4,834 results match your criteria Smoke Inhalation


Exposure to Air Pollution Exacerbates Inflammation in Rats with Preexisting COPD.

Mediators Inflamm 2020 8;2020:4260204. Epub 2020 May 8.

Henan Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine for Respiratory Disease, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450046, China.

Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal or less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) is associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4260204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231193PMC

Inhibitory effects of cigarette smoke extracts on neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

Reprod Toxicol 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Maternal smoking during the perinatal period is linked to adverse neonatal outcomes such as low birth weight and birth defects. Numerous studies have shown that cigarette smoke or nicotine exposure has a widespread effect on fetal nerve development. However, there exists a lack of understanding of what specific changes occur at the cellular level on persistent exposure to cigarette smoke during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into neural cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Operating during COVID-19: Is there a risk of viral transmission from surgical smoke during surgery?

Can J Surg 2020 05 25;63(3):E299-E301. Epub 2020 May 25.

From the Department of General Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ont.

Summary: The World Health Organization declared a pandemic when coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started to sweep the globe. Growing concerns for the safety of health care workers was raised when up to 80% of people with COVID-19 showed mild or no symptoms at all. Some surgical procedures will be inevitable during the pandemic, and proper safety measures must be in place to avoid transmission risks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cjs.007020DOI Listing

Cigarette smoke inhalation impairs angiogenesis in early bone healing processes and delays fracture union.

Bone Joint Res 2020 Mar 16;9(3):99-107. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Orthopaedics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Skeleton Materials and Bio-compatibility Core Lab, Research Center of Clinical Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Aims: Cigarette smoking has a negative impact on the skeletal system, causes a decrease in bone mass in both young and old patients, and is considered a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. In addition, it disturbs the bone healing process and prolongs the healing time after fractures. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoking impairs fracture healing are not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2046-3758.93.BJR-2019-0089.R1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229299PMC

Résumé Des Tables Rondes Du 39ème Congrès De La SFB.

Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2019 Dec;32(4):321-330

Réanimation Chirurgicale et des Brûlés, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France.

This congress shared 3 main topics: inflammation - especially in the rehabilitation phase, fires and smoke inhalation, and flaps in sequelae. The first is reported by Valérie Chauvineau, the second by Ronan Le Floch and the third by Louise Pasquesoone. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197910PMC
December 2019

Inhalation Toxicology of Vaping Products and Implications for Pulmonary Health.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 15;21(10). Epub 2020 May 15.

Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada.

E-cigarettes have a liquid that may contain flavors, solvents, and nicotine. Heating this liquid generates an aerosol that is inhaled into the lungs in a process commonly referred to as vaping. E-cigarette devices can also contain cannabis-based products including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis (marijuana). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103495DOI Listing

Multi-omics systems toxicology study of mouse lung assessing the effects of aerosols from two heat-not-burn tobacco products and cigarette smoke.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2020 25;18:1056-1073. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, CH-2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Cigarette smoke (CS) causes adverse health effects and, for smoker who do not quit, modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) can be an alternative to reduce the risk of developing smoking-related diseases. Standard toxicological endpoints can lack sensitivity, with systems toxicology approaches yielding broader insights into toxicological mechanisms. In a 6-month systems toxicology study on ApoE mice, we conducted an integrative multi-omics analysis to assess the effects of aerosols from the Carbon Heated Tobacco Product (CHTP) 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2020.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218232PMC

E-vapor aerosols do not compromise bone integrity relative to cigarette smoke after 6-month inhalation in an ApoE mouse model.

Arch Toxicol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Siegfried Weller Research Institute, BG Unfallklinik, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, 72076, Tuebingen, Germany.

Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is one of the leading risk factors for human health. Nicotine-containing inhalable products, such as e-cigarettes, can effectively support tobacco harm reduction approaches. However, there are limited comparative data on the effects of the aerosols generated from electronic vapor products (e-vapor) and CS on bone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02769-4DOI Listing
May 2020
5.980 Impact Factor

Reducing paediatric exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the effects of paediatric exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the role of paediatric peri-operative care.

