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    279 results match your criteria Skin Lightening and Depigmenting Agents

    1 OF 6

    Natural options for management of melasma, a review.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2018 Feb 20:1-12. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    a Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Johannesburg , Doornfontein , South Africa.
    A blemish free, even-toned skin is universally associated with healthy skin. This reasoning makes people desire to have a flawless skin. Melanin is a naturally occurring pigment in humans. Read More

    Skin-lightening practices among female high school students in Ghana.
    Public Health 2018 Feb 9;155:81-87. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Ensign College of Public Health, Kpong, Ghana. Electronic address:
    Objective: The practice of skin lightening (SL) persist despite warnings about its harmful health effects. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable and at risk of prolonged use of SL products. We explored SL practices among high school students in Ghana, West Africa. Read More

    Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: A comprehensive overview: Treatment options and prevention.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Oct;77(4):607-621
    Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan. Electronic address:
    Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) occurs after various dermatoses, exogenous stimuli, and dermatologic procedures. The clinical course of PIH is chronic and unpredictable, although the probability of resolution of epidermal hyperpigmentation is better than those of dermal hyperpigmentation. PIH can be prevented or alleviated. Read More

    Ethosomes of Phenylethyl Resorcinol as Vesicular Delivery System for Skin Lightening Applications.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 19;2017:8310979. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112, Thailand.
    Ethosome formulations containing phenylethyl resorcinol (PR) were developed. The formulation was produced from 0.5% w/v PR, 0. Read More

    [High school student and skin bleaching in Cameroon].
    Sante Publique 2017 Apr;29(2):263-270
    Introduction: Skin bleaching is a common practice in Africa, particularly in Cameroon. Studies show that it represents a danger for health, in terms of a demonstrated increased risk of dermatological diseases. However, increasing numbers of people are using skin bleaching in African cities, despite the fact that they are sometimes aware of the risk. Read More

    Ethyl acetate extract from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and its main constituents inhibit α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis by suppressing oxidative stress in B16 mouse melanoma cells.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Aug 8;208:149-156. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Jilin Technology Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine Biotechnology, College of Biology and Chemistry, Beihua University, Jilin City, Jilin Province 132013, China. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Hyperpigmentation disease involves darkening of the skin color due to melanin overproduction. Panax ginseng C.A. Read More

    Inhibitory effect of 5-iodotubercidin on pigmentation.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 09 4;490(4):1282-1286. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Department of Dermatology and Institute of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University & Hospital, Jinju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Melanin pigments are the primary contributors for the skin color. They are produced in melanocytes and then transferred to keratinocytes, eventually giving various colors on skin surface. Although many depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agents have been developed, there is still a growing demand on materials for reducing pigmentation. Read More

    Synthesis and biological evaluation of caffeic acid derivatives as potent inhibitors of α-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 08 3;27(15):3374-3377. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    College of Pharmacy and Medicinal Research Center (MRC), Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28160, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    We have disclosed our effort to develop caffeic acid derivatives as potent and non-toxic inhibitors of α-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis to treat pigmentation disorders and skin medication including a cosmetic skin-whitening agent. The SAR studies revealed that cyclohexyl ester and secondary amide derivatives of caffeic acid showed significant inhibitory activities. Read More

    Depigmenting Effect of Resveratrol Is Dependent on FOXO3a Activation without SIRT1 Activation.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Jun 7;18(6). Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi 13620, Korea.
    Resveratrol exhibits not only anti-melanogenic property by inhibiting microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), but also anti-aging property by activating sirtuin-1 (SIRT1). In this study, the relationship between depigmenting effect of resveratrol and SIRT1/forkhead box O (FOXO) 3a activation and was investigated. Resveratrol suppressed melanogenesis by the downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase via ERK pathway. Read More

    Mercury contamination in facial skin lightening creams and its health risks to user.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Aug 26;88:72-76. Epub 2017 May 26.
    School of Healthy Aging, Medical Aesthetic and Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UCSI University, No.1, Jalan Menara Gading, UCSI Heights, Cheras, 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    This study aims to determine concentrations of mercury in facial skin lightening cream according to different price categories (category I: Read More

