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    An alternative splice variant of human αA-crystallin modulates the oligomer ensemble and the chaperone activity of α-crystallins.
    Cell Stress Chaperones 2017 Feb 18. Epub 2017 Feb 18.
    Department Chemie, Center for Integrated Protein Science, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85748, Garching, Germany.
    In humans, ten genes encode small heat shock proteins with lens αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin representing two of the most prominent members. The canonical isoforms of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin collaborate in the eye lens to prevent irreversible protein aggregation and preserve visual acuity. α-Crystallins form large polydisperse homo-oligomers and hetero-oligomers and as part of the proteostasis system bind substrate proteins in non-native conformations, thereby stabilizing them. Read More

    [Physiotherapeutic proceeding in symptomatic calcaneal spur treatment].
    Wiad Lek 2016 ;69(6):758-764
    Klinika Rehabilitacji i Medycyny Fizykalnej, Katedra Nefrologii i Nadciśnienia Tętniczego, Uniwersytet Medyczny, Łódź, Polska.
    Calcaneal spur is one of the most common disorders associated with foot pain. According to appearance of pain in each step during the day, it is important to find the most effective method of treatment. This article is a review of medical reports about non-operative treatment method. Read More

    Intestine oxidative stress and immune response to sulfide stress in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, PR China. Electronic address:
    The effects of sulfide stress on oxidative stress and immune response in intestine of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated in the present study. Oxidative stress parameters, immune enzymes activity and immune gene mRNA expression level were detected in intestine of L. vannamei after the exposure of 5. Read More

    Systemic thrombolysis increases hemorrhagic stroke risk without survival benefit compared with catheter-directed intervention for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism.
    J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2017 Mar 16;5(2):171-176.e1. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.
    Background: Systemic thrombolysis (ST) and catheter-directed intervention (CDI) are both used in the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but the comparative outcomes of these two therapies remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare short-term mortality and safety outcomes between the two treatments using a large national database.

    Methods: Patients presenting with acute PE were identified in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009 to 2012. Read More

    Comparative analysis of the transcriptional responses to low and high temperature in three rice planthopper species.
    Mol Ecol 2017 Feb 18. Epub 2017 Feb 18.
    State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology, Institute of Insect Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.
    The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera, WBPH), and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) are important rice pests in Asia. These three species differ in thermal tolerance and exhibit quite different migration and overwintering strategies. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we sequenced and compared the transcriptome of the three species under different temperature treatments. Read More

    Japanese guidelines for occupational allergic diseases 2017.
    Allergol Int 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Dermatology, Saiseikai Kawaguchi General Hospital, Saitama, Japan.
    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. Read More

    Opportunities for repurposing of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors for the therapy of non-oncological diseases.
    Br J Pharmacol 2017 Feb 18. Epub 2017 Feb 18.
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
    The recent clinical availability of the PARP inhibitor Lynparza (olaparib) opens the door for potential therapeutic repurposing for non-oncological indications. Considering (a) the preclinical efficacy data with PARP inhibitors in non-oncological diseases and (b) the risk-benefit ratio of treating patients with a compound that inhibits an enzyme that has physiological roles in the regulation of DNA repair, indications where (a) the severity of the disease is high, (b) the available therapeutic options are limited, and (c) the duration of PARP inhibitor administration could be short, provide first-line options for therapeutic repurposing. These indications are as follows: acute ischemic stroke; traumatic brain injury; septic shock; acute pancreatitis and severe acute lung injury. Read More

    Associations among left ventricular systolic function, tachycardia, and cardiac preload in septic patients.
    Ann Intensive Care 2017 Dec 17;7(1):17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Critical Care Echocardiography Service, Intermountain Medical Center, 5121 S Cottonwood St, Murray, UT, 84157, USA.
    Background: In sepsis, tachycardia may indicate low preload, adrenergic stimulation, or both. Adrenergic overstimulation is associated with septic cardiomyopathy. We sought to determine whether tachycardia was associated with left ventricular longitudinal strain, a measure of cardiac dysfunction. Read More

