10,119 results match your criteria Smallpox


A genome-wide haploid genetic screen identifies heparan sulfate-associated genes and the macropinocytosis modulator TMED10 as factors supporting vaccinia virus infection.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Vaccinia virus is a promising viral vaccine and gene delivery candidate, and has historically been used as a model to study poxvirus-host cell interactions. We employed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis approach in human haploid cells to identify host factors crucial for vaccinia virus infection. A library of mutagenized HAP1 cells was exposed to Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02160-18DOI Listing

[The organization of medical care in the mining and smelting okrugs of the Kama Vyatka region in the pre-reform period (end of XVIII-first half of XIX centuries)].

Authors:
T A Vasina

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2019 Mar;27(2):204-209

The Federal State Budget Institution of Science "The Udmurt Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences", 426067, Izhevsk, Russia,

The article considers becoming of professional medical care in mining and smelting okrugs of the Kama Vyatka region in the pre-reform period (end of XVIII-first half of XIX centuries). The analysis is presented concerning the history of organization in the Kray of hospitals of mining and military departments, sources of financing, provision of curative institutions with medications and active storages, solution of personnel problem, interaction between factorial administration and medical personnel, curative preventive and educational activities of physicians, struggle with smallpox and other epidemiological diseases, counteraction to "traditional medicine", effectiveness of functioning of health care institutions. The conclusions are made that development of medical care during studied period was accompanied by number of such predicaments as material equipping, training and mobilization of specialists, roominess of hospitals (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.32687/0869-866X-2019-27-2-204-209DOI Listing

Human Monkeypox: Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Prevention.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Division of Infection and Immunity, Center for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, The National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at UCL Hospitals, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Recently, concern has been raised about the emergence of human monkeypox virus and the occasionally severe clinical presentation bearing resemblance to that of smallpox. In 2018 3 patients in the UK were diagnosed with monkeypox, and the frequency and geographic distribution of cases across West and Central Africa have increased in recent years. In Nigeria, most monkeypox patients are aged <40 years and lack cross-protective immunity because they were born after discontinuation of the smallpox eradication campaign. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08915520193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2019.03.001DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Preemptive Tecovirimat Use in an Active Duty Member Presenting with Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Smallpox Vaccination.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Infectious Disease Service, San Antonio Military Medical Center, Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA.

Smallpox vaccine is contraindicated in immunosuppression due to increased risk for adverse reactions (e.g., progressive vaccinia). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz286DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Forty years (1978-2018) of vaccination policies in Italy.

Authors:
Carlo Signorelli

Acta Biomed 2019 Jan 9;90(1):127-133. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

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The paper traces the evolution of vaccination policies in Italy in the first 40 years of the National Health Service. Four phases have been identified: the first (1978-98) characterized by the eradication of smallpox, the hopes of further eradications and the introduction of hepatitis B and acellular antipertussis vaccines; the second (1999-2008) coincided with the first national vaccination plans and with the hypothesis of a progressive transition from mandatory vaccinations to nudging initiatives with the relevant experimentation in the Veneto Region; the third phase (2009-14) was characterized by the spread of health information on the web and social networks, by anti-scientific judgments and by an increasingly vaccines hesitancy that led to incorrect perceptions, falls in coverage rates and re-ignition of some epidemics; in the last phase (2015-18) there was a strong political committment that led to the approval of the National Plan (PNPV) 2017-19, to the extension of the mandatory vaccinations and to the sanctions against the anti-vaxxers doctors. This has led to a rapid rise in coverage, but also to a heated political and media debate on the ethical and social aspects linked to the admission bans and sancions of unvaccinated children in schools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v90i1.7900DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Selection of vaccinia virus-neutralizing antibody from a phage-display human-antibody library.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Division of Biomedical Convergence, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea.

Although smallpox was eradicated in 1980, it is still considered a potential agent of biowarfare and bioterrorism. Smallpox has the potential for high mortality rates along with a major public health impact, eventually causing public panic and social disruption. Passive administration of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is an effective intervention for various adverse reactions caused by vaccination and the unpredictable nature of emerging and bioterrorist-related infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1812.12024DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Assessing a drug for an eradicated human disease: US Food and Drug Administration review of tecovirimat for the treatment of smallpox.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Division of Antiviral Products, Office of Antimicrobial Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

The development and ultimate approval of tecovirimat for the antiviral treatment of smallpox, a disease that has been eradicated from the world for nearly 40 years, required a unique regulatory approach based on the US Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule. We summarise the regulatory pathway and describe the challenges involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30788-6DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Microheterogeneity of Topoisomerase IA/IB and Their DNA-Bound States.

