13,025 results match your criteria Skeletal System - Adult

Transferrin receptor 1-mediated iron uptake regulates bone mass in mice via osteoclast mitochondria and cytoskeleton.

Elife 2022 Jun 27;11. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Long Beach VA Healthcare System, Southern California Institute for Research and Education, Long Beach, United States.

Increased intracellular iron spurs mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration to satisfy high-energy demand during osteoclast differentiation and bone-resorbing activities. Transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) mediates cellular iron uptake through endocytosis of iron-loaded transferrin and its expression increases during osteoclast differentiation. Nonetheless, the precise functions of Tfr1 and Tfr1-mediated iron uptake in osteoclast biology and skeletal homeostasis remain incompletely understood. Read More

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Effects of Internet-Based Nutrition and Exercise Interventions on the Prevention and Treatment of Sarcopenia in the Elderly.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 14;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Division of Health Risk Factors Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China.

Effective nutrition and exercise interventions may improve sarcopenia in the elderly. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of Internet-based nutrition and exercise interventions in the elderly with sarcopenia. Participants were divided into 4 groups: control, nutrition, exercise, and comprehensive (nutrition plus exercise) groups; there was at least 50 participants in each group. Read More

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Global REACH 2018: increased adrenergic restraint of blood flow preserves coupling of oxygen delivery and demand during exercise at high-altitude.

J Physiol 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Applied Clinical Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, TX, USA.

Key Points: In exercising skeletal muscle, local vasodilatory signalling and sympathetic vasoconstriction integrate to match oxygen delivery to demand and maintain arterial blood pressure. Exposure to chronic hypoxia (altitude, >4000 m) causes a persistent increase in sympathetic nervous system activity that is associated with impaired functional capacity and diminished vasodilation during exercise. In healthy male lowlanders exposed to chronic hypoxia (21-28 days; ∼4300 m), local adrenoreceptor blockade (combined α and β-adrenergic blockade) restored skeletal muscle blood flow during handgrip exercise. Read More

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The computational age-at-death estimation from 3D surface models of the adult pubic symphysis using data mining methods.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 20;12(1):10324. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7, Prague 2, 128 43, Czech Republic.

Age-at-death estimation of adult skeletal remains is a key part of biological profile estimation, yet it remains problematic for several reasons. One of them may be the subjective nature of the evaluation of age-related changes, or the fact that the human eye is unable to detect all the relevant surface changes. We have several aims: (1) to validate already existing computer models for age estimation; (2) to propose our own expert system based on computational approaches to eliminate the factor of subjectivity and to use the full potential of surface changes on an articulation area; and (3) to determine what age range the pubic symphysis is useful for age estimation. Read More

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Comparison between the Original- and a Standardized Version of a Physical Assessment Test for the Dorsal Chain - A Cohort-Based Cross Sectional Study.

J Sports Sci Med 2022 Jun 1;21(2):182-190. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Conservative and Rehabilitative Orthopedics, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

This cohort-based cross-sectional study compares the original (OV) and a newly developed standardized version (SV) of the Bunkie Test, a physical test used to assess the dorsal chain muscles. Twenty-three participants (13 females, 10 males; median age of 26 ± 3 years) performed the test, a reverse plank, with one foot on a stool and the contralateral leg lifted. In the SV, the position of the pelvis and the foot were predefined. Read More

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Possible association of 16p11.2 copy number variation with altered lymphocyte and neutrophil counts.

NPJ Genom Med 2022 Jun 17;7(1):38. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Recurrent copy-number variations (CNVs) at chromosome 16p11.2 are associated with neurodevelopmental diseases, skeletal system abnormalities, anemia, and genitourinary defects. Among the 40 protein-coding genes encompassed within the rearrangement, some have roles in leukocyte biology and immunodeficiency, like SPN and CORO1A. Read More

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The evaluation of muscle strength and architecture in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2022 Jun 7;22(1):153. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: The aim of this study is to compare muscle strength and architecture between type 1 diabetes patients and healthy volunteers and to assess whether there is an ultrasonographic structural change in this population.

