156 results match your criteria Snake Envenomation Brown


Circulating microvesicles in snakebite patients with microangiopathy.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2019 Jan 22;3(1):121-125. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of Medicine and Public Health University of Newcastle Newcastle New South Wales Australia.

Background: Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy is a common consequence of snake envenoming that can lead to life-threatening hemorrhage, and is associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. The role of microvesicles (MV) in snakebite patients has not been previously investigated.

Objective: To compare changes in subsets of circulating MV levels in snakebite patients with venom induced consumption coagulopathy and with or without microangiopathic hemolysis to those of healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332827PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Mud in the blood: Novel potent anticoagulant coagulotoxicity in the venoms of the Australian elapid snake genus Denisonia (mud adders) and relative antivenom efficacy.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Mar 28;302:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

FaunaVet Wildlife Consultancy, Glass House Mountains, QLD, 4518, Australia. Electronic address:

Due to their potent coagulotoxicity, Australian elapid venoms are unique relative to non-Australian members of the Elapidae snake family. The majority of Australian elapids possess potent procoagulant venom, while only a few species have been identified as possessing anticoagulant venoms. The majority of research to-date has concentrated on large species with range distributions overlapping major city centres, such as brown snakes (Pseudonaja spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.11.015DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Diagnosis and Treatment of Lower Motor Neuron Disease in Australian Dogs and Cats.

J Vet Med 2018 6;2018:1018230. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science, Gatton, QLD 4350, Australia.

Diseases presenting with lower motor neuron (LMN) signs are frequently seen in small animal veterinary practice in Australia. In addition to the most common causes of LMN disease seen world-wide, such as idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis and myasthenia gravis, there are several conditions presenting with LMN signs that are peculiar to the continent of Australia. These include snake envenomation by tiger ( spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1018230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6106963PMC
August 2018
13 Reads

Severe haemolysis and spherocytosis in a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and successful treatment with a bivalent whole equine IgG antivenom and blood transfusion.

Toxicon 2018 Sep 6;151:79-83. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

QML Vetnostics, Murarrie, Queensland, 4172, Australia.

This case report describes a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphriacus) that experienced severe and life-threatening haemolysis. The dog presented with hypersalivation, facial swelling, mildly prolonged activated clotting time and the absence of neurological deficits. Envenomation was confirmed by positive identification of the snake and retrospective measurement of RBBS specific venom antigen (24 ng/mL) in serum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.07.005DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Severe acute pulmonary haemorrhage and haemoptysis in ten dogs following eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation: Clinical signs, treatment and outcomes.

Toxicon 2018 Aug 29;150:188-194. Epub 2018 May 29.

Pet Intensive Care Unit (Pet ICU), Underwood, Queensland 4119, Australia.

This report describes a series of ten cases of fulminant pulmonary haemorrhage in dogs following envenomation by the eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in south eastern Queensland, Australia. All cases were presented for veterinary treatment during 2011-2018 at a specialist veterinary emergency centre. Each case received prompt antivenom treatment and supportive care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.05.020DOI Listing
August 2018
26 Reads

Misidentification of copperhead and cottonmouth snakes following snakebites.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 Dec 24;56(12):1195-1199. Epub 2018 May 24.

d Department of Emergency Medicine , University of Mississippi Medical Center , Jackson , MS , USA.

Introduction: Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth or water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakes account for the majority of venomous snakebites in the southern United States. Cottonmouth snakes are generally considered to have more potent venom. Copperheads are considered less venomous and there is some controversy as to whether or not bites from copperhead snakes need to be treated with antivenom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1473583DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

The snakebite problem and antivenom crisis from a health-economic perspective.

Toxicon 2018 Aug 19;150:115-123. Epub 2018 May 19.

Wesley Hospital, Auchenflower, Qld., 4066, Australia; Australian Venom Research Unit, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

The scourge of snakebite has been well documented but largely ignored by the global health community for several decades, especially the role that economics has played in causing and exacerbating this crisis. Every year millions of people in low and middle-income countries face death, disability and disadvantage from snakebite envenoming (SBE) without access to appropriate treatment. Health-economic factors pervade every aspect of this neglected problem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.05.009DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Australian elapid snake envenomation in cats: Clinical priorities and approach.

J Feline Med Surg 2017 Nov;19(11):1131-1147

Centre for Animal Referral and Emergency, Melbourne, Australia.

