8,719 results match your criteria Shigellosis


Daily Temperature and Bacillary Dysentery: Estimated Effects, Attributable Risks, and Future Disease Burden in 316 Chinese Cities.

Environ Health Perspect 2020 May 26;128(5):57008. Epub 2020 May 26.

School of Public Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a significant public health issue, especially in developing countries. Evidence assessing the risk of BD from temperature is limited, particularly from national studies including multiple locations with different climatic characteristics.

Objectives: We estimated the effect of temperature on BD across China, assessed heterogeneity and attributable risks across cities and regions, and projected the future risk of BD under climate change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP5779DOI Listing

High rate of resistance to ceftriaxone and azithromycin among Shigella spp. isolates at three children's referral hospitals in Northeast Iran.

J Infect Chemother 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Acute dysentery is a prevalent case of hospital admission in developing countries, whose most common cause is believed to be Shigella species. Treatment failure employing oral or intravenous antibiotics is an increasing problem among children with dysentery. This is a prospective descriptive study that aims to find the antibiotic resistance pattern of Shigella spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2020.04.022DOI Listing

-12 Exopolysaccharides Have Anti-Biofilm Activity Against .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, P. R. China.

In the developing countries, is the most common enteric pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. And the biofilm formation of can cause the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains and serious threat to food safety and human health. In this study, the effects of -12 exopolysaccharides (L-EPS) and exopolysaccharides (S-EPS) on the CMCC51574 biofilm formation were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00694-20DOI Listing

Pathogen-specific risk of seizure in children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea: Case control study with follow-up.

Trop Med Int Health 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Nutrition & Clinical Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: To determine the pathogen specific risk of seizure in under-five children hospitalized with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in rural settings.

Method: This was a prospective case-control study with follow-up, conducted in a sentinel facility of Global Enteric Multicenter Study in Mirzapur, a rural community of Bangladesh between 2007 and 2010. Children aged 0-59 months who presented with MSD and seizure, constituted the cases whereas those who did not have seizure comprised the controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13445DOI Listing
May 2020
2.329 Impact Factor

Evidence of Failure of Oral Third-Generation Cephalosporin Treatment for Infection.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Apr 18;7(4):ofaa113. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

In 2017, state health departments notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 4 patients with shigellosis who experienced persistent illness after treatment with oral third-generation cephalosporins. Given increasing antibiotic resistance among , these cases highlight the need to evaluate the efficacy of oral cephalosporins for shigellosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175969PMC

Burden of laboratory-confirmed shigellosis infections in Guatemala 2007-2012: results from a population-based surveillance system.

BMC Public Health 2019 May 10;19(Suppl 3):474. Epub 2019 May 10.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: We describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of culture-confirmed Shigella infections in facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala. Current studies using quantitative molecular diagnostics suggest Shigella may contribute most to the global diarrheal disease burden. Since identification of Shigella requires culturing techniques using stool specimens and few laboratories in Guatemala routinely culture for this pathogen, little is known about the true burden of Shigella in Guatemala or, importantly, the antimicrobial resistance patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6780-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696707PMC

Relative transmissibility of shigellosis among male and female individuals: a modeling study in Hubei Province, China.

Infect Dis Poverty 2020 Apr 17;9(1):39. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, 4221-117 South Xiang'an Road, Xiang'an District, Xiamen, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Developing countries exhibit a high disease burden from shigellosis. Owing to the different incidences in males and females, this study aims to analyze the features involved in the transmission of shigellosis among male (subscript m) and female (subscript f) individuals using a newly developed sex-based model.

Methods: The data of reported shigellosis cases were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention in Hubei Province from 2005 to 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00654-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162736PMC

Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis-Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016.

Am J Public Health 2020 Jun 16;110(6):842-849. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

R. Paul McClung and Caroline Castillo are with the Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA. Mateusz Karwowski, Sarah Collier, Eija Trees, Elizabeth Adam, Hannah Reses, Jennifer Cope, Katie Fullerton, Vincent Hill, and Jonathan Yoder are with the Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta. Jevon McFadden, Jim Collins, and Ashley Miller are with the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, Lansing. Marty Soehnlen and Stephen Dietrich are with the Bureau of Laboratories, Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, Lansing. Grete Wilt is with the Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Geospatial Research, Analysis, and Services Program (GRASP), CDC, Atlanta. Christina Harrington is with the Saginaw County Health Department, Saginaw, MI.

