491 results match your criteria Skin Lightening and Depigmenting Agents

Laccase Mediator Cocktail System as a Sustainable Skin Whitening Agent for Deep Eumelanin Decolorization.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 2;23(11). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Biological and Ecological Sciences, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy.

The overproduction of eumelanin leads to a panel of unaesthetic hyper-pigmented skin diseases, including melasma and age spots. The treatment of these diseases often requires the use of tyrosinase inhibitors, which act as skin whitening agents by inhibiting the synthesis of eumelanin, with harmful side effects. We report here that laccase from in association with a cocktail of natural phenol redox mediators efficiently degraded eumelanin from , offering an alternative procedure to traditional whitening agents. Read More

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Functionalized chitosan nanoparticles for cutaneous delivery of a skin whitening agent: an approach to clinically augment the therapeutic efficacy for melasma treatment.

Drug Deliv 2022 Dec;29(1):1212-1231

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Future University in Egypt, New Cairo, Egypt.

The increase in the production of melanin level inside the skin prompts a patient-inconvenient skin color disorder namely; melasma. This arouses the need to develop efficacious treatment modalities, among which are topical nano-delivery systems. This study aimed to formulate functionalized chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) in gel form for enhanced topical delivery of alpha-arbutin as a skin whitening agent to treat melasma. Read More

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December 2022

Comparative Study on Depigmenting Agents in Skin of Color.

J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2022 Feb;15(2):12-17

Dr. A. Liyanage is with the Department of Community Medicine at University of Ruhuna in Galle, Sri Lanka.

Objective: Skin lightening agents are popular in southern Asia, but there is dearth of evidence on their effectiveness on Fitzpatrick IV/V skin types. This study was designed to assess the depigmenting efficacy of commercially available and specifically formulated ointments using the Mexameter (MX 18).

Methods: This single center prospective study was performed to test five commercially available preparations (Eldopaque, Aziderm, Garnier Dark Spot Corrector, Ban a Tan Cream and Neostrata Pigment Lightening Gel) on 28 healthy female volunteers in Phase 1, while five single active ingredients in lipophilic dispersion (hydroquinone 4%, ascorbyl palmitate 1%, resveratrol 1% arbutin 5% and azelaic acid 20%) were tested on a different group of 26 healthy female volunteers in Phase 2. Read More

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February 2022

Public interest in skin lightening across the United States, January 2015-December 2020.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 May 5;21(5):1931-1935. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Dermatology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Skin lightening is a popular practice across the world, especially in India, the Philippines and other Asian countries, and some Caribbean nations. It is a dangerous trend, as some of the products used to achieve a lighter skin tone have been shown to often contain unsafe chemicals. In this article, we examine trends in consumer interest in skin lightening using a Google Trends query of 4 search terms: "skin lightening," "skin brightening," "skin whitening," and "skin bleaching," across the United States from 2015 to 2020, and demonstrated that it is most popular in states with diverse populations, including a high percentage of black and Asian Americans. Read More

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Dual Skin-Whitening and Anti-wrinkle Function of Low-Molecular-Weight Fish Collagen.

J Med Food 2022 Feb;25(2):192-204

Division of Food and Nutrition and Human Ecology Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.

In this study, we investigated the protective effects of low-molecular-weight fish collagen from tilapia against melanogenesis in melanocytes, ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated Hs27 skin fibroblasts, and hairless mice. We observed collagen production-related pathways in UVB-irradiated Hs27 skin fibroblasts and hairless mice, and the melanogenesis-related pathways in melanocyte and UVB-irradiated hairless mice. The collagen production-related pathways were activated in the UVB-irradiated Hs27 skin fibroblasts and hairless mice. Read More

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February 2022

Systematic review of clinical studies assessing the needling for treatment of melasma: Focusing on efficacy, safety, and recurrence rate.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 May 18;21(5):1857-1873. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Department of Dermatology, Rasool Akram Medical Complex Clinical Research Development Center (RCRDC), School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objective: Melasma is common, chronic and treatment-challenging cosmetic concern and the aim of this study was to systematically evaluate clinical studies assessing the treatment of melasma through needling while focusing on efficiency, safety, and recurrence.

Method: After e-search a total of 54 articles were reviewed and 12 published articles (February 2011-September 2020) in terms of content, topic, and purpose, were finalized. Articles were open pilot trials, case reports, case series, retrospective studies, quasi-experimental trials, randomized clinical trials, and split face comparative studies. Read More

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Comoclathrin, a novel potent skin-whitening agent produced by endophytic Comoclathris strains associated with Andalusia desert plants.

Sci Rep 2022 01 31;12(1):1649. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Fundación MEDINA, Health Sciences Technology Park, Granada, Spain.