Paediatr Anaesth 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Sheffield Children's Hospital NHS Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also known as passive or second-hand smoking, describes the inhalation of the products of burnt tobacco. This article describes the scale of the population of children exposed to ETS and the risks to their general and their peri-operative health. We explore the concept of a "teachable moment" in peri-operative medicine;an ideal opportunity to deliver a public health intervention at a time where families feel motivated to make a behavioural change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.13907DOI Listing

Pediatric victims involved in urban fires in Paris and its suburbs: Epidemiology, prehospital care, and lessons learned.

Arch Pediatr 2020 May 21;27(4):196-201. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Paris fire brigade medical emergency department, 1, place Jules-Renard 75017 Paris, France.

Aim: The literature includes few reports on the prehospital care of pediatric casualties of urban house fires. Here we aimed to describe the epidemiology of pediatric fire victims, focusing on their injuries, prehospital care, and survival.

Methods: This retrospective study included children under 15 years of age who were victims of urban house fires and who received care from prehospital medical teams. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcped.2020.03.007DOI Listing

Impact of cigarette smoke and aerobic physical training on histological and molecular markers of prostate health in rats.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2020 17;53(5):e9108. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Motricidade, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brasil.

Recent evidence suggests that aerobic physical training may attenuate the deleterious effects of cancer risk factors, including smoking. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and aerobic physical training on the expression of steroid receptors and inflammatory and apoptotic proteins in the prostate. Forty male Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: control (CO), exercise (EXE), cigarette smoke exposure (CS), and cigarette smoke exposure with exercise (CS+EXE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1414-431X20209108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184962PMC

There is no fire without smoke! Pathophysiology and treatment of inhalational injury in burns: A narrative review.

Anaesth Intensive Care 2020 Apr 21:310057X20913282. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0310057X20913282DOI Listing

Surgical smoke and the anesthesia provider.

Authors:
Barry N Swerdlow

J Anesth 2020 Apr 15. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Nurse Anesthesia Program, Oregon Health and Science University, SON #521, 3455 SW US Veterans Hospital Rd, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Surgical smoke generated by use of electrosurgical units (ESUs), lasers, and ultrasonic scalpels constitutes a physical, chemical, and biological hazard for anesthesia personnel. Inhalation of particulate matter with inflammatory consequences, pulmonary injury from products of tissue pyrolysis, exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, and the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) and possibly other pathogens represent a spectrum of adverse effects associated with the occupational exposure to surgical plume. While adequate operating room ventilation and use of high filtration-efficiency masks offer some protection from these conditions, the most effective method of safeguarding against surgical smoke involves its removal with a dedicated smoke evacuation device (SED). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00540-020-02775-xDOI Listing

Bronchiolitis and Bronchiolar Disorders.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Apr 12;41(2):311-332. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Department of Thoracic Diseases, "GB. Morgagni" Hospital, Forlì, Italy.

Bronchioles are noncartilaginous small airways with internal diameter of 2 mm or less, located from approximately the eighth generation of purely air conducting airways (membranous bronchioles) down to the terminal bronchioles (the smallest airways without alveoli) and respiratory bronchioles (which communicate directly with alveolar ducts and are in the range of 0.5 mm or less in diameter). Bronchiolar injury, inflammation, and fibrosis may occur in myriad disorders including connective tissue diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, lung transplant allograft rejection, graft versus host disease in allogeneic stem cell recipients, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, infections, drug toxicity (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3402728DOI Listing

Comparison of the cardiac effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure with waterpipe and combustible cigarette smoke exposure in rats.

Life Sci 2020 Jun 5;251:117644. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Center for the Study of Tobacco Products, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Aims: Electronic cigarette (ECIG) has been used as an alternative to tobacco smoking as it lacks the majority of toxicants found in tobacco smoke. However, the effect of ECIG aerosol inhalation on cardiac health are not well studied. The present study aimed to compare the effects of ECIGs with that of combustible tobacco cigarette (T-Cigs) and waterpipe (WP) smoke on cardiac biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117644DOI Listing
June 2020
2.702 Impact Factor

Quantitative CT Evidence of Airway Inflammation in WTC Workers and Volunteers with Low FVC Spirometric Pattern.