Practical relevance: No fewer than 140 species of terrestrial snakes reside in Australia, 92 of which possess venom glands. With the exception of the brown tree snake, the venom-producing snakes belong to the family Elapidae. The venom of a number of elapid species is more toxic than that of the Indian cobra and eastern diamondback rattle snake, which has earned Australia its reputation for being home to the world's most venomous snakes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X17735761DOI Listing
November 2017
34 Reads

Severe neurotoxicity requiring mechanical ventilation in a dog envenomed by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) and successful treatment with an experimental bivalent whole equine IgG antivenom.

Toxicon 2017 Nov 4;138:159-164. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Veterinary Specialist Services and Animal Emergency Service, Underwood, Queensland, 4119, Australia.

Snakebite in dogs from Pseudechis porphyriacus (red-bellied black snake; RBBS) is a common envenomation treated by veterinarians in Australia where this snake occurs. This case report describes the successful treatment of a clinically severe RBBS envenomation in a dog with an experimental bivalent equine whole IgG antivenom and mechanical ventilation, following its presentation in a cyanotic state. The cause of the cyanosis and respiratory distress was considered due to paralysis from neurotoxins in RBBS venom. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00410101173027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.09.001DOI Listing
November 2017
2 Reads

Eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation in dogs and cats: Clinical signs, coagulation changes, brown snake venom antigen levels and treatment with a novel caprylic acid fractionated bivalent whole IgG equine antivenom.

Toxicon 2017 Nov 19;138:89-97. Epub 2017 Aug 19.

Veterinary Specialist Services, Underwood, Queensland, Australia.

This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of 16 confirmed cases of snakebite from the Australian eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in dogs and cats. The clinical signs, brown snake venom antigen concentrations, coagulation parameters, and treatment outcomes following administration of an experimental caprylic acid fractionated bivalent whole IgG antivenom are documented. A brown snake venom antigen specific sandwich ELISA was used to retrospectively quantify venom levels in serum and urine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.08.015DOI Listing
November 2017
1 Read

The Australian Snakebite Project, 2005-2015 (ASP-20).

Med J Aust 2017 Aug;207(3):119-125

University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW.

Objective: To describe the epidemiology, treatment and adverse events after snakebite in Australia.

Design: Prospective, multicentre study of data on patients with snakebites recruited to the Australian Snakebite Project (2005-2015) and data from the National Coronial Information System. Setting, participants: Patients presenting to Australian hospitals with suspected or confirmed snakebites from July 2005 to June 2015 and consenting to participation. Read More

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August 2017
13 Reads

Clinicopathological spectrum of snake bite-induced acute kidney injury from India.

World J Nephrol 2017 May;6(3):150-161

Sanjay Vikrant, Ajay Jaryal, Department of Nephrology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Himachal Pradesh, Shimla 171001, India.

Aim: To study the clinico-pathological spectrum of snake bite-induced acute kidney injury (AKI).

Methods: A retrospective study of patients admitted at Indira Gandhi Medical College Hospital, Shimla with snake bite-induced AKI from July 2003 to June 2016. Medical records were evaluated for patient's information on demographic, clinical characteristics, complications and outcome. Read More

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http://www.wjgnet.com/2220-6124/full/v6/i3/150.htm
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5527/wjn.v6.i3.150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5424437PMC
May 2017
21 Reads

Fatal self-envenomation in a brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis, from south-east Queensland.

Toxicon 2017 Feb 11;126:1-3. Epub 2016 Dec 11.

Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary, 28 Tomewin St, Currumbin, 4223, Australia. Electronic address:

The case history and clinical signs of a fatal self-envenomation event by a brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis, in South-east Queensland, Australia, are presented. Clinical signs began 20 minutes post-envenomation with muscle twitching, ataxia, and heat seeking behavior which progressed to partial paralysis by 6 hours, generalised paralysis and respiratory arrest at 10 hours and cardiac arrest by 12 hours post-envenomation. Clinical signs are suggestive of potent neurotoxicity for B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.12.003DOI Listing
February 2017
10 Reads

Australian taipan (Oxyuranus spp.) envenoming: clinical effects and potential benefits of early antivenom therapy - Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-25).

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Feb 30;55(2):115-122. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

a Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle , Newcastle , Australia.

Context: Taipans (Oxyuranus spp.) are medically important venomous snakes from Australia and Papua New Guinea. The objective of this study was to describe taipan envenoming in Australian and its response to antivenom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2016.1250903DOI Listing
February 2017
21 Reads

Coagulation parameters in copperhead compared to other Crotalinae envenomation: secondary analysis of the F(ab') versus Fab antivenom trial.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Feb 3;55(2):109-114. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

c Department of Emergency Medicine , Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University , Greenville , NC , USA.