    Complementary effect of hydroquinone and retinoic acid on corneocyte desquamation with their combination use.
    J Dermatol Sci 2017 Aug 7;87(2):192-200. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Department of Dermatology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, 814 Siksa-dong, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-773, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: Retinoic acid (RA) enhances skin-lightening capabilities of hydroquinone (HQ), at least in part, by facilitating desquamation which leads to increase penetration of HQ. The desquamation also affects skin irritation levels. The mechanism of RA-induced desquamation, however, has not been completely explored and no such data has been available for HQ uses. Read More

    Improvement of skin whitening agents efficiency through encapsulation: Current state of knowledge.
    Int J Pharm 2017 Jun 14;526(1-2):50-68. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Faculty of Sciences, Bioactive Molecules Research Laboratory, Lebanese University, Lebanon. Electronic address:
    Hyperpigmentation is one of the most common skin disorder that affects both men and women of all ethnic groups, caused by several factors, such as UV exposure and skin inflammation. Topical whitening agents were found to be the best and the least aggressive therapy for treating hyperpigmentation compared to instrumental approaches. However, topical treatment faces several obstacles due to the low stability of the whitening agents. Read More

    Depigmentation Therapies for Vitiligo.
    Dermatol Clin 2017 Apr;35(2):219-227
    Vitiligo & Pigmentation Institute of Southern California, 5670 Wilshire Boulevard #650, Los Angeles, CA 90036, USA.
    The general goals of medical management of vitiligo are to repigment vitiliginous areas of skin and to stabilize the progression of depigmentation. However, for some patients with vitiligo affecting extensive body surface areas who are unresponsive to repigmentation therapies, depigmentation of the remaining normal skin may be a better choice. Candidates for depigmentation therapy should be carefully screened and patient education is essential. Read More

    Chemical-Induced Vitiligo.
    Dermatol Clin 2017 Apr;35(2):151-161
    Department of Dermatology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, LRB 225, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Electronic address:
    Chemical-induced depigmentation of the skin has been recognized for more than 75 years, first as an occupational hazard but then extending to those using household commercial products as common as hair dyes. Since their discovery, these chemicals have been used therapeutically in patients with severe vitiligo to depigment their remaining skin and improve their appearance. Because chemical-induced depigmentation is clinically and histologically indistinguishable from nonchemically induced vitiligo, and because these chemicals appear to induce melanocyte autoimmunity, this phenomenon should be known as "chemical-induced vitiligo," rather than less accurate terms that have been previously used. Read More

    Effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin wrinkles and pigmentation.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2017 Jul 16;309(5):397-402. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Dermatology, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Mareunnae-ro 9, Jung-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Wrinkle formation and abnormal pigmentation are major clinical alterations associated with skin aging. As the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin aging, the anti-wrinkle and depigmentation effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid were evaluated by measuring collagen expression in dermal fibroblast cells and inhibition of melanogenesis in B16F1 cells, respectively. The anti-aging effect of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream was also evaluated against a placebo cream in a clinical trial. Read More

    Lipid-based submicron capsules as a strategy to include high concentrations of a hydrophobic lightening agent in a hydrogel.
    Int J Cosmet Sci 2017 Aug 5;39(4):450-456. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Université François Rabelais de Tours, EA6295 Nanomédicaments et Nanosondes, 31 avenue Monge, Tours, 37200, France.
    Objective: This study aimed at increasing the concentration of a hydrophobic lightening agent, Omegalight , in a hydrophilic cosmetic product by means of encapsulation in lipid-based submicron capsules. The core of these capsules is entirely made of the commercial lightening agent.

