7,155 results match your criteria Small [Journal]


Scalable Production of Nanographene and Doping via Nondestructive Covalent Functionalization.

Small 2019 Feb 18:e1805430. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195, Berlin, Germany.

A new method for top-down, one-pot, gram-scale production of high quality nanographene by incubating graphite in a dilute sodium hypochlorite solution at only 40 °C is reported here. The produced sheets have only 4 at% oxygen content, comparable with nanographene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The nanographene sheets are covalently functionalized using a nondestructive nitrene [2+1] cycloaddition reaction that preserves their π-conjugated system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805430DOI Listing
February 2019

Design, Performance, and Application of Thermoelectric Nanogenerators.

Small 2019 Feb 18:e1805241. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100083, P. R. China.

Thermal energy harvesting from the ambient environment through thermoelectric nanogenerators (TEGs) is an ideal way to realize self-powered operation of electronics, and even relieve the energy crisis and environmental degradation. As one of the most significant energy-related technologies, TEGs have exhibited excellent thermoelectric performance and played an increasingly important role in harvesting and converting heat into electric energy, gradually becoming one of the hot research fields. Here, the development of TEGs including materials optimization, structural designs, and potential applications, even the opportunities, challenges, and the future development direction, is analyzed and summarized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805241DOI Listing
February 2019

Energy-Converting Nanomedicine.

Small 2019 Feb 18:e1805339. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050, P. R. China.

Serious side effects to surrounding normal tissues and unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy hamper the further clinic applications of conventional cancer-therapeutic strategies, such as chemotherapy and surgery. The fast development of nanotechnology provides unprecedented superiorities for cancer therapeutics. Externally activatable therapeutic modalities mediated by nanomaterials, relying on highly effective energy transformation to release therapeutic elements/effects (cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, thermal effect, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, cavitation effect, mechanical effect or chemotherapeutic drug) for cancer therapies, categorized and termed as "energy-converting nanomedicine," have arouse considerable concern due to their noninvasiveness, desirable tissue-penetration depth, and accurate modulation of therapeutic dose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805339DOI Listing
February 2019

Construction of Large-Area Ultrathin Conductive Metal-Organic Framework Films through Vapor-Induced Conversion.

Small 2019 Feb 18:e1804845. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

On account of unique characteristics, the integration of metal-organic frameworks as active materials in electronic devices attracts more and more attention. The film thickness, uniformity, area, and roughness are all fatal factors limiting the development of electrical and optoelectronic applications. However, research focused on ultrathin free-standing films is in its infancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804845DOI Listing
February 2019

Delamination-Free Multifunctional Separator for Long-Term Stability of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

Small 2019 Feb 18:e1804980. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi, 15588, Korea.

Next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that satisfy the requirements for an electric vehicle energy source should demonstrate high reliability and safety for long-term high-energy-density operation. This inevitably calls for a novel approach to advance major components such as the separator. Herein, a separator is designed and fabricated via application of multilayer functional coating on both sides of a polyethylene separator. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/smll.201804980
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804980DOI Listing
February 2019
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Recent Progress of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

Small 2019 Feb 18:e1805381. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are attracting increasing attention and considered to be a low-cost complement or an alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), especially for large-scale energy storage. Their application, however, is limited because of the lack of suitable host materials to reversibly intercalate Na ions. Layered transition metal oxides (Na MO , M = Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, Ti, V, and their combinations) appear to be promising cathode candidates for SIBs due to their simple structure, ease of synthesis, high operating potential, and feasibility for commercial production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805381DOI Listing
February 2019

Recent Progress in Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries: toward High-Power Applications.

Small 2019 Feb 18:e1805427. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

The increasing demands for renewable energy to substitute traditional fossil fuels and related large-scale energy storage systems (EES) drive developments in battery technology and applications today. The lithium-ion battery (LIB), the trendsetter of rechargeable batteries, has dominated the market for portable electronics and electric vehicles and is seeking a participant opportunity in the grid-scale battery market. However, there has been a growing concern regarding the cost and resource availability of lithium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805427DOI Listing
February 2019

Recent Advances in the Development of Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts at Mild pH.