    Interventional Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism.
    Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2017 Feb;10(2)
    From the Cardiology Division (D.M.D., K.R.) and Vascular Medicine (K.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; and Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (J.G.).
    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious and prevalent cause of vascular disease. Nevertheless, optimal treatment for many phenotypes of PE remains uncertain. Treating PE requires appropriate risk stratification as a first step. Read More

    HMBA is a putative HSP70 activator stimulating HEXIM1 expression that is down-regulated by estrogen.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Chemistry, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, College of Sciences and Health Professions, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH, 44115, USA. Electronic address:
    Hexamethylene bis-acetamide inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) is identified as a novel inhibitor of estrogen stimulated breast cell growth, and it suppresses estrogen receptor-α transcriptional activity. HEXIM1 protein level has been found to be downregulated by estrogens. Recently, HEXIM1 has been found to inhibit androgen receptor transcriptional activity as well. Read More

    Inactivation of Salmonella spp., pathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., or Listeria monocytogenes in chicken purge or skin using a 405-nm LED array.
    Food Microbiol 2017 Jun 22;64:135-138. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA.
    Raw poultry are sometimes contaminated with foodborne pathogens, which can lead to illness in humans. In recent years research has focused on a variety of light technologies to decontaminate food and food contact surfaces during meat and poultry processing. In this study we evaluated the ability of 405-nm light generated from an LED array to inactivate multi-isolate cocktails of either Salmonella spp. Read More

    Clinical manifestations of severe enterovirus 71 infection and early assessment in a Southern China population.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Feb 17;17(1):153. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Dongguan Taiping People's Hospital, Dongguan, 523905, China.
    Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) shows a potential of rapid death, but the natural history of the infection is poorly known. This study aimed to examine the natural history of EV-A71 infection.

    Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal observational study performed between January 1(st) and October 31(st), 2012, at three hospitals in Guangdong, China. Read More

    Transcriptomic profiling provides molecular insights into hydrogen peroxide-induced adventitious rooting in mung bean seedlings.
    BMC Genomics 2017 Feb 17;18(1):188. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Key Laboratory of Extreme Environmental Microbial Resources and Engineering, Gansu Province, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, 88 West Anning Road, Lanzhou, 730070, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been known to function as a signalling molecule involved in the modulation of various physiological processes in plants. H2O2 has been shown to act as a promoter during adventitious root formation in hypocotyl cuttings. In this study, RNA-Seq was performed to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying H2O2-induced adventitious rooting. Read More

    Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Enhances Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression through PERK/ATF4 Signaling Pathway.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Feb 16;18(2). Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Knuppe Molecular Urology Laboratory, Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (Li-ESWT) is used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, but its mechanisms are not well understood. Previously, we found that Li-ESWT increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here we assessed the underlying signaling pathways in Schwann cells in vitro and in penis tissue in vivo after nerve injury. Read More

    Expression profiling of TRIM protein family in THP1-derived macrophages following TLR stimulation.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 17;7:42781. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330031, China.
    Activated macrophages play an important role in many inflammatory diseases including septic shock and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms limiting macrophage activation are not completely understood. Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family have recently emerged as important players in innate immunity and antivirus. Read More

    Differences in the Clinical Characteristics of Early- and Late-Onset Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Full-Term Infants: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 17;7:43042. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Neonatal Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders; China International Science and Technology Cooperation base of Child Development and Critical Disorders; Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing. Chongqing, 400014, P.R. China.
    Information regarding the influence of age at onset on prognosis in full-term infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited, and identifying differences between the clinical characteristics of early-onset NEC (EO-NEC) and late-onset NEC (LO-NEC) may be helpful in the determination of effective management strategies. In the present study, the medical records of 253 full-term infants with NEC were reviewed, and the clinical characteristics of the EO-NEC group (n = 150) and the LO-NEC group (n = 103) were compared. Infants in the EO-NEC group were characterized by increased gestational age and higher rates of stage III NEC and peritonitis when compared with LO-NEC infants (P  < 0. Read More

    Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2017 ;27(1):1-18
    Unidade de Alergia e Imunologia do Instituto da Criança, HC Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-, cell-mediated food allergy of unknown prevalence and pathophysiology. Onset is typically during the first year of life; seafood-induced FPIES may start in adulthood. Acute FPIES manifests within 1-4 hours after ingestion with repetitive emesis, pallor, and lethargy progressing to dehydration and hypovolemic shock in 15% of cases. Read More