Context: Coagulation derangements in copperhead envenomation are considered less severe than other crotaline envenomations, resulting in recommendations to limit both coagulation testing and antivenom treatment. A prospective, blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of F(ab') versus Fab antivenom in crotaline envenomation patients was completed in 2011. We determined the difference between coagulation parameters in copperhead compared to other crotaline envenomations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2016.1250275DOI Listing
February 2017
23 Reads

Detection of Snake Venom in Post-Antivenom Samples by Dissociation Treatment Followed by Enzyme Immunoassay.

Toxins (Basel) 2016 04 28;8(5). Epub 2016 Apr 28.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle 2298, Australia.

Venom detection is crucial for confirmation of envenomation and snake type in snake-bite patients. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is used to detect venom, but antivenom in samples prevents venom detection. We aimed to detect snake venom in post-antivenom samples after dissociating venom-antivenom complexes with glycine-HCl (pH 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins8050130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4885045PMC
April 2016
23 Reads

Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in the dog: Diagnosis and treatment of nine cases.

Toxicon 2016 Jul 1;117:69-75. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, 3010, Australia.

The clinical signs, biochemical changes and serum and urine venom concentrations for a series of nine cases of Red bellied black snake [RBBS] (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in eight dogs seen in a regional Australian veterinary hospital are described. Although the resulting envenomation syndrome was, in most cases, relatively mild and responded rapidly to intravenous administration of a novel bivalent caprylic acid purified whole IgG equine antivenom for tiger (Notechis scutatus) and brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis), one fatality prior to antivenom treatment was recorded. The latter case occurred within 1 h of envenomation prior to receiving antivenom treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.03.022DOI Listing
July 2016
15 Reads

Fatal presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat with measurement of venom and antivenom concentration.

Toxicon 2016 Apr 4;113:7-10. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.

A fatal outcome of a presumed tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a cat is described. Detectable venom components and antivenom concentrations in serum from clotted and centrifuged whole blood and urine were measured using a sensitive and specific ELISA. The cat presented in a paralysed state with a markedly elevated serum CK but with normal clotting times. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.01.065DOI Listing
April 2016
8 Reads

Snakebite! Crotalinae Envenomation of a Man in Rhode Island.

R I Med J (2013) 2016 Jan 4;99(1):25-7. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Director for the Division of Medical Toxicology, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.

The incidence of poisonous snakebites has regional variance. Health care providers' knowledge and comfort in treating these envenomated patients depends on the density of poisonous snakes in their environment, with practitioners in the southern U.S. Read More

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January 2016
7 Reads

Deep venomics of the Pseudonaja genus reveals inter- and intra-specific variation.

J Proteomics 2016 Feb 26;133:20-32. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Unlabelled: Australian elapid venom remains an under-investigated resource of novel bioactive peptides. In this study, the venom gland transcriptomes and proteomes of the Australian western brown snakes, Pseudonaja aspidorhyncha and Pseudonaja nuchalis, were compared to Pseudonaja textilis. A deep venomics strategy incorporating high throughput 454 pyrosequencing gave a total of 200,911 raw reads for the three venoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2015.11.019DOI Listing
February 2016
13 Reads
6 Citations
3.890 Impact Factor

Reply to Isbister and Page: Further discussion of an illuminated case of presumed brown snake (Pseudonaja spp.) envenoming.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2015 Nov;53(9):926-7

b Departments of Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care , Flinders University Medical Center , Bedford Park , Adelaide , South Australia , Australia.

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/15563650.2015.10
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2015.1096369DOI Listing
November 2015
3 Reads

Incidence of serum sickness after the administration of Australian snake antivenom (ASP-22).

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2016 22;54(1):27-33. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

a Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle , Newcastle , NSW , Australia.

Context: Serum sickness is a delayed immune reaction resulting from the injection of foreign protein or serum. Antivenom is known to cause serum sickness but the incidence and characteristics are poorly defined.

Objective: To investigate the incidence and clinical features of serum sickness following the administration of Australian snake antivenoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2015.1101771DOI Listing
April 2016
5 Reads

Brown snake envenoming: Why are we left in the dark?

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2015 Nov 9;53(9):925. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

a Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle , Newcastle , Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2015.1096366DOI Listing
November 2015
2 Reads

An instructive case of presumed brown snake (Pseudonaja spp.) envenoming.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2015 8;53(8):834-9. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park , Adelaide, South Australia , Australia.