Lung 2020 Jun 1;198(3):555-563. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine At Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: The most common abnormal spirometric pattern reported in WTC worker and volunteer cohorts has consistently been that of a nonobstructive reduced forced vital capacity (low FVC). Low FVC is associated with obesity, which is highly prevalent in these cohorts. We used quantitative CT (QCT) to investigate proximal and distal airway inflammation and emphysema in participants with stable low FVC pattern. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00408-020-00350-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245558PMC

Emerging therapies for smoke inhalation injury: a review.

J Transl Med 2020 Mar 30;18(1):141. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 4041 Burnett Womack, 101 Manning Drive, CB# 7050, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7050, USA.

Background: Smoke inhalation injury increases overall burn mortality by up to 20 times. Current therapy remains supportive with a failure to identify an optimal or targeted treatment protocol for smoke inhalation injury. The goal of this review is to describe emerging therapies that are being developed to treat the pulmonary pathology induced by smoke inhalation injury with or without concurrent burn injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02300-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104527PMC

Development of a standardized new cigarette smoke generating (SNCSG) system for the assessment of chemicals in the smoke of new cigarette types (heat-not-burn (HNB) tobacco and electronic cigarettes (E-Cigs)).

Environ Res 2020 Jun 20;185:109413. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Toxicology Evaluation, Konyang University, Daejeon, 35365, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To systematically regulate new types of cigarettes for which their safety has yet to be verified, such as heat-not-burn (HNB) products and electronic cigarettes (E-Cigs), the identification of chemicals in the new cigarette smoke is necessary. However, this is challenging due to the large number of new cigarette types and their different vaporization approaches. To address this issue, we herein report the development of a standardized new cigarette smoke generating (SNCSG) system based on heating-temperature control, which is able to generate smoke for all types of new cigarettes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109413DOI Listing

Exacerbation of symptomatic arthritis by cigarette smoke in experimental arthritis.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(3):e0230719. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

CiSTEM laboratory, Catholic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) Research Center, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Epidemiologically, cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there has been few plausible explanations why cigarette smoking aggravated RA. We investigated the causal effect of smoking in experimental model of arthritis development. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230719PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7100974PMC

Risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe burns: prospective cohort study.

Int J Burns Trauma 2020 15;10(1):1-14. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina Rua Robert Koch 60, Vila Operária, Londrina, Paraná, Brasil.

Introduction: Age and inhalation injury are important risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the burned patient; however, the impact of interventions such as mechanical ventilation, fluid balance (FB), and packed red blood cell transfusion remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of moderate and severe ARDS and its risk factors among burn-related demographic variables and clinical interventions in mechanically ventilated burn patients. Risk factors for death within 28 days were also evaluated. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076319PMC
February 2020

Blood carboxyhemoglobin elimination curve, half-lifetime, and arterial-venous differences in acute phase of carbon monoxide poisoning in ovine smoke inhalation injury model.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 May 18;526(1):141-146. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Smoke inhalation injury (SII) affects more than 50,000 people annually causing carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Although the increased blood level of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) is frequently used to confirm the diagnosis of SII, knowledge of its elimination in the acute phase is still limited. The aim of this study is to determine CO-Hb elimination rates and their differences in arterial (aCO-Hb) and mixed-venous (vCO-Hb) blood following severe SII in a clinically relevant ovine model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.03.048DOI Listing

Smoke inhalation injury in a 2-year-old domestic fire victim.

Arch Pediatr 2020 May 16;27(4):223-226. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Raymond-Poincaré Hospital, AP-HP, 92380 Garches, France.

Smoke inhalation injury is common in victims of domestic fires, among whom children are the most vulnerable. Cyanide poisoning may occur in addition to carbon monoxide poisoning and is challenging to diagnose. In France, the recommended antidotes are hydroxocobalamin for cyanide and hyperbaric oxygen for carbon monoxide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcped.2020.01.008DOI Listing

Carbon monoxide poisoning.