    Double-carbapenem combination as salvage therapy for untreatable infections by KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    6th Department of Internal Medicine, Hygeia General Hospital, 4, Erythrou Stavrou Str & Kifisias, Marousi, Athens, Greece, PO:15123.
    We report our experience using the double-carbapenem combination as salvage therapy for patients with untreatable infections caused by KPC-2- producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. A total of 27 patients in two institutions in Athens, Greece suffering from complicated urinary tract infections (16) with or without secondary bacteraemia (four and 12 respectively), primary (six) or catheter-related bloodstream infections (two), HAP or VAP (two) and external ventricular drainage infection (one) were treated exclusively with ertapenem and high-dose prolonged infusion meropenem because in-vitro active antimicrobials were unavailable (19) or failed (four) or were contraindicated (six). Most patients presented with severe infections with median APACHE II score of 17 and 11 of those patients (40. Read More

    Novel AIDS therapies based on gene editing.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Neuroscience, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, 3500 N. Broad Street, 7th Floor, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.
    HIV/AIDS remains a major public health issue. In 2014, it was estimated that 36.9 million people are living with HIV worldwide, including 2. Read More

    Infant acute myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction.
    Autops Case Rep 2016 Oct-Dec;6(4):15-19. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Department of Legal Medicine - Farhat Hached University Hospital, Sousse - Tunisia .
    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and progression. In clinical practice, although there are many methods of diagnosis of acute myocarditis, the diagnosis remains an embarrassing dilemma for clinicians. The authors report the case of 9-month-old infant who was brought to the Pediatric Emergency Department with sudden onset dyspnea. Read More

    Serum Lactate Predicts Adverse Outcomes in Emergency Department Patients With and Without Infection.
    West J Emerg Med 2017 Feb 7;18(2):258-266. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Introduction: Lactate levels are increasingly used to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with and without infection. Whether a serum lactate provides similar prognostic value across diseases is not fully elucidated. This study assesses the prognostic value of serum lactate in ED patients with and without infection to both report and compare relative predictive value across etiologies. Read More

    HSP90 as a novel molecular target in non-small-cell lung cancer.
    Lung Cancer (Auckl) 2016 1;7:11-17. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Segal Cancer Center, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Lung cancer remains the most lethal cancer, with over 160,000 annual deaths in the USA alone. Over the past decade, the discovery of driver mutations has changed the landscape for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Targeted therapies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have now been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as part of the standard first-line treatment of NSCLC. Read More

    A histomorphometric study of necrotic femoral head in rabbits treated with extracorporeal shock waves.
    J Phys Ther Sci 2017 Jan 30;29(1):24-28. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, China.
    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effectiveness and mechanisms of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis. [Subjects and Methods] Histomorphometric analysis of necrotic femoral head in rabbits treated with shock waves was performed. Bilateral osteonecrosis of femoral heads was induced with methylprednisolone and lipopolysaccharide in eight rabbits. Read More

    Expression pattern of heat shock protein 90 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma in northern Taiwan.
    Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; School of Dentistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), which is expressed in cancer cells, profoundly affects progression, invasion, and metastasis. However, to our knowledge, in East Asia, the correlation between the expression of HSP90 and clinicopathological variables has seldom been discussed. We therefore investigated this and its prognostic value in 36 patients newly diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in northern Taiwan. Read More

    ISWI ATP-dependent remodeling of nucleoplasmic ω-speckles in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster.
    J Genet Genomics 2016 Dec 22. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    STEBICEF Department, University of Palermo, Palermo 90128, Italy. Electronic address:
    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) belong to the RNA-binding proteins family. They are involved in processing heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs) into mature mRNAs. These proteins participate in every step of mRNA cycle, such as mRNA export, localization, translation, stability and alternative splicing. Read More

