349 results match your criteria Sharp Force Injuries


Biomechanical characteristics of slashing attack on different body parts of a dummy using a kitchen knife.

Int J Legal Med 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Research Center for Sports Psychology and Biomechanics, China Institute of Sport Science, Beijing, 100061, China.

Background: Slashing attack is one of the most common ways of committing a homicide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of slashing different body parts of a dummy by young males and females using a Chinese kitchen knife and thus provide scientific evidence for criminal investigations and court trials.

Methods: A total of 12 male and 12 female college students participated in this study. Read More

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Medicolegal Aspects of Victims of Assault Admitted to a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka.

Acad Forensic Pathol 2022 Mar 15;12(1):15-22. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Introduction: Violence with physical assault is a common cause of morbidity and mortality prevalent but not limited to underdeveloped countries. The opinion of the forensic expert is often indispensable in such cases to determine the penalties. This study was planned to describe the pattern of presentation of the victims and evaluate the strengths and limitations in formulating a scientific medicolegal opinion based on the findings of the victim. Read More

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Perimortem Skeletal Sharp Force Trauma: Detection Reliability on CT Data, Demographics and Anatomical Patterns from a Forensic Dataset.

Biology (Basel) 2022 Apr 26;11(5). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Physical Anthropology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, 3008 Bern, Switzerland.

The increasing importance of trauma analysis by means of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is insufficiently reflected in forensic curricula, nor are best practice manuals available. We attempt to detect sharp force bone lesions on PMCT of closed forensic cases with the aims of assessing errors and pointing out patterns in anatomical location and manner of death (MOD). We investigated 41 closed sharp force fatality cases, with available PMCT and forensic reports. Read More

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Paediatric traumatic cataracts in Southwest China: epidemiological profile.

BMC Ophthalmol 2022 May 6;22(1):208. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 61000, Sichuan, China.

Background: Paediatric traumatic cataracts are an important but preventable cause of acquired blindness. Understanding the epidemiology of paediatric traumatic cataracts is a prerequisite for prevention. This study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile of paediatric traumatic cataracts in southwest China. Read More

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Fracture behavior of a composite of bone and calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2022 06 29;130:105201. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00, Lund, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Orthopedics, Lund University, BMC C12, 221 84, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite (CaS/HA) biomaterials have been investigated for use in several orthopedic applications. However, the mechanical interactions between the composite of CaS/HA and bone at the microscale are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if and how augmentation with CaS/HA alters the fracture behavior of bone. Read More

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Homicidal sharp force cases: An 11-year autopsy-based study.

J Forensic Leg Med 2022 May 28;88:102347. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Legal Medicine, Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia.

Sharp force injuries represent a major constituent of physical assaults and homicidal fatalities, especially in countries with strict firearm legislations. In forensic investigations, the examination of homicidal sharp force cases remains a challenge for both determining the cause and manner of a death. The aim of this study is to analyze the patterns of homicidal sharp force cases in Northern Tunisia. Read More

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A Statistical Model to Determine Biomechanical Limits for Physically Safe Interactions With Collaborative Robots.

Front Robot AI 2021 3;8:667818. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Robotic Systems, Fraunhofer IFF, Magdeburg, Germany.

Collaborative robots (cobots) provide a wide range of opportunities to improve the ergonomics and efficiency of manual work stations. ISO/TS 15066 defines power and force limiting (PFL) as one of four safeguarding modes for these robots. PFL specifies biomechanical limits for hazardous impacts and pinching contacts that a cobot must not exceed to protect humans from serious injuries. Read More

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February 2022

Non-Firearm-related Homicides at the Medical University of South Carolina, 2013-2018.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2022 Jun 28;43(2):110-116. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

From the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.

Abstract: After high-profile events involving firearms, gun violence often becomes the center stage of public discourse with national media attention, overshadowing less common causes of homicidal deaths, such as sharp force injury, blunt trauma, and asphyxia. A retrospective analysis of all cases referred for medicolegal autopsy to the Medical and Forensic Autopsy Division of the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina from 2013 to 2018 documented 793 deaths where the manner was classified as homicide. Of these, 18% (144) of the deaths were caused by non-firearm-inflicted injuries. Read More

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CT characterisation and classification of feline temporomandibular joint trauma: a case series of 79 cats.