To investigate a shigellosis outbreak in Genesee County, Michigan (including the City of Flint), and Saginaw County, Michigan, in 2016 and address community concerns about the role of the Flint water system. We met frequently with community members to understand concerns and develop the investigation. We surveyed households affected by the outbreak, analyzed isolate data, examined the geospatial distribution of cases, and reviewed available water quality data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204462PMC
June 2020
4.552 Impact Factor

Transcytosis subversion by M cell-to-enterocyte spread promotes Shigella flexneri and Listeria monocytogenes  intracellular bacterial dissemination.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Apr 13;16(4):e1008446. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Institut Pasteur, Dynamics of Host-Pathogen Interactions Unit, Paris, France, and Centre National de le la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR3691, Paris, France.

Microfold (M) cell host-pathogen interaction studies would benefit from the visual analysis of dynamic cellular and microbial interplays. We adapted a human in vitro M cell model to physiological bacterial infections, expression of fluorescent localization reporters and long-term three-dimensional time-lapse microscopy. This approach allows following key steps of M cell infection dynamics at subcellular resolution, from the apical onset to basolateral epithelial dissemination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179946PMC

Socioeconomic factors and bacillary dysentery risk in Jiangsu Province, China: a spatial investigation using Bayesian hierarchical models.

Int J Environ Health Res 2020 Apr 8:1-12. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Geography and the Environment, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Bacillary dysentery (BD) is an acute diarrheal disease prevalent in areas affected by socioeconomic disparities. We investigated BD risk and its associations with socioeconomic factors at the county-level in Jiangsu province, China using epidemiological and socioeconomic data from 2011-2014. We fitted four Bayesian hierarchical models with various prior specifications for random effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2020.1746745DOI Listing

Epidemiological characteristics and transmissibility of shigellosis in Hubei Province, China, 2005 - 2017.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Apr 7;20(1):272. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, 4221-117 South Xiang'an Road, Xiang'an District, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Shigellosis is one of the main diarrhea diseases in developing countries. However, the transmissibility of shigellosis remains unclear.

Methods: We used the dataset of shigellosis cases reported between January 2005 and December 2017, from Hubei Province, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-04976-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136996PMC
April 2020
2.613 Impact Factor

Development of Silica-Immobilized Vaccines for Improving Thermo-Tolerance and Shelf-Life.

Kans J Med 2020 26;13(Suppl 2):6-9. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

Introduction: It is estimated that 50% of vaccines produced annually are wasted because effectivity is dependent on protein structure and heat exposure disrupts the intermolecular interactions that maintain this structure. Since 90% of vaccines require a temperature-controlled supply chain, it is necessary to create a cold chain system to minimize vaccine waste. We have developed a more sustainable technology via the adsorption of Invasion Plasmid Antigen D (IpaD) onto mesoporous silica gels, improving the thermal stability of protein-based therapeutics. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7107000PMC
February 2020

Complete genome sequence and annotation of the laboratory reference strain Shigella flexneri serotype 5a M90T and genome-wide transcriptional start site determination.

BMC Genomics 2020 Apr 6;21(1):285. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Shigella is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that causes bacillary dysentery in humans. Shigella invades cells of the colonic mucosa owing to its virulence plasmid-encoded Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS), and multiplies in the target cell cytosol. Although the laboratory reference strain S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6565-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132871PMC

Evidence for re-infection and persistent carriage of Shigella species in adult males reporting domestically acquired infection in England.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Apr 2. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: We analysed national surveillance typing data of Shigella isolated from adult males with domestically acquired infection (a cohort largely consisting of men who have sex with men (MSM)) to establish whether multiple isolates from the same individual over time represented persistent carriage or re-infection.

Methods: We carried out a retrospective cohort study of adult males diagnosed with Shigella from 2004 to 2018. Median time intervals between multiple isolations of Shigella flexneri and S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.03.036DOI Listing

History and Epidemiology of Bacillary Dysentery in Korea: from Korean War to 2017.

Authors:
Hyunjoo Pai

Infect Chemother 2020 Mar;52(1):123-131

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

Dysentery has been a major illness for a long time in our country. During Korean war, bacillary dysentery was common illness as well as other infectious diseases such as typhus fever, and occupied more than 90% of the cases reported by UN forces. After the war, the Korean National Institute of Health began to monitor the disease as a legal communicable disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2020.52.1.123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113447PMC

Clinical outcomes of drug-resistant shigellosis treated with azithromycin in Bangladesh.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Apr 2. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Azithromycin is frequently used to treat shigellosis however clinical outcomes are uncertain.

