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    Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0168664. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. Read More

    Viral Evolution: Mummy Virus Challenges Presumed History of Smallpox.
    Curr Biol 2017 Feb;27(3):R119-R120
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:
    Despite evidence of smallpox in antiquity, a new study of a 350 year-old Lithuanian child mummy suggests that the global viral genetic diversity circulating during the 20(th) century was only around 200 years old. Read More

    Metabolites as biomarkers of adverse reactions following vaccination: A pilot study using nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 3;35(9):1238-1245. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    NIH Common Fund Eastern Regional Comprehensive Metabolomics Resource Core, RTI International, 3040 E Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. Electronic address:
    An Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFI) is an adverse reaction to a vaccination that goes above and beyond the usual side effects associated with vaccinations. One serious AEFI related to the smallpox vaccine is myopericarditis. Metabolomics involves the study of the low molecular weight metabolite profile of cells, tissues, and biological fluids, and provides a functional readout of the phenotype. Read More

    Socio-ecological dynamics and challenges to the governance of Neglected Tropical Disease control.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Feb 6;6(1):35. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of International Development, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.
    The current global attempts to control the so-called "Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)" have the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity suffered by some of the world's poorest communities. However, the governance of these control programmes is driven by a managerial rationality that assumes predictability of proposed interventions, and which thus primarily seeks to improve the cost-effectiveness of implementation by measuring performance in terms of pre-determined outputs. Here, we argue that this approach has reinforced the narrow normal-science model for controlling parasitic diseases, and in doing so fails to address the complex dynamics, uncertainty and socio-ecological context-specificity that invariably underlie parasite transmission. Read More

    Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation - A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 3;35(9):1216-1226. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases/Travel Clinic, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Hirschengraben 84, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice.

    Objectives: To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT). Read More

    A rapid Orthopoxvirus purification protocol suitable for high-containment laboratories.
    J Virol Methods 2017 Jan 26;243:68-73. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
    Virus purification in a high-containment setting provides unique challenges due to barrier precautions and operational safety approaches that are not necessary in lower biosafety level (BSL) 2 environments. The need for high risk group pathogen diagnostic assay development, anti-viral research, pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy research necessitates work in BSL-3 and BSL-4 labs with infectious agents. When this work is performed in accordance with BSL-4 practices, modifications are often required in standard protocols. Read More

    Short-term clinical safety profile of brincidofovir: A favorable benefit-risk proposition in the treatment of smallpox.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jan 13. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Chimerix, Durham, NC, USA.
    Brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001) is an orally available, long-acting, broad-spectrum antiviral that has been evaluated in healthy subjects in Phase I studies and in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients and other immunocompromised patients in Phase II/III clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus and adenovirus infections. BCV has also shown in vitro activity against orthopoxviruses such as variola (smallpox) virus, and is under advanced development as a treatment for smallpox under the US FDA's 'Animal Rule'. The anticipated treatment regimen for smallpox is a total weekly dose of 200 mg administered orally for 3 consecutive weeks. Read More

    Cutaneous Deficiency of Filaggrin and STAT3 Exacerbates Vaccinia Disease In Vivo.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(1):e0170070. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD, United States of America.
    Rationale: Defects in filaggrin and STAT3 are associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) and susceptibility to severe skin infection.

    Methods: We evaluated skin infection with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000, in immunosuppressed mice with combined cutaneous deficiency in filaggrin and STAT3. In parallel, early events post-infection with ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes in which filaggrin expression was knocked down via siRNA. Read More

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.
    Adv Virus Res 2017 1;97:187-243. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, LMU University of Munich, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. Read More

    Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(1):e0169247. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America.
    Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. Read More

    Bob H. Reinhardt: The End of A Global Pox. America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era : The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2015, 268 pp., Hard cover, Illustrated, Figure, Maps, Table, Notes, Bibliography, Index., $39.95.
    J Community Health 2016 Dec 31. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Downstate Medical Center, School of Public Health, State University of New York, MSC 43, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA.
    This review examines in detail Bob H. Reinhardt's meticulous analyses of smallpox eradication within the broad context of American liberalism, Cold War politics, and the exercise of technological, medical, and political power on the part of the United States. As a result, his book provides a unique perspective on the eradication of smallpox. Read More

