5,223 results match your criteria Smoke Inhalation

Elevated methemoglobin levels in patients treated with hydroxocobalamin: a case series and analysis.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 May 12:1-7. Epub 2022 May 12.

Wright State Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH, USA.

Background: Historically, the first step in treating cyanide (CN) toxicity utilized antidotes to induce methemoglobinemia. This is concerning in patients who are already hypoxemic or have elevated carboxyhemoglobin. Hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl) is now the first-line antidote for CN toxicity and is not known to induce methemoglobinemia. Read More

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Assessment of inhalation toxicity of cigarette smoke and aerosols from flavor mixtures: 5-week study in A/J mice.

J Appl Toxicol 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Most flavors used in e-liquids are generally recognized as safe for oral consumption, but their potential effects when inhaled are not well characterized. In vivo inhalation studies of flavor ingredients in e-liquids are scarce. A structure-based grouping approach was used to select 38 flavor group representatives (FGR) on the basis of known and in silico-predicted toxicological data. Read More

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Patterns of Use and Self-reported Effectiveness of Cannabis for Hyperemesis Gravidarum.

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2022 May 6;82(5):517-527. Epub 2022 May 6.

Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

There is limited research on effective treatment of Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG), the most extreme version of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). This paper examines current patterns of use and self-reported effectiveness of cannabis/cannabis-based products (CBP) to treat HG. The study employed a 21-question survey to gather information on demographics, antiemetic prescription use, and experience with cannabis/CBPs among individuals who experienced extreme nausea and vomiting or HG during their pregnancy. Read More

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The effects of acute Cannabis smoke or Δ-THC injections on the trial-unique, nonmatching-to- location and five-choice serial reaction time tasks in male Long-Evans rats.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2022 May 2:107624. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. Electronic address:

Executive functions including working memory (WM) and attention are altered following Cannabis exposure in humans. To test for similar effects in a rodent model, we exposed adult male rats to acute Cannabis smoke before testing them on touchscreen-based tasks that assess these executive processes. The trial-unique, delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task was used to evaluate WM, task performance at different spatial pattern separations, and response latencies. Read More

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A Rationale for Safe Ventilation with Inhalation Injury: An Editorial Review.

J Burn Care Res 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

Fellow Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine University of Minnesota, U.S.A.

Lung injury from smoke inhalation manifests as airway and parenchymal damage, at times leading to the acute respiratory distress syndrome. From the beginning of this millennium, the approach to mechanical ventilation in the patient with ARDS was based on reduction of tidal volume to 6 milliliters/kilogram of ideal body weight, maintaining a ceiling of plateau pressure, and titration of driving pressure (plateau pressure minus PEEP). Beyond these broad constraints, there is little specification for the mechanics of ventilator settings, consideration of the metabolic impact of the disease process on the patient, or interaction of patient disease and ventilator settings. Read More

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Reproductive Toxicity of L. Incense Inhalation in Adult Male Wistar Rats.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2022 Jan-Mar;15(1):12-20. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Life Sciences, Laboratory of Integrated Physiology, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage, Bizerte, Tunisia.

Background: Burning incense of L. is a traditional practice in North African countries for religious or ritual intentions.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of smoke incense of this plant on the reproductive function in adult male rats. Read More

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Air pollution particles hijack peroxidasin to disrupt immunosurveillance and promote lung cancer.

Elife 2022 04 19;11. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Although fine particulate matter (FPM) in air pollutants and tobacco smoke is recognized as a strong carcinogen and global threat to public health, its biological mechanism for inducing lung cancer remains unclear. Here, by investigating FPM's bioactivities in lung carcinoma mice models, we discover that these particles promote lung tumor progression by inducing aberrant thickening of tissue matrix and hampering migration of antitumor immunocytes. Upon inhalation into lung tissue, these FPM particles abundantly adsorb peroxidasin (PXDN) - an enzyme mediating type IV collagen (Col IV) crosslinking - onto their surface. Read More

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Plasma Menthol Glucuronide as a Biomarker for the Behavioral Effects of Menthol and Nicotine in Humans.