ACS Omega 2019 Feb 18;4(2):3619-3626. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Biomolecular Sciences Institute,Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th St., AHC4-233, Miami, Florida 33199, United States.

Topoisomerases are important complex enzymes that modulate DNA topology to maintain chromosome superstructure and integrity. These enzymes are involved in many cellular processes that resolve specific DNA superstructures and intermediates. The low abundance combined with the biological heterogeneity of relevant intermediates of topoisomerases makes their structural information not readily accessible using traditional structural biology tools (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b02887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396120PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

MC159 of molluscum contagiosum virus suppresses autophagy by recruiting cellular SH3BP4 via an SH3 domain-mediated interaction.

J Virol 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Virology University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital Helsinki, Finland

MC159 is a viral FLIP (FLICE inhibitory protein) encoded by the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) enabling MCV to evade antiviral immunity and to establish persistent infections in humans. Here we show that MC159 contains a functional SH3 binding motif, which mediates avid and selective binding to SH3BP4, a signaling protein known to regulate endocytic trafficking and suppress cellular autophagy. The capacity to bind SH3BP4 was dispensable for regulation of NF-κB-mediated transcription and suppression of pro-apoptotic caspase activation, but contributed to inhibition of amino acid starvation-induced autophagy by MC159. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01613-18DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Vaccinia virus BBK E3 ligase adaptor A55 targets importin-dependent NF-κB activation and inhibits CD8 T-cell memory.

J Virol 2019 02 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Viral infection of cells is sensed by pathogen recognition receptors that trigger an anti-viral innate immune response and consequently viruses have evolved countermeasures. Vaccinia virus (VACV) evades the host immune response by expressing scores of immunomodulatory proteins. One family of VACV proteins are the BTB-BACK domain containing, Kelch-like (BBK) family of predicted cullin-3 E3 ligase adaptors: A55, C2 and F3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00051-19DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

[The eradication of infectious viral diseases endangered by advances in synthetic biology].

Med Sci (Paris) 2019 Feb 18;35(2):181-186. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institut de recherche biomédicale des armées, Unité Biothérapies anti-infectieuses et immunité, Département Microbiologie et maladies infectieuses, 1, place général Valérie André, 91220 Brétigny-sur-Orge, France - Institut Pasteur, unité génomique virale et vaccination, CNRS UMR-3569, 25, rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France - École du Val-de-Grâce, 74, boulevard de Port-Royal, 75005 Paris, France.

The eradication of infectious diseases is one of the oldest dreams of mankind. It has been materialized only once in History with smallpox in 1980. Considerable efforts are being developed against poliomyelitis viruses since 1988, but the ultimate goal of eradication is not yet achieved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/medsci/2019005DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Measles and the Modern History of Vaccination.

Authors:
Elena Conis

Public Health Rep 2019 Mar/Apr;134(2):118-125. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

1 Graduate School of Journalism and Center for Science, Technology, Medicine, and Society, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

The modern era of vaccination was heralded with the licensure of the first 2 measles vaccines in 1963. This new era was distinct from the preceding era of vaccination for 4 main reasons. First, federal leadership in support of immunization at the local level grew. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354919826558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410476PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Differential Response Following Infection of Mouse CNS with Virulent and Attenuated Vaccinia Virus Strains.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Feb 12;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Israel Institute of Biological Research (IIBR), Ness-Ziona, Israel.

Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to a broad range of pathologies. CNS infections with Orthopox viruses have been mainly documented as an adverse reaction to smallpox vaccination with vaccinia virus. To date, there is insufficient data regarding the mechanisms underlying pathological viral replication or viral clearance. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/7/1/19
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466266PMC
February 2019
6 Reads

Old Hickory's Violent Past Medical History.

