206,600 results match your criteria Small-Bowel Obstruction


Small Heterodimer Partner and Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 Inhibit Expression of NPC1L1 in Mouse Intestine and Cholesterol Absorption.

Gastroenterology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 2 (NR0B2, also called SHP) is expressed at high levels in liver and intestine. Postprandial fibroblast growth factor 19 (human FGF19, mouse FGF15) signaling increases the transcriptional activity of SHP. We studied the functions of SHP and FGF19 in intestines of mice, including their regulation of expression of the cholesterol transporter NPC1-like intracellular cholesterol transporter 1 (NPC1L1) and cholesterol absorption. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a host-microbiome model of the small intestine.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201801414R. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Center for Microbial Ecology and Technology (CMET), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The intestinal epithelium plays an essential role in the balance between tolerant and protective immune responses to infectious agents. In vitro models do not typically consider the innate immune response and gut microbiome in detail, so these models do not fully mimic the physiologic aspects of the small intestine. We developed and characterized a long-term in vitro model containing enterocyte, goblet, and immune-like cells exposed to a synthetic microbial community representative of commensal inhabitants of the small intestine. Read More

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December 2018

Distribution, projections and association with calbindin baskets of motor neurons, interneurons and sensory neurons in guinea-pig distal colon.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

College of Medicine and Public Health & Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Australia.

Normal gut function relies on the activity of the enteric nervous system (ENS) found within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The structural and functional organisation of the ENS has been extensively studied in the guinea pig small intestine, but less is known about colonic circuitry. Given that there are significant differences between these regions in function, observed motor patterns and pathology, it would be valuable to have a better understanding of the colonic ENS. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence of Small Intestine Carcinoid Tumors: A US Population-Based Study 2012-2017.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Department of Medicine, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Wearn 244, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Background And Aims: Most carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are located in the small bowel (SB). Epidemiological studies of these tumors have been limited by small sample sizes. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiology of SB carcinoids (SBCs) using a large database. Read More

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December 2018

Prognosis of patients with neuroendocrine tumor: a SEER database analysis.

Cancer Manag Res 2018 13;10:5629-5638. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Shulan (Hangzhou) Hospital, Hangzhou, China,

Background: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a group of heterogeneous cancers arising from a variety of anatomic sites. Their incidence has increased in recent years. This study aimed to analyze the prognosis of NETs originating from different anatomic sites. Read More

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November 2018

The SMOC-1 Protein Acts Cell Non-autonomously To Promote Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling.

Genetics 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Cornell University

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates many different developmental and homeostatic processes in metazoans. The BMP pathway is conserved in , and is known to regulate body size and mesoderm development. We have identified the (Secreted MOdular Calcium binding protein-1) gene as a new player in the BMP pathway. Read More

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December 2018
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Tumor heterogeneity in gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the small bowel: volumetric CT texture analysis as a potential biomarker for risk stratification.

Cancer Imaging 2018 Dec 5;18(1):46. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Qiaokou District, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: To explore whether volumetric CT texture analysis (CTTA) can serve as a potential imaging biomarker for risk stratification of small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumors (small bowel-GISTs).

Methods: A total of 90 patients with small bowel-GISTs were retrospectively reviewed, of these, 26 were rated as high risk, 13 as intermediate risk, and 51 as low or very low risk. Histogram parameters extracted from CT images were compared among small bowel-GISTs with different risk levels by using one-way analysis of variance. Read More

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December 2018

CARE Dose 4D combined with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction improved the image quality and reduced the radiation dose in low dose CT of the small intestine.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) has been used for diagnosis of small intestinal diseases. However, the radiation dose is a big problem. This study was to investigate whether CARE Dose 4D combined with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) can provide better image quality at a lower dose for imaging small intestinal diseases compared to MSCT. Read More

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December 2018
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Effect of early neonatal development and delayed feeding post-hatch on jejunal and ileal calcium and phosphorus transporter genes expression in broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are essential minerals involved in many biological processes including bone development and mineralization. Plasma concentration of both minerals is tightly regulated, and Ca and P homeostasis is maintained via intestinal absorption, bone storage and exchange, and renal reabsorption. In the current broiler production systems, chicks are deprived of food and water for up to 72 h due to uneven hatching, hatchery procedures, and transportation time to farms. Read More

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December 2018

Lipin 2/3 phosphatidic acid phosphatases maintain phospholipid homeostasis to regulate chylomicron synthesis.