    Methods: Lipid-based encapsulation systems (LNC) were prepared by the PIT method. Read More

    Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. essential oil slows hair-growth and lightens skin in axillae; a randomised, double blinded trial.
    Phytomedicine 2017 Feb 20;25:29-38. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Bioscreening Unit, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand. Electronic address:
    Background: Androgenic hair-growth contributes to secondary gender characteristics but can be troublesome in women. Inhibiting axillary hair-growth via 5-α-reductases using the Thai medicinal plant, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. is an attractive treatment strategy. Read More

    A New Depigmenting-Antifungal Methylated Grindelane from Grindelia chiloensis.
    Chem Biodivers 2017 May 5;14(5). Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Instituto de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Ayacucho, 471, 4000, Tucumán, Argentina.
    The new methylated grindelane diterpenoid, 7β-hydroxy-8(17)-dehydrogrindelic acid (1b), together with the known 7α-hydroxy-8(17)-dehydrogrindelic acid (2a), 6-oxogrindelic acid (3a), 4β-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic (4a), 19-hydroxygrindelic acid (5a), 18-hydroxygrindelic acid (6a), 4α-carboxygrindelic acid (7a), 17-hydroxygrindelic acid (8a), 6α-hydroxygrindelic acid (9a), 8,17-bisnor-8-oxagrindelic acid (10a), 7α,8α-epoxygrindelic acid (11a), and strictanonic acid (12a) as methyl esters were obtained from an Argentine collection of Grindelia chiloensis (Cornel.) Cabrera. Their structures and relative configurations were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Read More

    N-(4-methoxyphenyl) caffeamide-induced melanogenesis inhibition mechanisms.
    BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Jan 23;17(1):71. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Department of Cosmeceutics, China Medical University, Taichung, 404, Taiwan.
    Background: The derivative of caffeamide exhibits antioxidant and antityrosinase activity. The activity and mechanism of N-(4-methoxyphenyl) caffeamide (K36E) on melanogenesis was investigated.

    Methods: B16F0 cells were treated with various concentrations of K36E; the melanin contents and related signal transduction were studied. Read More

    Clinicopathological features, diagnosis, and treatment of IgA nephropathy with minimal change disease related to exposure to mercury-containing cosmetics: a case report
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    Clin Nephrol 2017 Apr;87 (2017)(4):196-201
    Aim: Membranous nephropathy and minimal change disease (MCD) have been involved in mercury-induced nephrotic syndrome. IgA nephropathy is not known to be a common pathological type. In the present article, we report a case of IgA nephropathy with MCD following exposure to mercury-containing skin lightening cream. Read More

    Skin whitening agents: medicinal chemistry perspective of tyrosinase inhibitors.
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2017 Dec;32(1):403-425
    a PharmaCenter Bonn , Pharmaceutical Institute, Pharmaceutical Chemistry I, University of Bonn , Bonn , Germany.
    Melanogenesis is a process to synthesize melanin, which is a primary responsible for the pigmentation of human skin, eye and hair. Although numerous enzymatic catalyzed and chemical reactions are involved in melanogenesis process, the enzymes such as tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 played a major role in melanin synthesis. Specifically, tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes a rate-limiting step of the melanin synthesis, and the downregulation of tyrosinase is the most prominent approach for the development of melanogenesis inhibitors. Read More

    Split-Face Comparison of an Advanced Non-Hydroquinone Lightening Solution to 4% Hydroquinone.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Dec;15(12):1571-1577
    Introduction: Hyperpigmentation is a primary concern for many cosmetic patients because of its high rate of occurrence and significant impact on perceived age. While 4% hydroquinone has been the gold-standard of treatment, there is a growing interest in non-hydroquinone solutions, however, many of these newer solutions fail to deliver equivalent improvement.

    Methods: This double-blind, randomized, split-face study compares the effects of a new OTC non-hydroquinone lightening product (JM) to an available 4% hydroquinone lightening solution (OB) on the appearance of hyperpigmentation, texture, and ne lines and wrinkles. Read More

    Development and Clinical Assessment of a Comprehensive Product for Pigmentation Control in Multiple Ethnic Populations.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Dec;15(12):1562-1570
    Background: Pigmentary changes in people of different ethnic origins are controlled by slight variations in key biological pathways leading to different outcomes from the same treatment. It is important to develop and test products for desired outcomes in varying ethnic populations.