As part of our screening program for the discovery of molecules of microbial origin with skin-whitening activity, 142 diverse fungal endophytes from a wide variety of Andalusia arid plants were screened, applying the OSMAC approach. The fungal strains CF-090361 and CF-090766, isolated from xerophytic plants, were selected as the most promising, while phylogenetic analysis revealed that both strains could represent a new species within the genus Comoclathris. The effect of different fermentation conditions on the production of tyrosinase inhibitory activity was examined, in order to identify the optimum cultivation conditions. Read More

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January 2022

Natural sources of melanogenic inhibitors: A systematic review.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2022 Apr 22;44(2):143-153. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Graduate Program in Human Aging, University of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Objective: Melanin gives some natural protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation; however, excessive production of melanin causes skin hyperpigmentation. Depigmenting cosmetics can be used to control this process; however, depigmenting agents commonly used have some disadvantages, such as low bioavailability, photosensitization, cellular toxicity, and insolubility. Natural sources of melanogenic inhibitors have become important alternatives to synthetic ones. Read More

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Discovery and identification of potential anti-melanogenic active constituents of Bletilla striata by zebrafish model and molecular docking.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2022 Jan 7;22(1). Epub 2022 Jan 7.

College of Chinese Medicine, Zhejiang Pharmaceutical College, Ningbo, 315100, China.

Background: Bletilla striata is the main medicine of many skin whitening classic formulas in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and is widely used in cosmetic industry recently. However, its active ingredients are still unclear and its fibrous roots are not used effectively. The aim of the present study is to discover and identify its potential anti-melanogenic active constituents by zebrafish model and molecular docking. Read More

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January 2022

Melanogenesis-promoting effect of Cirsium japonicum flower extract in vitro and ex vivo.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2021 Dec 15;43(6):703-714. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Biospectrum Life Science Institute, Yongin-si, Republic of Korea.

Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of C. japonicum flower extract (CFE) on melanogenesis and its mechanism in vitro and ex vivo.

Methods: The effect of CFE on melanogenesis was investigated with lightly (HEMn-LP) and moderately (HEMn-MP) pigmented normal human melanocytes, reconstituted three-dimensional skin (3D skin) model and ex vivo human hair follicles. Read More

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December 2021

Skin lightening: causes and complications.

M Sommerlad

Clin Exp Dermatol 2022 Feb 17;47(2):264-270. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Department of Dermatology, Homerton University Hospital, London, UK.

Skin bleaching, also known as skin lightening, is the deliberate lightening of an individual's skin tone without medical supervision. The causes are complex, multifactorial and often intertwined, although the unifying themes centre around a belief that lighter skin denotes an individual of higher status, socioeconomic background or physical beauty, than their darker-skinned counterpart. Skin lightening is achieved using agents that block the production of melanin and often contain drugs such as hydroquinone, superpotent topical steroids or mercury. Read More

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February 2022

Topical Cyperus rotundus essential oil for treatment of axillary hyperpigmentation: a randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled study.

G F Mohammed

Clin Exp Dermatol 2022 Mar 24;47(3):534-541. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Sexology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Background: The oil of the grass Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge) is an effective and safe treatment option for a variety of conditions. It has anti-inflammatory and antipigmenting properties. There have been no clinical trials comparing topical C. Read More

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A novel high-resolution monophenolase/diphenolase/radical scavenging profiling for the rapid screening of natural whitening candidates from Peaonia lactiflora root and their mechanism study with molecular docking.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jan 8;282:114607. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The root of Paeonia lactiflora is a traditionally-used whitening medicine in China for thousands of years. Although some tyrosinase inhibitors and/or antioxidants such as 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose, gallic acid, have been isolated and identified, their tyrosinase inhibition pathway (monophenolase or diphenolase inhibition, or both two) have not been systematically studied and the underlying tyrosinase inhibition mechanism has not been revealed yet. Moreover, the exploring of new natural tyrosinase inhibitors and antioxidants is urgently needed. Read More

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January 2022

Skin lightening practices, awareness of social drivers, and the role of regulation in between.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 12 23;85(6):e415-e416. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address:

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December 2021

The skin bleaching epidemic: Reply to "Regulation of skin lightening agents in the United States and implications for public health".

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 12 23;85(6):e413. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia.

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December 2021

A preliminary study of skin bleaching and factors associated with skin bleaching among women living in Zimbabwe.

Afr Health Sci 2021 Mar;21(1):132-139

Faculty of Public Health, Thammasat University Rangsit Campus, Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background: Skin bleaching was reported to be commonly practiced among women and Africa was reported to be one of the most affected yet the subject is not given much attention in public health research in Zimbabwe despite the adverse effects of skin bleaching on health.

Method: This study was an exploratory cross-sectional survey to explore skin bleaching, skin bleaching patterns and factors associated with skin bleaching among women living in Zimbabwe. An online self-administered questionnaire was sent out to women on social network i. Read More

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Cross-sectional analysis of skin lightening and skin bleaching practices on social media.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 05 8;21(5):2279-2281. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

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Evaluation of Anti-Melanogenesis Activity of Enriched Stem Extracts and Characterization of Its Phytochemical Components Using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 28;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 28.

College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The root of (Willd.) is a widely used herbal medicine worldwide, whereas the stem of the plant is discarded or used as feed for livestock. To reuse and exploit the stem of as a resource, we investigated its potential as a skin-whitening agent. Read More

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The risk of chemical leucoderma with skin-lightening therapies.