    A simple method of extracting Cap antigen of PCV2b from emulsified vaccines for testing its stability and antigenicity.
    Biologicals 2017 Feb 10. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Norman Bethune Health Science Center, Jilin University, Changchun, 130021 Jilin, China. Electronic address:
    Oil-based emulsions are commonly used adjuvants for veterinary vaccines. After formulation, it is required to extract protein antigens from emulsified vaccines for testing their stability and antigenicity. To establish a simple method to extract the protein antigens, two emulsified vaccines, designated as Cap-206 and Cap-35, were prepared by formulating a 28-kDa capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2b with ISA 206, a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion, or ISA 35, an oil-in-water emulsion. Read More

    Assessment of Volume Status and Appropriate Fluid Replenishment in the Setting of Nephrotic Syndrome.
    J Emerg Med 2017 Feb 10. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Pediatric Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy.
    Background: When the permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier increases, leading to proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome (NS) occurs. First episodes or relapses of NS can be concurrent with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) infections. This condition can cause further deterioration of the hypovolemic state, as intravascular water is lost through both AGE-related vomiting/diarrhea and NS-related fluid shifting into the interstitium. Read More

    Study of Variation in Intraocular Pressure Spike (IOP) Following Nd- YAG Laser Capsulotomy.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Dec 1;10(12):NC09-NC12. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Post Graduate, Department of Ophthalmology, Sri Siddhartha Medical College and Hospital , Tumakuru, Karnataka, India .
    Introduction: Posterior Capsular Opacifications (PCO) is a frequent complication of cataract surgery following posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Nd -Yag laser capsulotomy is the treatment of choice for PCO and is known to be associated with complications like Raised Intraocular Pressure (IOP), Intraocular lens pitting, intraocular lens cracks, cystoid macular oedema, retinal detachment, corneal burns. Raised IOP is the most common complication and prescribing anti-glaucoma drugs post capsulotomy is a common practise. Read More

    In Vivo Imaging of Local Gene Expression Induced by Magnetic Hyperthermia.
    Genes (Basel) 2017 Feb 8;8(2). Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Molecular Imaging and Innovative Therapies in Oncology, IMOTION, EA 7435, University of Bordeaux, 146 rue Léo Saignat, case 127, Bordeaux cedex 33076, France.
    The present work aims to demonstrate that colloidal dispersions of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dextran macromolecules placed in an alternating magnetic field can not only produce heat, but also that these particles could be used in vivo for local and noninvasive deposition of a thermal dose sufficient to trigger thermo-induced gene expression. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first characterized in vitro on a bio-inspired setup, and then they were assayed in vivo using a transgenic mouse strain expressing the luciferase reporter gene under transcriptional control of a thermosensitive promoter. Iron oxide nanoparticles dispersions were applied topically on the mouse skin or injected subcutaneously with Matrigel™ to generate so-called pseudotumors. Read More

    Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a flat interface subjected to a rippled shock wave.
    Phys Rev E 2017 Jan 11;95(1-1):013107. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.
    The Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability of a nominally flat interface (N_{2}/SF_{6}) subjected to a rippled shock, as the counterpart of a corrugated interface interacting with a planar shock, is studied experimentally in a vertical shock tube using both schlieren photography and fog visualization diagnostics. The nonplanar incident shock wave is produced by a planar shock diffracting around a rigid cylinder, and the flat interface is created by a membraneless technique. Three different distances η (the ratio of spacing from cylinder to interface over cylinder diameter) are considered. Read More

    Systemic Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Who Is a Candidate?
    Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Feb 16;38(1):56-65. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.
    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major cause of both acute and long-term morbidity for a large number of patients worldwide, and massive PE is frequently fatal. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a key determinant of prognosis in the acute phase of PE. Patients with clinically overt RV failure, that is, with cardiogenic shock or persistent hypotension at presentation (acute high-risk PE), are clearly in need of immediate reperfusion treatment with systemic thrombolysis or, alternatively, surgical or catheter-directed techniques. Read More

    Risk Stratification for Proven Acute Pulmonary Embolism: What Information Is Needed?
    Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Feb 16;38(1):11-17. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Respiratory Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, IRYCIS, Alcala de Henares University, Madrid, Spain.
    Classification of risk drives treatment decisions for patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). High-risk patients with acute symptomatic PE have hemodynamic instability (i.e. Read More