Small 2019 Feb 18:e1805103. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, Sichuan, China.

Developing anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts with high catalytic activities is of great importance for effective water splitting. Compared with the water-oxidation electrocatalysts that are commonly utilized in alkaline conditions, the ones operating efficiently under neutral or near neutral conditions are more environmentally friendly with less corrosion issues. This review starts with a brief introduction of OER, the importance of OER in mild-pH media, as well as the fundamentals and performance parameters of OER electrocatalysts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805103DOI Listing
February 2019

Resistive Switching Behavior in Ferroelectric Heterostructures.

Small 2019 Feb 18:e1805088. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

School of Material Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, 110870, China.

Resistive random-access memory (RRAM) is a promising candidate for next-generation nonvolatile random-access memory protocols. The information storage in RRAM is realized by the resistive switching (RS) effect. The RS behavior of ferroelectric heterostructures is mainly controlled by polarization-dominated and defect-dominated mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805088DOI Listing
February 2019

RNA-Capturing Microsphere Particles (R-CAMPs) for Optimization of Functional Aptamers.

Small 2019 Feb 18:e1805062. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Frontier Institute for Biomolecular Engineering Research (FIBER), Konan University, 7-1-20, Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0047, Japan.

RNA aptamers are useful building blocks for constructing functional nucleic acid-based nanoarchitectures. The abilities of aptamers to recognize specific ligands have also been utilized for various biotechnological applications. Solution conditions, which can differ depending on the application, impact the affinity of the aptamers, and thus it is important to optimize the aptamers for the solution conditions to be employed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805062DOI Listing
February 2019

Towards Infrared Electronic Eyes: Flexible Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Detectors Enhanced by Resonant Cavity.

Small 2019 Feb 15:e1804920. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Electronic eye cameras are receiving increasing interest due to their unique advantages such as wide field of view, low aberrations, and simple imaging optics compared to conventional planar focal plane arrays. However, the spectral sensing ranges of most electronic eyes are confined to the visible, which is limited by the energy gaps of the sensing materials and by fabrication obstacles. Here, a potential route leading to infrared electronic eyes is demonstrated by exploring flexible colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaic detectors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804920DOI Listing
February 2019

Carbon Dots-in-Matrix Boosting Intriguing Luminescence Properties and Applications.

Small 2019 Feb 13:e1805504. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun, 130012, P. R. China.

As a new class of luminescent nanomaterials, carbon dots (CDs) have aroused significant interest because of their fascinating photoluminescence properties and potential applications in biological, optoelectronic, and energy-related fields. Strikingly, embedding CDs in host matrices endow them with intriguing luminescent properties, in particular, room temperature phosphorescence and thermally activated delayed fluorescence, due to the confinement effect of the host matrix and the H-bonding interactions between CDs and the matrix. Here, the state-of-the-art strategies for introducing CDs in various host matrices are summarized, such as nanoporous materials, polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, potash alum, layered double hydroxides, amorphous silica, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805504DOI Listing
February 2019

Water-Dispersible Candle Soot-Derived Carbon Nano-Onion Clusters for Imaging-Guided Photothermal Cancer Therapy.

Small 2019 Feb 14:e1804575. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, 2 Sipailou Road, Nanjing, 210096, P. R. China.

Herein, water-dispersible carbon nano-onion clusters (CNOCs) with an average hydrodynamic size of ≈90 nm are prepared by simply sonicating candle soot in a mixture of oxidizing acid. The obtained CNOCs have high photothermal conversion efficiency (57.5%), excellent aqueous dispersibility (stable in water for more than a year without precipitation), and benign biocompatibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804575DOI Listing
February 2019

Molecular Imprinting with Functional DNA.