S Odedra J Yoo

Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 Oct 14;46(7):1391-1393. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Dermatology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

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October 2021

Skin-whitening mechanism of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) extract.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Jan;34(1):77-84

School of Life Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, China.

Skin-whitening effect is closely linked with the melanogenesis inhibitory activity and free radical scavenging capacity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the skin-whitening effect of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) extract. Read More

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January 2021

Anti-melanogenesis and anti-tyrosinase properties of aryl-substituted acetamides of phenoxy methyl triazole conjugated with thiosemicarbazide: Design, synthesis and biological evaluations.

Bioorg Chem 2021 09 11;114:104979. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 71345 Shiraz, Iran; Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 71348 Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

A series of aryl phenoxy methyl triazole conjugated with thiosemicarbazides were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their tyrosinase inhibitory activities in the presence of l-dopa and l-tyrosine as substrates. All the compounds showed tyrosinase inhibition in the sub-micromolar concentration. Among the derivatives, compound 9j bearing benzyl displayed exceptionally high potency against tyrosinase with IC value of 0. Read More

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September 2021

Updates and new medical treatments for vitiligo (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 25;22(2):797. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital 'Dr. José Eleuterio González', Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León 64460, México.

Vitiligo is a multifactorial disease characterized by the loss of skin pigment, which results in achromic macules and patches. There are currently several medical treatments available, which aim to arrest progression and induce skin repigmentation. These treatments alone or combined have exhibited varying degrees of pigmentation, and the majority are safe and effective. Read More

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An open-label, investigator-initiated, single-center, prospective, pilot clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of a skin whitening serum applied twice daily combined with a spot-preventing SPF50+ sunscreen in healthy female subjects with melasma hyperpigmentation.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 Apr 25;21(4):1523-1532. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Section of Dermatology, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Background: Melasma is a common skin disorder characterized by alterations in normal skin pigmentation. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a skin whitening serum containing niacinamide, hydroxyphenoxy propionic acid, dipotassium glycyrrhizate, glycolic acid, and 4-n-butylresorcinol applied twice daily combined with a spot-preventing SPF50+ sunscreen for treatment of melasma.

Methods: Twelve healthy Caucasian women with melasma (Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV) were enrolled in this pilot clinical study. Read More

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Analysis of Mercury in Skin Lightening Cream by Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MP-AES).

Molecules 2021 May 24;26(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Lampung, Bandar Lampung 35145, Indonesia.

This research aimed at developing an analysis method, which was optimized and validated to determine the content of mercury in skin lightening cream discovered in the market in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia, through the use of microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES). The optimization on the analysis method was conducted on pump rate, viewing position, and reductant concentration in order to obtain the highest mercury emission intensity, while the solution stability was optimized to know the stability of mercury in the solution. The result showed that the method developed had precision with a relative standard deviation of 2. Read More

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Novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds inhibit the tyrosinase and melanin level: Synthesis, in-vitro, and in-silico studies.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 07 21;41:116222. Epub 2021 May 21.

Dept. of Chemistry, Kongju National University, Gongju, Chungnam 32588, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this research work, we have designed and synthesized some biologically useful of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles. The structural interpretation of the synthesized compounds has been validated by using FT-IR, LC-MS, HRMS, H NMR and C NMR techniques. Moreover, the in-vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory potential of the target compounds was assessed. Read More

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A natural compound harmine decreases melanin synthesis through regulation of the DYRK1A/NFATC3 pathway.

J Dermatol Sci 2021 Jul 15;103(1):16-24. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Laboratory of Cutaneous Aging Research, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Human-Environment Interface Biology, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul Republic of Korea; Institute on Aging, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Melanin plays important roles in determining human skin color and protecting human skin cells against harmful ultraviolet light. However, abnormal hyperpigmentation in some areas of the skin may become aesthetically unpleasing, resulting in the need for effective agents or methods to regulate undesirable hyperpigmentation.

Objective: We investigated the effect of harmine, a natural harmala alkaloid belonging to the beta-carboline family, on melanin synthesis and further explored the signaling pathways involved in its mechanism of action. Read More

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Severe facial dermatitis in a child caused by undisclosed application of skin bleaching agents.

Arch Pediatr 2021 Jul 27;28(5):432-433. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Service de dermatologie et médecine vasculaire, hôpital Victor Dupouy, 69, rue du Lieutenant-Colonel Prud'hon, 95100 Argenteuil, France. Electronic address:

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Combination of topical and oral glutathione as a skin-whitening agent: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

Int J Dermatol 2021 Aug 19;60(8):1013-1018. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.

Background: The antimelanogenesis effect of topical and oral glutathione has been shown in several in vitro and clinical studies. However, whether combination of topical and oral glutathione is superior to topical or oral monotherapy is unknown. This study aimed to compare the skin-whitening effect of topical and oral glutathione combination therapy against topical and oral monotherapy. Read More

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Formulation and evaluation of antioxidant and antityrosinase activity of Polygonum amplexicaule herbal gel.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5):1961-1969

Department of Biochemistry, Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Medicinal plants are long been used for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Among medicinal plants, Polygonum amplexicaule of family polygonaceae has traditional use in medicines and skin care. P. Read More

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September 2020