Authors:
Lindell K Weaver

Undersea Hyperb Med 2020 First Quarter;47(1):151-169

Division of Hyperbaric Medicine, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah, and Intermountain LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah U.S.

Despite established exposure limits and safety standards as well as the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms can include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Read More

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Toxic inhalational injury.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Mar 10;13(3). Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Stoke University Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

A middle-aged patient presented with toxic inhalational injury, and was resuscitated prehospitally and treated in the emergency department for smoke inhalation, carbon monoxide (CO) exposure and cyanide poisoning with the use of antidotes. Due to the CO effects on spectrophotometry, an anaemia initially identified on blood gas analysis was thought to be artefactual, but was later confirmed by laboratory testing to be accurate. In addition, cyanide can confound haemoglobin testing due to its use in the analytical process and non-cyanide analysis is required when there is suspected exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-232875DOI Listing

Assessment of the Acute Inhalation Toxicity of Airborne Particles by Exposing Cultivated Human Lung Cells at the Air-Liquid Interface.

J Vis Exp 2020 Feb 23(156). Epub 2020 Feb 23.

Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology; Walther Straub Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Munich.

Here, we present a specially designed modular in vitro exposure system that enables the homogenous exposure of cultivated human lung cells at the ALI to gases, particles or complex atmospheres (e.g., cigarette smoke), thus providing realistic physiological exposure of the apical surface of the human alveolar region to air. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/60572DOI Listing
February 2020

Management of severe thermal burns in the acute phase in adults and children.

Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2020 Apr 5;39(2):253-267. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Critical Care and Burn Centre, Lariboisière-Saint-Louis Hospitals, DMU Parabol, AP-HP Nord, University of Paris, Paris, France; Inserm UMR-S 942, Cardiovascular Markers in Stress Conditions (MASCOT), University of Paris, Paris, France; Department of Research, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Objectives: To provide recommendations to facilitate the management of severe thermal burns during the acute phase in adults and children.

Design: A committee of 20 experts was asked to produce recommendations in six fields of burn management, namely, (1) assessment, admission to specialised burns centres, and telemedicine; (2) haemodynamic management; (3) airway management and smoke inhalation; (4) anaesthesia and analgesia; (5) burn wound treatments; and (6) other treatments. At the start of the recommendation-formulation process, a formal conflict-of-interest policy was developed and enforced throughout the process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.accpm.2020.03.006DOI Listing

MicroRNA-155 Participates in Smoke-Inhalation-Induced Acute Lung Injury through Inhibition of SOCS-1.

Molecules 2020 Feb 25;25(5). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China.

Smoke inhalation causes acute lung injury (ALI), a severe clinical disease with high mortality. Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNA-155 (miR-155) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), as mediators of inflammatory response, are involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. In this paper, we explored the proinflammatory mechanism of miR-155 in smoke-inhalation-induced ALI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179228PMC
February 2020

Electronic Cigarettes to Vaporize Cannabis: Prevalence of Use and Associated Factors among Current Electronic Cigarette Users in Germany (DEBRA Study).

Subst Use Misuse 2020 24;55(7):1106-1112. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Medical Faculty of the Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Institute of General Practice, Addiction Research and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Düsseldorf, Germany.

In Germany, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, and inhalation together with tobacco is most popular. However, it has been described that electronic cigarettes (ECs) are being used to vaporize cannabis (extract). No current data on EC cannabis use in the German population are yet available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2020.1729197DOI Listing
February 2020

Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Triggers Thrombogenicity, Cardiac Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Mice: Effects of Flavouring.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 14;21(4). Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, Muscat 123, Al-Khod, Oman.

The consumption of water-pipe smoking (WPS) has been promoted by the use of flavoured tobacco. However, little is known about the impact of flavouring on the cardiovascular toxicity induced by WPS inhalation. Here, we compared the cardiovascular effects and underlying mechanism of actions of plain (P) (unflavoured) versus apple-flavoured (AF) WPS (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 1 month) in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072969PMC
February 2020
2.862 Impact Factor

Airway Hyperresponsiveness, Inflammation, and Pulmonary Emphysema in Rodent Models Designed to Mimic Exposure to Fuel Oil-Derived Volatile Organic Compounds Encountered during an Experimental Oil Spill.

