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    [The court physician, the clergyman, a learned society and smallpox].
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2017 ;161(0):D1111
    Universiteit Maastricht, Onderwijsinstituut Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht.
    Variolation was introduced in England in the first half of the 18th century. The positive effects of this new method for preventing smallpox were already known in the Netherlands around 1720, one of whom was the Dutch physician Boerhaave. In spite of this, it took another 30 years before variolation was used in the Netherlands. Read More

    Considering the "public" in public health: popular resistance to the Smallpox Eradication Programme in India.
    Indian J Med Ethics 2017 Apr-Jun;2(2):104-111
    Associate Professor, Department of Geography, 123 Major Williams Hall, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA,.
    Public health initiatives, including large-scale vaccination and disease eradication programmes, regularly pit the rights of the individual against broader benefits to society. At times, the public resists such initiatives, with the World Health Organisation's Smallpox Eradication Programme (SEP) in India being a case in point. Here, we critically investigate resistance to smallpox vaccines in India and argue that while the SEP successfully eradicated a global killer; individuals were stripped of human rights through coercion, forcible vaccination and quarantine. Read More

    Ethical and legal challenges of vaccines and vaccination: Reflections.
    Indian J Med Ethics 2017 Apr-Jun;2(2):72-74
    Advocate, Courtyard Attorneys, 47/1345, MIG Adarsh Nagar, Worli, Mumbai 400 030 India,.
    Vaccines and vaccination have emerged as key medical scientific tools for prevention of certain diseases. Documentation of the history of vaccination shows that the initial popular resistance to universal vaccination was based on false assumptions and eventually gave way to acceptance of vaccines and trust in their ability to save lives. The successes of the global eradication of smallpox, and now of polio, have only strengthened the premier position occupied by vaccines in disease prevention. Read More

    Cowpox virus: What's in a Name?
    Viruses 2017 May 9;9(5). Epub 2017 May 9.
    Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Neuherbergstr 11, 80937 Munich, Germany.
    Traditionally, virus taxonomy relied on phenotypic properties; however, a sequence-based virus taxonomy has become essential since the recent requirement of a species to exhibit monophyly. The species Cowpox virus has failed to meet this requirement, necessitating a reexamination of this species. Here, we report the genomic sequences of nine Cowpox viruses and, by combining them with the available data of 37 additional genomes, confirm polyphyly of Cowpox viruses and find statistical support based on genetic data for more than a dozen species. Read More

    A medical enigma : what "gale chinoise (Chinese scabies)" meant 150 years ago.
    Med Sante Trop 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Centre René Labusquière, Université de Bordeaux 3, Bordeaux, France.
    Context: The meaning of the term "gale chinoise" mentioned in some articles about French overseas territories in the 19th century, remains unclear. In response to a query of an American colleague dermatologist trying to find out what it meant 150 years ago, we attempted to elucidate the nature of this ancient disease, which today would be translated literally as Chinese scabies.

    Method: We submitted the query to a panel of civilian and military French tropical medicine specialists including dermatologists, through two networks : Association Amicale Santé Navale et d'Outre-Mer and Société de Pathologie Exotique. Read More

    Oncolytic efficacy of thymidine kinase-deleted vaccinia virus strain Guang9.
    Oncotarget 2017 Apr 15. Epub 2017 Apr 15.
    Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.
    Oncolytic virotherapy is being developed as a promising platform for cancer therapy due to its ability to lyse cancer cells in a tumor-specific manner. Vaccinia virus has been used as a live vaccine in the smallpox eradication program and now is being potential in cancer therapy with a great safety profile. Vaccinia strain Guang9 (VG9) is an attenuated Chinese vaccinia virus and its oncolytic efficacy has been evaluated in our previous study. Read More

