10,080 results match your criteria Smallpox
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec;18(12):1318
Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2673. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Even though more than 30 years have passed since the eradication of smallpox, high titers of smallpox-specific antibodies are still detected in the blood of subjects vaccinated in childhood. In fact, smallpox-specific antibody levels are maintained in serum for more than 70 years. The generation of life-long immunity against infectious diseases such as smallpox and measles has been thoroughly documented. Read More
PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0207604. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Institute of Virology and Immunology, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
The first records of smallpox and rabies date back thousands of years and foot-and-mouth disease in cattle was described in the 16th century. These diseases stood out by their distinct signs, dramatic way of transmission from rabid dogs to humans, and sudden appearance in cattle herds. By contrast, infectious diseases that show variable signs and affect few individuals were identified only much later. Read More
Vaccine 2018 Dec 26;36(52):8131-8137. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
Background: China's immunization program is one of the oldest and largest in the world. Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) are comparable to those in high-income countries. The program's evolution has been characterized by ambitious target setting and innovative strategies that have not been widely described. Read More
J Biomol Struct Dyn 2018 Nov 29:1-32. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
a Laboratory of Molecular Modeling Applied to Chemical and Biological Defense , Military Institute of Engineering , Praça General Tiburcio 80, Urca , 22290-270 , Rio de Janeiro , RJ - Brazil .
Acknowledging the importance of studies toward the development of measures against terrorism and bioterrorism, this study aims to contribute to the design of new prototypes of potential drugs against smallpox. Based on a former study, 9 synthetic feasible prototypes of selective inhibitors for thymidylate kinase from Variola virus (VarTMPK) were designed, and submitted to molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and binding energy calculations. The compounds are simplifications of two more complex scaffolds, with a guanine connected to an amide or alcohol through a spacer containing ether and/or amide groups, formerly suggested as promising for the design of selective inhibitors of VarTMPK. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Nov;25(9):2369-2378.e4
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:
Tracking antigen-specific T cell responses over time within individuals is difficult because of lack of knowledge of antigen-specific TCR sequences, limitations in sample size, and assay sensitivities. We hypothesized that analyses of high-throughput sequencing of TCR clonotypes could provide functional readouts of individuals' immunological histories. Using high-throughput TCR sequencing, we develop a database of TCRβ sequences from large cohorts of mice before (naive) and after smallpox vaccination. Read More
Gigascience 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Somogyi B. u. 4., 6720 Szeged, Hungary.
Background: Poxviruses are large DNA viruses infecting humans and animals. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been applied as a live vaccine for immunization against smallpox, which was eradicated by 1980 as a result of worldwide vaccination. VACV is the prototype of poxviruses in the investigation of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus. Read More
Pol J Vet Sci 2018 Sep;21(3):643-649
School of Life Science and Technology, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang 453003, P.R. China.
Vaccination is a common routine for prevention and control of human and animal diseases by inducing antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity in the body. Through vaccinations, smallpox and some other diseases have been eradicated in the past few years. The use of a patho- gen itself or a subunit domain of a protein antigen as immunogens lays the basis for traditional vaccine development. Read More
N Engl J Med 2018 11;379(21):2084-2085
Global Health Institute, Antwerp, Belgium
Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 16;78:78-84. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Division of Infection and Immunity, Center for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, United Kingdom; The National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at UCL Hospitals, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
The identification of monkeypox in 3 separate patients in the United Kingdom in September raised media and political attention on an emerging public health threat. Nigeria, whose last confirmed case of monkeypox was in 1978, is currently experiencing an unusually large and outbreak of human monkeypox cases, a 'One Human-Environmental-Animal Health' approach is being effectively used to define and tackle the outbreak. As of 13th October 2018, there have been one hundred and sixteen confirmed cases the majority of whom are under 40 years. Read More
Antiviral Res 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.
Healthcare-associated transmission of monkeypox has been observed on multiple occasions in areas where the disease is endemic. Data collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from an ongoing CDC-supported program of enhanced surveillance in the Tshuapa Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where the annual incidence of human monkeypox is estimated to be 3.5-5/10,000, suggests that there is approximately one healthcare worker infection for every 100 confirmed monkeypox cases. Read More
Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
a Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion , National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Purpose: To evaluate the hypothesis that receipt of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation in the absence of identifiable underlying risk factors or structural heart disease (lone atrial fibrillation).
Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study among U.S. Read More
PLoS One 2018 15;13(11):e0207259. Epub 2018 Nov 15.
