental Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Albury, New South Wales 2640, Australia.

Invasive mammalian predators are linked to terrestrial vertebrate extinctions worldwide. Prey naïveté may explain the large impact invasive predators have on native prey; prey may fail to detect and react appropriately to the cues of novel predators, which results in high levels of depredation. In Australia, the feral cat () and the red fox () are implicated in more than 30 animal extinctions and the naïveté of native prey is often used to explain this high extinction rate. Read More

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October 2018

Quantitative Characterization of the Hemorrhagic, Necrotic, Coagulation-Altering Properties and Edema-Forming Effects of Zebra Snake () Venom.

J Toxicol 2018 24;2018:6940798. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Wildlife Management and Ecotourism, Katima Mulilo Campus, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, P. Bag 1096, Ngweze, Katima Mulilo, Namibia.

This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and haemotoxicity of the Western barred (zebra) spitting cobra () venom to help explain atypical and inconsistent reports on syndromes by Namibian physicians treating victims of human ophidian accidents. Freeze-dried venom milked from adult zebra snakes was dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for use in this study. Haemorrhagic and necrotic activity of venom were studied in New Zealand albino rabbits. Read More

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October 2018
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Biochemistry and pharmacology of proteins and peptides purified from the venoms of the snakes Macrovipera lebetina subspecies.

Toxicon 2018 Nov 23;158:16-32. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Estonia.

The isolation and characterization of individual snake venom components is important for a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of envenomations, for improving the therapeutic procedures of patients, and it also opens possibilities for the discovery of novel toxins that might be useful as tools for understanding cellular and molecular processes. This review provides a summary of the different toxins that have been isolated and characterized from the venoms of Vipera lebetina (Macrovipera lebetina) subspecies Macrovipera lebetina cernovi, Macrovipera lebetina lebetina, Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, Macrovipera lebetina transmediterranea, Macrovipera lebetina turanica, the snake species causing the majority of human envenomings in Central Asia (Middle East) and North Africa. The venoms of these snakes contain proteins belonging to different families: Zn- metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, L-amino acid oxidase, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase, phosphomonoesterase, nucleases, hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, C-type lectin-like protein, disintegrin, DC-fragment, cystein-rich secretory protein, proteinase inhibitors, nerve growth factor (NGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), low molecular weight peptides. Read More

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November 2018
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Habu coagulotoxicity: Clinical implications of the functional diversification of Protobothrops snake venoms upon blood clotting factors.

Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Nov 22;55:62-74. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Venom can affect any part of the body reachable via the bloodstream. Toxins which specifically act upon the coagulation cascade do so either by anticoagulant or procoagulant mechanisms. Here we investigated the coagulotoxic effects of six species within the medically important pit viper genus Protobothrops (Habu) from the Chinese mainland and Japanese islands, a genus known to produce hemorrhagic shock in envenomed patients. Read More

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November 2018