    Buccal viral DNA as a trigger for brincidofovir therapy in the mousepox model of smallpox.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Mar 27;139:112-116. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 S. Grand Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:
    Orthopoxviruses continue to pose a significant threat to the population as potential agents of bioterrorism. An intentional release of natural or engineered variola virus (VARV) or monkeypox viruses would cause mortality and morbidity in the target population. To address this, antivirals have been developed and evaluated in animal models of smallpox and monkeypox. Read More

    Modelling and Bayesian analysis of the Abakaliki smallpox data.
    Epidemics 2016 Dec 9. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    The celebrated Abakaliki smallpox data have appeared numerous times in the epidemic modelling literature, but in almost all cases only a specific subset of the data is considered. The only previous analysis of the full data set relied on approximation methods to derive a likelihood and did not assess model adequacy. The data themselves continue to be of interest due to concerns about the possible re-emergence of smallpox as a bioterrorism weapon. Read More

    Anti-Proliferative Effects of Dendrophthoe pentandra Methanol Extract on BCR/ABL-Positive and Imatinib-Resistant Leukemia Cell Lines
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 11 1;17(11):4857-4861. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.
    Background: Imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor specifically targeting the BCR/ABL fusion protein, induces hematological remission in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, the majority of CML patients treated with imatinib develop resistance with prolonged therapy. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Read More

    Vector-based genetically modified vaccines: Exploiting Jenner's legacy.
    Vaccine 2016 Oct 28. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Earth & Life Sciences, Athena Institute, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    The global vaccine market is diverse while facing a plethora of novel developments. Genetic modification (GM) techniques facilitate the design of 'smarter' vaccines. For many of the major infectious diseases of humans, like AIDS and malaria, but also for most human neoplastic disorders, still no vaccines are available. Read More

    A New Document on Smallpox Vaccination.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2016 Dec 10;9(6):287-289. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:
    Modern medicine owes much to the invaluable heritage of the practices of past generations and their achievements that have now become medical rules. In the case of vaccination, there is evidence that the nomads of Baluchistan (Southeast Iran) demonstrated natural immunization against cowpox, a practice that was later introduced to the medical community by Edward Jenner. Although the discoveries of scientists cannot be ignored, they are certainly based on the traditional and indigenous experiences that have been transferred from generation to generation until reaching us. Read More

    A Single Vaccination of Nonhuman Primates with Highly Attenuated Smallpox Vaccine, LC16m8, Provides Long-term Protection against Monkeypox.
    Jpn J Infect Dis 2016 Dec 22. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Laboratory of Special Pathogens, Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes human monkeypox (human MPX), which is a similar disease with smallpox in humans. A previous study showed that a single vaccination of monkeys with LC16m8, a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine, protected them from MPX at 4-5 weeks after vaccination. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of a single vaccination with LC16m8 in a nonhuman primate model of MPXV infection. Read More

    A bioinformatics pipeline to search functional motifs within whole-proteome data: a case study of poxviruses.
    Virus Genes 2016 Dec 20. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Proteins harbor domains or short linear motifs, which facilitate their functions and interactions. Finding functional motifs in protein sequences could predict the putative cellular roles or characteristics of hypothetical proteins. In this study, we present Shetti-Motif, which is an interactive tool to (i) map UniProt and PROSITE flat files, (ii) search for multiple pre-defined consensus patterns or experimentally validated functional motifs in large datasets protein sequences (proteome-wide), (iii) search for motifs containing repeated residues (low-complexity regions, e. Read More

    Smallpox as an actual biothreat: lessons learned from its outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2016 Oct-Dec;52(4):587-597
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro.
    Variola (smallpox) virus is classified as class A of potential biological weapons, due to its microbiological, genetic, antigenic and epidemiological characteristics. The potential danger is more real because vaccination against smallpox has stopped since disease eradication in 1979. That is why we want to share our unique, rich experience and acquired knowledge in the fight against this highly contagious and deadly disease during the smallpox outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972. Read More

    [Workers with signs of smallpox in the collection of Regional Office of Labor, Rio Grande do Sul, 1933-1944].
    Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos 2016 Oct-Dec;23(4):1209-1227
    Professor, Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Rua Alberto Rosa, 154. 90010-770 - Pelotas - RS - Brasil.
    Work Register Booklet was created in Brazil in 1932. Soon, Regional Labor Inspectorates emerged - after renamed as Regional Office of Labor. In Rio Grande do Sul, this office was settled in 1933 in Porto Alegre. Read More