Environ Health Perspect 2020 Feb 12;128(2):27003. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Respiratory Research Unit, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario and the Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain.

Background: Fuel oil-derived volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inhalation is associated with accidental marine spills. After the petroleum tanker sank off northern Spain in 2002 and the oil rig catastrophe in 2009, subjects involved in environmental decontamination showed signs of ongoing or residual lung disease up to 5 y after the exposure.

Objectives: We aimed at investigating mechanisms driving persistent respiratory disease by developing an animal model of inhalational exposure to fuel oil-derived VOCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP4178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064321PMC
February 2020

Cats with thermal burn injuries from California wildfires show echocardiographic evidence of myocardial thickening and intracardiac thrombi.

Sci Rep 2020 Feb 14;10(1):2648. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

University of California, Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Medicine and Epidemiology, Davis, CA, USA.

Recent increases in the prevalence and severity of wildfires in some regions have resulted in an increased frequency of veterinary burn patients. Few studies exist regarding diagnostics and management of burn wounds in veterinary patients and current knowledge is extrapolated from human literature and research models. Post-burn cardiac injury is a common finding and predictor of mortality in human patients and echocardiography is an important tool in monitoring response to therapy and predicting outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59497-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7021798PMC
February 2020

Roof cavity dust as an exposure proxy for extreme air pollution events.

Chemosphere 2020 Apr 5;244:125537. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, 7000, Australia.

Understanding exposure to air pollution during extreme events such as fire emergencies is critical for assessing their potential health impacts. However, air pollution emergencies often affect places without a network of air quality monitoring and characterising exposure retrospectively is methodologically challenging due to the complex behaviour of smoke and other air pollutants. Here we test the potential of roof cavity (attic) dust to act as a robust household-level exposure proxy, using a major air pollution event associated with a coal mine fire in the Latrobe Valley, Australia, as an illustrative study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125537DOI Listing

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Characterization of Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Cannabinoid Dependence After Chronic Passive Cannabis Smoke Exposure in Rats.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2019 6;4(4):240-254. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the US, and cannabis use among young adults continues to rise. Previous studies have shown that chronic administration of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of cannabis, induces dependence in animal models. Because smoking is the most frequent route of THC self-administration, it is critical to investigate the effects of cannabis smoke inhalation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/can.2019.0049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933521PMC
December 2019

Imaging methods used in the assessment of environmental disease networks: a brief review for clinicians.

Insights Imaging 2020 Feb 7;11(1):18. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Directorate of Research, Hospital General de Mexico "Dr. Eduardo Liceaga", Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Across the globe, diseases secondary to environmental exposures have been described, and it was also found that existing diseases have been modified by exposure to environmental chemicals or an environmental factor that has been found in their pathogenesis. The Institute of Medicine has shared a permanent concern related to the nations environmental health capacity since 1988.

Main Body: Contemporary imaging methods in the last 15 years started reporting alterations in different human systems such as the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and pulmonary system among others; evidence suggests the existence of a human environmental disease network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-019-0814-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7007482PMC
February 2020

Relation Between Low Pulmonary Function and Skeletal Muscle Index in Burn Patients with Major Burn Injury and Smoke Inhalation: A Retrospective Study.

J Burn Care Res 2020 May;41(3):695-699

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, Korea.

This report is to evaluate the relation between pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and skeletal muscle index (SMI) in patients with major burn injury and smoke inhalation. A total of 54 inhalation burn patients were analyzed. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) is a sum of the muscle mass of both arms and legs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/iraa015DOI Listing

Exposure to secondhand smoke among patients with asthma: a cross-sectional study.

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2020 27;18:eAO4781. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Universidade Federal da Bahia , Salvador , BA , Brazil .

Objective: To estimate the frequency of secondhand smoke exposure among patients with asthma.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of asthma patients and non-asthmatic controls using questionnaires to identify secondhand smoke exposure at home, school, work, and public places.