J Clin Invest 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The lipin phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzymes are required for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate in most mammalian tissues. The 3 lipin proteins (lipin 1, lipin 2, and lipin 3) each have PAP activity, but have distinct tissue distributions, with lipin 1 being the predominant PAP enzyme in many metabolic tissues. One exception is the small intestine, which is unique in expressing exclusively lipin 2 and lipin 3. Read More

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December 2018

The Study of rs693 and rs515135 in APOB in People with Familial Hypercholestrolemia.

Cell J 2019 Apr 18;21(1):86-91. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran. Electronic

Objective: APOB-related familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common hereditary hyperchlosterolemia with an autosomal dominant pattern. A number of APOB variants are the most important risk factors for hyperchlosterolemia. APOB is a large glycoprotein that plays an important role in the metabolism of lipoproteins in the human body. Read More

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High-Risk Comorbidity Combinations in Older Patients Undergoing Emergency General Surgery.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background/objectives: Over a million older patients in the United States are admitted yearly for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. Seven procedure types dominate: colon, small bowel, gallbladder, ulcer disease, adhesiolysis, appendix, and laparotomy operations. A higher comorbidity burden is known to increase mortality in this population, but the impact of specific comorbidity combinations is unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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[Histological study on the safety of the controllable ileostomy with pipe].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Nov;21(11):1291-1295

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Provincial Clinical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, China.

Objective: To investigate the safety of the controllable ileostomy with pipe in view of histology.

Methods: Twenty-eight Beagle dogs undergoing controllable ileostomy with pipe were studied. The special fistula tube with balloon was placed into the hole locating at the cecal root opposing the mesenteric side, and fixed by double knot compression method. Read More

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November 2018

[Imaging characteristics of gastrointestinal neoplastic acute abdomen].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Nov;21(11):1223-1229

Department of Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Both malignant tumors derived from gastrointestinal tract and metastasis from peritoneal spread, hematogenous dissemination and lymph node can lead to acute abdomen. Such acute abdomen patients have poor prognosis, high mortality, and complex clinical manifestations. It is difficult to make a correct diagnosis in clinical practice. Read More

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November 2018

Vaccinations in Adult Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in the West.

Inflamm Intest Dis 2018 Nov 12;3(1):11-15. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Patients with moderate-severe inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are commonly treated with long-term immunosuppressive therapies involving immunomodulators such as thiopurines, biologics (anti-TNF and anti-adhesion molecules), or novel small molecules such as Janus kinase inhibitors.

Summary: Some infections seen with immunosuppressive therapy in IBD are preventable with vaccines. IBD-specific immunosuppressive therapy is generally initiated by gastroenterologists. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Band adhesions not related to previous abdominal surgery - A retrospective cohort analysis of risk factors.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2018 Dec 13;36:185-190. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation is a common cause of small bowel obstruction (SBO). Adhesions causing SBO are classed as either matted adhesions or solitary band adhesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of previous abdominal surgery in a cohort of patients operated for bowel obstruction and to analyze the causes of obstruction discovered at surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Attenuates Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Alterations in Intestinal Immunity.

Biol Pharm Bull 2018 ;41(12):1874-1878

Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics & Therapeutics, Division of Pharmasciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University.

The aims of this study were to determine the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion from Peyer's patch (PP) cells; to assess rat alpha-defensin-5 (RD-5) expression in the rat small intestine; and to determine the effect of GABA on intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury-induced intestinal innate immunity. We found that GABA caused an increase in IgA secretion in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, GABA also significantly increased the mRNA levels of RD-5 and superoxide dismutase (Sod) 1, 3. Read More

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January 2018

Efficacy of Endoscopic Dilation of gastroduodenal Crohn's disease strictures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Individual Patient Data.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Digestive Diseases and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background & Aims: Little is know about the effects of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) for strictures of the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We performed a pooled analysis of the efficacy and safety of EBD for UGI CD-associated strictures.