    Ivermectin and malaria control.
    Malar J 2017 Apr 24;16(1):172. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Graduate School of Infection Control Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1 Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8641, Japan.
    As the world begins to realize the very real prospect of eliminating malaria as a public health problem globally, the scientific community is acutely aware that novel and innovative new tools will be required if that lofty goal is to be accomplished. Moreover, the need for comprehensive, integrated products and interventions is being recognized in order for the critical 'final steps' toward elimination to be taken successfully. Failure to take these crucial last steps have dogged all past global disease elimination programmes, except for smallpox. Read More

    Review of poxvirus: emergence of monkeypox.
    Med Sante Trop 2017 Feb;27(1):29-39
    Service de dermatologie, HIA Sainte-Anne, Toulon, France.
    This article reviews the different types of poxvirus infections. Smallpox, although eradicated, must continue to be monitored because of the potential risk of accidental or voluntary (by bioterrorism) reintroduction. Monkeypox and cowpox viruses are considered to be emergent today ; their high risk of dissemination is due to the increase in international transport as well as trends for new animals as pets and the loss of vaccinal protection against smallpox. Read More

    Preparing for biological threats: Addressing the needs of pregnant women.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Mar;109(5):391-398
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus). Evaluating the potential maternal, fetal, and infant consequences of an intentional release of an infectious agent requires an assessment of several key issues: (1) are pregnant women more susceptible to infection or illness compared to the general population?; (2) are pregnant women at increased risk for severe illness, morbidity, and mortality compared to the general population?; (3) does infection or illness during pregnancy place women, the fetus, or the infant at increased risk for adverse outcomes and how does this affect clinical management?; and (4) are the medical countermeasures recommended for the general population safe and effective during pregnancy? These issues help frame national guidance for the care of pregnant women during an intentional release of a biological threat. Read More

    Relocating Pastorian Medicine: Accommodation and Acclimatization of Pastorian Practices against Smallpox at the Pasteur Institute of Chengdu, China, 1908-1927.
    Sci Context 2017 Mar;30(1):33-59
    Department of History,University of California,Los
    Argument Revising the diffusionist view of current scholarship on the Pasteur Institutes in China, this paper demonstrates the ways in which local networks and circumstances informed the circulation and construction of knowledge and practices relating to smallpox prophylaxis in the Southwest of China during the early twentieth century. I argue that the Pasteur Institute of Chengdu did not operate in a natural continuity with the preceding local French medical institutions, but rather presented an intentional break from them. This Institute, as the first established by the French in China, strove for political and administrative independence both from the Chinese authority and from the Catholic Church. Read More

    Efficacy of delayed brincidofovir treatment against a lethal rabbitpox virus challenge in New Zealand White rabbits.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jul 7;143:278-286. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Chimerix, Durham, NC, USA.
    In the event of a bioterror attack with variola virus (smallpox), exposure may only be identified following onset of fever. To determine if antiviral therapy with brincidofovir (BCV; CMX001) initiated at, or following, onset of fever could prevent severe illness and death, a lethal rabbitpox model was used. BCV is in advanced development as an antiviral for the treatment of smallpox under the US Food and Drug Administration's 'Animal Rule'. Read More

    Generation and Production of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) as a Vaccine Vector.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1581:97-119
    The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Research Bldg., Old Road Campus, ORCRB, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK.
    The smallpox vaccine based on the vaccinia virus was successfully used to eradicate smallpox, but although very effective, it was a very reactogenic vaccine and responsible for the deaths of one to two people per million vaccinated. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated derivative, also used in the smallpox eradication campaign and now being developed as a recombinant viral vector to produce vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. MVA can encode one or more foreign antigens and thus can function as a multivalent vaccine. Read More

    Vaccinia virus evasion of regulated cell death.
    Immunol Lett 2017 Mar 31;186:68-80. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Regulated cell death is a powerful anti-viral mechanism capable of aborting the virus replicative cycle and alerting neighbouring cells to the threat of infection. The biological importance of regulated cell death is illustrated by the rich repertoire of host signalling cascades causing cell death and by the multiple strategies exhibited by viruses to block death signal transduction and preserve cell viability. Vaccinia virus (VACV), a poxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox, encodes multiple proteins that interfere with apoptotic, necroptotic and pyroptotic signalling. Read More

