10,105 results match your criteria Smallpox


Measles and the Modern History of Vaccination.

Authors:
Elena Conis

Public Health Rep 2019 Feb 14:33354919826558. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

1 Graduate School of Journalism and Center for Science, Technology, Medicine, and Society, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

The modern era of vaccination was heralded with the licensure of the first 2 measles vaccines in 1963. This new era was distinct from the preceding era of vaccination for 4 main reasons. First, federal leadership in support of immunization at the local level grew. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354919826558DOI Listing
February 2019

Differential Response Following Infection of Mouse CNS with Virulent and Attenuated Vaccinia Virus Strains.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Feb 12;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Israel Institute of Biological Research (IIBR), Ness-Ziona, Israel.

Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to a broad range of pathologies. CNS infections with Orthopox viruses have been mainly documented as an adverse reaction to smallpox vaccination with vaccinia virus. To date, there is insufficient data regarding the mechanisms underlying pathological viral replication or viral clearance. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/7/1/19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010019DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Old Hickory's Violent Past Medical History.

Authors:
Don K Nakayama

Am Surg 2018 Nov;84(11):1717-1722

The past medical history (PMH) of Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) reflects one of the emblematic nicknames in Americana, "Old Hickory." As a 14-year-old Rebel volunteer in the Revolutionary War, he survived a blow from a British saber and smallpox that he contacted in a prison camp epidemic. In 1806, Jackson challenged a rival who had made the mistake of maligning his beloved wife Rachel. Read More

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November 2018

Elimination of dog-mediated human rabies: the burden of human rabies in Africa.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):607-615

Hope exists for the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies in Africa. Momentum is gathering towards this goal, with an increasing number of successful demonstration projects showing that elimination is feasible. The Pan African Rabies Control Network is bringing Africa together against rabies, supported by the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, which have a combined resolution to eliminate human deaths from dog-transmitted rabies by 2030. Read More

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http://doc.oie.int/dyn/portal/index.seam?page=alo&aloId=
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2827DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

A year of terror and a century of reflection: perspectives on the great influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 6;19(1):117. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratory of Emerging and Re-Emerging Viruses, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, 523-745 Bannatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0J9, Canada.

Background: In the spring of 1918, the "War to End All Wars", which would ultimately claim more than 37 million lives, had entered into its final year and would change the global political and economic landscape forever. At the same time, a new global threat was emerging and would become one of the most devastating global health crises in recorded history.

Main Text: The 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus spread across Europe, North America, and Asia over a 12-month period resulting in an estimated 500 million infections and 50-100 million deaths worldwide, of which ~ 50% of these occurred within the fall of 1918 (Emerg Infect Dis 12:15-22, 2006, Bull Hist Med 76:105-115, 2002). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3750-8DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

An Update on the Known Host Range of the Brazilian Vaccinia Virus: An Outbreak in Buffalo Calves.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:3327. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Even nearly forty years after the eradication of smallpox, members of the family continue to be the focus of an increasing number of studies. Among these studies, prominently stands vaccinia virus, an orthopoxvirus that is associated with bovine vaccinia outbreaks. Although more frequently associated with infections in cattle and humans, the host range of vaccinia virus is not restricted only to these hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350457PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Poor Antigen Processing of Poxvirus Particles Limits CD4 T Cell Recognition and Impacts Immunogenicity of the Inactivated Vaccine.

J Immunol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104;

CD4 T cells play critical roles in defending against poxviruses, both by potentiating cellular and humoral responses and by directly killing infected cells. Despite this central role, the basis for pox-specific CD4 T cell activation, specifically the origin of the poxvirus-derived peptides (epitopes) that activate CD4 T cells, remains poorly understood. In addition, because the current licensed poxvirus vaccines can cause serious adverse events and even death, elucidating the requirements for MHC class II (MHC-II) processing and presentation of poxviral Ags could be of great use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801099DOI Listing
January 2019

Continued poxvirus research: From foe to friend.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 30;17(1):e3000124. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The eradication of smallpox is one of the greatest medical successes in history. Vaccinia virus was made famous by being the virus used in the live vaccine that enabled this feat. Nearly 40 years on from that success, this prototypical poxvirus continues to empower the exploration of fundamental biology and the potential to develop therapeutics against some of the major causes of death and disease in the modern world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000124DOI Listing
January 2019

Recurrent epicardial ventricular tachycardia following smallpox vaccination.