Methods: We performed an observational cohort study in Bangladesh of patients with invasive diarrhea treated empirically with azithromycin. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution and disk diffusion post hoc on all Shigella isolates and clinical response was correlated with in vitro susceptibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa363DOI Listing

The forgotten tale of Brazilian phage therapy.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 May 23;20(5):e90-e101. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Nanoscience Centre, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland.

The use of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections (known as phage therapy) is considered a possible solution to the antimicrobial resistance crisis. However, phage therapy is not a new concept. The discovery of phages in the early 20th century was closely tied to clinical practice, and phage therapy quickly spread around the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30060-8DOI Listing

Functional Annotation and Curation of Hypothetical Proteins Present in A Newly Emerged Serotype 1c of : Emphasis on Selecting Targets for Virulence and Vaccine Design Studies.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Mar 23;11(3). Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Division of Biomedical Science and Biochemistry, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

is the principal cause of bacillary dysentery, contributing significantly to the global burden of diarrheal disease. The appearance and increase in the multi-drug resistance among strains, necessitates further genetic studies and development of improved/new drugs against the pathogen. The presence of an abundance of hypothetical proteins in the genome and how little is known about them, make them interesting genetic targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11030340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141135PMC

Effects of Glucosylation and O-Acetylation on the Conformation of Serogroup 2 O-Antigen Vaccine Targets.

J Phys Chem B 2020 Apr 31;124(14):2806-2814. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Computer Science, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.

Shigellosis is an enteric disease with high morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. There is currently no licensed vaccine available. Most infection is caused by , of which 30 serotypes have been recognized based on O-antigen polysaccharide structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c01595DOI Listing

Decreased Susceptibility to Azithromycin in Clinical Shigella Isolates Associated with HIV and Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases, Minnesota, USA, 2012-2015.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Apr;26(4):667-674

Shigellosis outbreaks caused by Shigella with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (DSA-Shigella) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported worldwide. We describe sexual health indicators and antimicrobial drug resistance for shigellosis cases in Minnesota, USA. We analyzed a sample of isolates received during 2012-2015 and cross-referenced cases with the Minnesota Department of Health Sexually Transmitted Disease Database to ascertain patients' HIV status and recent chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2604.191031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101095PMC

In silico design of a vaccine candidate based on autotransporters and HSP against the causal agent of shigellosis, Shigella flexneri.

Mol Immunol 2020 May 9;121:47-58. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Department of Microbiology, University of Concepcion, Chile. Electronic address:

Shigellosis is a diarrheal disease that causes high mortality every year, especially in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. Recently, resistance strains to antibiotic therapy are in the rise and the World Health Organization prioritizes the development of a safe vaccine against the most common causal agent of shigellosis, Shigella flexneri. This pathogen uses autotransporter proteins such as SigA, Pic and Sap to increase virulence and some of them have been described as highly immunogenic proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2020.02.008DOI Listing

Molecular characterization of quinolone resistant spp. isolates from patients in Ardabil, Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2019 Dec;11(6):496-501

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

Background And Objectives: is an etiological agent of shigellosis. Antibiotic therapy has a critical role in decreasing serious complications of shigellosis. The present study aimed to determine the multi-drug resistance strains and to detect fluoroquinolone related mutations. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048964PMC
December 2019

The Antiactivator of Type III Secretion, OspD1, Is Transcriptionally Regulated by VirB and H-NS from Remote Sequences in Shigella flexneri.

J Bacteriol 2020 Apr 27;202(10). Epub 2020 Apr 27.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

species, the causal agents of bacillary dysentery, use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject two waves of virulence proteins, known as effectors, into the colonic epithelium to subvert host cell machinery. Prior to host cell contact and secretion of the first wave of T3SS effectors, OspD1, an effector and antiactivator protein, prevents premature production of the second wave of effectors. Despite this important role, regulation of the gene is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00072-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186461PMC

Investigation of a foodborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei in Ireland and Northern Ireland, December 2016: the benefits of cross-border collaboration and commercial sales data.

Public Health 2020 May 28;182:19-25. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

HSE-Health Protection Surveillance Centre, Dublin, Ireland.

Objectives: To describe a cross-border foodborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei that occurred in Ireland and Northern Ireland (NI) in December 2016 whilst also highlighting the valuable roles of sales data and international collaboration in the investigation and control of this outbreak.

Study Design: A cross-border outbreak control team was established to investigate the outbreak.