Authors:
Don K Nakayama

Am Surg 2018 Nov;84(11):1717-1722

The past medical history (PMH) of Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) reflects one of the emblematic nicknames in Americana, "Old Hickory." As a 14-year-old Rebel volunteer in the Revolutionary War, he survived a blow from a British saber and smallpox that he contacted in a prison camp epidemic. In 1806, Jackson challenged a rival who had made the mistake of maligning his beloved wife Rachel. Read More

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November 2018

Elimination of dog-mediated human rabies: the burden of human rabies in Africa.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):607-615

Hope exists for the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies in Africa. Momentum is gathering towards this goal, with an increasing number of successful demonstration projects showing that elimination is feasible. The Pan African Rabies Control Network is bringing Africa together against rabies, supported by the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, which have a combined resolution to eliminate human deaths from dog-transmitted rabies by 2030. Read More

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http://doc.oie.int/dyn/portal/index.seam?page=alo&aloId=
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2827DOI Listing
August 2018
9 Reads

A year of terror and a century of reflection: perspectives on the great influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 6;19(1):117. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratory of Emerging and Re-Emerging Viruses, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, 523-745 Bannatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0J9, Canada.

Background: In the spring of 1918, the "War to End All Wars", which would ultimately claim more than 37 million lives, had entered into its final year and would change the global political and economic landscape forever. At the same time, a new global threat was emerging and would become one of the most devastating global health crises in recorded history.

Main Text: The 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus spread across Europe, North America, and Asia over a 12-month period resulting in an estimated 500 million infections and 50-100 million deaths worldwide, of which ~ 50% of these occurred within the fall of 1918 (Emerg Infect Dis 12:15-22, 2006, Bull Hist Med 76:105-115, 2002). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3750-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364422PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

An Update on the Known Host Range of the Brazilian Vaccinia Virus: An Outbreak in Buffalo Calves.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:3327. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Even nearly forty years after the eradication of smallpox, members of the family continue to be the focus of an increasing number of studies. Among these studies, prominently stands vaccinia virus, an orthopoxvirus that is associated with bovine vaccinia outbreaks. Although more frequently associated with infections in cattle and humans, the host range of vaccinia virus is not restricted only to these hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350457PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Poor Antigen Processing of Poxvirus Particles Limits CD4 T Cell Recognition and Impacts Immunogenicity of the Inactivated Vaccine.

J Immunol 2019 Mar 30;202(5):1340-1349. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104;

CD4 T cells play critical roles in defending against poxviruses, both by potentiating cellular and humoral responses and by directly killing infected cells. Despite this central role, the basis for pox-specific CD4 T cell activation, specifically the origin of the poxvirus-derived peptides (epitopes) that activate CD4 T cells, remains poorly understood. In addition, because the current licensed poxvirus vaccines can cause serious adverse events and even death, elucidating the requirements for MHC class II (MHC-II) processing and presentation of poxviral Ags could be of great use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394857PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Continued poxvirus research: From foe to friend.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 30;17(1):e3000124. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The eradication of smallpox is one of the greatest medical successes in history. Vaccinia virus was made famous by being the virus used in the live vaccine that enabled this feat. Nearly 40 years on from that success, this prototypical poxvirus continues to empower the exploration of fundamental biology and the potential to develop therapeutics against some of the major causes of death and disease in the modern world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370227PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Recurrent epicardial ventricular tachycardia following smallpox vaccination.

HeartRhythm Case Rep 2019 Jan 25;5(1):6-9. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Electrophysiology Service, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrcr.2018.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342335PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

2018 international meeting of the Global Virus Network.

Antiviral Res 2019 Mar 25;163:140-148. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, USA.

The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 to strengthen research and responses to emerging viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemics. There are now 45 GVN Centers of Excellence and 7 Affiliate laboratories in 29 countries. The 10th International GVN meeting was held from November 28-30, 2018 in Veyrier du Lac, France and was co-hosted by the two GVN Centers of Excellence, the Mérieux Foundation and the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover (TiHo). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.01.013DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Atypical Cowpox Virus Infection in Smallpox-Vaccinated Patient, France.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 02;25(2):212-219

We report a case of atypical cowpox virus infection in France in 2016. The patient sought care for thoracic lesions after injury from the sharp end of a metallic guardrail previously stored in the ground. We isolated a cowpox virus from the lesions and sequenced its whole genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.171433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346447PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Mouse Models Reveal Role of T-Cytotoxic and T-Reg Cells in Immune Response to Influenza: Implications for Vaccine Design.

Viruses 2019 01 11;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida Medical School, Orlando, FL 32816, USA.

Immunopathologic examination of the lungs of mouse models of experimental influenza virus infection provides new insights into the immune response in this disease. First, there is rapidly developing perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of the lung with T-cells. This is followed by invasion of T-cells into the bronchiolar epithelium, and separation of epithelial cells from each other and from the basement membrane leading to defoliation of the bronchial epithelium. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/11/1/52
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11010052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356589PMC
January 2019
14 Reads

T Lymphocytes as Measurable Targets of Protection and Vaccination Against Viral Disorders.

Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 2019 24;342:175-263. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada; Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Continuous epidemiological surveillance of existing and emerging viruses and their associated disorders is gaining importance in light of their abilities to cause unpredictable outbreaks as a result of increased travel and vaccination choices by steadily growing and aging populations. Close surveillance of outbreaks and herd immunity are also at the forefront, even in industrialized countries, where previously eradicated viruses are now at risk of re-emergence due to instances of strain recombination, contractions in viral vector geographies, and from their potential use as agents of bioterrorism. There is a great need for the rational design of current and future vaccines targeting viruses, with a strong focus on vaccine targeting of adaptive immune effector memory T cells as the gold standard of immunity conferring long-lived protection against a wide variety of pathogens and malignancies. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S19376448183008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ircmb.2018.07.006DOI Listing
October 2018
17 Reads

Proteomics Analysis Reveals That Structural Proteins of the Virion Core and Involved in Gene Expression Are the Main Source for HLA Class II Ligands in Vaccinia Virus-Infected Cells.

J Proteome Res 2019 Mar 22;18(3):900-911. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Biology , Technion-Israel Institute of Technology , 32000 Haifa , Israel.

Protective cellular and humoral immune responses require previous recognition of viral antigenic peptides complexed with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules on the surface of the antigen presenting cells. The HLA class II-restricted immune response is important for the control and the clearance of poxvirus infection including vaccinia virus (VACV), the vaccine used in the worldwide eradication of smallpox. In this study, a mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify VACV ligands bound to HLA-DR and -DP class II molecules present on the surface of VACV-infected cells. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00595
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00595DOI Listing
March 2019
14 Reads
4.245 Impact Factor

Human Molecular Genetics Has Not Yet Contributed to Measurable Public Health Advances.

Perspect Biol Med 2018 ;61(4):537-549

For more than half a century, we have lived in a world dominated by the idea that the gene is the central and primary agent in biology, an era some have called the "Genetic Age." Each decade since the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA in 1953 has seen scientific advances in genetics, discoveries that have led to at least 17 Nobel Prizes. Although the time span occupied by the Genetic Age has also been a time of great public health advances, no advance in human molecular genetics can be shown to have had any measurable effect on any public health parameter of importance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2018.0063DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Dermatoses of nipple as molluscum contagiosum - Clinical dilemma.

J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Sep-Oct;7(5):1100-1102

Department of Surgery, AIIMS, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Molluscum contagiosum is a very common skin and mucosal disease of viral origin, caused by molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) 0 of poxvirus family. With the eradication of smallpox, MCV is the only member of the poxvirus family that causes substantial disease in humans. Although frequently reported, its unusual clinical presentation makes its diagnosis a challenging task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_126_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6259538PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Synthetic biology for bioengineering virus-like particle vaccines.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2019 Apr 31;116(4):919-935. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Vaccination is the most effective method of disease prevention and control. Many viruses and bacteria that once caused catastrophic pandemics (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.26890DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

In vitro activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil extract against Helicobacter pylori.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Mar 19;232:236-243. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, United States. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The neem tree (Azadirachta indica A.Juss), of the Meliaceae family, has been used in India for millennia in traditional medicine. Parts of the tree are used to treat problems with the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and hair; to combat infections of smallpox and plasmodium; and to treat ulcers, diabetes, blood pressure, headache, and heartburn. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.12.025DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Mutation and structure guided discovery of an antiviral small molecule that mimics an essential C-Terminal tripeptide of the vaccinia D4 processivity factor.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 20;162:178-185. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine and the Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The smallpox virus (variola) remains a bioterrorism threat since a majority of the human population has never been vaccinated. In the event of an outbreak, at least two drugs against different targets of variola are critical to circumvent potential viral mutants that acquire resistance. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the model virus used in the laboratory for studying smallpox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.12.011DOI Listing
February 2019
19 Reads
3.938 Impact Factor

Sounding the alarm: Defining thresholds to trigger a public health response to monkeypox.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 20;12(12):e0007034. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. Observed fluctuations in reported cases over time raises questions about when it is appropriate to mount a public health response, and what specific actions should be taken. We evaluated three different thresholds to differentiate between baseline and heightened disease incidence, and propose a novel, tiered algorithm for public health action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319745PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

The Virulence of Different Vaccinia Virus Strains Is Directly Proportional to Their Ability To Downmodulate Specific Cell-Mediated Immune Compartments .