HeartRhythm Case Rep 2019 Jan 25;5(1):6-9. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Electrophysiology Service, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrcr.2018.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342335PMC
January 2019
1 Read

2018 international meeting of the Global Virus Network.

Antiviral Res 2019 Mar 25;163:140-148. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, USA.

The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 to strengthen research and responses to emerging viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemics. There are now 45 GVN Centers of Excellence and 7 Affiliate laboratories in 29 countries. The 10th International GVN meeting was held from November 28-30, 2018 in Veyrier du Lac, France and was co-hosted by the two GVN Centers of Excellence, the Mérieux Foundation and the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover (TiHo). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.01.013DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Atypical Cowpox Virus Infection in Smallpox-Vaccinated Patient, France.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Feb;25(2):212-219

We report a case of atypical cowpox virus infection in France in 2016. The patient sought care for thoracic lesions after injury from the sharp end of a metallic guardrail previously stored in the ground. We isolated a cowpox virus from the lesions and sequenced its whole genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.171433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346447PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Mouse Models Reveal Role of T-Cytotoxic and T-Reg Cells in Immune Response to Influenza: Implications for Vaccine Design.

Viruses 2019 Jan 11;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida Medical School, Orlando, FL 32816, USA.

Immunopathologic examination of the lungs of mouse models of experimental influenza virus infection provides new insights into the immune response in this disease. First, there is rapidly developing perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of the lung with T-cells. This is followed by invasion of T-cells into the bronchiolar epithelium, and separation of epithelial cells from each other and from the basement membrane leading to defoliation of the bronchial epithelium. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/11/1/52
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11010052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356589PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

T Lymphocytes as Measurable Targets of Protection and Vaccination Against Viral Disorders.

Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 2019 24;342:175-263. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada; Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Continuous epidemiological surveillance of existing and emerging viruses and their associated disorders is gaining importance in light of their abilities to cause unpredictable outbreaks as a result of increased travel and vaccination choices by steadily growing and aging populations. Close surveillance of outbreaks and herd immunity are also at the forefront, even in industrialized countries, where previously eradicated viruses are now at risk of re-emergence due to instances of strain recombination, contractions in viral vector geographies, and from their potential use as agents of bioterrorism. There is a great need for the rational design of current and future vaccines targeting viruses, with a strong focus on vaccine targeting of adaptive immune effector memory T cells as the gold standard of immunity conferring long-lived protection against a wide variety of pathogens and malignancies. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S19376448183008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ircmb.2018.07.006DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Proteomics analysis reveals that structural proteins of the virion core and involved in gene expression are the main source for HLA class II ligands in vaccinia virus-infected cells.

J Proteome Res 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Protective cellular and humoral immune responses require previous recognition of viral antigenic peptides complexed with HLA class II molecules on the surface of the antigen presenting cells. The HLA class II-restricted immune response is important for the control and the clearance of poxvirus infection including vaccinia virus (VACV), the vaccine used in the worldwide eradication of smallpox. In this study, a mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify VACV ligands bound to HLA-DR and -DP class II molecules present on the surface of VACV-infected cells. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00595
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00595DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads
4.245 Impact Factor

Human Molecular Genetics Has Not Yet Contributed to Measurable Public Health Advances.

Perspect Biol Med 2018 ;61(4):537-549

For more than half a century, we have lived in a world dominated by the idea that the gene is the central and primary agent in biology, an era some have called the "Genetic Age." Each decade since the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA in 1953 has seen scientific advances in genetics, discoveries that have led to at least 17 Nobel Prizes. Although the time span occupied by the Genetic Age has also been a time of great public health advances, no advance in human molecular genetics can be shown to have had any measurable effect on any public health parameter of importance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2018.0063DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Dermatoses of nipple as molluscum contagiosum - Clinical dilemma.