Context: Several species of medically important Australian elapid snakes are frequently involved in human envenoming. The brown snake group (Pseudonaja spp., 9 species) is most commonly responsible for envenoming including life-threatening or fatal cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2015.1059947DOI Listing
November 2015
4 Reads

Intracranial haemorrhages associated with venom induced consumption coagulopathy in Australian snakebites (ASP-21).

Toxicon 2015 Aug 21;102:8-13. Epub 2015 May 21.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia. Electronic address:

Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a rare life-threatening consequence of venom induced consumption coagulopathy in snake-bite. It is unclear why certain patients haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate ICH in snake envenoming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.05.012DOI Listing
August 2015
13 Reads

Therapeutic Plasma Exchange for Refractory Hemolysis After Brown Recluse Spider (Loxosceles reclusa) Envenomation.

J Med Toxicol 2015 Sep;11(3):364-7

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Resident, PGY 3, School of Medicine, University of Kansas, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, MS 4004, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA,

Introduction: The brown recluse spider (BRS) (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomation can lead to multiple complications, including hemolysis. We present a case of refractory hemolysis after a BRS bite treated with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE).

Case Report: A 17-year-old female presented with fever, fatigue, and dyspnea. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13181-015-0485-9
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-015-0485-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4547953PMC
September 2015
16 Reads

Prothrombin activator-like toxin appears to mediate cardiovascular collapse following envenoming by Pseudonaja textilis.

Toxicon 2015 Aug 7;102:48-54. Epub 2015 May 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, VIC, 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Brown snake (Pseudonaja spp.)-induced early cardiovascular collapse is a life-threatening medical emergency in Australia. We have previously shown that this effect can be mimicked in animals and is mediated via the release of endogenous mediators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.05.001DOI Listing
August 2015
8 Reads

Effect of diterpenes isolated of the marine alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis against some toxic effects of the venom of the bothrops jararaca snake.

Molecules 2015 Feb 18;20(3):3515-26. Epub 2015 Feb 18.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute of Biology, Federal Fluminense University, Niteroi 24020-141, RJ, Brazil.

Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins and peptides which induce a wide range of toxic effects. Envenomation by Bothrops jararaca venom results in hemorrhage, edema, pain, tissue necrosis and hemolysis. In this work, the effect of a mixture of two secodolastane diterpenes (linearol/isolinearol), previously isolated from the Brazilian marine brown alga, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, was evaluated against some of the toxic effects induced by B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules20033515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6272259PMC
February 2015
2 Reads

Pediatric envenomations: don't get bitten by an unclear plan of care.

Authors:
Michael Levine

Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2014 Aug;11(8):1-12; quiz 13

Children are frequently victims of terrestrial animal and insect bites and stings. While the majority of these bites or stings are nondangerous, pediatric patients occasionally encounter a venomous animal. In such cases, children may present to the emergency department for evaluation and management. Read More

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August 2014
5 Reads

Preclinical efficacy of Australian antivenoms against the venom of the small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka, from Papua New Guinea: an antivenomics and neutralization study.

J Proteomics 2014 Oct 28;110:198-208. Epub 2014 Jun 28.

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address:

Unlabelled: There is no specific antivenom for the treatment of envenoming by the small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka, a dangerous fossorial species endemic to Papua New Guinea, Irian Jaya (West Papua) and neighbouring islands. This study evaluated one marine (sea snake) and four terrestrial (tiger snake, brown snake, black snake and polyvalent) antivenoms, manufactured in Australia by bioCSL Limited, for their ability to immunoreact ('antivenomic' analysis) and neutralize enzymatic and toxic activities of M. ikaheka venom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2014.06.016DOI Listing
October 2014
25 Reads

Pharmacological approaches that slow lymphatic flow as a snakebite first aid.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 Feb 27;8(2):e2722. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia ; Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: This study examines the use of topical pharmacological agents as a snakebite first aid where slowing venom reaching the circulation prevents systemic toxicity. It is based on the fact that toxin molecules in most snake venoms are large molecules and generally first enter and traverse the lymphatic system before accessing the circulation. It follows on from a previous study where it was shown that topical application of a nitric oxide donor slowed lymph flow to a similar extent in humans and rats as well as increased the time to respiratory arrest for subcutaneous injection of an elapid venom (Pseudonaja textilis, Ptx; Eastern brown snake) into the hind feet of anaesthetized rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3937289PMC
February 2014
4 Reads

Snakebite in Australia: a practical approach to diagnosis and treatment.