Small 2019 Feb 13:e1805246. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Chemistry, Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Molecular imprinting refers to templated polymerization with rationally designed monomers, and this is a general method to prepare stable and cost-effective ligands. This attractive concept however suffers from low affinity, low specificity, and limited signaling mechanisms for binding. Acrydite-modified DNA oligonucleotides can be readily copolymerized into acrylic polymers. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/smll.201805246
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805246DOI Listing
February 2019
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Niobium-Based Oxides Toward Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage: Recent Advances and Challenges.

Small 2019 Feb 14:e1804884. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, China.

Niobium-based oxides including Nb O , TiNb O compounds, M-Nb-O (M = Cr, Ga, Fe, Zr, Mg, etc.) family, etc., as the unique structural merit (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804884DOI Listing
February 2019

Recent Progress in Time-Resolved Biosensing and Bioimaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles.

Small 2019 Feb 14:e1804969. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Luminescent nanomaterials have attracted great attention in luminescence-based bioanalysis due to their abundant optical and tunable surface physicochemical properties. However, luminescent nanomaterials often suffer from serious autofluorescence and light scattering interference when applied to complex biological samples. Time-resolved luminescence methodology can efficiently eliminate autofluorescence and light scattering interference by collecting the luminescence signal of a long-lived probe after the background signals decays completely. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/smll.201804969
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804969DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Recombinant Silk Fiber Properties Correlate to Prefibrillar Self-Assembly.

Small 2019 Feb 13:e1805294. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, Canada.

Spider silks are desirable materials with mechanical properties superior to most synthetic materials coupled with biodegradability and biocompatibility. In order to replicate natural silk properties using recombinant spider silk proteins (spidroins) and wet-spinning methods, the focus to date has typically been on modifying protein sequence, protein size, and spinning conditions. Here, an alternative approach is demonstrated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805294DOI Listing
February 2019

Biomolecule-Functionalized Solid-State Ion Nanochannels/Nanopores: Features and Techniques.

Small 2019 Feb 12:e1804878. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences (CUG), 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan, 430074, P. R. China.

Solid-state ion nanochannels/nanopores, the biomimetic products of biological ion channels, are promising materials in real-world applications due to their robust mechanical and controllable chemical properties. Functionalizations of solid-state ion nanochannels/nanopores by biomolecules pave a wide way for the introduction of varied properties from biomolecules to solid-state ion nanochannels/nanopores, making them smart in response to analytes or external stimuli and regulating the transport of ions/molecules. In this review, two features for nanochannels/nanopores functionalized by biomolecules are abstracted, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804878DOI Listing
February 2019

Multishelled Transition Metal-Based Microspheres: Synthesis and Applications for Batteries and Supercapacitors.

Small 2019 Feb 13:e1804737. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road 2#, Dalian, 116024, China.

With the rapid growth of material innovations, multishelled hollow nanostructures are of tremendous interest due to their unique structural features and attractive physicochemical properties. Continued effort has been made in the geometric manipulation, composition complexity, and construction diversity of this material, expanding its applications. Energy storage technology has benefited from the large surface area, short transport path, and excellent buffering ability of the nanostructures. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/smll.201804737
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804737DOI Listing
February 2019
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Conjugate of Doxorubicin to Albumin-Binding Peptide Outperforms Aldoxorubicin.

Small 2019 Feb 13:e1804452. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, USA.

Short circulation time and off-target toxicity are the main challenges faced by small-molecule chemotherapeutics. To overcome these shortcomings, an albumin-binding peptide conjugate of chemotherapeutics is developed that binds specifically to endogenous albumin and harnesses its favorable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for drug delivery to tumors. A protein-G-derived albumin-binding domain (ABD) is conjugated with doxorubicin (Dox) via a pH-sensitive linker. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804452DOI Listing
February 2019

Recent Progress on Germanene and Functionalized Germanene: Preparation, Characterizations, Applications, and Challenges.

Small 2019 Feb 13:e1805147. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (ISEM), Australian Institute for Innovative Materials (AIIM), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2500, Australia.