Front Pharmacol 2022 31;13:844824. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Yale University, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT, United States.

This secondary analysis sought to determine if plasma menthol glucuronide (MG) concentrations predict changes in three outcomes, subjective drug effects, urges to smoke, and heart rate, following concurrent inhaled menthol and intravenous nicotine. A total of 45 menthol and non-menthol cigarettes smokers (36 male, nine female, 20 Black, and 23 White) were included in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Across three test sessions, participants were assigned to a different flavor condition for each session: 0% (no menthol), 0. Read More

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In vitro and vivo study of tranilast protects from acute respiratory distress syndrome and early pulmonary fibrosis induced by smoke inhalation.

Burns 2022 Mar 21. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Burns, Plastic and Wound Repair Surgery, The 924th Hospital of the Joint Logistics Support Force of Chinese PLA, Guilin 541002, China; Animal Laboratory, The 924th Hospital of the Joint Logistics Support Force of Chinese PLA, Guilin 541002, China. Electronic address:

Background: Tranilast (N-[3',4'-dimethoxycinnamoyl]-anthranilic acid) is an analog of a tryptophan metabolite. It was identified with anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activities, and used in the treatment of a variety of diseases, such as anti - allergy, bronchial asthma, and hypertrophic scars. As a drug with few adverse reactions, tranilast has attracted great attention, but its application is limited due to the uncertainty of dosages and mechanisms. Read More

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Isorhamnetin Alleviates Airway Inflammation by Regulating the Nrf2/Keap1 Pathway in a Mouse Model of COPD.

Front Pharmacol 2022 24;13:860362. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a severely disabling chronic lung disease characterized by persistent airway inflammation, which leads to limited expiratory airflow that deteriorates over time. Isorhamnetin (Iso) is one of the most important active components in the fruit of and leaves of , which is widely used in many pulmonary disease studies because of its anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the pharmacological action of Iso in CS-induced airway inflammation and dissected the anti-inflammation mechanisms of Iso in COPD mice. Read More

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Safety of chronic hypertonic bicarbonate inhalation in a cigarette smoke-induced airway irritation guinea pig model.

BMC Pulm Med 2022 Apr 7;22(1):131. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Semmelweis University, Nagyvárad tér 4, Budapest, 1089, Hungary.

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often associated with airway fluid acidification. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene leads to impaired bicarbonate secretion contributing to CF airway pathology. Chronic cigarette smoke (CS) -the major cause of COPD- is reported to induce acquired CFTR dysfunction underlying airway acidification and inflammation. Read More

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Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

Toxicol Rep 2022 29;9:597-610. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, CH-2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease associated with genetic and environmental factors. Cigarette smoking is harmful to health and may be one of the risk factors for MS. However, there have been no systematic investigations under controlled experimental conditions linking cigarette smoke (CS) and MS. Read More

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Clinical Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development of Placenta Praevia and Perinatal Outcomes in First-Time Pregnant Patients.

Front Surg 2022 22;9:862655. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Obstetrics, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

Objective: To analyze the risk factors associated with the development of placenta praevia (PP) in first-time pregnant patients and to observe the perinatal clinical outcomes of patients.

Methods: The clinical data of 112 pregnant women with PP (PP group) and 224 pregnant women with normal placental position (general group) who delivered in our hospital from August 2016 to August 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline demographic data such as age, gestational week, uterine history, assisted reproductive technology use, pregnancy comorbidities, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, placental position, educational level, work were collected from both groups, and logistic regression models were used to analyze the factors influencing the occurrence of PP in patients with first pregnancy. Read More

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Pulmonary delivery of resveratrol--cyclodextrin inclusion complexes for the prevention of zinc chloride smoke-induced acute lung injury.

Drug Deliv 2022 Dec;29(1):1122-1131

Respiratory Intensive Care Unit, The First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Smoke bombs are often used in military/fire training, which can produce a large amount of zinc chloride (ZnCl) smoke. Inhalation of ZnCl smoke usually causes acute lung injury (ALI) that would likely develop to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is no effective prevention or treatment strategy for the smoke-induced ALI. Read More

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December 2022

In response to: Evaluation of prehospital hydroxocobalamin use in the setting of smoke inhalation.