Methods: Epidemiological, microbiological, and environmental investigations were undertaken. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.01.008DOI Listing

Dynamic comparison of gut microbiota of mice infected with via two different infective routes.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Mar 23;19(3):2273-2281. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environment Factors and Cancer, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350122, P.R. China.

is one of the main pathogens causing diarrheal disease, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Previous clinical data and animal studies have shown that the outcomes of oral and peritoneal infections of differ, and that the latter is more serious. Furthermore, a variety of pathogenic bacteria are known to cause changes in intestinal flora after infection, and the influence of infection on intestinal flora remains poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7027338PMC

High Rates of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Gene Distribution Among spp. Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Tehran, Iran.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 13;13:485-492. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: continues to be important causes of acute pediatric diarrhea worldwide. produces numerous virulence factors involved in colonization and invasion into epithelial cells which eventually result in the disease. The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of virulence genes and to investigate antibiotic resistance profiles among isolates obtained from pediatric patients in Iran. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S238559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7025676PMC
February 2020

Disparities in Shigellosis Incidence by Census Tract Poverty, Crowding, and Race/Ethnicity in the United States, FoodNet, 2004-2014.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Feb 31;7(2):ofaa030. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA.

Background: causes an estimated 500000 enteric illnesses in the United States annually, but the association with socioeconomic factors is unclear.

Methods: We examined possible epidemiologic associations between shigellosis and poverty using 2004-2014 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) data. cases (n = 21246) were geocoded, linked to Census tract data from the American Community Survey, and categorized into 4 poverty and 4 crowding strata. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7032626PMC
February 2020

Reverse vaccinology approach for the identification and characterization of outer membrane proteins of as potential cellular- and antibody-dependent vaccine candidates.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2020 Jan 31;9(1):15-25. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.

Purpose: In the developing world, bacillary dysentery is one of the most common communicable diarrheal infections. There are approximately 169 million cases of shigellosis reported worldwide. The disease is transmitted by a group of Gram-negative intracellular enterobacteria known as , , , and . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2020.9.1.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7024733PMC
January 2020

Metabolic profile of alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis in rat plasma, urine and feces after oral administration using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2020 May;34(9):e8763

Beijing Key Laboratory of Bio-characteristic Profiling for Evaluation of Rational Drug Use, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100038, China.

Rationale: Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) has been used to treat diabetes, pertussis, bacillary dysentery, sore throat, eczema, and aphtha for thousands of years. Alkaloids are the major components in RC, and its curative effect is achieved by oral administration. However, information on its composition in vivo is weak. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8763DOI Listing

Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) infestation increases the risk of bacterial contamination and alters nutritional content in storage Chinese cabbage.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 May 24;100(7):3007-3012. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, China.

Background: Aphids are common insect pests that feed on and excrete feces/honeydew on storage vegetables, especially in the temperate region of the northern hemisphere. The honeydew of aphids is an excellent growth medium for microorganisms. To explore the effects of aphid infestation on the risk of microbial contamination and food safety: (i) the bacterial diversity and community in aphid honeydew were investigated; (ii) the nutritional components of the cabbage were analyzed; and (iii) safety was evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10331DOI Listing

Early postoperative seizures after vocal fold surgery attributed to shigellosis.

Anaesth Rep 2019 Jan-Jun;7(1):43-46. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Surgical Outpatient Clinics Anesthesia Unit Kaplan Medical Center Rehovot Israel.

A 44-year-old previously healthy woman underwent surgery of the vocal folds and developed early postoperative seizures caused by an unusual aetiology. Clinical assessment and laboratory results revealed that the patient suffered from an acute-onset shigellosis infection which was thought to be the cause of her early postoperative seizures. The shigellosis infection was treated with azithromycin which resulted in rapid clinical improvement, and the seizures were successfully managed with benzodiazepines, sodium valproate and levetiracetam. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anr3.12013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6931289PMC

Genome-wide association studies of Shigella spp. and Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli isolates demonstrate an absence of genetic markers for prediction of disease severity.

BMC Genomics 2020 Feb 10;21(1):138. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Infectious Disease Research, Diagnostics and laboratory Surveillance, Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Background: We investigated the association of symptoms and disease severity of shigellosis patients with genetic determinants of infecting Shigella and entero-invasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), because determinants that predict disease outcome per individual patient could be used to prioritize control measures. For this purpose, genome wide association studies (GWAS) were performed using presence or absence of single genes, combinations of genes, and k-mers. All genetic variants were derived from draft genome sequences of isolates from a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted in the Netherlands during 2016 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6555-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011524PMC
February 2020

A New Phage Cocktail Against Multidrug, ESBL-Producer Isolates of and with Highly Efficient Bacteriolytic Activity.