    Histopathology of vaccine-preventable diseases.
    Histopathology 2017 Jan;70(1):109-122
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    The widespread use of vaccines has been one of the most important medical advances in the last century, saving trillions of dollars and millions of lives. Despite local eradication of some infections, travellers returning from affected areas may cause outbreaks through reintroduction of pathogens to individuals who are unable to receive vaccines for medical reasons or who have declined vaccination for non-medical reasons. Infections that would otherwise be uncommonly encountered by anatomical pathologists should therefore remain in the differential diagnosis for immunocompromised and unvaccinated patients. Read More

    Genomic identification of human vaccinia virus keratoconjunctivitis and its importance as a laboratory-acquired infection.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;64(11):806-812
    Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord, Iran.
    Context: Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. VACVs are enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. Several species of this family, for example, molluscum contagiosum, smallpox, deerpox, horsepox, rabbitpox, and VACVs may cause conjunctivitis. Read More

    The biological standard of living in pre-modern Korea: Determinants of height of militia recruits during the Chosŏn dynasty.
    Econ Hum Biol 2017 Feb 2;24:104-110. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Sungkyunkwan University, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    This paper extends the research on the biological standard of living in the Korean peninsula back to pre-modern times. Drawing on militia rosters of the Chosŏn Dynasty from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, we tentatively conclude that the final height of Korean men during this period was 166cm and thus slightly above that of modern North Korean men (165cm). On the other hand, the average height of modern South Korean men is 172cm, 6cm more than what we tentatively estimate for pre-modern Korean men. Read More

    17(th) Century Variola Virus Reveals the Recent History of Smallpox.
    Curr Biol 2016 Dec 8;26(24):3407-3412. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    McMaster Ancient DNA Centre, Department of Anthropology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada; Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada; Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada; Humans and the Microbiome Program, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8, Canada. Electronic address:
    Smallpox holds a unique position in the history of medicine. It was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed and remains the only human disease eradicated by vaccination. Although there have been claims of smallpox in Egypt, India, and China dating back millennia [1-4], the timescale of emergence of the causative agent, variola virus (VARV), and how it evolved in the context of increasingly widespread immunization, have proven controversial [4-9]. Read More

    Rapid and sensitive point-of-care detection of Orthopoxviruses by ABICAP immunofiltration.
    Virol J 2016 Dec 9;13(1):207. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens (ZBS), Robert Koch Institute, Seestrasse 10, 13353, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: The rapid and reliable detection of infectious agents is one of the most challenging tasks in scenarios lacking well-equipped laboratory infrastructure, like diagnostics in rural areas of developing countries. Commercially available point-of-care diagnostic tests for emerging and rare diseases are particularly scarce.

    Results: In this work we present a point-of-care test for the detection of Orthopoxviruses (OPV). Read More

    Drivers of airborne human-to-human pathogen transmission.
    Curr Opin Virol 2016 Dec 2;22:22-29. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany.
    Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans. Read More

    A homolog of the variola virus B22 membrane protein contributes to ectromelia virus pathogenicity in the mouse footpad model.
    Virology 2017 Jan 26;501:107-114. Epub 2016 Nov 26.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Most poxviruses encode a homolog of a ~200,000-kDa membrane protein originally identified in variola virus. We investigated the importance of the ectromelia virus (ECTV) homolog C15 in a natural infection model. In cultured mouse cells, the replication of a mutant virus with stop codons near the N-terminus (ECTV-C15Stop) was indistinguishable from a control virus (ECTV-C15Rev). Read More

    Notice to Readers: Final 2015 Reports of Nationally Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions.
    • Authors:
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 Nov 25;65(46):1306-1321. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
    The table listed in this report on pages 1307-1321 presents finalized data, as of June 30, 2016, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2015. These data will be published in more detail in the Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (1). Because no cases were reported in the United States during 2015, the following diseases do not appear in this early release table: anthrax; dengue hemorrhagic fever; diphtheria; eastern equine encephalitis virus disease, nonneuroinvasive; poliomyelitis, paralytic; poliovirus infection, nonparalytic; severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV); smallpox; western equine encephalitis virus disease, neuroinvasive and nonneuroinvasive; yellow fever; and viral hemorrhagic fevers. Read More