Am J Emerg Med 2022 Mar 14. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Division of Clinical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, VCU Medical Center, Richmond, VA, United States of America; Virginia Poison Center, Richmond, VA, United States of America; Department of Emergency Medicine, VCU Medical Center, Richmond, VA, United States of America. Electronic address:

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Expression of arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 activity in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2022 05 27;442:115993. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology and Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. Electronic address:

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States with high incidence in tobacco smokers. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is a xenobiotic enzyme that catalyzes both N- and O-acetylation of carcinogens present in tobacco smoke and contributes towards the genotoxicity of these carcinogens. NAT2 allelic variants result in slow, intermediate, and rapid acetylation phenotypes. Read More

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A procedure to detect and identify specific chemicals of potential inhalation toxicity concern in aerosols.

Inhal Toxicol 2022 28;34(5-6):120-134. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Battelle Public Health Research Laboratory, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: Understanding the potential inhalation toxicity of poorly characterized aerosols is challenging both because aerosols may contain numerous chemicals and because it is difficult to predict which chemicals may present significant inhalation toxicity concerns at the observed levels. We have developed a novel systematic procedure to address these challenges through non-targeted chemical analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) and assessment of the results using publicly available toxicity data to prioritize the tentatively identified detected chemicals according to potential inhalation toxicity.

Materials And Methods: The procedure involves non-targeted chemical analysis of aerosol samples utilizing GC × GC-TOFMS, which is selected because it is an effective technique for detecting chemicals in complex samples and assigning tentative identities according to the mass spectra. Read More

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Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 1 Deficiency Promotes Pulmonary Emphysema via Apoptosis of Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

Inflammation 2022 Mar 26. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is primarily caused by inhalation of cigarette smoke and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Pulmonary surfactant, a complex of phospholipids and proteins, plays an essential role in respiration by reducing the surface tension in the alveoli. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of surfactant lipids and is expressed in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells. Read More

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Effect of Houpo-Mahuang Decoction on aggravated asthma induced by cigarette smoke and the expression of TRPA1 and tight junctions in mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jul 23;293:115217. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for High Technology Research of TCM Formulae, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Cigarette smoke (CS) is a common environmental irritant and a risk factor for asthma, as it induces as well as aggravates asthmatic attacks. The injured airway epithelial tight junctions (TJs) aggravate asthma. CS can aggravate asthma by activating the transient receptor potential ankyrin A1 (TRPA1) channel and enhancing TJs destruction. Read More

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Epidemiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occur secondary to chemical asphyxiants: A retrospective series.

Resuscitation 2022 Jun 21;175:113-119. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Clinical Toxicology Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: To determine the epidemiological characteristics, temporal trends and survival outcomes of OHCAs precipitated by chemical asphyxiation.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of OHCAs attended by paramedics in Queensland, Australia between 2011 and 2020. Patients were classified into two groups depending on the asphyxiating agent involved; simple (argon, carbon dioxide, helium, liquified petroleum gas, nitrogen) and systemic (carbon monoxide, cyanides, hydrogen sulfide, methemoglobin-inducing substances, smoke inhalation). Read More

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Assessment of nicotine delivery and uptake in users of various tobacco/nicotine products.

Curr Res Toxicol 2022 11;3:100067. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

ABF Analytisch-Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH, Semmelweisstr. 5, 82152 Planegg, Germany.

Today various tobacco and nicotine products are available, many of them can be regarded as potentially risk-reduced products when compared to the most frequently used product, combustible cigarettes (CCs). A commonality of these products is that they deliver nicotine, although in quite different amounts and uptake routes, the most common of which are inhalation through the lung and absorption through the oral mucosa. Product-specific nicotine delivery as well as the subject-related use patterns are important factors which determine the pharmacokinetics and achieved internal dose levels of the alkaloid. Read More

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Exposure and Risk Assessment of Second- and Third-Hand Tobacco Smoke Using Urinary Cotinine Levels in South Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 21;19(6). Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Institute for Environmental Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the reason for approximately 1% of global mortality. ETS exposure can happen either as inhalation of direct cigarette smoke (second-hand smoke) or its associated residue particles (third-hand smoke), especially when living with a smoker in the same family. This study investigated the association between the urinary cotinine levels, as biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke, of smokers and those exposed to second-hand and third-hand smoke while living in the same family, through a Korean nationwide survey. Read More

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Nicotine rather than non-nicotine substances in 3R4F WCSC increases behavioral sensitization and drug-taking behavior in rats.