Department of Clinical Immunology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Background: Smallpox vaccinations were stopped globally in 1980. Recent studies have shown that in women, being smallpox vaccinated was associated with a reduced risk of HIV infection compared with not being smallpox vaccinated. At the initial infection, HIV-1 most often uses CCR5 as a co-receptor to infect the T-lymphocytes. Read More
Medchemcomm 2018 Oct 19;9(10):1746-1753. Epub 2018 Sep 19.
Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Lavrentjev Avenue 9 , 630090 Novosibirsk , Russia . Email:
The genus belongs to the Poxviridae family and includes variola virus (smallpox), cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (VV). Smallpox is considered one of the great epidemic disease scourges in human history. It has currently been eradicated; however, it remains a considerable threat as a biowarfare or bioterrorist weapon. Read More
Nat Microbiol 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK.
Cell motility is essential for viral dissemination. Vaccinia virus (VACV), a close relative of smallpox virus, is thought to exploit cell motility as a means to enhance the spread of infection. A single viral protein, F11L, contributes to this by blocking RhoA signalling to facilitate cell retraction. Read More
Przegl Epidemiol 2018 ;72(3):287-292
National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases and Surveillance
Background: Chickenpox is a common disease in Poland. Annually, between 160,000 and 220,000 cases are registered. On average, there is an increase in incidence every 4 years. Read More
Ugeskr Laeger 2018 Oct;180(44)
Observations on child mortality in Guinea-Bissau developed the idea of vaccines having non-specific effects (NSEs) not being explained by the prevention of the targeted infections. The live vaccines against measles, tuberculosis, polio and smallpox have beneficial NSEs, but the inactivated vaccines are associated with negative effects for female survival. The repeated campaigns with polio and measles vaccines have been particularly effective in reducing child mortality. Read More
Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.
Research Institute of Clinical Immunology RAS SB, Novosibirsk. Russian Federation.
Large DNA poxviruses encode a diverse family of secreted proteins that modulate host inflammatory and antiviral responses, in particular by inhibiting one of the key players of the mammalian immune system, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We investigated the effects of a recombinant variola (smallpox) virus TNF-decoy receptor (VARV-CrmB) in a murine model of contact dermatitis. Our results demonstrate that the VARV-CrmB protein significantly reduces the 2,4-dinitrochlorbenzene (DNCB)-induced migration of skin leukocytes during the sensitization phase and suppresses ear oedema during the elicitation phase of the contact reaction. Read More
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos 2018 Jul-Sep;25(3):871-877
Licenciada en Historia, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Acatlán/Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Atizapán de Zaragoza - Estado de México - México.
This paper studies the phase after the declaration of the eradication of smallpox in Mexico and covers the period from June 1952 (the date on which the health authorities officially proclaimed this event) to 1977 (the year in which the National Institute of Hygiene prepared the last batch of glycerinated anti-smallpox vaccine). It is revealed that during these years, the Ministry of Health and Assistance continued to invest resources in work aimed at combating smallpox to maintain the levels of protection against smallpox and to prevent the reintroduction of the disease at a time when it was still endemic in several countries worldwide; and states that the population continued to report suspected cases and attribute deaths to this disease. Read More
Am J Nurs 2018 Nov;118(11):21
Diane S. Aschenbrenner is an assistant professor at Notre Dame of Maryland University in Baltimore. She also coordinates Drug Watch:
J Med Virol 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Virology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Group, School of Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
Since the eradication of smallpox approximately 39 years ago, monkeypox virus remains the most pathogenic poxvirus, being mainly restricted to Central and West Africa. Before 1970, there were no reports of human monkeypox in Nigeria, while between 1971 and 1978 there were three cases, with none having been reported thereafter. However, in September 2017, a case of contagious skin rash disease, typical of monkeypox, was observed in an 11-year-old boy from the southern part of the country and confirmed to be associated with the monkeypox virus. Read More
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2018 Nov;22(11):1249-1257
Healthcare Navigant Consulting, Inc, Dallas, Texas, USA.
Introduction: An historical account of the modern theory of tuberculosis (TB) using a culturomic analysis has not been studied.
Objective: To analyze, using culturomic methods, the history of our modern understanding of TB as a unitary disease.