J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Sep-Oct;7(5):1100-1102

Department of Surgery, AIIMS, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Molluscum contagiosum is a very common skin and mucosal disease of viral origin, caused by molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) 0 of poxvirus family. With the eradication of smallpox, MCV is the only member of the poxvirus family that causes substantial disease in humans. Although frequently reported, its unusual clinical presentation makes its diagnosis a challenging task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_126_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6259538PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Synthetic biology for bioengineering virus-like particle vaccines.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2018 Dec 31. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Vaccination is the most effective method of disease prevention and control. Many viruses and bacteria that once caused catastrophic pandemics (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.26890DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

In vitro activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil extract against Helicobacter pylori.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Mar 19;232:236-243. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, United States. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The neem tree (Azadirachta indica A.Juss), of the Meliaceae family, has been used in India for millennia in traditional medicine. Parts of the tree are used to treat problems with the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and hair; to combat infections of smallpox and plasmodium; and to treat ulcers, diabetes, blood pressure, headache, and heartburn. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.12.025DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Mutation and structure guided discovery of an antiviral small molecule that mimics an essential C-Terminal tripeptide of the vaccinia D4 processivity factor.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 20;162:178-185. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine and the Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The smallpox virus (variola) remains a bioterrorism threat since a majority of the human population has never been vaccinated. In the event of an outbreak, at least two drugs against different targets of variola are critical to circumvent potential viral mutants that acquire resistance. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the model virus used in the laboratory for studying smallpox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.12.011DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads
3.938 Impact Factor

Sounding the alarm: Defining thresholds to trigger a public health response to monkeypox.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 20;12(12):e0007034. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. Observed fluctuations in reported cases over time raises questions about when it is appropriate to mount a public health response, and what specific actions should be taken. We evaluated three different thresholds to differentiate between baseline and heightened disease incidence, and propose a novel, tiered algorithm for public health action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319745PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

The virulence of different strains is directly proportional to their ability in down modulating specific cell-mediated immune compartments .

J Virol 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Laboratório de Virologia Básica e Aplicada (Laboratory of Basic and Applied Virology), Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

is a notorious virus for a number of scientific reasons; however, most of its notoriety comes from the fact it was used as vaccine against smallpox, being ultimately responsible for the eradication of that disease. Nonetheless, many different ' strains have been obtained over the years, some suitable to be used as vaccines whereas others are virulent and unsuitable for this purpose. Interestingly, different vaccinia strains elicit different immune responses and this is a direct result of the genomic differences amongst strains. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.02191-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02191-18DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

A System Based-Approach to Examine Cytokine Response in Poxvirus-Infected Macrophages.

Viruses 2018 12 5;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Labs, Singapore 117510, Singapore.

The poxviruses are large, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses about 130 to 230 kbp, that have an animal origin and evolved to infect a wide host range. Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is a poxvirus that infects only humans, but other poxviruses such as monkey poxvirus and cowpox virus (CPXV) have crossed over from animals to infect humans. Therefore understanding the biology of poxviruses can devise antiviral strategies to prevent these human infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316232PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Death of the King: The Introduction of Vaccination into Nepal in 1816.

Authors:
Susan Heydon

Med Hist 2019 01;63(1):24-43

This article explores the introduction of smallpox vaccination into Nepal in 1816 at the request of the Nepalese government; the king, however, was not vaccinated, contracted the disease and died. British hopes that vaccination would be extended throughout the country did not eventuate. The article examines the significance of this early appearance of vaccination in Nepal for both Nepalese and British, and relates it to the longer history of smallpox control and eventual eradication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/mdh.2018.61DOI Listing
January 2019

The last case of smallpox.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec;18(12):1318

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14733099183068
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30684-4DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Long-Lived Plasma Cells in Mice and Men.

Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2673. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Even though more than 30 years have passed since the eradication of smallpox, high titers of smallpox-specific antibodies are still detected in the blood of subjects vaccinated in childhood. In fact, smallpox-specific antibody levels are maintained in serum for more than 70 years. The generation of life-long immunity against infectious diseases such as smallpox and measles has been thoroughly documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6250827PMC
November 2018

Traces of history conserved over 600 years in the geographic distribution of genetic variants of an RNA virus: Bovine viral diarrhea virus in Switzerland.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0207604. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Virology and Immunology, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