Methods: We searched the EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane library, as well as bibliographies of relevant articles, for cohort studies of adults with CD and strictures of the stomach, or duodenum (up to the ligament of Treitz) who underwent EBD through December 2016. Read More

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November 2018
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ZnO nanoparticles affect nutrient transport in an in vitro model of the small intestine.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 13902, USA. Electronic address:

Nano-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) is present in food packaging, putting consumers at risk of ingestion. There is little information on the amount of ZnO nanoparticles (NP) present in food packaging and the effects of ZnO NP ingestion on intestinal function. To estimate physiologically relevant ZnO NP exposures from food that are commonly packaged with ZnO NP, food samples were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Read More

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November 2018

A Significant Proportion of Small Bowel Obstructions Require >48 Hours to Resolve After Gastrografin.

J Surg Res 2019 Jan 18;233:408-412. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Division of Surgery, Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Dewitt-Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine and Ryder Trauma Center, Miami, Florida.

Background: Gastrografin (GG)-based nonoperative approach is both diagnostic and therapeutic for partial small bowel obstruction (SBO). Absence of X-ray evidence of GG in the colon after 8 h is predictive of the need for operation, and a recent trial used 48 h to prompt operation. We hypothesize that a significant number of patients receiving the GG challenge require >48 h before an effect is seen. Read More

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January 2019

Can the Laparoscopic Approach for Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction be Used in Octogenarians? An Observational Study Using ACS NSQIP.

J Surg Res 2019 Jan 7;233:345-350. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Surgery, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, New York.

Background: With the population of octogenarians projected to increase fourfold by 2050, we sought to compare outcomes of laparoscopic versus open approach in octogenarians requiring surgery for adhesive small bowel obstruction (SBO).

Methods/materials And Methods: Using 2006-2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project, we identified patients aged ≥80 y who underwent emergency surgery within 1 d of admission for SBO. Risk variables of interest included age, sex, race, body mass index, preoperative sepsis, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. Read More

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January 2019

Time-Dependent Alterations of Gut Wall Integrity in Small Bowel Obstruction in Mice.

J Surg Res 2019 Jan 3;233:249-255. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Department of Surgery, Vivantes Hospital Neukölln, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is one of the most common disorders in surgical emergency departments. Without resolution of the obstructed bowel segments, patients may develop multiorgan failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether morphological damage of the intestinal wall during SBO may lead to molecular translocation and how this may impair intestinal motility. Read More

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January 2019

Radiographic and Clinical Factors in Pediatric Patients With Surgical Small-bowel Intussusception.

J Surg Res 2019 Jan 27;233:167-172. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of General Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana. Electronic address:

Background: When evaluating a pediatric patient with abdominal pain, identification of a small bowel-to-small bowel intussusception (SBI) on radiologic imaging can create a diagnostic dilemma. The clinical significance and need for surgical exploration of SBI is highly variable, as most of them are considered clinically insignificant. We hypothesize that combination of clinical and radiologic factors in an exclusively SBI population will yield factors that guide the clinician in making operative decisions. Read More

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January 2019

d-Allulose is a substrate of glucose transporter type 5 (GLUT5) in the small intestine.

Food Chem 2019 Mar 2;277:604-608. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8503, Japan. Electronic address:

d-Allulose has been reported to have beneficial health effects. However, the transport system(s) mediating intestinal d-allulose transport has not yet been clearly identified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal d-allulose transport is mediated by glucose transporter type 5 (GLUT5). Read More

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Intestinal absorption of black chokeberry cyanidin 3-glycosides is promoted by capsaicin and capsiate in a rat ligated small intestinal loop model.

Food Chem 2019 Mar 22;277:323-326. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Sapporo Anti-Aging Laboratory Co., Ltd., Sapporo 061-3204, Japan; Hokkaido Food and Health Research Institute, Sapporo 004-0863, Japan.

Recent studies have shown that aronia (black chokeberry) and haskap fruits (contain anthocyanins) have beneficial health effects in animals and humans. However, some reports have shown that anthocyanin is poorly absorbed in the small intestine. In this study, we compared the intestinal absorption of aronia and haskap anthocyanins by using rats with a ligated small intestinal loop and cannulated portal vein. Read More

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Vaccination with the Staphylococcus aureus secreted proteins EapH1 and EapH2 impacts both S. aureus carriage and invasive disease.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Jenner Institute, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Physiology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: There is a need for an efficacious vaccine reducing infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of community and hospital infection. Infecting organisms originate from S. aureus populations colonising the nares and bowel. Read More

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November 2018

Resection of small bowel adenocarcinoma metastases: Results of the ARCAD-NADEGE cohort study.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, CHU Saint Louis, APHP, Denis Diderot University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Data are lacking with regard to curative resection of metastasis from small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA). This study evaluated outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with curatively resected metastatic SBA.