    Hitting a Moving Target: A Strategic Tool for Analyzing Terrorist Threats.
    Health Secur 2016 Nov/Dec;14(6):409-418. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    The subject of terrorism risk can be confusing for both the general public and for those responsible for protecting us from attack. Relatively minor terrorist threats are often conflated with much more serious ones, in part because it is hard to quantify either intent or technical ability to carry out an attack. Plotting threats on a "potential mass casualties" versus "ease of obtainment or production" matrix creates some order out of a seemingly endless array of worldwide threats, and it highlights those threats that are in need of more urgent attention. Read More

    "Gharikon"/"Agharikon" a Valuable Medicinal Mushroom in Iranian Traditional Medicine.
    Iran J Med Sci 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S34
    Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Gharikon is a well-known medicinal mushroom in Iranian traditional medicine and mentioned several times in different kinds of authentic literature. Considering both traditional and modern literature, the aim of this study is to present a review of its biological activities.

    Methods: Using online databases (e. Read More

    "Resale Shammieh" First Source of Allergic Rhinitis Description by Rhazes.
    Iran J Med Sci 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S9
    Research Center for Traditional Medicine and History of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Department of Traditional Persian Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Background: Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī, known as Rhazes in the Western world (854-925 CE), was an Iranian polymath, physician and one of the most prominent sages in the medieval period. He wrote several medical books and treaties such as "Continents", a comprehensive medical encyclopedia, treaties in smallpox and measles, "Al-Mansuri" and many other important manuscripts in the medical field. "Resale Shammieh" is one of his pioneering well-known works in medicine; replying to Shahid-Ibn-Hussein Balkhi, dedicated to his master Abuzeid Ahmad-Ibn-sahl Balkhi, who was getting cold in spring at the time of rose blossoming. Read More

    Clemens von Pirquet: A Remarkable Life and Career.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2016 Oct 28. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Virginia H. Rogers Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611.
    From 1908 to 1929, Clemens von Pirquet was one of the world's most acclaimed pediatricians. Von Pirquet (1874-1929) trained at Vienna's Universitäts Kinderklinic under Theodor Escherich, the first Pediatric Infectious Diseases physician [ 1], and became the first Professor and Chair of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins in 1909. He then succeeded his mentor Escherich as Professor and Chair of Pediatrics in Vienna, the most prestigious European pediatric position, when Escherich died unexpectedly in 1911. Read More

    [Twelve cases of monkeypox virus outbreak in Bangassou District (Central African Republic) in December 2015].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2016 Dec 25;109(5):358-363. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Unité des mycobactéries, Service de laboratoire, Hôpital de l'Amitié, Bangui, République centrafricaine.
    An outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the district of Bangassou in 2015. The monkeypox is a re-emerging zoonosis of viral origin highly contagious. It is an eruptive fever which evolves in an epidemic manner. Read More

    Biosocial Approaches to the 2013-2016 Ebola Pandemic.
    Health Hum Rights 2016 Jun;18(1):115-128
    Co-founder of Partners In Health, Boston, MA, USA; Kolokotrones University Professor of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; and Chief of the Division of Global Health Equity at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. He is Editor-in-Chief of Health and Human Rights Journal .
    Despite more than 25 documented outbreaks of Ebola since 1976, our understanding of the disease is limited, in particular the social, political, ecological, and economic forces that promote (or limit) its spread. In the following study, we seek to provide new ways of understanding the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. We use the term, 'pandemic,' instead of 'epidemic,' so as not to elide the global forces that shape every localized outbreak of infectious disease. Read More

    British merchant seafarers 1900-2010: A history of extreme risks of mortality from infectious disease.
    Travel Med Infect Dis 2016 Sep - Oct;14(5):499-504. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    Norwegian Centre for Maritime Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Background: This study established trends in major infectious disease mortality in British merchant shipping from 1900 to 2010 as compared with the British male working population and the Royal Navy.

    Methods: A population mortality study of six infectious diseases using annual government mortality returns and death inquiry files for British merchant shipping and the Royal Navy, and official mortality data for the general male working aged population.