    The origins of the vaccine cold chain and a glimpse of the future.
    Vaccine 2017 Apr;35(17):2115-2120
    7 Avenue Pasteur 71700 Tournus, France. Electronic address:
    International efforts to eradicate smallpox in the 1960s and 1970s provided the foundation for efforts to expand immunization programmes, including work to develop immunization supply chains. The need to create a reliable system to keep vaccines cold during the lengthy journey from the manufacturer to the point of use, even in remote areas, was a crucial concern during the early days of the Expanded Programme on Immunization. The vaccine cold chain was deliberately separated from other medical distribution systems to assure timely access to and control of vaccines and injection materials. Read More

    Variola minor in coalfield areas of England and Wales, 1921-34: Geographical determinants of a national smallpox epidemic that spread out of effective control.
    Soc Sci Med 2017 May 23;180:160-169. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge, CB2 3EN, UK.
    This paper uses techniques of binary logistic regression to identify the spatial determinants of the last national epidemic of smallpox to spread in England and Wales, the variola minor epidemic of 1921-34. Adjusting for age and county-level variations in vaccination coverage in infancy, the analysis identifies a dose-response gradient with increasing odds of elevated smallpox rates in local government areas with (i) medium (odds ratio [OR] = 5.32, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1. Read More

    Cutting the Stone: Health Defined in the Era of Value-based Care.
    Cureus 2017 Feb 10;9(2):e1023. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Science Department, University College Roosevelt.
    The immune system contributes to the maintenance of health by preventing and limiting the clinical consequences of infections by pathogenic microorganisms. During the evolution of Homo sapiens, those with the fittest immune system survived. The immune system of Homo sapiens was further improved and adapted by admixture with Neanderthal genes. Read More

    Digital triplex DNA assay based on plasmonic nanocrystals.
    Anal Bioanal Chem 2017 May 22;409(14):3657-3666. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Institute of Optical Imaging and Sensing, Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Minimal Invasive Medical Technologies, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518055, China.
    A new analytical method has been developed to detect three kinds of DNA simultaneously based on magnetic beads and color-encoded plasmonic nanocrystals. Magnetic beads modified with capture DNA are employed to collect the specific target DNA, and color-encoded plasmonic nanocrystals are applied to signal the target through DNA hybridization. As a proof of concept, three types of representative metal nanocrystals of gold nanoparticle (AuNP), gold nanorod (AuNR), and gold/silver nanoparticle (Au/AgNP) were employed to signal three dissimilar virus-related protective antigen genes, Ebola virus (EV), Variola virus (VV), and Bacillus anthracis (BA), respectively. Read More

    Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 12;91(11). Epub 2017 May 12.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. Read More

    Novel Orthopoxvirus infection in an Alaska resident.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Mar 15. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Alaska Division of Public Health, Section of Epidemiology, 3601 C Street, Suite 540, Anchorage, AK 99503, USA.
    Background.: Human infection by orthopoxviruses is being reported with increasing frequency, attributed in part to the cessation of smallpox vaccination and concomitant waning of population-level immunity. In July 2015, a female resident of interior Alaska, presented to an urgent care clinic with a dermal lesion consistent with poxvirus infection. Read More

    Treacle and Smallpox: Two Tests for Multicriteria Decision Analysis Models in Health Technology Assessment.
    Value Health 2017 Mar 20;20(3):512-515. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde Business School, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address:
    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is rightly receiving increasing attention in health technology assessment. Nevertheless, a distinguishing feature of the health domain is that technologies must actually improve health, and good performance on other criteria cannot compensate for failure to do so. We argue for two reasonable tests for MCDA models: the treacle test (can a winning intervention be incompletely ineffective?) and the smallpox test (can a winning intervention be for a disease that no one suffers from?). Read More