Methods: Thirty-two patients with T1D (23 female, 9 male) with an age average of 31.3 ± 8. Read More

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Modifications of the locomotor system in habitually quadrupedal humans.

J Anat 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

UMR 7179 C.N.R.S/M.N.H.N. MECADEV, Département Adaptations du Vivant, Paris, France.

The acquisition of habitual bipedal locomotion, which resulted in numerous modifications of the skeleton was a crucial step in hominid evolution. However, our understanding of the inherited skeletal modifications versus those acquired while learning to walk remains limited. We here present data derived from X-rays and CT scans of quadrupedal adult humans and compare the morphology of the vertebral column, pelvis and femur to that of a bipedal brother. Read More

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Evaluation of Spheno-occipital Synchondrosis Fusion in Chinese Population Using CBCT: A Cross-sectional Study.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2022 Jan 1;23(1):8-13. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, School of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China, Phone: +8615609310015, e-mail:

Aim: This study sought to assess the fusion of spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) in Chinese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials And Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which data were randomly collected based on the pre-existing institutional records. Following selection criteria, the CBCT images of 500 patients aged 6-25 years (226 males and 274 females) were analyzed. Read More

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January 2022

Microphysiological system for studying contractile differences in young, active, and old, sedentary adult derived skeletal muscle cells.

Aging Cell 2022 Jun 2:e13650. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Microphysiological systems (MPS), also referred to as tissue chips, incorporating 3D skeletal myobundles are a novel approach for physiological and pharmacological studies to uncover new medical treatments for sarcopenia. We characterize a MPS in which engineered skeletal muscle myobundles derived from donor-specific satellite cells that model aged phenotypes are encapsulated in a perfused tissue chip platform containing platinum electrodes. Our myobundles were derived from CD56 myogenic cells obtained via percutaneous biopsy of the vastus lateralis from adults phenotyped by age and physical activity. Read More

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Potential Targets for Deprescribing in Medically Complex Older Adults with Suspected Cognitive Impairment.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2022 May 19;7(3). Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Medicine/Division of Geriatrics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Deprescribing may be particularly beneficial in patients with medical complexity and suspected cognitive impairment (CI). We describe central nervous system (CNS) medication use and side effects in this population and explore the relationship between anticholinergic burden and sleep. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a pilot randomized-controlled trial in older adult veterans with medical complexity (Care Assessment Need score > 90), and suspected CI (Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score 20-31). Read More

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A Rare Case Report of Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma with Pancreatic Metastasis.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 May 5;58(5). Epub 2022 May 5.

Division of Hematology/Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan.

: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare but aggressive subtype of sarcoma. The majority of involvement locates in the axial skeleton. Treatment modalities include radical surgery, local radiotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy. Read More

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Bone Health in Children with Rheumatic Disorders: Focus on Molecular Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Management.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 20;23(10). Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

Bone is an extremely dynamic and adaptive tissue, whose metabolism and homeostasis is influenced by many different hormonal, mechanical, nutritional, immunological and pharmacological stimuli. Genetic factors significantly affect bone health, through their influence on bone cells function, cartilage quality, calcium and vitamin D homeostasis, sex hormone metabolism and pubertal timing. In addition, optimal nutrition and physical activity contribute to bone mass acquisition in the growing age. Read More

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Rhythm disturbance in osteoarthritis.

Cell Commun Signal 2022 05 24;20(1):70. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 610041, Chengdu, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disabilities among older people. To date, multiple disease-related molecular networks in OA have been identified, including abnormal mechanical loadings and local inflammation. These pathways have not, however, properly elucidated the mechanism of OA progression. Read More

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Reliability of relaxation properties of knee-extensor muscles induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Neurosci Lett 2022 06 21;782:136694. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced relaxation rate reflects intrinsic muscle contractile properties by interrupting the drive from the central nervous system during voluntary muscle contractions. To determine the appropriateness of knee-extensor muscle relaxation measurements induced by TMS, this study aimed to establish both the within- and between-session reliability before and after a fatiguing exercise bout. Eighteen participants (9 females, 9 males, age 25 ± 2 years, height 171 ± 9 cm, body mass 68. Read More

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Osteogenic growth peptide is a potent anti-inflammatory and bone preserving hormone via cannabinoid receptor type 2.