Microb Drug Resist 2020 Feb 7. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of MOST, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, P.R. China.

The globally increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms such as , a cause of human acute gastrointestinal infections, calls for developing effective alternatives. In this study, the antibiotic resistance pattern, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-production, and molecular characteristics of 70 multidrug-resistant isolates belong to the two most frequent species of genus, that is, (44 isolates) and (26 isolates) were investigated. These isolates were used to evaluate both specificity and activity of -specific bacteriophages, vB_SflS-ISF001, vB_SsoS-ISF002, and a cocktail of both. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2019.0235DOI Listing
February 2020

Shigella flexneri: an emerging pathogen.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2020 Apr 5;65(2):275-291. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Bacteriology Laboratory Center of Microbiology and Bacteriology (CMB) Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Shigella flexneri is a leading etiologic agent of diarrhea in low socioeconomic countries. Notably, various serotypes in S. flexneri are reported from different regions of the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-020-00773-wDOI Listing
April 2020
1.145 Impact Factor

Distribution of Genes Encoding Virulence Factors and the Genetic Diversity of Enteroinvasive (EIEC) Isolates from Patients with Diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 10;13:119-127. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Entero-invasive (EIEC) is one of the causes of bacillary dysentery in adults and children. The ability of EIEC to invade and colonize the surface of epithelial cells is influenced by many virulence factors. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of virulence factor genes in EIEC strains isolated from patients with diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran, as well as the genetic diversity between these isolates by Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S235009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963944PMC
January 2020

Andrographolide potentiates PD-1 blockade immunotherapy by inhibiting COX2-mediated PGE2 release.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Apr 1;81:106206. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Life Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, China; Chemistry and Biomedicine Innovation Center (ChemBIC), Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Cancer immunotherapy has now become a first line therapy for several kinds of tumors. However, the clinical performance of immnuocheckpoint blockade therapy is usually limited by low response rate or side effects including cytokine storm. Andrographolide, a natural diterpenoid from Andrographis paniculata, has been used in Asia for treatment of bronchitis, paristhmitis and bacillary dysentery for its unique anti-inflammatory effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106206DOI Listing
April 2020
2.472 Impact Factor

Persistent Transmission of Shigellosis in England Is Associated with a Recently Emerged Multidrug-Resistant Strain of Shigella sonnei.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 Mar 25;58(4). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.

Whole-genome sequencing has enhanced surveillance and facilitated detailed monitoring of the transmission of species in England. We undertook an epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis of isolates from all cases of shigellosis referred to Public Health England between 2015 and 2018 to explore recent strain characteristics and the transmission dynamics of species. Of the 4,950 confirmed cases of shigellosis identified during this period, the highest proportion of isolates was (54. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01692-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098776PMC

An Oral Inoculation Infant Rabbit Model for Infection.

mBio 2020 01 21;11(1). Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

species cause diarrheal disease globally. Shigellosis is typically characterized by bloody stools and colitis with mucosal damage and is the leading bacterial cause of diarrheal death worldwide. After the pathogen is orally ingested, it invades and replicates within the colonic epithelium through mechanisms that rely on its type III secretion system (T3SS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.03105-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974573PMC
January 2020

A propos of a new case of shigellosis by a non-imported multiresistant strain.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2020 Mar;112(3):244

Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad de Granada, España.

We present the case corresponding to a shigellosis produced by multiresistant S. flexneri in a patient with no recent history of tourism or travel to exotic countries. This case exposes the need to know the distribution of resistant strains, and their emergence not imported in our environment, in the face of choosing the most appropriate type of antibiotic, when appropriate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17235/reed.2020.6399/2019DOI Listing
March 2020
1.317 Impact Factor

Commensal Escherichia coli are a reservoir for the transfer of XDR plasmids into epidemic fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella sonnei.

Nat Microbiol 2020 02 20;5(2):256-264. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

The Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Despite the sporadic detection of fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella in Asia in the early 2000s and the subsequent global spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant (cipR) Shigella sonnei from 2010, fluoroquinolones remain the recommended therapy for shigellosis. The potential for cipR S. sonnei to develop resistance to alternative second-line drugs may further limit future treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0645-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992430PMC
February 2020

Designation of chitosan nano-vaccine based on MxiH antigen of Shigella flexneri with increased immunization capacity.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Mar 31;232:115813. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative pathogen that causes shigellosis in humans and primates. MxiH antigen is known as one of the invasive factors in most Gram-negative bacteria consisting of a needle-like structure in the main backbone of the type 3 secretory system. Recombinant MxiH antigen was produced by E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115813DOI Listing

Molecular epidemiology of Shigella flexneri isolated from pediatrics in a diarrhea-endemic area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 May 15;39(5):971-985. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Microbiology, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, 26000, Pakistan.