    We strongly support childhood immunisation-statement from the European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP).
    Eur J Pediatr 2017 May 10;176(5):679-680. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The eradication of smallpox and the elimination of several other infectious diseases from much of the world has provided convincing evidence that vaccines are among the most effective interventions for promoting health. The current scepticism about immunisation among members of the new US administration carries a risk of decreasing immunisation rates also in Europe. While only a small minority of the population are strongly anti-vaccine, their public activities have significantly influenced an uncertainty among the general population about both the safety of and the necessity for vaccination. Read More

    Antibody Recognition of Immunodominant Vaccinia Virus Envelope Proteins.
    Subcell Biochem 2017 ;83:103-126
    Division of Cell Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LJI), La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.
    Vaccinia Virus (VACV) is an enveloped double stranded DNA virus and the active ingredient of the smallpox vaccine. The systematic administration of this vaccine led to the eradication of circulating smallpox (variola virus, VARV) from the human population. As a tribute to its success, global immunization was ended in the late 1970s. Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of a modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine using three immunization schedules and two modes of delivery: A randomized clinical non-inferiority trial.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 27;35(13):1675-1682. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    The Emmes Corporation, Rockville, MD, United States.
    Introduction: To guide the use of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine in response to a release of smallpox virus, the immunogenicity and safety of shorter vaccination intervals, and administration by jet injector (JI), were compared to the standard schedule of administration on Days 1 and 29 by syringe and needle (S&N).

    Methods: Healthy adults 18-40years of age were randomly assigned to receive MVA vaccine subcutaneously by S&N on Days 1 and 29 (standard), Days 1 and 15, or Days 1 and 22, or to receive the vaccine subcutaneously by JI on Days 1 and 29. Blood was collected at four time points after the second vaccination for plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) (primary endpoint) and ELISA (secondary endpoint) antibody assays. Read More

    Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0168664. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. Read More

    Viral Evolution: Mummy Virus Challenges Presumed History of Smallpox.
    Curr Biol 2017 Feb;27(3):R119-R120
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:
    Despite evidence of smallpox in antiquity, a new study of a 350 year-old Lithuanian child mummy suggests that the global viral genetic diversity circulating during the 20(th) century was only around 200 years old. Read More

    Metabolites as biomarkers of adverse reactions following vaccination: A pilot study using nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 3;35(9):1238-1245. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    NIH Common Fund Eastern Regional Comprehensive Metabolomics Resource Core, RTI International, 3040 E Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. Electronic address:
    An Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFI) is an adverse reaction to a vaccination that goes above and beyond the usual side effects associated with vaccinations. One serious AEFI related to the smallpox vaccine is myopericarditis. Metabolomics involves the study of the low molecular weight metabolite profile of cells, tissues, and biological fluids, and provides a functional readout of the phenotype. Read More

    Socio-ecological dynamics and challenges to the governance of Neglected Tropical Disease control.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Feb 6;6(1):35. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of International Development, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.
    The current global attempts to control the so-called "Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)" have the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity suffered by some of the world's poorest communities. However, the governance of these control programmes is driven by a managerial rationality that assumes predictability of proposed interventions, and which thus primarily seeks to improve the cost-effectiveness of implementation by measuring performance in terms of pre-determined outputs. Here, we argue that this approach has reinforced the narrow normal-science model for controlling parasitic diseases, and in doing so fails to address the complex dynamics, uncertainty and socio-ecological context-specificity that invariably underlie parasite transmission. Read More

    Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation - A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 3;35(9):1216-1226. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases/Travel Clinic, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Hirschengraben 84, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice.

    Objectives: To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT). Read More

    A rapid Orthopoxvirus purification protocol suitable for high-containment laboratories.
    J Virol Methods 2017 May 26;243:68-73. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
    Virus purification in a high-containment setting provides unique challenges due to barrier precautions and operational safety approaches that are not necessary in lower biosafety level (BSL) 2 environments. The need for high risk group pathogen diagnostic assay development, anti-viral research, pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy research necessitates work in BSL-3 and BSL-4 labs with infectious agents. When this work is performed in accordance with BSL-4 practices, modifications are often required in standard protocols. Read More