    Objectives: To develop a comprehensive product (LYT2) that affects all major biological pathways controlling pigmentation and test for clinical efficacy and safety in different ethnic populations. Read More

    Knowledge about, attitude toward, and practice of skin lightening products use and its social correlates among university students in five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Mar 17;56(3):277-283. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhonpathom, Thailand.
    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge about, attitude toward, and use of skin lightening products (SLP) and its social and psychological correlates among university students from five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries.

    Methods: In a cross sectional survey, 3259 undergraduate university students (Mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1. Read More

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) contributes to control of melanogenesis in B16 F10 melanoma cells.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2017 Apr 13;309(3):141-157. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Kraków, Poland.
    Recent studies revealed the cooperation between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and α-MSH signaling, which results in enhanced melanogenesis in melanocytes and melanoma cells. However, the agonists of PPARα, such as fenofibrate, exert depigmenting effect. Therefore, we aimed to check how the PPARα expression level affects the antimelanogenic activity of fenofibrate and whether PPARα modulates melanogenesis independently of its agonist. Read More

    In vitro Dermal Absorption of Hydroquinone: Protocol Validation and Applicability on Illegal Skin-Whitening Cosmetics.
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2016 5;29(6):300-308. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Division of Food, Medicines and Consumer Safety, Section Medicinal Products, Scientific Institute of Public Health (IPH), Brussels, Belgium.
    In Europe, hydroquinone is a forbidden cosmetic ingredient. It is, however, still abundantly used because of its effective skin-whitening properties. The question arises as to whether the quantities of hydroquinone used become systemically available and may cause damage to human health. Read More

    Alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma (dried rhizome of Alisma orientale), inhibits melanin production in murine B16 melanoma cells.
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2017 Mar 4;81(3):534-540. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    b Department of Biological Science and Technology , Tokushima University Graduate School , Tokushima , Japan.
    To develop new whitening agents from natural products, we screened 80 compounds derived from crude drugs in Kampo medicine in a melanin synthesis inhibition assay using murine B16 melanoma cells. The screen revealed that treatment with alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, significantly decreased both melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. However, alisol B did not directly inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro. Read More

    Use of skin-lightening products among selected urban communities in Accra, Ghana.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Jan;56(1):32-39
    Department of Pathology, University of Ghana School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, Accra, Ghana.
    Background: The practice of skin lightening has been reported from North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. In literature, some prevalence rates exceed 50%, and both sexes are involved. Common agents used include hydroquinone, mercury, corticosteroids, and caustic agents. Read More

    Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Thiazolidine Derivatives of Cysteine for Suppressing Eumelanin Production.
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2016 ;64(12):1681-1691
    Institute for Innovation, Ajinomoto Co., Inc.
    In the pathway of melanin biosynthesis, cysteine (Cys) is utilized for the synthesis of pheomelanin. Accordingly, Cys is considered to suppress the formation of brown-black eumelanin. Although attempts have been made to utilize Cys and its derivatives as skin-whitening agents, their instability and odor hinders their application as a cosmetic agent. Read More

    Development and validation of an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric method for determination of phenylethyl resorcinol in new topical nanoemulsions.
    Int J Cosmet Sci 2017 Jun 10;39(3):337-343. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    College of Marine Life Science, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China.
    Objective: To develop a rapid, simple and efficient ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric method for the quantification of phenylethyl resorcinol (PR), a potent skin-lightening agent, incorporated into new topical nanoemulsions, and to validate this method according to International Commission for Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.