    Findings: Relative mortality risks for each disease were increased significantly in British merchant shipping when compared with the general population; malaria by 58. Read More

    Long-term safety of replication-defective smallpox vaccine (MVA-BN) in atopic eczema and allergic rhinitis.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Nov 29;30(11):1971-1977. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Biederstein, Technical University of Munich (TUM) and ZAUM - Center of Allergy and Environment, Munich, Germany.
    Background: Availability of a safe smallpox vaccine may be necessary under certain circumstances. Use of the old life virus vaccine was associated with serious adverse events, particularly in the setting of atopic eczema (AE) and immunodeficiency. Modified virus Ankara (MVA)-BN, a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, was developed for vaccination with improved safety profile. Read More

    Cross-Neutralizing and Protective Human Antibody Specificities to Poxvirus Infections.
    Cell 2016 Oct;167(3):684-694.e9
    The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:
    Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses. Read More

    MVA vaccine encoding CMV antigens safely induces durable expansion of CMV-specific T cells in healthy adults.
    Blood 2017 Jan 19;129(1):114-125. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Department of Experimental Therapeutics and.
    Attenuated poxvirus modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a useful viral-based vaccine for clinical investigation, because of its excellent safety profile and property of inducing potent immune responses against recombinant (r) antigens. We developed Triplex by constructing an rMVA encoding 3 immunodominant cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens, which stimulates a host antiviral response: UL83 (pp65), UL123 (IE1-exon4), and UL122 (IE2-exon5). We completed the first clinical evaluation of the Triplex vaccine in 24 healthy adults, with or without immunity to CMV and vaccinia virus (previous DryVax smallpox vaccination). Read More

    Estimating the Size of the U.S. Population at Risk of Severe Adverse Events from Replicating Smallpox Vaccine.
    Public Health Nurs 2016 Oct 13. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    International Health, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia.
    Objective: To quantify the population at risk of serious adverse reactions to replicating smallpox vaccine.

    Design And Sample: Conditions known or suspected to carry risk were identified via Centers for Disease Control and Prevention planning documents, other federal publications, and peer-reviewed literature. Conditions identified were categorized as historically recognized risks or more recently recognized immunocompromised states that may pose risk. Read More

    History of Smallpox and Its Spread in Human Populations.
    Microbiol Spectr 2016 Aug;4(4)
    Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. Read More

    Microbiol Spectr 2016 Aug;4(4)
    Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. Read More

    A translation of the Linnaean dissertation The Invisible World.
    Br J Hist Sci 2016 Sep;49(3):353-382
    **Department of Ancient Languages and Cultures,University of Pretoria,Lynnwood Road,Hatfield,Republic of South Africa.
    This study presents the first translation from Latin to English of the Linnaean dissertation Mundus invisibilis or The Invisible World, submitted by Johannes Roos in 1769. The dissertation highlights Linnaeus's conviction that infectious diseases could be transmitted by living organisms, too small to be seen. Biographies of Linnaeus often fail to mention that Linnaeus was correct in ascribing the cause of diseases such as measles, smallpox and syphilis to living organisms. Read More

    Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics.
    J R Soc Interface 2016 Oct;13(123)
    Agent Based Modelling Laboratory, York University, Toronto, Canada.
    Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i. Read More

    Formulation and characterization of ternary inclusion complex containing hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and meglumine for solubility enhancement of poorly water-soluble ST-246, an anti-smallpox drug.
    Curr Drug Deliv 2016 Oct 3. Epub 2016 Oct 3.
    State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing 100850, China.
    The solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to design a liquid formulation that can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble weakly acidic ST-246, an anti-smallpox drug. Soluble ternary cyclodextrin complexations (t-CDs) containing ST-246, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and meglumine (MEG) were prepared and optimized. Read More

    [Back to the Future. Vaccine trials against Ebola in the history of resistance to immunization].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2016 Oct 29;109(4):287-295. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    UMR 7219 SPHERE, CNRS/Paris VII, Paris, France.
    Vaccine trials against Ebola virus have been conceived and organized, in August 2014, after the epidemic started in three countries of West Africa. If the preparedness had been missing, the planners tried to anticipate the resistance to vaccination, in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. This article offers a retrospective view on the resistances to vaccination throughout its history, from smallpox inoculation to anti-polio vaccine. Read More

    Antiviral Effect of Agaricomycetes Mushrooms (Review).
    Int J Med Mushrooms 2016 ;18(5):375-86
    State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region, Russia.
    This review presents data on the studied antiviral activities of Agaricomycetes mushrooms against the herpes, West Nile, influenza, human immunodeficiency, and hepatitis viruses, as well as orthopoxviruses, including the variola virus. Polysaccharides and other compounds (e.g. Read More

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