    Designer protein disaggregases to counter neurodegenerative disease.
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 2017 Feb 13;44:1-8. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States of America. Electronic address:
    Protein misfolding and aggregation unify several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. There are no effective therapeutics for these disorders and none that target the reversal of the aberrant protein misfolding and aggregation that cause disease. Here, I showcase important advances to define, engineer, and apply protein disaggregases to mitigate deleterious protein misfolding and counter neurodegeneration. Read More

    A novel flow cytometric application discriminates among the effects of chemical inhibitors on various phases of Babesia divergens intraerythrocytic cycle.
    Cytometry A 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Blood Borne Parasites, New York Blood Center, New York, New York.
    Human babesiosis is a global emerging infectious disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia. Its biology has remained largely unexplored due to a lack of critical tools and techniques required to define the various stages and phases of the parasite's cycle in its host RBC and the interplay between host and parasite. This article presents a powerful set of tools combining stage synchronization of the parasite with a platform that encompasses both a flow cytometric evaluation of the subpopulation structure of the parasite population together with a morphological assessment of the population parasites using light microscopy of conventional Giemsa stained smears. Read More

    Mass spectrometry for the discovery of biomarkers of sepsis.
    Mol Biosyst 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.
    Sepsis is a serious medical condition that occurs in 30% of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Early detection of sepsis is key to prevent its progression to severe sepsis and septic shock, which can cause organ failure and death. Diagnostic criteria for sepsis are nonspecific and hinder a timely diagnosis in patients. Read More

    Organ dysfunction during continuous veno-venous high cut-off hemodialysis in patients with septic acute kidney injury: A prospective observational study.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(2):e0172039. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Health Science, Section of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
    Background: Continuous veno-venous hemodialysis with high cut-off membranes (HCO-CVVHD) removes inflammatory mediators involved in organ dysfunction during sepsis. The aim of the present study was to assess the variations in SOFA score and identify early predictors of short-term mortality in a cohort of patients with septic shock, treated with HCO-CVVHD for acute kidney injury (AKI).

    Methods: An observational prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in four mixed medical-surgical ICUs. Read More

    Network structure impacts global commodity trade growth and resilience.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(2):e0171184. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Advanced Systems Analysis Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Global commodity trade networks are critical to our collective sustainable development. Their increasing interconnectedness pose two practical questions: (i) Do the current network configurations support their further growth? (ii) How resilient are these networks to economic shocks? We analyze the data of global commodity trade flows from 1996 to 2012 to evaluate the relationship between structural properties of the global commodity trade networks and (a) their dynamic growth, as well as (b) the resilience of their growth with respect to the 2009 global economic shock. Specifically, we explore the role of network efficiency and redundancy using the information theory-based network flow analysis. Read More

    Earlier Endpoints are Required for Hemorrhagic Shock Trials Among Severely Injured Patients.
    Shock 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    *Center for Translational Injury Research, Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX †Division of Trauma and Critical Care, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA ‡Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX.
    Background: Choosing the appropriate endpoint for a trauma hemorrhage control trial can determine the likelihood of its success. Recent Phase 3 trials and observational studies have used 24-h and/or 30-day all-cause mortality as the primary endpoint and some have not used exception from informed consent (EFIC), resulting in multiple failed trials. Five recent high-quality prospective studies among 4,064 hemorrhaging trauma patients provide new evidence to support earlier primary endpoints. Read More

    The new sepsis definition: limitations and contribution to research and diagnosis of sepsis.
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    aDepartment of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, SMUR and Burn Unit, GH Saint-Louis-Lariboisière-Fernand Widal University Hospitals, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris bInfection and Epidemiology Department, Human Histopathology and Animal Models Unit, Institut Pasteur cUniversity Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité dU 942 INSERM, Paris, France.
    Purpose Of Review: Based on recent clinical, epidemiological, and pathophysiological data, a third international consensus conference was carried out to define new criteria of sepsis in February 2016. This review presents the different items of this new definition, their limitations and their contribution to research and diagnosis of sepsis, in comparison with the previous definitions.

    Recent Findings: Incidence, management, and pathophysiological knowledge of sepsis have improved over the past 20 years. Read More

    'Zero Preventable Deaths and Minimizing Disability' - The challenge set forth by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
    J Orthop Trauma 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    1United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, San Antonio, TX, Centre for Blast InjuryStudies Imperial College, South Kensington Campus, London, England , +447724275227, 2San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, TX, 210-916-7846, 3University of Maryland, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 4Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 5US Army Office of the Surgeon General, Falls Church, VA 22042, 830-832-1047, 6US Medical Liaison to the British Army, US Army Surgeon General Consultant for Operational Medicine, HQ Fd Army, Rm 202, Robertson House, RMA Sandhurst, GU15 4NP, Mobile: UK +44 (0)7850 718647 7Professor, University of Minnesota, Chief, Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Hennepin County Medical Center, 701 Park Ave S., Minneapolis, MN 55415, 612 873-8595 phone.

    Thiamine as a Renal Protective Agent in Septic Shock: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
    Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Emergency Medicine , One Deaconess Road , West Clinical Center 2 , Boston, Massachusetts, United States , 02215 ;
    Rationale: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with sepsis and has been associated with high mortality rates. The provision of thiamine to septic patients may reduce the incidence and severity of sepsis-related AKI and thereby prevent renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT).

    Objectives: To test the hypothesis that thiamine supplementation mitigates kidney injury in septic shock. Read More

    Inhibition of autophagy blocks cathepsins-tBid-mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway via stabilization of lysosomal membrane in ischemic astrocytes.
    Cell Death Dis 2017 Feb 16;8(2):e2618. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Translational Research and Therapy for Neuro-Psycho-Diseases, College of Pharmaceutical Science; Department of Pharmacology and Laboratory of Cerebrovascular Pharmacology; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
    Our previous study and others have demonstrated that autophagy is activated in ischemic astrocytes and contributes to astrocytic cell death. However, the mechanisms of ischemia-induced autophagy remain largely unknown. In this study, we established a rat's model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. Read More

    Commentary.
    Ann Pharmacother 2017 Feb 1:1060028017694376. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    1 UC Health - University of Cincinnati Medical Center Department of Pharmacy Services, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Obesity presents a growing challenge in critically ill patients because of variable medication pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Vasopressors used in the treatment of septic shock, including norepinephrine, are dosed using weight-based (WB) or non-weight-based (NWB) strategies. Retrospective research has evaluated the effect of total body weight and body mass index on vasopressor requirements, consequently finding that obese patients require less total vasopressor per kilogram to obtain clinical end points such as mean arterial pressure. Read More

    Non-fermentative Gram-negative rods bacteremia in children with cancer: a 14-year single-center experience.
    Infection 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Purpose: Data on non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NFGNR) bacteremia in children with malignancies are limited. The aim of this study was to present clinical picture, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, risk factors for resistance and outcome in NFGNR bacteremia in children with cancer.

    Methods: All episodes of NFGNR bacteremia occurring during 2001-2014 in children with cancer in a tertiary-care hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

    Heat shock protein 70 protects cardiomyocytes through suppressing SUMOylation and nucleus translocation of phosphorylated eukaryotic elongation factor 2 during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.
    Apoptosis 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Coinnovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.
    Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MIR) results in cardiomyocyte apoptosis with severe outcomes, which blocks cardiac tissue recovering from myocardial ischemia diseases. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is one of protective molecule chaperones which could regulate the nucleus translocation of other proteins. In addition, eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which modulates protein translation process, is vital to the recovery of heart during MIR. Read More

    Impact of preoperative steroid or immunosuppressant use on short-term outcomes following colectomy in Crohn's disease patients.
    Tech Coloproctol 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
    Background: Evaluating the impact of steroid or immunosuppressants (SI) therapy prior to colectomy in Crohn's disease (CD) patients on postoperative septic and colectomy-specific outcomes using the American College of Surgeons (ACS)-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP)-targeted colectomy database.

    Methods: All CD patients undergoing colectomy were retrieved from the 2012-2013 NSQIP-targeted database. Thirty-day postoperative outcomes were compared for patients who were on steroids or immunosuppressants (SI) within the 30 days prior to colectomy to the others using univariable and multivariable analyses. Read More

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