    Methods: UV-vis spectrophotometric method for quantification of PR in new topical nanoemulsions was developed and validated in terms of specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. The method was applied to determine PR content (extraction recoveries) in the nanoemulsions and entrapment efficiencies. Read More

    The depigmenting effect of natural resorcinol type polyphenols Kuwanon O and Sanggenon T from the roots of morus australis.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Jan 13;195:196-203. Epub 2016 Nov 13.
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, PR China. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Morus australis, one of the major Morus species growing in East Asia, is rich in phenolic compounds. The extract of M. australis has been used as skin whitening components for a long period. Read More

    Tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant properties of Asphodelus microcarpus extracts.
    BMC Complement Altern Med 2016 Nov 9;16(1):453. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, SS 554, Bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy.
    Background: Asphodelus microcarpus belongs to the family Liliaceae that include several medicinal plants. In the traditional medicine plants of the genus Asphodelus are used to treat skin disorders such as ectodermal parasites, psoriasis, microbial infection and for lightening freckles. In order to find novel skin depigmenting agents, the present work was carry out to evaluate antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory potential of leaves, flowers and tubers extracts of A. Read More

    [Cutaneous depigmentation in black female population for cosmetic purposes: results of a KAP survey conducted in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 23;24:159. Epub 2016 Jun 23.
    Centre de Dermatologie du CHU de Treichville d'Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
    Introduction: Cutaneous depigmentation for cosmeticis purposes is a widespread practice among black African women. It has many complications that have been well documented for decades. However, the reasons of practitioners are not well known. Read More

    Risk assessment of skin lightening cosmetics containing hydroquinone.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Nov 10;81:128-135. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
    Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Following reports on potential risks of hydroquinone (HQ), HQ for skin lightening has been banned or restricted in Europe and the US. In contrast, HQ is not listed as a prohibited or limited ingredient for cosmetic use in Japan, and many HQ cosmetics are sold without restriction. To assess the risk of systemic effects of HQ, we examined the rat skin permeation rates of four HQ (0. Read More

    Deoxyarbutin Possesses a Potent Skin-Lightening Capacity with No Discernible Cytotoxicity against Melanosomes.
    PLoS One 2016 24;11(10):e0165338. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    Department of Dermatology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Safe and effective ingredients capable of removing undesired hyperpigmentation from facial skin are urgently needed for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes. Deoxyarbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) oxy] phenol, D-Arb) is a glucoside derivative of hydroquinone. Here, we investigated the toxicity and efficacy of D-Arb at the sub-cellular level (directly on melanosomes) and skin pigmentation using in vivo and in vitro models to compare with its parent compound hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol, HQ). Read More

    Jasmine rice panicle: A safe and efficient natural ingredient for skin aging treatments.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2016 Dec 6;193:607-616. Epub 2016 Oct 6.
    School of Cosmetic Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, 57100 Thailand; Phytocosmetics and Cosmeceuticals Research Group, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand.
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: While rice is one of the most important global staple food sources its extracts have found many uses as the bases of herbal remedies. Rice extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds which are known to be bioactive, some of which show cutaneous benefits and activity towards skin disorders. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular activity and clinical efficacy of rice panicle extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products. Read More

    Novel Anti-Melanogenesis Properties of Polydeoxyribonucleotide, a Popular Wound Healing Booster.
    Int J Mol Sci 2016 Sep 1;17(9). Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.
    Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), a deoxyribonucleotide polymer, is popularly used for faster healing of cutaneous wounds and boosting of neocollagenesis of photoaged skin among current dermatologic practitioners. Some patients receiving PDRN injection treatment also reported improvement of photoaging-associated mottled pigmentation (PMP). To investigate the effect of PDRN on cutaneous melanogenesis, we examined the effect of PDRN and an available product (Placentex(®)) containing PDRN on melanogenesis using human melanocytes-keratinocytes cocultures and mouse melanocytes. Read More

    The Methoxyflavonoid Isosakuranetin Suppresses UV-B-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression and Collagen Degradation Relevant for Skin Photoaging.
    Int J Mol Sci 2016 Sep 1;17(9). Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.
    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a main extrinsic factor for skin aging. Chronic exposure of the skin to UV radiation causes the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP-1, and consequently results in alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and skin photoaging. Flavonoids are considered as potent anti-photoaging agents due to their UV-absorbing and antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity against UV-mediated MMP induction. Read More