Elife 2022 05 23;11. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Anatomy & Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

The endocannabinoid system consists mainly of 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide, as well as cannabinoid receptor type 1 and type 2 (CB2). Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that a circulating peptide previously identified as osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) maintains a bone-protective CB2 tone. We tested OGP activity in mouse models and cells, and in human osteoblasts. Read More

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Ambra1 deficiency impairs mitophagy in skeletal muscle.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Background: Maintaining healthy mitochondria is mandatory for muscle viability and function. An essential surveillance mechanism targeting defective and harmful mitochondria to degradation is the selective form of autophagy called mitophagy. Ambra1 is a multifaceted protein with well-known autophagic and mitophagic functions. Read More

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The Biomechanics Effect of Hamstring Flexibility on the Risk of Osgood-Schlatter Disease.

J Healthc Eng 2022 9;2022:3733218. Epub 2022 May 9.

Key Laboratory of Human Motion Analysis and Rehabilitation Technology of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China.

Background: The relationship between hamstring flexibility and the risk of OSD continues to be a debate, and whether hamstring stretching exercises should be considered as one of the conservative treatments of OSD is still unclear.

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and the risk of OSD by assessing the changes of loading on the tibial tuberosity caused by the changes of hamstring optimal lengths.

Methods: Experimental data of a young adult running at 4 m/s were used, which were collected by an eight-camera motion capture system together with an instrumented treadmill. Read More

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Dental, skeletal, and soft-tissue changes in adult orthodontic patients treated with premolar extraction and nonextraction: A cross-sectional study.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Section of Dentistry, Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Various treatment modalities exist to improve and correct Class I malocclusion. This study evaluated the dental, skeletal, and soft-tissue changes in patients treated by premolar extraction (PME) and nonextraction.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, including subjects ideally planned for PME. Read More

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Development of a maxillofacial virtual surgical system based on biomechanical parameters of facial soft tissue.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2022 Jul 15;17(7):1201-1211. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Oral and Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011, China.

Purpose: Lack of biomechanical force model of soft tissue hinders the development of virtual surgical simulation in maxillofacial surgery. In this study, a physical model of facial soft tissue based on real biomechanical parameters was constructed, and a haptics-enabled virtual surgical system was developed to simulate incision-making process on facial soft tissue and to help maxillofacial surgery training.

Methods: CT data of a 25-year-old female patient were imported into Mimics software to reconstruct 3D models of maxillofacial soft and skeletal tissues. Read More

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Clinical prediction models for diagnosis of COVID-19 among adult patients: a validation and agreement study.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 May 14;22(1):464. Epub 2022 May 14.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health, Aspects of Musculo-Skeletal Health and Ageing, Research Unit in Public Health, Epidemiology and Health, Economics, University of Liège, Quartier Hôpital, Av. Hippocrate 13, CHU B23, 4000, Liège, Belgium.

Background: Since the beginning of the pandemic, hospitals have been constantly overcrowded, with several observed waves of infected cases and hospitalisations. To avoid as much as possible this situation, efficient tools to facilitate the diagnosis of COVID-19 are needed.

Objective: To evaluate and compare prediction models to diagnose COVID-19 identified in a systematic review published recently using performance indicators such as discrimination and calibration measures. Read More

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Recombinant Limb Assay as Organoid Model.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 26;10:863140. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxicología Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México, México.

Organ formation initiates once cells become committed to one of the three embryonic germ layers. In the early stages of embryogenesis, different gene transcription networks regulate cell fate after each germ layer is established, thereby directing the formation of complex tissues and functional organs. These events can be modeled by creating organoids from induced pluripotent, embryonic, or adult stem cells to study organ formation. Read More

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Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates are increased in chronically exercised skeletal muscle despite decreased anabolic signaling.