Shigella flexneri is considered as an important causative agent of Shigellosis causing diarrhea in the countries with a low socioeconomic status. No study has been carried out on the molecular prevalence of S. flexneri in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-03811-0DOI Listing
May 2020
2.668 Impact Factor

Designing and evaluation of an antibody-targeted chimeric recombinant vaccine encoding Shigella flexneri outer membrane antigens.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 Jun 7;80:104176. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Shigellosis is one of the most common diseases found in the developing countries, especially those countries that are prone flood. The causative agent for this disease is the Shigella species. This organism is one of the third most common enteropathogens responsible for childhood diarrhea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104176DOI Listing

The virulence domain of Shigella IcsA contains a subregion with specific host cell adhesion function.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(1):e0227425. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

School of Biological Sciences, Department of Molecular & Biomedical Sciences, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Shigella species cause bacillary dysentery, especially among young individuals. Shigellae target the human colon for invasion; however, the initial adhesion mechanism is poorly understood. The Shigella surface protein IcsA, in addition to its role in actin-based motility, acts as a host cell adhesin through unknown mechanism(s). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227425PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946128PMC

Imaging Inflammation and Infection in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Dec 30;21(1). Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Stephenson School of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA.

A variety of seemingly non-specific symptoms manifest within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly in the colon, in response to inflammation, infection, or a combination thereof. Differentiation between symptom sources can often be achieved using various radiologic studies. Although it is not possible to provide a comprehensive survey of imaging gastrointestinal GI tract infections in a single article, the purpose of this review is to survey several topics on imaging of GI tract inflammation and infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981656PMC
December 2019

Epidemiological characteristics of bacillary dysentery from 2009 to 2016 and its incidence prediction model based on meteorological factors.

Environ Health Prev Med 2019 Dec 28;24(1):82. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

School of Public Health and Management, Research Center for Medicine and Social Development, Innovation Center for Social Risk Governance in Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: This study aimed to analyse the epidemiological characteristics of bacillary dysentery (BD) caused by Shigella in Chongqing, China, and to establish incidence prediction models based on the correlation between meteorological factors and BD, thus providing a scientific basis for the prevention and control of BD.

Methods: In this study, descriptive methods were employed to investigate the epidemiological distribution of BD. The Boruta algorithm was used to estimate the correlation between meteorological factors and BD incidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-019-0829-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935186PMC
December 2019

Antimicrobial mechanism of strictinin isomers extracted from the root of Rosa roxburghii Tratt (Ci Li Gen).

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Mar 23;250:112498. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The root of Rosa roxburghii Tratt (Ci Li Gen) is a kind of Chinese ethnomedicine in Gui Zhou province, used for the treatment of abdominal pain, acute bacillary dysentery, gastroenteritis and other diseases in human and livestock.

Aim Of The Study: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the effective antimicrobial components from the ethyl acetate extract of the Ci Li Gen and to investigate its antimicrobial mechanism afterwards.

Materials And Methods: The effective antimicrobial components in the ethyl acetate extract from the Ci Li Gen were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112498DOI Listing

Extensively Drug-Resistant Shigellosis in Australia among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

N Engl J Med 2019 12;381(25):2477-2479

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1910648DOI Listing
December 2019

O-Antigen Inhibits Internalization, Vacuole Escape, and Inflammasome Activation.

mBio 2019 12 17;10(6). Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Two species, and , cause approximately 90% of bacterial dysentery worldwide. While is the dominant species in low-income countries, causes the majority of infections in middle- and high-income countries. is a prototypic cytosolic bacterium; once intracellular, it rapidly escapes the phagocytic vacuole and causes pyroptosis of macrophages, which is important for pathogenesis and bacterial spread. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02654-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6918081PMC
December 2019

Shigella sonnei infection of zebrafish reveals that O-antigen mediates neutrophil tolerance and dysentery incidence.

PLoS Pathog 2019 12 12;15(12):e1008006. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Section of Microbiology, MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Shigella flexneri is historically regarded as the primary agent of bacillary dysentery, yet the closely-related Shigella sonnei is replacing S. flexneri, especially in developing countries. The underlying reasons for this dramatic shift are mostly unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6980646PMC
December 2019