    Short-term clinical safety profile of brincidofovir: A favorable benefit-risk proposition in the treatment of smallpox.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jul 14;143:269-277. Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Chimerix, Durham, NC, USA.
    Brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001) is an orally available, long-acting, broad-spectrum antiviral that has been evaluated in healthy subjects in Phase I studies and in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients and other immunocompromised patients in Phase II/III clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus and adenovirus infections. BCV has also shown in vitro activity against orthopoxviruses such as variola (smallpox) virus, and is under advanced development as a treatment for smallpox under the US FDA's 'Animal Rule'. The anticipated treatment regimen for smallpox is a total weekly dose of 200 mg administered orally for 3 consecutive weeks. Read More

    Cutaneous Deficiency of Filaggrin and STAT3 Exacerbates Vaccinia Disease In Vivo.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(1):e0170070. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD, United States of America.
    Rationale: Defects in filaggrin and STAT3 are associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) and susceptibility to severe skin infection.

    Methods: We evaluated skin infection with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000, in immunosuppressed mice with combined cutaneous deficiency in filaggrin and STAT3. In parallel, early events post-infection with ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes in which filaggrin expression was knocked down via siRNA. Read More

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.
    Adv Virus Res 2017 1;97:187-243. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, LMU University of Munich, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. Read More

    Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(1):e0169247. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America.
    Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. Read More

    Bob H. Reinhardt: The End of A Global Pox. America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era : The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2015, 268 pp., Hard cover, Illustrated, Figure, Maps, Table, Notes, Bibliography, Index., $39.95.
    J Community Health 2017 Apr;42(2):421-422
    Downstate Medical Center, School of Public Health, State University of New York, MSC 43, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA.
    This review examines in detail Bob H. Reinhardt's meticulous analyses of smallpox eradication within the broad context of American liberalism, Cold War politics, and the exercise of technological, medical, and political power on the part of the United States. As a result, his book provides a unique perspective on the eradication of smallpox. Read More

    Buccal viral DNA as a trigger for brincidofovir therapy in the mousepox model of smallpox.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Mar 27;139:112-116. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 S. Grand Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:
    Orthopoxviruses continue to pose a significant threat to the population as potential agents of bioterrorism. An intentional release of natural or engineered variola virus (VARV) or monkeypox viruses would cause mortality and morbidity in the target population. To address this, antivirals have been developed and evaluated in animal models of smallpox and monkeypox. Read More

    Modelling and Bayesian analysis of the Abakaliki smallpox data.
    Epidemics 2016 Dec 9. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    The celebrated Abakaliki smallpox data have appeared numerous times in the epidemic modelling literature, but in almost all cases only a specific subset of the data is considered. The only previous analysis of the full data set relied on approximation methods to derive a likelihood and did not assess model adequacy. The data themselves continue to be of interest due to concerns about the possible re-emergence of smallpox as a bioterrorism weapon. Read More

    Anti-Proliferative Effects of Dendrophthoe pentandra Methanol Extract on BCR/ABL-Positive and Imatinib-Resistant Leukemia Cell Lines
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 11 1;17(11):4857-4861. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.
    Background: Imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor specifically targeting the BCR/ABL fusion protein, induces hematological remission in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, the majority of CML patients treated with imatinib develop resistance with prolonged therapy. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Read More

    Vector-based genetically modified vaccines: Exploiting Jenner's legacy.
    Vaccine 2016 Dec 28;34(50):6436-6448. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Earth & Life Sciences, Athena Institute, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    The global vaccine market is diverse while facing a plethora of novel developments. Genetic modification (GM) techniques facilitate the design of 'smarter' vaccines. For many of the major infectious diseases of humans, like AIDS and malaria, but also for most human neoplastic disorders, still no vaccines are available. Read More

    A New Document on Smallpox Vaccination.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2016 Dec 10;9(6):287-289. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:
    Modern medicine owes much to the invaluable heritage of the practices of past generations and their achievements that have now become medical rules. In the case of vaccination, there is evidence that the nomads of Baluchistan (Southeast Iran) demonstrated natural immunization against cowpox, a practice that was later introduced to the medical community by Edward Jenner. Although the discoveries of scientists cannot be ignored, they are certainly based on the traditional and indigenous experiences that have been transferred from generation to generation until reaching us. Read More