Methods: A culturomic analysis of millions of digitized texts was undertaken to quantify 200-year trends in usage of the modern term and pre-modern terms , , and , and to correlate these trends with significant historical events. Read More
J Immunol 2018 Dec 22;201(11):3343-3351. Epub 2018 Oct 22.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642;
Vaccination has been the most effective way to prevent or reduce infectious diseases; examples include the eradication of smallpox and attenuation of tetanus and measles. However, there is a large segment of the population that responds poorly to vaccines, in part because they are immunocompromised because of disease, age, or pharmacologic therapy and are unable to generate long-term protection. Specialized proresolving mediators are endogenously produced lipids that have potent proresolving and anti-inflammatory activities. Read More
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 5;8:356. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
BioMotiv, Cleveland, OH, United States.
The elimination of smallpox as an endemic disease and the obvious ethical problems with clinical challenge requires the efficacy evaluation of medical countermeasures against smallpox using the FDA Animal Rule. This approach requires the evaluation of antiviral efficacy in an animal model whose infection recapitulates the human disease sufficiently well enough to provide predictive value of countermeasure effectiveness. The narrow host range of variola virus meant that no other animal species was sufficiently susceptible to variola to manifest a disease with predictive value. Read More
Hastings Cent Rep 2018 Sep;48(5):inside back cover
Twenty percent of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease by experts like me in fact don't have elevated amyloid and so, in fact, don't have Alzheimer's. What they do have is the subject of intense research, and there are many possibilities. A recent study of one thousand brain autopsies from older adults with a range of cognitive impairment showed at least 230 combinations of neuropathology. Read More
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 6;144(12):2433-2440. Epub 2018 Oct 6.
Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi Children's Hospital, Wuxi, 214023, Jiangsu, China.
Background: Vaccinia virus was widely used in the World Health Organization's smallpox eradication campaign and is currently a promising vector for gene therapy owing to its unique characteristics. Vaccinia virus can selectively replicate and propagate productively in tumor cells, resulting in oncolysis. In addition, rapid viral particle production, wide host range, large genome size (approximately 200 kb), and safe handling render vaccinia virus a suitable vector for gene therapy. Read More
Curr Protoc Microbiol 2018 Nov 3;51(1):e65. Epub 2018 Oct 3.
School of Medicine, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus that causes mousepox in mice. Members of the genus orthopoxvirus are closely related and include variola (the causative agent of smallpox in humans), monkeypox, and vaccinia. Common features of variola virus and ECTV further include a restricted host range and similar disease progression in their respective hosts. Read More
Front Public Health 2018 4;6:241. Epub 2018 Sep 4.
Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Monkeypox is an emerging zoonotic disease recognized as the most important orthopoxvirus infection in humans in the smallpox post-eradication era. The clinical presentation of monkeypox is similar to the one of smallpox. The case fatality rate of monkeypox (10%) lies between the case fatality rate of variola major (30%) and variola minor (1%). Read More
Mo Med 2018 May-Jun;115(3):180-181
Christopher A. Swingle, DO, MSMA member since 2008, is an attending physician with West County Radiology at Mercy Hospital St. Louis, specializing in nuclear medicine. He is 2018 president of the St. Louis Metropolitan Medical Society.
There are many things that, as physicians, we universally take for granted. One does not need a background in medical statistics to understand that seat belts save lives and reduce injuries in car accidents. Nor do you need to have an epidemiology degree to know that tobacco smoking is causative for lung cancer. Read More
Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 12;76:70-72. Epub 2018 Sep 12.
Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China. Electronic address:
Vaccinia virus infection was diagnosed in five male workers directly exposed to rabbit-skin powder contaminated by vaccinia virus via skin contact and inhalation. Four of the workers had been vaccinated against smallpox. Their clinical symptoms were severe, especially in the lungs; however, all symptoms improved after treatment. Read More
Vaccines (Basel) 2018 Aug 30;6(3). Epub 2018 Aug 30.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.
For centuries, the development of vaccines to prevent infectious disease was an empirical process. From smallpox variolation in Song dynasty China, through the polysaccharide capsule vaccines developed in the 1970s, vaccines were made either from the pathogen itself, treated in some way to render it attenuated or non-infectious, or from a closely related non-pathogenic strain. In recent decades, new scientific knowledge and technologies have enabled rational vaccine design in a way that was unimaginable before. Read More
J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Nov 10;30(6):946-950. Epub 2018 Sep 10.
Departments of Preventive Veterinary Medicine (Murer, Westenhofen, Lovato), Brazil.