The first records of smallpox and rabies date back thousands of years and foot-and-mouth disease in cattle was described in the 16th century. These diseases stood out by their distinct signs, dramatic way of transmission from rabid dogs to humans, and sudden appearance in cattle herds. By contrast, infectious diseases that show variable signs and affect few individuals were identified only much later. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207604PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281212PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Vaccine-preventable disease control in the People's Republic of China: 1949-2016.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 26;36(52):8131-8137. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: China's immunization program is one of the oldest and largest in the world. Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) are comparable to those in high-income countries. The program's evolution has been characterized by ambitious target setting and innovative strategies that have not been widely described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.10.005DOI Listing
December 2018
18 Reads

Design of inhibitors of thymidylate kinase from Variola virus as new selective drugs against smallpox - Part II.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2018 Nov 29:1-32. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

a Laboratory of Molecular Modeling Applied to Chemical and Biological Defense , Military Institute of Engineering , Praça General Tiburcio 80, Urca , 22290-270 , Rio de Janeiro , RJ - Brazil .

Acknowledging the importance of studies toward the development of measures against terrorism and bioterrorism, this study aims to contribute to the design of new prototypes of potential drugs against smallpox. Based on a former study, 9 synthetic feasible prototypes of selective inhibitors for thymidylate kinase from Variola virus (VarTMPK) were designed, and submitted to molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and binding energy calculations. The compounds are simplifications of two more complex scaffolds, with a guanine connected to an amide or alcohol through a spacer containing ether and/or amide groups, formerly suggested as promising for the design of selective inhibitors of VarTMPK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2018.1554510DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Identifying and Tracking Low-Frequency Virus-Specific TCR Clonotypes Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

Cell Rep 2018 Nov;25(9):2369-2378.e4

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:

Tracking antigen-specific T cell responses over time within individuals is difficult because of lack of knowledge of antigen-specific TCR sequences, limitations in sample size, and assay sensitivities. We hypothesized that analyses of high-throughput sequencing of TCR clonotypes could provide functional readouts of individuals' immunological histories. Using high-throughput TCR sequencing, we develop a database of TCRβ sequences from large cohorts of mice before (naive) and after smallpox vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.009DOI Listing
November 2018

Dynamic transcriptome profiling dataset of vaccinia virus obtained from long-read sequencing techniques.

Gigascience 2018 12 1;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Somogyi B. u. 4., 6720 Szeged, Hungary.

Background: Poxviruses are large DNA viruses that infect humans and animals. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been applied as a live vaccine for immunization against smallpox, which was eradicated by 1980 as a result of worldwide vaccination. VACV is the prototype of poxviruses in the investigation of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giy139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290886PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

Perspectives on novel vaccine development.

Pol J Vet Sci 2018 Sep;21(3):643-649

School of Life Science and Technology, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang 453003, P.R. China.

Vaccination is a common routine for prevention and control of human and animal diseases by inducing antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity in the body. Through vaccinations, smallpox and some other diseases have been eradicated in the past few years. The use of a patho- gen itself or a subunit domain of a protein antigen as immunogens lays the basis for traditional vaccine development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24425/124302DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

Oral Tecovirimat for the Treatment of Smallpox.

N Engl J Med 2018 11;379(21):2084-2085

Global Health Institute, Antwerp, Belgium

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http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMc1811044
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1811044DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Monkeypox - Enhancing public health preparedness for an emerging lethal human zoonotic epidemic threat in the wake of the smallpox post-eradication era.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Jan 16;78:78-84. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Division of Infection and Immunity, Center for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, United Kingdom; The National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at UCL Hospitals, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The identification of monkeypox in 3 separate patients in the United Kingdom in September raised media and political attention on an emerging public health threat. Nigeria, whose last confirmed case of monkeypox was in 1978, is currently experiencing an unusually large and outbreak of human monkeypox cases, a 'One Human-Environmental-Animal Health' approach is being effectively used to define and tackle the outbreak. As of 13th October 2018, there have been one hundred and sixteen confirmed cases the majority of whom are under 40 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.11.008DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads
2.330 Impact Factor

Vaccinating against monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 14;162:171-177. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

Healthcare-associated transmission of monkeypox has been observed on multiple occasions in areas where the disease is endemic. Data collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from an ongoing CDC-supported program of enhanced surveillance in the Tshuapa Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where the annual incidence of human monkeypox is estimated to be 3.5-5/10,000, suggests that there is approximately one healthcare worker infection for every 100 confirmed monkeypox cases. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01663542183059
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.11.004DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Vaccination and risk of lone atrial fibrillation in the active component United States military.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

a Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion , National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Purpose: To evaluate the hypothesis that receipt of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation in the absence of identifiable underlying risk factors or structural heart disease (lone atrial fibrillation).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study among U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1549453DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

Long-term effects of smallpox vaccination on expression of the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 in women.