Nicotine Tob Res 2022 Mar 22. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Nicotine increases reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking by upregulating glutamate and dopamine releases via stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the dorsal striatum (CPu). The present study was conducted to evaluate whether non-nicotine substances in cigarette smoke potentiate nicotine-induced behaviors by increasing glutamate and dopamine concentrations in the CPu.

Methods: Changes in the levels of glutamate and dopamine in the CPu were analyzed using a glutamate colorimetric assay and dopamine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, after repeated administration of nicotine or whole cigarette smoke condensate (WCSC) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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Lung lymphatic thrombosis and dysfunction caused by cigarette smoke exposure precedes emphysema in mice.

Sci Rep 2022 03 23;12(1):5012. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

The lymphatic vasculature is critical for lung function, but defects in lymphatic function in the pathogenesis of lung disease is understudied. In mice, lymphatic dysfunction alone is sufficient to cause lung injury that resembles human emphysema. Whether lymphatic function is disrupted in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema is unknown. Read More

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Cytokine signature clusters as a tool to compare changes associated with tobacco product use in upper and lower airway samples.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2022 05 23;322(5):L722-L736. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Curriculum in Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Inhalation exposure to cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol is known to alter the respiratory immune system, particularly cytokine signaling. In assessments of health impacts of tobacco product use, cytokines are often measured using a variety of sample types, from serum to airway mucosa. However, it is currently unclear whether and how well cytokine levels from different sample types and the airway locations they represent are correlated, making comparing studies that utilize differing sample types challenging. Read More

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Exercise Training Attenuates Cardiac Vulnerability and Promotes Cardiac Resistance to Isoproterenol-Induced Injury Following Hookah Smoke Inhalation in Male Rats: Role of Klotho and Sirtuins.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2022 Jun 22;22(6):501-514. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Pathology and Stem Cell Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Hookah smoking is on the rise around the world. Present study investigated the heart resistance to harmful stress following long-term waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and moderate-intensity exercise training intervention in male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into a non-ischemic heart control group and four ischemic heart groups including ISO (isoproterenol-treated), Ex + ISO (subjected to exercise plus ISO), S + ISO (exposed to hookah smoke plus ISO), and Ex + S + ISO (subjected to exercise along with hookah smoke plus ISO). Read More

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The Effect of Chronic Inhouse Biomass Fuel Smoke Exposure on Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon in Women Living in the Eastern Region of Turkey.

Medeni Med J 2022 Mar;37(1):21-28

University of Health Sciences Turkey, Van Training and Research Hospital, Clinic of Cardiology, Van, Turkey.

Objective: Biomass fuel (BMF) is still widely used in rural areas for cooking and heating worldwide. BMF smoke inhalation is a prominent cause of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. The slow coronary flow (SCF) phenomenon is known as the delayed opacification of distal coronary arteries on a coronary angiogram. Read More

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Discriminating Spontaneous From Cigarette Smoke and THS 2.2 Aerosol Exposure-Related Proliferative Lung Lesions in A/J Mice by Using Gene Expression and Mutation Spectrum Data.

Front Toxicol 2021 16;3:634035. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Philip Morris International R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Mice, especially A/J mice, have been widely employed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of lung tumor formation and progression and to derive human-relevant modes of action. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure induces tumors in the lungs; but, non-exposed A/J mice will also develop lung tumors spontaneously with age, which raises the question of discriminating CS-related lung tumors from spontaneous ones. However, the challenge is that spontaneous tumors are histologically indistinguishable from the tumors occurring in CS-exposed mice. Read More

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