A new family of single-atom-thick 2D germanium-based materials with graphene-like atomic arrangement, germanene and functionalized germanene, has attracted intensive attention due to their large bandgap and easily tailored electronic properties. Unlike carbon atoms in graphene, germanium atoms tend to adopt mixed sp /sp hybridization in germanene, which makes it chemically active on the surface and allows its electronic states to be easily tuned by chemical functionalization. Impressive achievements in terms of the applications in energy storage and catalysis have been reported by using germanene and functionalized germanene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805147DOI Listing
February 2019

Integration of Metal Nanoparticles into Metal-Organic Frameworks for Composite Catalysts: Design and Synthetic Strategy.

Small 2019 Feb 12:e1804849. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Material Chemistry (MOE), Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, P. R. China.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are constructed by periodically alternate metal ions with organic ligands, which offer structural diversity and a wide range of interesting properties as an attractive classification of crystalline porous materials. Integration of MOFs with other size-limited functional centers can supply new multifunctional composites, which exhibit both the properties of the components and new characteristics due to the combination of MOFs with the selected loadings. In recent years, integration of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) into MOFs to form the composite catalysts has attracted considerable attention due to the superior performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804849DOI Listing
February 2019

Ultrasensitive Strain Sensor Based on Separation of Overlapped Carbon Nanotubes.

Small 2019 Feb 12:e1805120. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50-Yonsei Ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Although there have been remarkable improvements in stretchable strain sensors, the development of strain sensors with scalable fabrication techniques and which both high sensitivity and stretchability simultaneously is still challenging. In this work, a stretchable strain sensor based on overlapped carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles coupled with a silicone elastomer is presented. The strain sensor with overlapped CNTs is prepared by synthesizing line-patterned vertically aligned CNT bundles and rolling and transferring them to the silicone elastomer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805120DOI Listing
February 2019

Femtosecond Photon-Mediated Plasma Enhances Photosynthesis of Plasmonic Nanostructures and Their SERS Applications.

Small 2019 Feb 12:e1804899. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 68588-0511, USA.

Laser ablation in liquid has proven to be a universal and green method to synthesize nanocrystals and fabricate functional nanostructures. This study demonstrates the superiority of femtosecond laser-mediated plasma in enhancing photoredox of metal cations for controllable fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures in liquid. Through employing upstream high energetic plasma during laser-induced microexplosions, single/three-electron photoreduction of metallic cations can readily occur without chemical reductants or capping agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804899DOI Listing
February 2019

Direct Imaging of the Induced-Fit Effect in Molecular Self-Assembly.

Small 2019 Feb 12:e1804713. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

CIC nanoGUNE and Ikerbaske, Basque Foundation for Science, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, 20018, Donostia San Sebastian, Spain.

Molecular recognition is a crucial driving force for molecular self-assembly. In many cases molecules arrange in the lowest energy configuration following a lock-and-key principle. When molecular flexibility comes into play, the induced-fit effect may govern the self-assembly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804713DOI Listing
February 2019
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Co-Fe Alloy/N-Doped Carbon Hollow Spheres Derived from Dual Metal-Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction.

Small 2019 Feb 12:e1805324. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637459, Singapore.

Metal-organic framework (MOF) composites have recently been considered as promising precursors to derive advanced metal/carbon-based materials for various energy-related applications. Here, a dual-MOF-assisted pyrolysis approach is developed to synthesize Co-Fe alloy@N-doped carbon hollow spheres. Novel core-shell architectures consisting of polystyrene cores and Co-based MOF composite shells encapsulated with discrete Fe-based MOF nanocrystallites are first synthesized, followed by a thermal treatment to prepare hollow composite materials composed of Co-Fe alloy nanoparticles homogeneously distributed in porous N-doped carbon nanoshells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805324DOI Listing
February 2019

Buckled Structures: Fabrication and Applications in Wearable Electronics.

Small 2019 Feb 10:e1804805. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Pharmacy, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.

Wearable electronics have attracted a tremendous amount of attention due to their many potential applications, such as personalized health monitoring, motion detection, and smart clothing, where electronic devices must conformably form contacts with curvilinear surfaces and undergo large deformations. Structural design and material selection have been the key factors for the development of wearable electronics in the recent decades. As one of the most widely used geometries, buckling structures endow high stretchability, high mechanical durability, and comfortable contact for human-machine interaction via wearable devices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804805DOI Listing
February 2019
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Complementary Resistive Switching Using Metal-Ferroelectric-Metal Tunnel Junctions.

Small 2019 Feb 10:e1805042. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193, Catalonia, Spain.

Complementary resistive switching (CRS) devices are receiving attention because they can potentially solve the current-sneak and current-leakage problems of memory arrays based on resistive switching (RS) elements. It is shown here that a simple anti-serial connection of two ferroelectric tunnel junctions, based on BaTiO , with symmetric top metallic electrodes and a common, floating bottom nanometric film electrode, constitute a CRS memory element. It allows nonvolatile storage of binary states ("1" = "HRS+LRS" and "0" = "LRS+HRS"), where HRS (LRS) indicate the high (low) resistance state of each ferroelectric tunnel junction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805042DOI Listing
February 2019

Light-Stimulated Synaptic Transistors Fabricated by a Facile Solution Process Based on Inorganic Perovskite Quantum Dots and Organic Semiconductors.

Small 2019 Feb 10:e1900010. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Interdisciplinary Materials Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 201804, P. R. China.

Implementation of artificial intelligent systems with light-stimulated synaptic emulators may enhance computational speed by providing devices with high bandwidth, low power computation requirements, and low crosstalk. One of the key challenges is to develop light-stimulated devices that can response to light signals in a neuron-/synapse-like fashion. A simple and effective solution process to fabricate light-stimulated synaptic transistors (LSSTs) based on inorganic halide perovskite quantum dots (IHP QDs) and organic semiconductors (OSCs) is reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201900010DOI Listing
February 2019

Biomacromolecule-Functionalized AIEgens for Advanced Biomedical Studies.

Small 2019 Feb 10:e1804839. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China.

The advances in bioinformatics and biomedicine have promoted the development of biomedical imaging and theranostic systems to respectively extend the endogenous biomarker imaging with high contrast and enhance the therapeutic effect with high efficiency. The emergence of biomacromolecule-functionalized aggregation-induced emitters (AIEgens), utilizing AIEgens, and biomacromolecules (nucleic acids, peptides, glycans, and lipids), displays specific targeting ability to cancer cell, improved biocompatibility, reduced toxicity, enhanced therapeutic effect, and so forth. This review summarizes the rational design of biomacromolecule-functionalized AIEgens and their biomedical applications in recent ten years, including high-resolution optical imaging of cell, tissue, and small animal model with low background; the biomarker detection for early diagnosis and prognosis; the delivery and monitoring of prodrugs; image-guide photodynamic therapy and its combination with chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804839DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Topography-Induced Cell Self-Organization from Simple to Complex Aggregates.

Small 2019 Feb 10:e1900030. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-inspired Materials and Interfacial Science, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

Self-organization is a fundamental and indispensable process in a living system. To understand cell behavior in vivo such as tumorigenesis, 3D cellular aggregates, instead of 2D cellular sheets, have been employed as a vivid in vitro model for self-organization. However, most focus on the macroscale wetting and fusion of cellular aggregates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201900030DOI Listing
February 2019

Single Particle Electrochemistry of Collision.

Small 2019 Feb 10:e1804908. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China.

A novel electrochemistry method using stochastic collision of particles at microelectrode to study their performance in single-particle scale has obtained remarkable development in recent years. This convenient and swift analytical method, which can be called "nanoimpact," is focused on the electrochemical process of the single particle rather than in complex ensemble systems. Many researchers have applied this nanoimpact method to investigate various kinds of materials in many research fields, including sensing, electrochemical catalysis, and energy storage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804908DOI Listing
February 2019

New Insights into the Electrochemistry Superiority of Liquid Na-K Alloy in Metal Batteries.

Small 2019 Feb 10:e1804916. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Key Laboratory of the Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, P. R. China.

The significant issues with alkali metal batteries arise from their poor electrochemical properties and safety problems, limiting their applications. Herein, TiO nanoparticles embedded into N-doped porous carbon truncated ocatahedra (TiO ⊂NPCTO) are engineered as a cathode material with different metal anodes, including solid Na or K and liquid Na-K alloy. Electrochemical performance and kinetics are systematically analyzed, with the aim to determine detailed electrochemistry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804916DOI Listing
February 2019

Conjugated Macrocycle Polymer Nanoparticles with Alternating Pillarenes and Porphyrins as Struts and Cyclic Nodes.

Small 2019 Feb 8:e1805509. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

State Key Lab of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, International Joint Research Laboratory of Nano-Micro Architecture Chemistry (NMAC), Department of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun, 130012, P. R. China.

Conjugated macrocycle polymers (CMPs) integrated using the macrocyclic confinement effect make imposing restrictions feasible on the growth of metal nanoparticles with confined size and high dispersion. For a proof-of-concept exploration, a novel nanoscale CMP is reported, denoted as DMP[5]-TPP-CMP, comprising two representative types of macrocyclic compounds, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805509DOI Listing
February 2019

Big to Small: Ultrafine Mo C Particles Derived from Giant Polyoxomolybdate Clusters for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

Small 2019 Feb 8:e1900358. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006, Australia.

Due to its electronic structure, similar to platinum, molybdenum carbides (Mo C) hold great promise as a cost-effective catalyst platform. However, the realization of high-performance Mo C catalysts is still limited because controlling their particle size and catalytic activity is challenging with current synthesis methods. Here, the synthesis of ultrafine β-Mo C nanoparticles with narrow size distribution (2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201900358DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
8.368 Impact Factor

Pyridinic-N Protected Synthesis of 3D Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon with Increased Mesoporous Defects for Oxygen Reduction.

Small 2019 Feb 8:e1805325. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Chemistry, Hubei Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Nitrogen (N)-doped carbons are potential nonprecious metal catalysts to replace Pt for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Pyridinic-N-C is believed to be the most active N group for catalyzing ORR. In this work, using zinc phthalocyanine as a precursor effectively overcomes the serious loss of pyridinic-N, which is commonly regarded as the biggest obstacle to catalytic performance enhancement upon adopting a second pyrolysis process, for the preparation of a 3D porous N-doped carbon framework (NDCF). Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/smll.201805325
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805325DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads
8.368 Impact Factor

Galvanic Replacement-Mediated Synthesis of Ni-Supported Pd Nanoparticles with Strong Metal-Support Interaction for Methanol Electro-oxidation.

Small 2019 Feb 8:e1804722. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Metallurgy, Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Metallurgy, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650093, P.R. China.

Herein, well-defined Pd nanoparticles (NPs) developed on Ni substrate (Pd NPs/Ni) are synthesized via a facile galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) route performed in ethaline-based deep eutectic solvent (DES). For comparison, a Pd NPs/Ni composite is also prepared by the GRR method conducted in an aqueous solution. The Pd NPs/Ni obtained from the ethaline-DES is catalytically more active and durable for the methanol electro-oxidation reaction (MOR) than those of the counterpart derived from conventional aqueous solution and commercial Pd/C under alkaline media. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804722DOI Listing
February 2019

Aluminum-Tailored Energy Level and Morphology of Co Al O Porous Nanosheets toward Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Water Oxidation.

Small 2019 Feb 8:e1804886. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Soochow Institute for Energy and Materials Innovations, College of Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006, China.

Tuning energy levels plays a crucial role in developing cost-effective, earth-abundant, and highly active oxygen evolution catalysts. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the effect of using heteroatom-occupied lattice sites on the energy level to engineer electrocatalytic activity. In order to explore heteroatom-engineered energy levels of spinel Co O for highly-effective oxygen electrocatalysts, herein Al atoms are directly introduced into the crystal lattice by occupying the Co ions in the tetrahedral sites and Co ions in the octahedral sites (denoted as Co and Co , respectively). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804886DOI Listing
February 2019

Remarkable Improvement in Photocatalytic Performance for Tannery Wastewater Processing via SnS Modified with N-Doped Carbon Quantum Dots: Synthesis, Characterization, and 4-Nitrophenol-Aided Cr(VI) Photoreduction.

Small 2019 Feb 8:e1804515. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130026, P. R. China.

Photocatalytic pathways are proved crucial for the sustainable production of chemicals and fuels required for a pollution-free planet. Electron-hole recombination is a critical problem that has, so far, limited the efficiency of the most promising photocatalytic materials. Here, the efficacy of the 0D N doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) is demonstrated in accelerating the charge separation and transfer and thereby boosting the activity of a narrow-bandgap SnS photocatalytic system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804515DOI Listing
February 2019

DNA-Mediated Self-Assembly of Plasmonic Antennas with a Single Quantum Dot in the Hot Spot.

Small 2019 Feb 8:e1804418. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Faculty of Physics and Center for Nanoscience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München (LMU), 80539, Munich, Germany.

DNA self-assembly is a powerful tool to arrange optically active components with high accuracy in a large parallel manner. A facile approach to assemble plasmonic antennas consisting of two metallic nanoparticles (40 nm) with a single colloidal quantum dot positioned at the hot spot is presented here. The design approach is based on DNA complementarity, stoichiometry, and steric hindrance principles. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/smll.201804418
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804418DOI Listing
February 2019
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Self-Assembly of Microparticles by Supramolecular Homopolymerization of One Component DNA Molecule.

Small 2019 Feb 8:e1805552. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Key Laboratory of Luminescent and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716, China.

DNA is a superb molecule for self-assembly of nanostructures. Often many DNA strands are required for the assembly of one DNA nanostructure. For lowering the cost of synthesizing DNA strands and facilitating the assembly process, it is highly desirable to use a minimal number of unique strands for potential technological applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805552DOI Listing
February 2019

Ultrathin and Stretchable Rechargeable Devices with Organic Polymer Nanosheets Conformable to Skin Surface.

Small 2019 Feb 7:e1805296. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, Tokyo, 169-8555, Japan.

Ultrathin flexible electronic devices have been attracting substantial attention for biomonitoring, display, wireless communication, and many other ubiquitous applications. In this article, organic robust redox-active polymer/carbon nanotube hybrid nanosheets with thickness of just 100 nm are reported as power sources for ultrathin devices conformable to skin. Regardless of the extreme thinness of the electrodes, a moderately large current density of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805296DOI Listing
February 2019
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High-Safety Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Interphases for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

Small 2019 Feb 7:e1805479. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, China.

Rapidly developed Na-ion batteries are highly attractive for grid energy storage. Nevertheless, the safety issues of Na-ion batteries are still a bottleneck for large-scale applications. Similar to Li-ion batteries (LIBs), the safety of Na-ion batteries is considered to be tightly associated with the electrolyte and electrode/electrolyte interphase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805479DOI Listing
February 2019
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Gas Sensors Based on Nano/Microstructured Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

Small 2019 Feb 7:e1805196. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Interdisciplinary Materials Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 201804, P. R. China.

Benefiting from the advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), including synthetic versatility of organic molecular design and environmental sensitivity, gas sensors based on OFETs have drawn much attention in recent years. Potential applications focus on the detection of specific gas species such as explosive, toxic gases, or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that play vital roles in environmental monitoring, industrial manufacturing, smart health care, food security, and national defense. To achieve high sensitivity, selectivity, and ambient stability with rapid response and recovery speed, the regulation and adjustment of the nano/microstructure of the organic semiconductor (OSC) layer has proven to be an effective strategy. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/smll.201805196
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805196DOI Listing
February 2019
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Accelerating Photogenerated Charge Kinetics via the Synergetic Utilization of 2D Semiconducting Structural Advantages and Noble-Metal-Free Schottky Junction Effect.

Small 2019 Feb 7:e1804613. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Institute for Energy Research, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, P. R. China.

Although photocatalysis is one of the most promising technologies for environmental and energy issues, the irreconcilable contradiction between the absorption of the visible light and the strong redox capability of the photocatalyst and the low photocatalytic reaction kinetics result in the poor efficiency. Here, a composite photocatalyst is reported with high redox capability and accelerated reaction kinetics synergistically utilizing 2D semiconducting structural advantages and the noble-metal-free Schottky junction effect. The 2D structure can not only increase the bandgap of the photocatalyst but also improve the transfer and separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804613DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
8.368 Impact Factor

Multifunctional van der Waals Broken-Gap Heterojunction.

Small 2019 Feb 7:e1804885. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, South Korea.

The finite energy band-offset that appears between band structures of employed materials in a broken-gap heterojunction exhibits several interesting phenomena. Here, by employing a black phosphorus (BP)/rhenium disulfide (ReS ) heterojunction, the tunability of the BP work function (Φ ) with variation in flake thickness is exploited in order to demonstrate that a BP-based broken-gap heterojunction can manifest diverse current-transport characteristics such as gate tunable rectifying p-n junction diodes, Esaki diodes, backward-rectifying diodes, and nonrectifying devices as a consequence of diverse band-bending at the heterojunction. Diversity in band-bending near heterojunction is attributed to change in the Fermi level difference (Δ) between BP and ReS sides as a consequence of Φ modulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804885DOI Listing
February 2019
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The Control of Colloidal Grain Boundaries through Evaporative Vertical Self-Assembly.

Small 2019 Feb 7:e1804523. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, 5200 Engineering Hall Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697-2700, USA.

Self-assembly continuously gains attention as an excellent method to create novel nanoscale structures with a wide range of applications in photonics, optoelectronics, biomedical engineering, and heat transfer applications. However, self-assembly is governed by a diversity of complex interparticle forces that cause fabricating defectless large scale (>1 cm) colloidal crystals, or opals, to be a daunting challenge. Despite numerous efforts to find an optimal method that offers the perfect colloidal crystal by minimizing defects, it has been difficult to provide physical interpretations that govern the development of defects such as grain boundaries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804523DOI Listing
February 2019

Highly Excavated Octahedral Nanostructures Integrated from Ultrathin Mesoporous PtCu Nanosheets: Construction of Three-Dimensional Open Surfaces for Enhanced Electrocatalysis.

Small 2019 Feb 6:e1804407. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, China.

Developing electrocatalysts with ultrathin nanostructures and high mesoporosity is a relevant high-priority research direction toward enhancing the performance of noble metals. Herein, mesoporous, highly excavated octahedral PtCu nanostructures are prepared by a facile one-pot synthesis. The mesoporous, highly excavated octahedral PtCu nanostructures are built with mutually perpendicular interlaced mesoporous nanosheets with a thickness of ≈4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201804407DOI Listing
February 2019
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8.368 Impact Factor

Biocompatibility of Amine-Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles: The Role of Surface Coverage.

Small 2019 Feb 5:e1805400. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.

Here, amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs), one of the most abundant nanomaterials, are used as an example to illustrate the utmost importance of surface coverage by functional groups which critically determines biocompatibility. Silica NPs are functionalized with increasing amounts of amino groups, and the number of surface exposed groups is quantified and characterized by detailed NMR and fluorescamine binding studies. Subsequent biocompatibility studies in the absence of serum demonstrate that, irrespective of surface modification, both plain and amine-modified silica NPs trigger cell death in RAW 264. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201805400DOI Listing
February 2019
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