Fowlpox is one of the oldest diseases reported in birds. The causative genus Avipoxvirus affects ~232 domestic and wild species. We present herein the history, clinical findings, and macroscopic and histologic lesions caused by a clade C poxvirus in an exotic psittacine breeding colony in southern Brazil. Read More
Am J Hum Biol 2018 Sep 9;30(5):e23155. Epub 2018 Sep 9.
Département de Démographie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7, Canada.
Objectives: Research on historical populations in Europe finds that infectious disease epidemics appear to induce predictable cycles in age-specific mortality. We know little, however, about whether such cycles also occurred in less dense founder populations of North America. We used high-quality data on the Quebecois population from 1680 to 1798 to examine the extent to which age-specific mortality showed predictable epidemic cycles. Read More
J Paediatr Child Health 2018 Sep 9. Epub 2018 Sep 9.
Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney Children's Hospital Westmead Clinical School, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Modern medicine has eradicated smallpox, contained polio and is making significant advances in personalised/genetic medicine. However, we are facing a pandemic of apocalyptic proportions, and there is currently no vaccine or United Nations Charter to help address this issue. Following its insidious spread in the 1980s, the full impact of this phenomenon on civilisation has not been fully appreciated. Read More
Nat Biotechnol 2018 Sep;36(9):781
Rev Alerg Mex 2018 Jul-Sep;65(3):199-204
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, División de Estudios de Posgrado, Ciudad de México, México.
At the end of the 18th Century, the history of immunology began in Mexico, with Francisco Xavier Balmis, who initiated the process of vaccination against smallpox. By doing this, he established the bases for research and clinical practice in this field of medicine. Among the pioneers of immunology in Mexico stand out Eduardo Licega, Maximiliano Ruiz Castañeda and Mario Salazar Mallén. Read More
Viruses 2018 08 29;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 29.
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 South Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA.
Taterapox virus (TATV) is phylogenetically the closest related virus to variola-the etiological agent of smallpox. Despite the similarity, few studies have evaluated the virus. In vivo, TATV can infect several animals but produces an inapparent infection in wild-type mice; however, TATV does cause morbidity and mortality in some immunocompromised strains. Read More
JAMA 2018 Aug;320(7):634
Drugs 2018 Sep;78(13):1377-1382
Springer, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, 0754, New Zealand.
Tecovirimat (TPOXX) is an orthopoxvirus-specific antiviral drug developed by SIGA Technologies in conjunction with the US Department of Health and Human Services' Biomedical Advances Research and Development Authority. It acts by inhibiting the activity of the orthopoxvirus VP37 envelope wrapping protein, thereby preventing the formation of egress-competent enveloped virions, which are essential for dissemination of the virus in the host. In July 2018, oral tecovirimat was approved in the USA for the treatment of human smallpox disease caused by variola virus in adults and paediatric patients weighing ≥ 13 kg. Read More
Nature 2018 Aug;560(7718):281
Mol Biol Evol 2018 Nov;35(11):2607-2617
Biosecurity Program, Kirby Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Variola virus is at risk of re-emergence either through accidental release, bioterrorism, or synthetic biology. The use of phylogenetics and phylogeography to support epidemic field response is expected to grow as sequencing technology becomes miniaturized, cheap, and ubiquitous. In this study, we aimed to explore the use of common VARV diagnostic targets hemagglutinin (HA), cytokine response modifier B (CrmB), and A-type inclusion protein (ATI) for phylogenetic characterization as well as the representativeness of modelling strategies in phylogeography to support epidemic response should smallpox re-emerge. Read More
J Int Med Res 2018 Oct 8;46(10):4032-4038. Epub 2018 Aug 8.
Cancer Research Institute BMC SAS, Bratislava, Slovakia.
It is generally accepted that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the etiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. According to this claim, HIV was transferred to humans from contact with monkeys around 35-50 years ago. However, this claim has not been sufficiently confirmed epidemiologically. Read More
Mil Med 2018 Jul 31. Epub 2018 Jul 31.
San Antonio Military Medical Center, 3551 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, TX.
Since the National Smallpox Vaccination Program began in 2002, over 2.4 million military servicemembers have been inoculated. Use of bifurcated needles to introduce live vaccinia virus by repeated skin trauma is largely the same process that was first developed over 200 years ago, and is similar to that of tattoo administration. Read More
Nat Med 2018 Aug;24(8):1088
Nature Medicine, .
PLoS Pathog 2018 07 26;14(7):e1007082. Epub 2018 Jul 26.
Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Virus, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.