J Virol 2019 Mar 5;93(6). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Laboratório de Virologia Básica e Aplicada, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a notorious virus for a number of scientific reasons; however, most of its notoriety comes from the fact that it was used as a vaccine against smallpox, being ultimately responsible for the eradication of that disease. Nonetheless, many different vaccinia virus strains have been obtained over the years; some are suitable to be used as vaccines, whereas others are virulent and unsuitable for this purpose. Interestingly, different vaccinia virus strains elicit different immune responses , and this is a direct result of the genomic differences among strains. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.02191-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02191-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401461PMC
March 2019
10 Reads

A System Based-Approach to Examine Cytokine Response in Poxvirus-Infected Macrophages.

Viruses 2018 12 5;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Labs, Singapore 117510, Singapore.

The poxviruses are large, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses about 130 to 230 kbp, that have an animal origin and evolved to infect a wide host range. Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is a poxvirus that infects only humans, but other poxviruses such as monkey poxvirus and cowpox virus (CPXV) have crossed over from animals to infect humans. Therefore understanding the biology of poxviruses can devise antiviral strategies to prevent these human infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316232PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Death of the King: The Introduction of Vaccination into Nepal in 1816.

Authors:
Susan Heydon

Med Hist 2019 01;63(1):24-43

This article explores the introduction of smallpox vaccination into Nepal in 1816 at the request of the Nepalese government; the king, however, was not vaccinated, contracted the disease and died. British hopes that vaccination would be extended throughout the country did not eventuate. The article examines the significance of this early appearance of vaccination in Nepal for both Nepalese and British, and relates it to the longer history of smallpox control and eventual eradication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/mdh.2018.61DOI Listing
January 2019

The last case of smallpox.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec;18(12):1318

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14733099183068
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30684-4DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Long-Lived Plasma Cells in Mice and Men.

Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2673. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Even though more than 30 years have passed since the eradication of smallpox, high titers of smallpox-specific antibodies are still detected in the blood of subjects vaccinated in childhood. In fact, smallpox-specific antibody levels are maintained in serum for more than 70 years. The generation of life-long immunity against infectious diseases such as smallpox and measles has been thoroughly documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6250827PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

Traces of history conserved over 600 years in the geographic distribution of genetic variants of an RNA virus: Bovine viral diarrhea virus in Switzerland.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0207604. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Virology and Immunology, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

The first records of smallpox and rabies date back thousands of years and foot-and-mouth disease in cattle was described in the 16th century. These diseases stood out by their distinct signs, dramatic way of transmission from rabid dogs to humans, and sudden appearance in cattle herds. By contrast, infectious diseases that show variable signs and affect few individuals were identified only much later. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207604PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281212PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Vaccine-preventable disease control in the People's Republic of China: 1949-2016.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 26;36(52):8131-8137. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: China's immunization program is one of the oldest and largest in the world. Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) are comparable to those in high-income countries. The program's evolution has been characterized by ambitious target setting and innovative strategies that have not been widely described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.10.005DOI Listing
December 2018
27 Reads

Design of inhibitors of thymidylate kinase from Variola virus as new selective drugs against smallpox - Part II.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2018 Nov 29:1-32. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

a Laboratory of Molecular Modeling Applied to Chemical and Biological Defense , Military Institute of Engineering , Praça General Tiburcio 80, Urca , 22290-270 , Rio de Janeiro , RJ - Brazil .

Acknowledging the importance of studies toward the development of measures against terrorism and bioterrorism, this study aims to contribute to the design of new prototypes of potential drugs against smallpox. Based on a former study, 9 synthetic feasible prototypes of selective inhibitors for thymidylate kinase from Variola virus (VarTMPK) were designed, and submitted to molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and binding energy calculations. The compounds are simplifications of two more complex scaffolds, with a guanine connected to an amide or alcohol through a spacer containing ether and/or amide groups, formerly suggested as promising for the design of selective inhibitors of VarTMPK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2018.1554510DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Identifying and Tracking Low-Frequency Virus-Specific TCR Clonotypes Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

Cell Rep 2018 Nov;25(9):2369-2378.e4

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:

Tracking antigen-specific T cell responses over time within individuals is difficult because of lack of knowledge of antigen-specific TCR sequences, limitations in sample size, and assay sensitivities. We hypothesized that analyses of high-throughput sequencing of TCR clonotypes could provide functional readouts of individuals' immunological histories. Using high-throughput TCR sequencing, we develop a database of TCRβ sequences from large cohorts of mice before (naive) and after smallpox vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.009DOI Listing
November 2018

Dynamic transcriptome profiling dataset of vaccinia virus obtained from long-read sequencing techniques.