Results: We studied 544 severe asthma patients, 452 mild/moderate asthma patients, and 454 non-asthmatic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31744/einstein_journal/2020AO4781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6986455PMC

A 6-month systems toxicology inhalation study in ApoE mice demonstrates reduced cardiovascular effects of E-vapor aerosols compared with cigarette smoke.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 03 24;318(3):H604-H631. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Philip Morris International Research and Development, Philip Morris Products, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Smoking cigarettes is harmful to the cardiovascular system. Considerable attention has been paid to the reduced harm potential of alternative nicotine-containing inhalable products such as e-cigarettes. We investigated the effects of E-vapor aerosols or cigarette smoke (CS) on atherosclerosis progression, cardiovascular function, and molecular changes in the heart and aorta of female apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00613.2019DOI Listing
March 2020
3.838 Impact Factor

Therapeutic sildenafil inhibits pulmonary damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure and bacterial inhalation in rats.

Pharm Biol 2020 Dec;58(1):116-123

Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, China.

Clinical reports showed sildenafil beneficial therapy on severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients. The study investigated therapeutic effects of silenafil on pulmonary damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure and bacterial inhalation in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into control group (no exposure,  = 10) and exposure group ( = 50) suffered from cigarette smoke exposure and inhalation for 8 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2019.1711135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7006811PMC
December 2020

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and hyperlipidemia modified by perceived work stress.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(1):e0227348. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Accumulating evidence has shown that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) However, few studies have assessed both exposure to ETS and high-perceived work stress on hyperlipidemia. The aim of the present study is to assess the interaction effect of ETS exposure and high-perceived work stress on the risk of hyperlipidemia.

Methods: A total of 11,875 middle-aged civil servants from 647 registered institutions employed by the Taiwan government were randomly selected using multistage stratified cluster sampling based on proportional probabilistic sampling. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227348PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6964979PMC

JUUL and Combusted Cigarettes Comparably Impair Endothelial Function.

Tob Regul Sci 2020 Jan;6(1):30-37

Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Objectives: JUUL and earlier generation electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are promoted as being less hazardous than cigarettes. While JUUL Labs, in particular, claims that switching from smoking to vaping has beneficial impacts, the health effects of such products are not well understood. We investigated whether exposure to JUUL and previous generation e-cig aerosol impairs endothelial function comparably to cigarette smoke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18001/TRS.6.1.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953758PMC
January 2020

Biomimetic smoking robot for in vitro inhalation exposure compatible with microfluidic organ chips.

Nat Protoc 2020 02 10;15(2):183-206. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

Exposure of lung tissues to cigarette smoke is a major cause of human disease and death worldwide. Unfortunately, adequate model systems that can reliably recapitulate disease biogenesis in vitro, including exposure of the human lung airway to fresh whole cigarette smoke (WCS) under physiological breathing airflow, are lacking. This protocol extension builds upon, and can be used with, our earlier protocol for microfabrication of human organs-on-chips. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41596-019-0230-yDOI Listing
February 2020

Effect of combustion-derived particles on genotoxicity and telomere length: A study on human cells and exposed populations.

Toxicol Lett 2020 Apr 7;322:20-31. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Public Health, Section of Environmental Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, DK-1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Electronic address:

Particulate matter (PM) from combustion processes has been associated with oxidative stress to DNA, whereas effects related to telomere dysfunction are less investigated. We collected air-borne PM from a passenger cabin of a diesel-propelled train and at a training facility for smoke diving exercises. Effects on oxidative stress biomarkers, genotoxicity measured by the comet assay and telomere length in PM-exposed A549 cells were compared with the genotoxicity and telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human volunteers exposed to the same aerosol source. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.01.002DOI Listing

Eucalyptol reduces airway hyperresponsiveness in rats following cigarette smoke-exposed.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2020 Apr 8;61:101887. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, UECE, Brazil.