    A Single Vaccination of Nonhuman Primates with Highly Attenuated Smallpox Vaccine, LC16m8, Provides Long-term Protection against Monkeypox.
    Jpn J Infect Dis 2016 Dec 22. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Laboratory of Special Pathogens, Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes human monkeypox (human MPX), which is a similar disease with smallpox in humans. A previous study showed that a single vaccination of monkeys with LC16m8, a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine, protected them from MPX at 4-5 weeks after vaccination. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of a single vaccination with LC16m8 in a nonhuman primate model of MPXV infection. Read More

    A bioinformatics pipeline to search functional motifs within whole-proteome data: a case study of poxviruses.
    Virus Genes 2017 Apr 20;53(2):173-178. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Proteins harbor domains or short linear motifs, which facilitate their functions and interactions. Finding functional motifs in protein sequences could predict the putative cellular roles or characteristics of hypothetical proteins. In this study, we present Shetti-Motif, which is an interactive tool to (i) map UniProt and PROSITE flat files, (ii) search for multiple pre-defined consensus patterns or experimentally validated functional motifs in large datasets protein sequences (proteome-wide), (iii) search for motifs containing repeated residues (low-complexity regions, e. Read More

    Smallpox as an actual biothreat: lessons learned from its outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2016 Oct-Dec;52(4):587-597
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro.
    Variola (smallpox) virus is classified as class A of potential biological weapons, due to its microbiological, genetic, antigenic and epidemiological characteristics. The potential danger is more real because vaccination against smallpox has stopped since disease eradication in 1979. That is why we want to share our unique, rich experience and acquired knowledge in the fight against this highly contagious and deadly disease during the smallpox outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972. Read More

    [Workers with signs of smallpox in the collection of Regional Office of Labor, Rio Grande do Sul, 1933-1944].
    Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos 2016 Oct-Dec;23(4):1209-1227
    Professor, Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Rua Alberto Rosa, 154. 90010-770 - Pelotas - RS - Brasil.
    Work Register Booklet was created in Brazil in 1932. Soon, Regional Labor Inspectorates emerged - after renamed as Regional Office of Labor. In Rio Grande do Sul, this office was settled in 1933 in Porto Alegre. Read More

    Histopathology of vaccine-preventable diseases.
    Histopathology 2017 Jan;70(1):109-122
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    The widespread use of vaccines has been one of the most important medical advances in the last century, saving trillions of dollars and millions of lives. Despite local eradication of some infections, travellers returning from affected areas may cause outbreaks through reintroduction of pathogens to individuals who are unable to receive vaccines for medical reasons or who have declined vaccination for non-medical reasons. Infections that would otherwise be uncommonly encountered by anatomical pathologists should therefore remain in the differential diagnosis for immunocompromised and unvaccinated patients. Read More

    Genomic identification of human vaccinia virus keratoconjunctivitis and its importance as a laboratory-acquired infection.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;64(11):806-812
    Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord, Iran.
    Context: Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. VACVs are enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. Several species of this family, for example, molluscum contagiosum, smallpox, deerpox, horsepox, rabbitpox, and VACVs may cause conjunctivitis. Read More

    The biological standard of living in pre-modern Korea: Determinants of height of militia recruits during the Chosŏn dynasty.
    Econ Hum Biol 2017 Feb 2;24:104-110. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Sungkyunkwan University, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    This paper extends the research on the biological standard of living in the Korean peninsula back to pre-modern times. Drawing on militia rosters of the Chosŏn Dynasty from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, we tentatively conclude that the final height of Korean men during this period was 166cm and thus slightly above that of modern North Korean men (165cm). On the other hand, the average height of modern South Korean men is 172cm, 6cm more than what we tentatively estimate for pre-modern Korean men. Read More

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