PLoS One 2018 15;13(11):e0207259. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Smallpox vaccinations were stopped globally in 1980. Recent studies have shown that in women, being smallpox vaccinated was associated with a reduced risk of HIV infection compared with not being smallpox vaccinated. At the initial infection, HIV-1 most often uses CCR5 as a co-receptor to infect the T-lymphocytes. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207259PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237380PMC
November 2018
17 Reads

Synthesis and antiviral activity of camphor-based 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one and thiazole derivatives as -reproduction inhibitors.

Medchemcomm 2018 Oct 19;9(10):1746-1753. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Lavrentjev Avenue 9 , 630090 Novosibirsk , Russia . Email:

The genus belongs to the Poxviridae family and includes variola virus (smallpox), cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (VV). Smallpox is considered one of the great epidemic disease scourges in human history. It has currently been eradicated; however, it remains a considerable threat as a biowarfare or bioterrorist weapon. Read More

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http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C8MD00347E
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8md00347eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194496PMC
October 2018
10 Reads

Vaccinia virus hijacks EGFR signalling to enhance virus spread through rapid and directed infected cell motility.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Feb 12;4(2):216-225. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK.

Cell motility is essential for viral dissemination. Vaccinia virus (VACV), a close relative of smallpox virus, is thought to exploit cell motility as a means to enhance the spread of infection. A single viral protein, F11L, contributes to this by blocking RhoA signalling to facilitate cell retraction. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-018-0288-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0288-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354922PMC
February 2019
7 Reads

Chickenpox in Poland in 2016

Przegl Epidemiol 2018 ;72(3):287-292

National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases and Surveillance

Background: Chickenpox is a common disease in Poland. Annually, between 160,000 and 220,000 cases are registered. On average, there is an increase in incidence every 4 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.32394/pe.72.3.5DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

[Child mortality for children under five years of age declined seven fold in Guinea-Bissau over the latest 40 years].

Ugeskr Laeger 2018 Oct;180(44)

Observations on child mortality in Guinea-Bissau developed the idea of vaccines having non-specific effects (NSEs) not being explained by the prevention of the targeted infections. The live vaccines against measles, tuberculosis, polio and smallpox have beneficial NSEs, but the inactivated vaccines are associated with negative effects for female survival. The repeated campaigns with polio and measles vaccines have been particularly effective in reducing child mortality. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Variola Virus TNF Decoy Receptor in an Experimental Model of Contact Dermatitis.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2018 ;19(11):910-916

Federal State Budgetary Institution "Research Institute of Basic and Clinical Immunology", Novosibirsk, Russian Federation.

Background: Large DNA poxviruses encode a diverse family of secreted proteins that modulate host inflammatory and antiviral responses, in particular by inhibiting one of the key players of the mammalian immune system, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF).

Methods: We investigated the effects of a recombinant variola (smallpox) virus TNF-decoy receptor (VARV-CrmB) in a murine model of contact dermatitis. Our results demonstrate that the VARV-CrmB protein significantly reduces the 2,4-dinitrochlorbenzene (DNCB)-induced migration of skin leukocytes during the sensitization phase and suppresses ear oedema during the elicitation phase of the contact reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201019666181029111011DOI Listing
January 2018
27 Reads
2.511 Impact Factor

[The phase after the eradication of smallpox in Mexico, 1952-1977].

Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos 2018 Jul-Sep;25(3):871-877

Licenciada en Historia, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Acatlán/Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Atizapán de Zaragoza - Estado de México - México.