Med J Aust 2013 Dec;199(11):763-8

NSW Poisons Information Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Snakebite is a potential medical emergency and must receive high-priority assessment and treatment, even in patients who initially appear well. Patients should be treated in hospitals with onsite laboratory facilities, appropriate antivenom stocks and a clinician capable of treating complications such as anaphylaxis. All patients with suspected snakebite should be admitted to a suitable clinical unit, such as an emergency short-stay unit, for at least 12 hours after the bite. Read More

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December 2013
28 Reads

Immune response to snake envenoming and treatment with antivenom; complement activation, cytokine production and mast cell degranulation.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 25;7(7):e2326. Epub 2013 Jul 25.

Centre for Clinical Research in Emergency Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and the University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities worldwide. In addition to the clinical effects of envenoming, treatment with antivenom frequently causes serious adverse reactions, including hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis) and pyrogenic reactions. We aimed to investigate the immune responses to Sri Lankan snake envenoming (predominantly by Russell's viper) and antivenom treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3723557PMC
February 2014
41 Reads
12 Citations

An examination of cardiovascular collapse induced by eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom.

Toxicol Lett 2013 Aug 2;221(3):205-11. Epub 2013 Jul 2.

Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.

The Pseudonaja genus (Brown snakes) is widely distributed across Australia and bites account for significant mortality. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) and, less often, early cardiovascular collapse occur following envenoming by these snakes. We have previously examined possible mechanism(s) behind the early cardiovascular collapse following Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) envenoming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.06.235DOI Listing
August 2013
9 Reads

A novel hyaluronidase from brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) venom (Dietrich's Hyaluronidase): from cloning to functional characterization.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 2;7(5):e2206. Epub 2013 May 2.

Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.

Loxoscelism is the designation given to clinical symptoms evoked by Loxosceles spider's bites. Clinical manifestations include skin necrosis with gravitational spreading and systemic disturbs. The venom contains several enzymatic toxins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3642055PMC
November 2013
24 Reads

Mulga snake (Pseudechis australis) envenoming: a spectrum of myotoxicity, anticoagulant coagulopathy, haemolysis and the role of early antivenom therapy - Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-19).

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2013 Jun 15;51(5):417-24. Epub 2013 Apr 15.

School of Medicine Sydney, University of Notre Dame Australia, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia.

Context: Mulga snakes (Pseudechis australis) are venomous snakes with a wide distribution in Australia. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe mulga snake envenoming and the response of envenoming to antivenom therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2013.787535DOI Listing
June 2013
12 Reads

A randomized controlled trial of fresh frozen plasma for treating venom-induced consumption coagulopathy in cases of Australian snakebite (ASP-18).

J Thromb Haemost 2013 Jul;11(7):1310-8

Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) is a major effect of snake envenoming.

Objectives: To investigate whether fresh frozen plasma (FFP) given after antivenom resulted in more rapid correction of coagulation.

Patients/methods: This was a multicenter open-label randomized controlled trial in patients with VICC of FFP vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.12218DOI Listing
July 2013
14 Reads

Clinical effects and antivenom dosing in brown snake (Pseudonaja spp.) envenoming--Australian snakebite project (ASP-14).

PLoS One 2012 28;7(12):e53188. Epub 2012 Dec 28.

Emergency Department, Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Snakebite is a global health issue and treatment with antivenom continues to be problematic. Brown snakes (genus Pseudonaja) are the most medically important group of Australian snakes and there is controversy over the dose of brown snake antivenom. We aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of definite brown snake (Pseudonaja spp. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0053188PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3532501PMC
June 2013
6 Reads

Effect of Australian elapid venoms on blood coagulation: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-17).

Toxicon 2013 Jan 11;61:94-104. Epub 2012 Nov 11.

School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.

Snake venoms contain toxins that activate the coagulation network and cause venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. A previously developed mathematical model of the coagulation network was refined and used to describe and predict the time course of changes in the coagulation factors following envenomation by Brown snake (Pseudonaja spp.), Tiger snake (Notechis scutatus), Rough-scaled snake (Tropidechis carinatus) and Hoplocephalus spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.11.001DOI Listing
January 2013
2 Reads

Death adder envenoming causes neurotoxicity not reversed by antivenom--Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-16).

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012 27;6(9):e1841. Epub 2012 Sep 27.

School of Medicine Sydney, University of Notre Dame Australia, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Death adders (Acanthophis spp) are found in Australia, Papua New Guinea and parts of eastern Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate the clinical syndrome of death adder envenoming and response to antivenom treatment.