Methods: A series of 34 patients undergoing resection of metastatic SBA from January 2009 to November 2014 at French centers were included into this cohort study. Read More

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November 2018

The importance of the biliopancreatic limb length in gastric bypass: A systematic review.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

The Bariatric & Metabolic Institute, Section of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, Florida. Electronic address:

Background: Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most durable treatment for obesity, and it also provides improvement of obesity's associated co-morbidities. Although several mechanisms for its metabolic effects have been studied, the implications of the surgically constructed anatomy on its functioning physiology have not been elucidated. This leaves some uncertainty regarding the recommended limb lengths in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Read More

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October 2018

National survey of bladder and gastrointestinal dysfunction in people with spinal cord injury.

J Neurotrauma 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine, 70401, Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology, Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiac Sciences , Calgary, Alberta, Canada ;

Small-scale studies indicate that spinal cord injury (SCI) may lead to significant gastrointestinal and bladder dysfunction. However, how the prevalence of chronic disease related to these dysfunctions compares to non-SCI individuals and whether there are robust relationships to level and severity of injury are still unclear. Here, our goal was to provide high-level evidence on the association between bladder and gastrointestinal dysfunction and SCI using population-level data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and the SCI Community Survey. Read More

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December 2018

Neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the intestinal wall of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2018 Oct-Dec;27(4):430-438

Departamento de Biologia e Ciência Animal, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira - FEIS, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP, Brasil.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by the protozoa Leishmania infantum and can cause an inflammatory reaction in the gastrointestinal tract, however the role of granulocytic cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells) in the intestine of dogs infected is not fully understood. We performed a quantitative analysis these cells in the intestinal wall of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Twenty dogs were assigned to one of three groups: group 1 (G1, n=8), dogs with CVL and L. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Heterogeneity and Variability in Pressure Autoregulation of Organ Blood Flow: Lessons Learned Over 100+ Years.

Crit Care Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Departments of Anesthesiology & Pain Management, Neurological Surgery, Neurology & Neurotherapeutics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Objectives: Pressure autoregulation is an organ's intrinsic ability to maintain blood flow despite changes in perfusion pressure. The purpose of this review is to discuss autoregulation's heterogeneity among different organs and variability under different conditions, a very clinically relevant topic.

Data Sources: Systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE; nonsystematic search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and reference lists. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Early and Late Closure of Loop Ileostomies: A Retrospective Comparative Outcomes Analysis.

Ostomy Wound Manage 2018 Dec;64(12):30-35

Princess Royal University Hospital, King's College NHS Foundation Trust, Orpington, UK.

The optimal timing of loop ileostomy reversal remains largely unknown, but evidence that delayed ileostomy closure may increase postoperative complication rates is increasing.

Purpose: Retrospective research was conducted to compare outcomes between patients who had early (<6 months) or late (>6 months) loop ileostomy closure.

Methods: Records of patients >18 years of age who underwent circumstomal reversal of a loop ileostomy over a period of 5 years in 1 hospital's colorectal unit were abstracted and analyzed. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain INMIA 9602 Er 317/402 and Putative Probiotic Lactobacilli on DNA Damages in the Small Intestine of Wistar Rats In Vivo.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Health Promoting Natural Laboratory, Rutgers State University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA.

Double-strand breaks in the DNA of the small intestine in male Wistar rats were studied using a neutral comet assay after 7 days of feeding with a single strain probiotic formulation Narine (Vitamax-E, Armenia), containing Lactobacillus acidophilus strain Er-2317/402 Narine, and putative probiotics L. rhamnosus Vahe and L. delbrueckii IAHAHI. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Induced Long-Term Changes in the Upper Intestinal Microflora during the Chronic Stage of Infection.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2018 1;2018:2308619. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Stanley Division of Developmental Neurovirology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Blalock Bldg. 600 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

is an obligate intracellular parasite with worldwide distribution. Felines are the definitive hosts supporting the complete life cycle of However, other warm-blooded animals such as rodents and humans can also be infected. Infection of such secondary hosts results in long-term infection characterized by the presence of tissue cysts in the brain and other organs. Read More

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November 2018

Video Capsule Endoscopy in the Assessment of Portal Hypertensive Enteropathy.