Sci Rep 2022 05 9;12(1):7553. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Physiology and Membrane Biology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

The molecular responses to acute resistance exercise are well characterized. However, how cellular signals change over time to modulate chronic adaptations to more prolonged exercise training is less well understood. We investigated anabolic signaling and muscle protein synthesis rates at several time points after acute and chronic eccentric loading. Read More

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A Novel Dipotassium Hydrogen Phosphate Phantom for Calibrating Computed Tomographic Bone Density Measurements in Birds.

J Avian Med Surg 2022 May;36(1):28-38

Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fish, Justus Liebig University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany,

The objective of this study was to construct a calibration phantom for bone mineral density (BMD) measurements adapted to avian anatomy by quantitative computed tomography. The determination of BMD is important to assess avian osteoporosis in poultry at production facilities and to study biological features in association with flight patterns in birds. Quantitative computed tomography measured in Hounsfield units is a well-established technique for BMD measurements. Read More

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Knee Muscles Strength Can be Improved by Using an Elastic Band as an Assistive Device for Knee-Ankle Complex.

Med Sci Monit 2022 May 8;28:e936481. Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Physical Therapy, Kyungnam University, Changwon, South Korea.

BACKGROUND There are various tools and methods used for strength exercise. Elastic bands, one of the resistance exercise tools, have been used for various purposes, including muscle strengthening; however, there is very little evidence supporting their efficacy. The study was performed to investigate the effect of knee-ankle elastic bands on knee muscle strength-related parameters according to sex in healthy adults. Read More

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Mapping the PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) patient and caregiver journey using a patient-centered approach.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 05 7;17(1):189. Epub 2022 May 7.

Interventional Radiology, Nemours Children's Hospital, Orlando, FL, USA.

Background: PROS disorders are driven by somatic, gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CA that result in hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. PROS encompasses a broad spectrum of overlapping phenotypes (including overgrowth and vascular malformations) that vary significantly in their severity; every case is unique, leading to different, complex experiences. Here, we aim to describe the PROS experience from the patients' and caregivers' points of view, from onset to diagnosis to treatment and support. Read More

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Immune system and sarcopenia: Presented relationship and future perspective.

Exp Gerontol 2022 07 30;164:111823. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Orthopedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Sarcopenia, a geriatric syndrome that is characterized by a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder, can be associated with many comorbidities, including obesity, diabetes, and fracture. Currently, the importance and urgency of sarcopenia have gained more consensus. Discovering the mechanisms of sarcopenia has been more and more important. Read More

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Preexisting Trichinella spiralis infection attenuates the severity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced pneumonia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 2;16(5):e0010395. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Parasitology, Medical College of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: A range of helminth species involve the migration of developing larvae through the lung and establish chronic infections in the host that include potent immune regulatory effects. Trichinella spiralis is one of the most successful parasitic symbiotes. After released by intestinal female adult worms, newborn larvae of T. Read More

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Molecular Regulators of Muscle Mass and Mitochondrial Remodeling Are Not Influenced by Testosterone Administration in Young Women.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 14;13:874748. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics, Åstrand Laboratory, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.

Testosterone (T) administration has previously been shown to improve muscle size and oxidative capacity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations in human skeletal muscle remain to be determined. Here, we examined the effect of moderate-dose T administration on molecular regulators of muscle protein turnover and mitochondrial remodeling in muscle samples collected from young women. Read More

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Association between alveolar bone height changes in mandibular incisors and three-dimensional tooth movement in non-extraction orthodontic treatment with Invisalign.

Orthod Craniofac Res 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Orthodontics, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between alveolar bone height changes on the labial and lingual sides in mandibular incisors and three-dimensional orthodontic tooth movement, involving apex displacement, tooth inclination, and angulation.

Materials And Methods: The samples consisted of 43 adult patients treated with Invisalign aligners. All subjects were skeletal Class I patients without extraction in mandible. Read More

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