Methodology/principal Findings: Definite death adder bites were recruited from the Australian Snakebite Project (ASP) as defined by expert identification or detection of death adder venom in blood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3459885PMC
January 2013
6 Reads

Bites in Australian snake handlers--Australian snakebite project (ASP-15).

QJM 2012 Nov 8;105(11):1089-95. Epub 2012 Aug 8.

Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah NSW 2298, Australia.

Background: Snakebites in snake handlers are an important clinical problem that may differ to bites in the general population.

Aim: To investigate the epidemiology and clinical presentation of bites in snake handlers.

Design: Prospective observational study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcs132DOI Listing
November 2012
3 Reads

Tiger snake (Notechis spp) envenoming: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-13).

Med J Aust 2012 Aug;197(3):173-7

Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW.

Objectives: To describe the clinical syndrome associated with definite tiger snake (Notechis spp) envenoming and to examine the ability of tiger snake antivenom (TSAV) to bind free venom in vivo.

Design, Setting And Participants: We conducted a prospective cohort study within the Australian Snakebite Project, reviewing all definite tiger snake envenoming cases between October 2004 and June 2011. Definite cases were identified by venom-specific enzyme immunoassay or expert snake identification. Read More

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August 2012
2 Reads

A randomised controlled trial of two infusion rates to decrease reactions to antivenom.

PLoS One 2012 18;7(6):e38739. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Snake envenoming is a major clinical problem in Sri Lanka, with an estimated 40,000 bites annually. Antivenom is only available from India and there is a high rate of systemic hypersensitivity reactions. This study aimed to investigate whether the rate of infusion of antivenom reduced the frequency of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0038739PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3377702PMC
December 2012
10 Reads
15 Citations
3.234 Impact Factor

Consequences of neglect: analysis of the sub-Saharan African snake antivenom market and the global context.

Authors:
Nicholas I Brown

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012 5;6(6):e1670. Epub 2012 Jun 5.

Masters of Bioscience Enterprise Program, Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: The worldwide neglect of immunotherapeutic products for the treatment of snakebite has resulted in a critical paucity of effective, safe and affordable therapy in many Third World countries, particularly in Africa. Snakebite ranks high among the most neglected global health problems, with thousands of untreated victims dying or becoming permanently maimed in developing countries each year because of a lack of antivenom-a treatment that is widely available in most developed countries. This paper analyses the current status of antivenom production for sub-Saharan African countries and provides a snapshot of the global situation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3367979PMC
September 2012
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Clinical effects and treatment of envenoming by Hoplocephalus spp. snakes in Australia: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-12).

Toxicon 2011 Dec 28;58(8):634-40. Epub 2011 Sep 28.

Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Australia.

There is limited information on envenoming by snakes of the genus Hoplocephalus from Eastern Australia. We investigated the clinical and laboratory features of patients with definite Hoplocephalus spp. bites including antivenom treatment, recruited to the Australian Snakebite Project. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.09.013DOI Listing
December 2011
2 Reads

Histopathological analysis and in situ localisation of Australian tiger snake venom in two clinically envenomed domestic animals.

Toxicon 2011 Sep 29;58(4):304-14. Epub 2011 Jul 29.

Centre for Forensic Science, University of Western Australia, Australia.

Objective: To assess histopathological changes in clinically envenomed tiger snake patients and identify tissue specific localisation of venom toxins using immunohistochemistry.

Samples: One feline and one canine patient admitted to the Murdoch Pet Emergency Centre (MPEC), Murdoch University with tiger snake (Notechis sp.) envenoming. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S004101011100226
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.07.008DOI Listing
September 2011
3 Reads

Ending the drought: new strategies for improving the flow of affordable, effective antivenoms in Asia and Africa.

J Proteomics 2011 Aug 19;74(9):1735-67. Epub 2011 May 19.

Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, 3010, Australia.

The development of snake antivenoms more than a century ago should have heralded effective treatment of the scourge of snakebite envenoming in impoverished, mostly rural populations around the world. That snakebite still exists today, as a widely untreated illness that maims, kills and terrifies men, women and children in vulnerable communities, is a cruel anachronism. Antivenom can be an effective, safe and affordable treatment for snakebites, but apathy, inaction and the politicisation of public health have marginalised both the problem (making snakebite arguably the most neglected of all neglected tropical diseases) and its solution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2011.05.027DOI Listing
August 2011
15 Reads