Int J Hepatol 2018 1;2018:5109689. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

University of Massachusetts School of Medicine, USA.

Background: The features of the portal hypertension enteropathy (PHE) vary from mild mucosal changes to varices with or without bleeding. The prevalence and the development are not fully understood.

Aim: Our aim is to examine the prevalence and the different manifestations of PHE using video capsule endoscopy (VCE). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Coating rice with mulberry leaves rich in deoxynojirimycin ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in C57BL/KsJ mice.

Nutr Res Pract 2018 Dec 13;12(6):469-478. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452, Korea.

Background/objectives: Mulberry leaf (ML) has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, and suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia, which may be related to its deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content. This study was conducted to investigate the hypoglycemic and dyslipidemic effects of rice coated with ML rich in DNJ in a type 2 diabetes mouse model.

Materials/methods: The mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 each): non-diabetic normal control (NC); diabetic control (DM-C), fed with 10% polished rice powder (DM-R); and fed with 10% polished rice powder coated with DNJ-rich ML (DM-DNJR). Read More

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December 2018

Low-Dose Computed Tomography for the Optimization of Radiation Dose Exposure in Patients with Crohn's Disease.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2018 31;2018:1768716. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Radiology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the mainstay method for the radiological imaging of the small bowel in patients with inflammatory bowel disease without the use of ionizing radiation. There are circumstances where imaging using ionizing radiation is required, particularly in the acute setting. This usually takes the form of computed tomography (CT). Read More

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October 2018

Modulation of intestinal microbiota, morphology and mucin composition by dietary insect meal inclusion in free-range chickens.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Dec 4;14(1):383. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, 10095, Grugliasco, TO, Italy.

Background: Gut health in poultry depends on the balance between the host, intestinal microbiota, intestinal microscopic features and diet. The effects of insect meal (a promising alternative protein source for poultry feed) on chicken gut morphology have recently been reported, but no data about intestinal microbiota and mucin composition modulation are available. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor (TM) meal inclusion on gut health of free-range chickens by intestinal microbiota, morphology and mucin composition characterization. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Localization of estrogen receptor ERα, ERβ and GPR30 on myenteric neurons of the gastrointestinal tract and their role in motility.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; Brain and Mind Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Electronic address:

Estrogen is well known to have a modulatory role on gastrointestinal tract, particularly through its interaction with nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs), alpha and beta (ERα/β). Recent functional studies also indicate that estrogen can activate a G-protein coupled estrogen receptor, GPR30, or GPER1. The present study was designed to identify either the presence or absence of nuclear ERs and GPR30 in the myenteric plexus of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon of female and male mice. Read More

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November 2018

Efficacy and safety of APT036 versus simethicone in the treatment of functional bloating: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel group, clinical study.

Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 25;3:72. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Internal Medicine & Gastroenterology Department, University Emergency Hospital, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Background: Bloating is a common symptom reported by around 16% to 31% of the general population. Functional bloating is diagnosed in patients with recurrent symptoms of bloating who do not meet the diagnostic criteria of irritable bowel syndrome or other functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Methods: This double-blind, multicentre, randomised study compared the safety and efficacy of APT036 (xyloglucan plus tyndallized and ; Aprotecol) and simethicone in treating functional bloating in adults. Read More

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September 2018

Mesenteric heterotopic pancreas in a pediatric patient: A case report and review of literature.

World J Clin Cases 2018 Nov;6(14):847-853

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province, China.

Heterotopic pancreas (HP) is a congenital anomaly defined as pancreatic tissue that has no contact with the orthotopic pancreas and its own duct system and vascular supply. The most common locations of HP are the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically, the stomach, duodenum, and proximal jejunum. Involvement of the mesentery is rare. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Meckel's diverticulum diagnosis by video capsule endoscopy: A case report and review of literature.