Gigascience 2018 12 1;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Somogyi B. u. 4., 6720 Szeged, Hungary.

Background: Poxviruses are large DNA viruses that infect humans and animals. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been applied as a live vaccine for immunization against smallpox, which was eradicated by 1980 as a result of worldwide vaccination. VACV is the prototype of poxviruses in the investigation of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giy139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290886PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Perspectives on novel vaccine development.

Pol J Vet Sci 2018 Sep;21(3):643-649

School of Life Science and Technology, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang 453003, P.R. China.

Vaccination is a common routine for prevention and control of human and animal diseases by inducing antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity in the body. Through vaccinations, smallpox and some other diseases have been eradicated in the past few years. The use of a patho- gen itself or a subunit domain of a protein antigen as immunogens lays the basis for traditional vaccine development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24425/124302DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

Oral Tecovirimat for the Treatment of Smallpox.

N Engl J Med 2018 11;379(21):2084-2085

Global Health Institute, Antwerp, Belgium

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http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMc1811044
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1811044DOI Listing
November 2018
17 Reads

Monkeypox - Enhancing public health preparedness for an emerging lethal human zoonotic epidemic threat in the wake of the smallpox post-eradication era.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Jan 16;78:78-84. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Division of Infection and Immunity, Center for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, United Kingdom; The National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at UCL Hospitals, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The identification of monkeypox in 3 separate patients in the United Kingdom in September raised media and political attention on an emerging public health threat. Nigeria, whose last confirmed case of monkeypox was in 1978, is currently experiencing an unusually large and outbreak of human monkeypox cases, a 'One Human-Environmental-Animal Health' approach is being effectively used to define and tackle the outbreak. As of 13th October 2018, there have been one hundred and sixteen confirmed cases the majority of whom are under 40 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.11.008DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads
2.330 Impact Factor

Vaccinating against monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 14;162:171-177. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

Healthcare-associated transmission of monkeypox has been observed on multiple occasions in areas where the disease is endemic. Data collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from an ongoing CDC-supported program of enhanced surveillance in the Tshuapa Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where the annual incidence of human monkeypox is estimated to be 3.5-5/10,000, suggests that there is approximately one healthcare worker infection for every 100 confirmed monkeypox cases. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01663542183059
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438175PMC
February 2019
15 Reads

Vaccination and risk of lone atrial fibrillation in the active component United States military.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 8;15(3):669-676. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

a Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion , National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta, Georgia , USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the hypothesis that receipt of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation in the absence of identifiable underlying risk factors or structural heart disease (lone atrial fibrillation).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study among U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1549453DOI Listing
January 2019
29 Reads

Long-term effects of smallpox vaccination on expression of the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 in women.

PLoS One 2018 15;13(11):e0207259. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Smallpox vaccinations were stopped globally in 1980. Recent studies have shown that in women, being smallpox vaccinated was associated with a reduced risk of HIV infection compared with not being smallpox vaccinated. At the initial infection, HIV-1 most often uses CCR5 as a co-receptor to infect the T-lymphocytes. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207259PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237380PMC
November 2018
21 Reads

Synthesis and antiviral activity of camphor-based 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one and thiazole derivatives as -reproduction inhibitors.

Medchemcomm 2018 Oct 19;9(10):1746-1753. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Lavrentjev Avenue 9 , 630090 Novosibirsk , Russia . Email:

The genus belongs to the Poxviridae family and includes variola virus (smallpox), cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (VV). Smallpox is considered one of the great epidemic disease scourges in human history. It has currently been eradicated; however, it remains a considerable threat as a biowarfare or bioterrorist weapon. Read More

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http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C8MD00347E
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8md00347eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194496PMC
October 2018
19 Reads

Vaccinia virus hijacks EGFR signalling to enhance virus spread through rapid and directed infected cell motility.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Feb 12;4(2):216-225. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK.

Cell motility is essential for viral dissemination. Vaccinia virus (VACV), a close relative of smallpox virus, is thought to exploit cell motility as a means to enhance the spread of infection. A single viral protein, F11L, contributes to this by blocking RhoA signalling to facilitate cell retraction. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-018-0288-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0288-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354922PMC
February 2019
17 Reads