    Fifty years of research and development of cosmeceuticals: a contemporary review.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2016 Dec 6;15(4):527-539. Epub 2016 Aug 6.
    Department of Dermatology, Frimley Park Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Frimley, UK.
    Facial rejuvenation can be categorized into skincare and facial contouring. Research and development of cosmeceuticals is aimed at addressing the major signs of photoaging: wrinkles, dyschromia, and sallowness. Assessment of photoaging comes in clinical and photographic forms; a photonumeric scale developed by Griffiths et al. Read More

    Simultaneous determination of four fluorescent whitening agents (including trans and cis isomers) in facial mask by dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection.
    J Sep Sci 2016 Oct 30;39(19):3683-3689. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Guangdong Huaxin Products Testing and Inspection Technology Co. Ltd, Guangzhou, China.
    A novel ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection method, based on the dispersive solid-phase extraction by using polymer weak anion exchange as the sorbent, was established for the simultaneous determination of fluorescent whitening agents 85, 28, 351, and 71 in facial mask. The amounts of polymer weak anion exchange, adsorption time, and volume of elution solvent in the dispersive solid-phase extraction technology were optimized, and the developed method was validated in terms of the method limit of detection, method limit of quantitation, linear range, recovery, accuracy, and precision. Results indicated that the standard curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges of 0. Read More

    Mercury, hydroquinone and clobetasol propionate in skin lightening products in West Africa and Canada.
    Environ Res 2016 10 1;150:403-10. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
    Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada H2V 2S9. Electronic address:
    Skin lightening products are types of cosmetics (creams, gels, lotions and soaps) applied voluntarily on skin. Several of these products contain a variety of active ingredients that are highly toxic. Among those toxic agents, the present study focuses on mercury, hydroquinone, and clobetasol propionate. Read More

    Antimelanogenesis Activity of Hydrolyzed Ginseng Extract (GINST) via Inhibition of JNK Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in B16F10 Cells.
    J Food Sci 2016 Aug 29;81(8):H2085-92. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Ilhwa Co., BioTech Research Inst., Foreign Business Center, 25, Angol-ro 56 beon-gil, Guri-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
    GINST is a hydrolyzed ginseng extract produced by an in vitro process that imitates the metabolic function of bacteria in the human digestive track and has approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea for the management of postprandial hyperglycemia. Additionally, GINST has been reported to have other physiological functions including anti-aging and antioxidant effects. The objectives of this study are to compare the antimelanogenic effects of fresh ginseng extract (FGE) and GINST extract and to elucidate the functional mechanism. Read More

    The assessment of the effect of a cosmetic product brightening the skin of people with discolorations of different etiology.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2016 Dec 28;15(4):493-502. Epub 2016 Jun 28.
    Department of Cosmetic Raw Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Background: Hyperpigmentations are disorders displayed with a change in the color of the skin, its strange shape, the lack of symmetry, and irregular placement. They appear no matter on the age, gender, and often as a congenital defect. Disorder connected with overproduction of melanin by pigmentary cells. Read More

    4-n-butylresorcinol, a depigmenting agent used in cosmetics, reacts with tyrosinase.
    IUBMB Life 2016 08 24;68(8):663-72. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology-A, GENZ-Group of Research on Enzymology (www.um.es/genz), Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum,", University of Murcia, Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.
    4-n-Butylresorcinol (BR) is considered the most potent inhibitor of tyrosinase, which is why it is used in cosmetics as a depigmenting agent. However, this work demonstrates that BR is a substrate of this enzyme. The Em (met-tyrosinase) form is not active on BR, but Eox (oxy-tyrosinase) can act on this molecule, hydroxylating it to o-diphenol. Read More

    A Prospective Trial Comparing Q-Switched Ruby Laser and a Triple Combination Skin-Lightening Cream in the Treatment of Solar Lentigines.
    Dermatol Surg 2016 Jul;42(7):853-7
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Quality-switched (QS) laser therapy is a safe and well-established treatment option for removing solar lentigines. Triple combination therapy (TCT) with the active pharmaceutical ingredients hydroquinone 5%, tretinoin 0.03%, and dexamethasone 0. Read More

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