World J Clin Cases 2018 Nov;6(14):791-799

Gastroenterology Service and Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital "Dr. José E. González", Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey 64700, Nuevo León, México.

Background: Meckel's diverticulum (MD) occurs predominantly in children and adolescents. It is rarely diagnosed in adults. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult due to low sensitivity of the radiological imaging studies. Read More

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November 2018

Case Report: Seaweed Bezoar Masquerading as a Malignant Obstruction.

Authors:
E C Abboud B Babic

Case Rep Surg 2018 28;2018:3829271. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

New York-Presbyterian/Queens, Weill Cornell Medical College, Flushing, NY 11355, USA.

Bezoars represent a rare cause of small bowel obstruction (SBO). Nonoperative management of bezoars includes use of endoscopy with mechanical or chemical dissolution methods. When obstruction persists, surgical intervention becomes necessary. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Rare Benign Large Lymphoid Colonic Polyp.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2018 28;2018:5758689. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Haya Al-Habeeb Gastroenterology Center, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Jabriya, Kuwait.

Benign lymphoid polyps are uncommon lesions of the small bowel and the colon to a lesser degree that are mostly found in children. There are only few reported cases in adults in which the lesions were predominantly polypoid and described as lymphonodular hyperplasia. We present a case of a large benign lymphoid polyp in the transverse colon of a 64-year-old lady who was referred to our care for a history of alteration in her bowel habit and anemia. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Rates of colorectal cancer detection in screening colonoscopy post appendicectomy in patients 50 years and over.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2018 Dec 20;36:239-241. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Caboolture Hospital, 120 McKean Street, 4510, Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: Acute appendicitis in older adults is relatively uncommon and could be the first presentation of an underlying colorectal carcinoma. Colonoscopy in these individuals affords the opportunity for earlier diagnosis and treatment. The finding of increased rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) with older patients who have had appendicitis was supported by a number of small studies and case reports in the early 1980s. Read More

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December 2018
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A Single-Center Experience with an Intensivist-Led Brain-Dead Donor Management Program.

Ann Transplant 2018 Dec 4;23:828-835. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Surgery and Critical Care Medicine, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

BACKGROUND The aim of this study is to report our experience of brain-dead donor management by a dedicated intensivist who had wide experience in treatment of hemodynamically unstable patient and to suggest a role for intensivists in organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS The management of brain-dead donors was performed by experienced intensivists. The hospital medical records and data from the Korean Network of Organ Sharing from August 2013 to December 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Read More

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December 2018

Uveitis and spondyloarthropathies.

Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2017 Dec 25;31(6):846-862. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Oxford Eye Hospital, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Uveitis is a frequently occurring extra-articular manifestation of spondyloarthropathies (SpAs), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), reactive arthritis (ReA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), occurring in both adults and children with SpA. Uveitis occurs with varying frequency according to the SpA subtype (33% in AS, 6-9% in PsA, 25% in ReA, 13% in undifferentiated SpA and 2-5% in IBD), the presence of HLA-B27 and with increasing duration of disease. The majority of cases of uveitis in SpA are attributed to acute anterior uveitis but a minority of uveitis cases occur in the posterior segment of the eye. Read More

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December 2017

Polyomic tools for an emerging livestock parasite, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi; identifying shifts in rumen functionality.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Dec 4;11(1):617. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Biological, Environmental & Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Penglais, Ceredigion, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DA, UK.

Background: Diseases caused by parasitic flatworms of rumen tissues (paramphistomosis) are a significant threat to global food security as a cause of morbidity and mortality in ruminant livestock in subtropical and tropical climates. Calicophoron daubneyi is currently the only paramphistome species commonly infecting ruminant livestock in temperate European climates. However, recorded incidences of C. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of VMAT-IMRT compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy on anal sphincter dose distribution in neoadjuvant chemoradiation of rectal cancer.

Radiat Oncol 2018 Dec 3;13(1):237. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, TU München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Background: Neoadjuvant radio- or chemoradiation (nIRT) therapy is the standard treatment for loco-regional advanced rectal cancer patients of the lower or middle third. Currently, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is not the recommended radiation technique even though IMRT has advantages compared to 3D-radiation regarding dose sparing to organs at risk like small bowel and urinary bladder. So far, the benefit of IMRT concerning the anal sphincter complex is not examined. Read More

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December 2018