This paper studies the phase after the declaration of the eradication of smallpox in Mexico and covers the period from June 1952 (the date on which the health authorities officially proclaimed this event) to 1977 (the year in which the National Institute of Hygiene prepared the last batch of glycerinated anti-smallpox vaccine). It is revealed that during these years, the Ministry of Health and Assistance continued to invest resources in work aimed at combating smallpox to maintain the levels of protection against smallpox and to prevent the reintroduction of the disease at a time when it was still endemic in several countries worldwide; and states that the population continued to report suspected cases and attribute deaths to this disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-59702018000400015DOI Listing

Drug Approved to Treat Smallpox After a Bioterrorist Attack.

Am J Nurs 2018 Nov;118(11):21

Diane S. Aschenbrenner is an assistant professor at Notre Dame of Maryland University in Baltimore. She also coordinates Drug Watch:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NAJ.0000547660.47166.0fDOI Listing
November 2018

A review of the monkeypox virus and a recent outbreak of skin rash disease in Nigeria.

J Med Virol 2019 Apr 19;91(4):533-540. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Virology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Group, School of Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Since the eradication of smallpox approximately 39 years ago, monkeypox virus remains the most pathogenic poxvirus, being mainly restricted to Central and West Africa. Before 1970, there were no reports of human monkeypox in Nigeria, while between 1971 and 1978 there were three cases, with none having been reported thereafter. However, in September 2017, a case of contagious skin rash disease, typical of monkeypox, was observed in an 11-year-old boy from the southern part of the country and confirmed to be associated with the monkeypox virus. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jmv.25348
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25348DOI Listing
April 2019
11 Reads

Modern theory of tuberculosis: culturomic analysis of its historical origin in Europe and North America.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2018 Nov;22(11):1249-1257

Healthcare Navigant Consulting, Inc, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Introduction: An historical account of the modern theory of tuberculosis (TB) using a culturomic analysis has not been studied.

Objective: To analyze, using culturomic methods, the history of our modern understanding of TB as a unitary disease.

Methods: A culturomic analysis of millions of digitized texts was undertaken to quantify 200-year trends in usage of the modern term and pre-modern terms , , and , and to correlate these trends with significant historical events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.18.0239DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Lipoxin B Enhances Human Memory B Cell Antibody Production via Upregulating Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression.

J Immunol 2018 Dec 22;201(11):3343-3351. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642;

Vaccination has been the most effective way to prevent or reduce infectious diseases; examples include the eradication of smallpox and attenuation of tetanus and measles. However, there is a large segment of the population that responds poorly to vaccines, in part because they are immunocompromised because of disease, age, or pharmacologic therapy and are unable to generate long-term protection. Specialized proresolving mediators are endogenously produced lipids that have potent proresolving and anti-inflammatory activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1700503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6246818PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Rabbitpox in New Zealand White Rabbits: A Therapeutic Model for Evaluation of Poxvirus Medical Countermeasures Under the FDA Animal Rule.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 5;8:356. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

BioMotiv, Cleveland, OH, United States.

The elimination of smallpox as an endemic disease and the obvious ethical problems with clinical challenge requires the efficacy evaluation of medical countermeasures against smallpox using the FDA Animal Rule. This approach requires the evaluation of antiviral efficacy in an animal model whose infection recapitulates the human disease sufficiently well enough to provide predictive value of countermeasure effectiveness. The narrow host range of variola virus meant that no other animal species was sufficiently susceptible to variola to manifest a disease with predictive value. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00356
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182097PMC
October 2018
8 Reads

Amyloid in the Brain, Alzheimer's on the Mind.

Authors:
Jason Karlawish

Hastings Cent Rep 2018 Sep;48(5):inside back cover

Twenty percent of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease by experts like me in fact don't have elevated amyloid and so, in fact, don't have Alzheimer's. What they do have is the subject of intense research, and there are many possibilities. A recent study of one thousand brain autopsies from older adults with a range of cognitive impairment showed at least 230 combinations of neuropathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hast.904DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

Progress in gene therapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus as vectors.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 6;144(12):2433-2440. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi Children's Hospital, Wuxi, 214023, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Vaccinia virus was widely used in the World Health Organization's smallpox eradication campaign and is currently a promising vector for gene therapy owing to its unique characteristics. Vaccinia virus can selectively replicate and propagate productively in tumor cells, resulting in oncolysis. In addition, rapid viral particle production, wide host range, large genome size (approximately 200 kb), and safe handling render vaccinia virus a suitable vector for gene therapy. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00432-018-2762-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-018-2762-xDOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads