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    244 results match your criteria Skin Lightening and Depigmenting Agents

    1 OF 5

    Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. essential oil slows hair-growth and lightens skin in axillae; a randomised, double blinded trial.
    Phytomedicine 2017 Feb 20;25:29-38. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Bioscreening Unit, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand. Electronic address:
    Background: Androgenic hair-growth contributes to secondary gender characteristics but can be troublesome in women. Inhibiting axillary hair-growth via 5-α-reductases using the Thai medicinal plant, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. is an attractive treatment strategy. Read More

    N-(4-methoxyphenyl) caffeamide-induced melanogenesis inhibition mechanisms.
    BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Jan 23;17(1):71. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Department of Cosmeceutics, China Medical University, Taichung, 404, Taiwan.
    Background: The derivative of caffeamide exhibits antioxidant and antityrosinase activity. The activity and mechanism of N-(4-methoxyphenyl) caffeamide (K36E) on melanogenesis was investigated.

    Methods: B16F0 cells were treated with various concentrations of K36E; the melanin contents and related signal transduction were studied. Read More

    Skin whitening agents: medicinal chemistry perspective of tyrosinase inhibitors.
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2017 Dec;32(1):403-425
    a PharmaCenter Bonn , Pharmaceutical Institute, Pharmaceutical Chemistry I, University of Bonn , Bonn , Germany.
    Melanogenesis is a process to synthesize melanin, which is a primary responsible for the pigmentation of human skin, eye and hair. Although numerous enzymatic catalyzed and chemical reactions are involved in melanogenesis process, the enzymes such as tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 played a major role in melanin synthesis. Specifically, tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes a rate-limiting step of the melanin synthesis, and the downregulation of tyrosinase is the most prominent approach for the development of melanogenesis inhibitors. Read More

    Split-Face Comparison of an Advanced Non-Hydroquinone Lightening Solution to 4% Hydroquinone.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Dec;15(12):1571-1577
    Introduction: Hyperpigmentation is a primary concern for many cosmetic patients because of its high rate of occurrence and significant impact on perceived age. While 4% hydroquinone has been the gold-standard of treatment, there is a growing interest in non-hydroquinone solutions, however, many of these newer solutions fail to deliver equivalent improvement.

    Methods: This double-blind, randomized, split-face study compares the effects of a new OTC non-hydroquinone lightening product (JM) to an available 4% hydroquinone lightening solution (OB) on the appearance of hyperpigmentation, texture, and ne lines and wrinkles. Read More

    Development and Clinical Assessment of a Comprehensive Product for Pigmentation Control in Multiple Ethnic Populations.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Dec;15(12):1562-1570
    Background: Pigmentary changes in people of different ethnic origins are controlled by slight variations in key biological pathways leading to different outcomes from the same treatment. It is important to develop and test products for desired outcomes in varying ethnic populations.

    Objectives: To develop a comprehensive product (LYT2) that affects all major biological pathways controlling pigmentation and test for clinical efficacy and safety in different ethnic populations. Read More

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) contributes to control of melanogenesis in B16 F10 melanoma cells.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2017 Apr 13;309(3):141-157. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Kraków, Poland.
    Recent studies revealed the cooperation between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and α-MSH signaling, which results in enhanced melanogenesis in melanocytes and melanoma cells. However, the agonists of PPARα, such as fenofibrate, exert depigmenting effect. Therefore, we aimed to check how the PPARα expression level affects the antimelanogenic activity of fenofibrate and whether PPARα modulates melanogenesis independently of its agonist. Read More

    In vitro Dermal Absorption of Hydroquinone: Protocol Validation and Applicability on Illegal Skin-Whitening Cosmetics.
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2016 5;29(6):300-308. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Division of Food, Medicines and Consumer Safety, Section Medicinal Products, Scientific Institute of Public Health (IPH), Brussels, Belgium.
    In Europe, hydroquinone is a forbidden cosmetic ingredient. It is, however, still abundantly used because of its effective skin-whitening properties. The question arises as to whether the quantities of hydroquinone used become systemically available and may cause damage to human health. Read More

    Alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma (dried rhizome of Alisma orientale), inhibits melanin production in murine B16 melanoma cells.
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2017 Mar 4;81(3):534-540. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    b Department of Biological Science and Technology , Tokushima University Graduate School , Tokushima , Japan.
    To develop new whitening agents from natural products, we screened 80 compounds derived from crude drugs in Kampo medicine in a melanin synthesis inhibition assay using murine B16 melanoma cells. The screen revealed that treatment with alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, significantly decreased both melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. However, alisol B did not directly inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro. Read More

    Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Thiazolidine Derivatives of Cysteine for Suppressing Eumelanin Production.
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2016 ;64(12):1681-1691
    Institute for Innovation, Ajinomoto Co., Inc.
    In the pathway of melanin biosynthesis, cysteine (Cys) is utilized for the synthesis of pheomelanin. Accordingly, Cys is considered to suppress the formation of brown-black eumelanin. Although attempts have been made to utilize Cys and its derivatives as skin-whitening agents, their instability and odor hinders their application as a cosmetic agent. Read More

    The depigmenting effect of natural resorcinol type polyphenols Kuwanon O and Sanggenon T from the roots of morus australis.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Jan 13;195:196-203. Epub 2016 Nov 13.
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, PR China. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Morus australis, one of the major Morus species growing in East Asia, is rich in phenolic compounds. The extract of M. australis has been used as skin whitening components for a long period. Read More

    Tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant properties of Asphodelus microcarpus extracts.
    BMC Complement Altern Med 2016 Nov 9;16(1):453. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, SS 554, Bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy.
    Background: Asphodelus microcarpus belongs to the family Liliaceae that include several medicinal plants. In the traditional medicine plants of the genus Asphodelus are used to treat skin disorders such as ectodermal parasites, psoriasis, microbial infection and for lightening freckles. In order to find novel skin depigmenting agents, the present work was carry out to evaluate antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory potential of leaves, flowers and tubers extracts of A. Read More

    [Cutaneous depigmentation in black female population for cosmetic purposes: results of a KAP survey conducted in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 23;24:159. Epub 2016 Jun 23.
    Centre de Dermatologie du CHU de Treichville d'Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
    Introduction: Cutaneous depigmentation for cosmeticis purposes is a widespread practice among black African women. It has many complications that have been well documented for decades. However, the reasons of practitioners are not well known. Read More

    Risk assessment of skin lightening cosmetics containing hydroquinone.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Nov 10;81:128-135. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
    Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Following reports on potential risks of hydroquinone (HQ), HQ for skin lightening has been banned or restricted in Europe and the US. In contrast, HQ is not listed as a prohibited or limited ingredient for cosmetic use in Japan, and many HQ cosmetics are sold without restriction. To assess the risk of systemic effects of HQ, we examined the rat skin permeation rates of four HQ (0. Read More

    Jasmine rice panicle: A safe and efficient natural ingredient for skin aging treatments.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2016 Dec 6;193:607-616. Epub 2016 Oct 6.
    School of Cosmetic Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, 57100 Thailand; Phytocosmetics and Cosmeceuticals Research Group, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand.
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: While rice is one of the most important global staple food sources its extracts have found many uses as the bases of herbal remedies. Rice extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds which are known to be bioactive, some of which show cutaneous benefits and activity towards skin disorders. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular activity and clinical efficacy of rice panicle extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products. Read More

    Novel Anti-Melanogenesis Properties of Polydeoxyribonucleotide, a Popular Wound Healing Booster.
    Int J Mol Sci 2016 Sep 1;17(9). Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.
    Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), a deoxyribonucleotide polymer, is popularly used for faster healing of cutaneous wounds and boosting of neocollagenesis of photoaged skin among current dermatologic practitioners. Some patients receiving PDRN injection treatment also reported improvement of photoaging-associated mottled pigmentation (PMP). To investigate the effect of PDRN on cutaneous melanogenesis, we examined the effect of PDRN and an available product (Placentex(®)) containing PDRN on melanogenesis using human melanocytes-keratinocytes cocultures and mouse melanocytes. Read More

    The Methoxyflavonoid Isosakuranetin Suppresses UV-B-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression and Collagen Degradation Relevant for Skin Photoaging.
    Int J Mol Sci 2016 Sep 1;17(9). Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.
    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a main extrinsic factor for skin aging. Chronic exposure of the skin to UV radiation causes the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP-1, and consequently results in alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and skin photoaging. Flavonoids are considered as potent anti-photoaging agents due to their UV-absorbing and antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity against UV-mediated MMP induction. Read More

    Mercury, hydroquinone and clobetasol propionate in skin lightening products in West Africa and Canada.
    Environ Res 2016 Oct 1;150:403-10. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
    Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada H2V 2S9. Electronic address:
    Skin lightening products are types of cosmetics (creams, gels, lotions and soaps) applied voluntarily on skin. Several of these products contain a variety of active ingredients that are highly toxic. Among those toxic agents, the present study focuses on mercury, hydroquinone, and clobetasol propionate. Read More

    Antimelanogenesis Activity of Hydrolyzed Ginseng Extract (GINST) via Inhibition of JNK Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in B16F10 Cells.
    J Food Sci 2016 Aug 29;81(8):H2085-92. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Ilhwa Co., BioTech Research Inst., Foreign Business Center, 25, Angol-ro 56 beon-gil, Guri-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
    GINST is a hydrolyzed ginseng extract produced by an in vitro process that imitates the metabolic function of bacteria in the human digestive track and has approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea for the management of postprandial hyperglycemia. Additionally, GINST has been reported to have other physiological functions including anti-aging and antioxidant effects. The objectives of this study are to compare the antimelanogenic effects of fresh ginseng extract (FGE) and GINST extract and to elucidate the functional mechanism. Read More

    A Prospective Trial Comparing Q-Switched Ruby Laser and a Triple Combination Skin-Lightening Cream in the Treatment of Solar Lentigines.
    Dermatol Surg 2016 Jul;42(7):853-7
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Quality-switched (QS) laser therapy is a safe and well-established treatment option for removing solar lentigines. Triple combination therapy (TCT) with the active pharmaceutical ingredients hydroquinone 5%, tretinoin 0.03%, and dexamethasone 0. Read More

    Skin Pretreatment With Conventional Non-Fractional Ablative Lasers Promote the Transdermal Delivery of Tranexamic Acid.
    Dermatol Surg 2016 Jul;42(7):867-74
    *Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan; †Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan; ‡Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; §Department of Cosmetic Science, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan; ‖College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; ¶Department of Dermatology, Aesthetic Medical Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Background: Laser pretreatment of skin can be used to enable drugs used in dermatology to penetrate the skin to the depth necessary for their effect to take place.

    Objective: To compare the permeation of tranexamic acid after conventional non-fractionated ablative Er:YAG and CO2 laser pretreatment in a laser-aided transdermal delivery system.

    Materials And Methods: An erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) and a CO2 laser were used to pretreat dorsal porcine skin. Read More

    Optimization of extraction conditions for osthol, a melanogenesis inhibitor from Cnidium monnieri fruits.
    Pharm Biol 2016 Aug 4;54(8):1373-9. Epub 2016 May 4.
    a College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University , Cheongju , Korea ;
    Context: Coumarin derivatives have been reported to inhibit melanin biosynthesis.

    Objective: The melanogenesis inhibitory activity of osthol, a major coumarin of the fruits of Cnidium monnieri Cusson (Umbelliferae), and optimized extraction conditions for the maximum yield from the isolation of osthol from C. monnieri fruits were investigated. Read More

    Glutathione as a skin whitening agent: Facts, myths, evidence and controversies.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2016 May-Jun;82(3):262-72
    Skinnocence: The Skin Clinic, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.
    Glutathione is a low molecular weight thiol-tripeptide that plays a prominent role in maintaining intracellular redox balance. In addition to its remarkable antioxidant properties, the discovery of its antimelanogenic properties has led to its promotion as a skin-lightening agent. It is widely used for this indication in some ethnic populations. Read More

    Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.
    J Biosci Bioeng 2016 Sep 12;122(3):263-9. Epub 2016 Apr 12.
    Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Da-Yeh University, No. 168, University Rd., Dacun, Changhua 51591, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. Read More

    Anti-melanogenic effects of Aster spathulifolius extract in UVB-exposed C57BL/6J mice and B16F10 melanoma cells through the regulation of MAPK/ERK and AKT/GSK3β signalling.
    J Pharm Pharmacol 2016 Apr 19;68(4):503-13. Epub 2016 Mar 19.
    Department of Preventive Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.
    Objectives: Pharmacological studies of Aster spathulifolius Maxim(AS) have demonstrated its anti-allergy, anti-viral and anti-obesity effects, however, its anti-melanogenic effects is still unclear. In this study, the effects of AS extract (ASE) on the inhibition of melanin synthesis were investigated in vitro and in vivo.

    Methods: To perform this study, the contents of melanin and tyrosinase activity were analysed in B16F10 melanoma cells. Read More

    "The fairer the better?" Use of potentially toxic skin bleaching products.
    Afr Health Sci 2015 Dec;15(4):1074-80
    Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Background: Skin bleaching is a widespread phenomenon in spite of their potentially toxic health effects.

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine if such products are used in Sweden in particular by pregnant women, furthermore to explore immigrant women's view skin bleaching.

    Methods: 455 pregnant women completed a questionnaire, which were statistically analysed. Read More

    Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Jun 8;30(6):943-50. Epub 2016 Mar 8.
    Department of Toxicology, Dermato-Cosmetology and Pharmacognosy, Centre for Pharmaceutical Research (CePhar), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium.
    Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well-documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side-effect. Read More

    Action of ellagic acid on the melanin biosynthesis pathway.
    J Dermatol Sci 2016 May 12;82(2):115-22. Epub 2016 Feb 12.
    GENZ-Group of Research on Enzymology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology-A, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, E-30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain(1). Electronic address:
    Background: Tyrosinase is an enzyme involved in the first steps of the melanogenesis process. It catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols and the oxidation of the latter to o-quinones. Ellagic acid (EA) is a phenolic compound which has been described as a tyrosinase inhibitor and is used in the cosmetic industry as a whitening agent. Read More

    Analysis of salicylic acid, arbutin and corticosteroids in skin whitening creams available in Pakistan using chromatographic techniques.
    Int J Cosmet Sci 2016 Aug 5;38(4):421-8. Epub 2016 Apr 5.
    Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.
    Background: A simple, new and efficient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the separation of most popular ingredients in skin whitening creams.

    Methods: For RP-HPLC analysis, a Hibar(®) C18 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm column (Merck Millipore, Carolina, USA) as stationary phase with a mobile phase consisting a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water 40 : 40 : 20 (pH 7. Read More

    Functionality study of santalin as tyrosinase inhibitor: A potential depigmentation agent.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2016 May 30;86:383-9. Epub 2016 Jan 30.
    School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:
    Excessive melanin production leads to hyperpigmentation disorders which results in distressing aesthetic values. Though there are some synthetic depigmentation agents available it has been reported to possess cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. Hence there is a need for the development of safe and non toxic natural tyrosinase inhibitors. Read More

    The skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin: in vitro evaluation using reconstructed pigmented human epidermis.
    Int J Cosmet Sci 2016 Oct 4;38(5):444-51. Epub 2016 Mar 4.
    L'Oréal Research and Innovation, 1 Avenue Eugène Schueller, 93601 Aulnay sous Bois, France.
    Objective: The roots of the herb Paeonia lactiflora ('White Peony') are used in association with other herbs in traditional clinical cosmetic practice in China as oral treatment for skin pigmentary disorders, such as brown or dark pigmentary spots. However, the skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and its main ingredient paeoniflorin has been scarcely investigated by topical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin as skin whitening agent in cosmetic application. Read More

    Antitumoral, antioxidant, and antimelanogenesis potencies of Hawthorn, a potential natural agent in the treatment of melanoma.
    Melanoma Res 2016 Jun;26(3):211-22
    aLaboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine bUnit of Natural and Bioactive Substances and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia cLaboratory of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lille 2, Lille, France.
    The lack of an efficient agent that does not have the disadvantage of low activity (kojic acid), high cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity (hydroquinone), poor skin penetration (arbutin), or low stability in formulation (glabridin) led us to continue our research on new antipigmentation/skin-lightening agents. Therefore, research of natural products that can modulate the metabolism of pigmentation is of great interest. Otherwise, malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, with high metastatic potential, and currently, there is no effective chemotherapy against invasive melanoma. Read More

    Systemic complications during voluntary cosmetic depigmentation among women in Togo: A case-control study.
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2016 Mar 15;143(3):197-201. Epub 2016 Jan 15.
    Department of dermatology and venereology, University of Lomé, Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital, BP 81056, 1, rue de l'Hôpital, Lomé, Togo. Electronic address:
    Objective: The aim of our study was to document the systemic complications of skin bleaching among women in Togo.

    Methods: This was a case-control study conducted between December 2009 and December 2013. Cases comprised of women using skin-bleaching products for at least 6 months and age-matched with non-users (±3 years). Read More

    Microneedling in facial recalcitrant melasma: report of a series of 22 cases.
    An Bras Dermatol 2015 Nov-Dec;90(6):919-21
    Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Recife, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Melasma is a chronic skin disorder that results in symmetrical, blotchy, brownish facial pigmentation. It is more common in women than in men, it generally starts between 20 and 40 years, and it can lead to considerable embarrassment and distress. The aims of this article is to evaluate the treatment with the microneedling method in 18 female and 4 male with recalcitrant melasma. Read More

    Preliminary study on the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students in Malaysia.
    J Environ Public Health 2015 26;2015:591790. Epub 2015 Nov 26.
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Many cases of dermatologic complication were reported with the use of skin lightening products. This study assessed the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students. Self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 104 female students (56 undergraduates and 48 postgraduates) aged 24 ± 2 years in Universiti Putra Malaysia. Read More

    Regulatory effect of hydroquinone-tetraethylene glycol conjugates on zebrafish pigmentation.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2016 Jan 26;26(2):699-705. Epub 2015 Sep 26.
    Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi-do 449-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    We synthesized two hydroquinone-tetraethylene glycol conjugates (HQ-TGs) and investigated their logP, photophysical stability, and redox chemical stability. HQ-TGs are a little more hydrophilic than hydroquinone (HQ) and show an enhanced photophysical and redox chemical stability compared with HQ. In addition we studied the effect of HQ-TGs on cell viability and on zebrafish pigmentation. Read More

    A novel cream formulation containing nicotinamide 4%, arbutin 3%, bisabolol 1%, and retinaldehyde 0.05% for treatment of epidermal melasma.
    Cutis 2015 Nov;96(5):337-42
    Dermatology Clinic, Santa Casa de São Paulo Hospital and Medical School, Brazil.
    Epidermal melasma is a common hyperpigmentation disorder that can be challenging to treat. Although current treatment options for melasma are limited, topical skin-lightening preparations have widely been used as alternatives to hydroquinone. In this prospective, single-arm, open-label study, treatment of epidermal melasma with a novel cream formulation containing nicotinamide 4%, arbutin 3%, bisabolol 1%, and retinaldehyde 0. Read More

    Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer safety (SCCS)--Opinion on the safety of the use of α-arbutin in cosmetic products.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Feb 2;74:75-6. Epub 2015 Dec 2.
    Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund, Germany.
    Conclusion Of The Opinion: The SCCS considers the use of α-Arbutin safe for consumers in cosmetic products in a concentration up to 2% in face creams and up to 0.5% in body lotions. A potential combined use of α-Arbutin and other hydroquinone releasing substances in cosmetic products has not been evaluated in this Opinion. Read More

    A Game-Theoretic Model of Marketing Skin Whiteners.
    Health Mark Q 2015 13;32(4):367-81. Epub 2015 Nov 13.
    a School of Business , Wilmington University , New Castle , DE.
    Empirical studies consistently find that people in less developed countries tend to regard light or "white" skin, particularly among women, as more desirable or superior. This is a study about the marketing of skin whiteners in these countries, where over 80 percent of users are typically women. It proceeds from the following premises: a) Purely market or policy-oriented approaches toward the risks and harms of skin whitening are cost-inefficient; b) Psychosocial and informational factors breed uninformed and risky consumer choices that favor toxic skin whiteners; and c) Proliferation of toxic whiteners in a competitive buyer's market raises critical supplier accountability issues. Read More

    Simultaneous determination of water-soluble whitening ingredients and adenosine in different cosmetic formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection.
    Int J Cosmet Sci 2016 Jun 23;38(3):286-93. Epub 2015 Dec 23.
    Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Nuengdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701, Republic of Korea.
    Objective: The Korean Cosmetic Act regulates the use of functional cosmetics) by the law. Four functional cosmetic groups, whitening, anti-wrinkle, UV protection and combination of whitening and anti-wrinkle, were categorized according to the Korean Cosmetic Act and Functional Cosmetics Codex. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD) was employed for the simultaneous detection of arbutin (and its decomposition product, hydroquinone), niacinamide, ascorbyl glucoside, ethyl ascorbyl ether and adenosine in functional cosmetic products such as creams, emulsions and lotions. Read More

    Rhododenol-induced leukoderma in a mouse model mimicking Japanese skin.
    J Dermatol Sci 2016 Jan 27;81(1):35-43. Epub 2015 Oct 27.
    Department of Dermatology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan.
    Background: Rhododendrol, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol, Rhododenol(®) (RD), a naturally occurring phenolic compound, was developed as a tyrosinase inhibitor for skin-lightening/whitening cosmetics. In 2013, skin depigmentation was reported in consumers using RD-containing skin-brightening cosmetics; this condition is called RD-induced leukoderma.

    Objective: The etiology of RD-induced leukoderma is still largely unknown. Read More

    The globalization of whitening: prevalence of skin lighteners (or bleachers) use and its social correlates among university students in 26 countries.
    Int J Dermatol 2016 Feb 15;55(2):165-72. Epub 2015 Oct 15.
    Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.
    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of skin lighteners and its social correlates in university students from 26 low, middle income, and emerging economy countries.

    Methods: Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19,624 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD 2. Read More

    HPLC-UV Method for the Identification and Screening of Hydroquinone, Ethers of Hydroquinone and Corticosteroids Possibly Used as Skin-Whitening Agents in Illicit Cosmetic Products.
    J Chromatogr Sci 2016 Mar 13;54(3):343-52. Epub 2015 Oct 13.
    Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé (ANSM), Direction des Contrôles (CTROL), 143/147 boulevard Anatole France, 93285 Saint-Denis Cedex, France.
    Corticosteroids, hydroquinone and its ethers are regulated in cosmetics by the Regulation 1223/2009. As corticosteroids are forbidden to be used in cosmetics and cannot be present as contaminants or impurities, an identification of one of these illicit compounds deliberately introduced in these types of cosmetics is enough for market survey control. In order to quickly identify skin-whitening agents present in illegal cosmetics, this article proposes an HPLC-UV method for the identification and screening of hydroquinone, 3 ethers of hydroquinone and 39 corticosteroids that may be found in skin-whitening products. Read More

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