Background: Cigarette smoke is the major cause of airway inflammatory disease, including airway hyperresponsiveness. Eucalyptol (EUC), also named 1.8-cineole, is a monoterpenoid found in essential oil of medicinal plants, showing several biological effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2020.101887DOI Listing

Enhancing tristetraprolin activity reduces the severity of cigarette smoke-induced experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Clin Transl Immunology 2019 28;8(10):e01084. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Priority Research Centres for Healthy Lungs, Grow Up Well and Cancer Research, Innovation and Translation Hunter Medical Research Institute University of Newcastle NSW Australia.

Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease that causes significant mortality and morbidity worldwide and is primarily caused by the inhalation of cigarette smoke (CS). Lack of effective treatments for COPD means there is an urgent need to identify new therapeutic strategies for the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis. Tristetraprolin (TTP) encoded by the gene is an anti-inflammatory protein that induces mRNA decay, especially of transcripts encoding inflammatory cytokines, including those implicated in COPD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cti2.1084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946917PMC
October 2019

Carcinogenic risk from exposure to PM bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural settings.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Mar 31;190:110135. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Tirupati, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, 517 506, India. Electronic address:

In the study, first-time personal exposure level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured during cooking hours in participants of three different types of kitchen both in the particulate and gaseous phase using traditional and improved cookstoves. Along with that, indoor particulate matter (PM) concentration was also estimated during the cooking hours to examine the impact of intervention in different kitchens. The results of the study clearly revealed that the kitchen characteristics and type of cookstove technology have a significant impact on PM, PM and PAHs concentration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.110135DOI Listing

Association between hydroxocobalamin administration and acute kidney injury after smoke inhalation: a multicenter retrospective study.

Crit Care 2019 Dec 23;23(1):421. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care and Burn Unit, AP-HP, GH Saint Louis-Lariboisière, Paris, France.

Background: The use of hydroxocobalamin has long been advocated for treating suspected cyanide poisoning after smoke inhalation. Intravenous hydroxocobalamin has however been shown to cause oxalate nephropathy in a single-center study. The impact of hydroxocobalamin on the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) and survival after smoke inhalation in a multicenter setting remains unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2706-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6929494PMC
December 2019

Low Tar Level Does Not Reduce Human Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Environmental Tobacco Smoke.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 01 3;54(2):1075-1081. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment , Jinan University , Guangzhou 511443 , China.

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is known to pose potential risk to human health, but the effects of tar level remain to be clarified. In the present study, ETS samples from two cigarette types with different tar levels in a 72.5 m room were collected for measurement of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b05802DOI Listing
January 2020

Atherosclerotic and Hypertensive Cardiovascular Disease are Associated with Death at Sublethal Carboxyhemoglobin Levels: A Postmortem Study.

J Forensic Sci 2020 May 19;65(3):855-859. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office, Michigan Medicine/University of Michigan, 1300 East Warren Avenue, Detroit, MI, 48207.

Residential fires are a significant cause for morbidity and mortality in the United States. Death is often the result of soot and smoke inhalation causing carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity. The approximate lethal level of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in healthy adults has been well described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14261DOI Listing

Management of combined massive burn and blast injury: A 20-year experience.

Burns 2020 02 15;46(1):75-82. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Burn Center, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Blast injuries are complex types of physical trauma resulting from direct or indirect exposure to an explosion, which can be divided into four classes: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary blast injury results in damage, principally, in gas-containing organs such as the lungs (blast lung injury, BLI). BLI is defined as radiological and clinical evidence of acute lung injury occurring within 12h of exposure to an explosion and not due to secondary or tertiary injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2018.11.010DOI Listing
February 2020

Nicotine in tobacco product aerosols: 'It's déjà vu all over again'.

Tob Control 2019 Dec 17. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, USA

Introduction: The distribution of nicotine among its free-base (fb) and protonated forms in aerosolised nicotine affects inhalability. It has been manipulated in tobacco smoke and now in electronic cigarettes by the use of acids to de-freebase nicotine and form 'nicotine salts'.

Methods: Measurements on electronic cigarette fluids (e-liquids) were carried out to determine (1) the fraction of nicotine in the free-base form () and (2) the levels of organic acid(s) and nicotine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055275DOI Listing
December 2019