J Feline Med Surg 2022 Jan 31:1098612X211066654. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department Clinical Science and Services, Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hertfordshire, UK.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterise and describe patterns of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) injuries occurring in cats using CT.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adherence with the STROBE guidelines. Among the medical and CT records of 79 cats, 158 TMJs were reviewed in a collaborative study between six institutions. Read More

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January 2022

Occupational risk factors for work disability following carpal tunnel syndrome: a pooled prospective study.

Occup Environ Med 2022 Jul 24;79(7):442-451. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Although recent studies have identified important risk factors associated with incident carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), risk factors associated with its severity have not been well explored.

Objective: To examine the associations between personal, workplace psychosocial and biomechanical factors and incident work disability among workers with CTS.

Methods: Between 2001 and 2010 five research groups conducted coordinated prospective studies of CTS and related work disability among US workers from various industries. Read More

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Variability and specificity of bone cutting mark properties in cases involving stabbing with knives.

Int J Legal Med 2022 Mar 10;136(2):603-621. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Team Firearms and Tools (WEW), Division of Chemical and Physical Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute, Laan van Ypenburg 6, 2497GB, Den Haag, The Netherlands.

Sharp force traumas are frequently encountered in stabbing crime victims. During an examination, the properties of cutting marks in bones are compared with the properties of suspect tools, particularly knives. Therefore, the variation and specificity of knife and cutting mark properties must be known. Read More

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Knife cut marks inflicted by different blade types and the changes induced by heat: a dimensional and morphological study.

Int J Legal Med 2022 Jan 29;136(1):329-342. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Cranfield Forensic Institute, Cranfield University, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Shrivenham, UK.

Detailed information on skeletal trauma analysis of burned bone is important to ascertain the manner and cause of death in forensic casework. This research used three different knife types, one with a non-serrated blade, one a fine-serrated blade, and one a coarse-serrated blade, to inflict trauma to manually macerated Sus scrofa ribs (n = 240), and these ribs were later exposed to heat. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted using macroscopic and microscopic techniques to assess specific characteristics of the cut marks. Read More

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January 2022

Weapon injuries in the crusader mass graves from a 13th century attack on the port city of Sidon (Lebanon).

PLoS One 2021 25;16(8):e0256517. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Archaeological excavations close to St Louis' castle in Sidon, Lebanon have revealed two mass grave deposits containing partially articulated and disarticulated human skeletal remains. A minimum of 25 male individuals have been recovered, with no females or young children. Radiocarbon dating of the human remains, a crusader coin, and the design of Frankish belt buckles strongly indicate they belong to a single event in the mid-13th century CE. Read More

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December 2021

Fatal penetrating abdominal injury by a metallic projectile.

J Forensic Sci 2022 Jan 2;67(1):370-373. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

Penetrating abdominal injury is often a life-threatening condition, which is mainly associated with inflicted injuries. Fatal self-inflicted sharp force abdominal injuries too have been reported in the literature. Inadvertent penetrating abdominal injuries are a rarity and are caused by sharp objects of low-velocity and often nonmissile-type. Read More

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January 2022

Measuring dimensional and morphological heat alterations of dismemberment-related toolmarks with an optical roughness metre.

Int J Legal Med 2022 Jan 5;136(1):343-356. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Departamento de Medicina Legal, Psiquiatría y Patología, Laboratorio de Antropología Y Odontología Forense, Madrid, Spain.

This experimental study provides a further understanding of the post-burning nature of sharp force trauma. The main objective is to analyse the distortion that fire may inflict on the length, width, roughness, and floor shape morphology of toolmarks induced by four different implements. To this end, four fresh juvenile pig long bones were cut with a bread knife, a serrated knife, a butcher machete, and a saw. Read More

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January 2022

[Multicenter cross-sectional investigation on the cleaning status and influencing factors of skin cleaning outside the wound in adult trauma patients].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2021 May;37(5):429-436

Nursing Department, the 981st Hospital of the Joint Logistic Support Force of PLA, Chengde 067000, China.

To investigate the status and influencing factors of skin cleaning outside wound (hereinafter referred to as skin) in adult trauma patients. A multicenter cross-sectional investigation was conducted. From September 1 to 30, 2020, a total of 952 adult trauma patients who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to wound care clinics or trauma surgery wards of 13 military or local Grade Ⅲ Level A hospitals, including the General Hospital of the Eastern Theater Command of People's Liberation Army and the Army Medical Center, etc. Read More

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Insights to enhance the examination of tool marks in human cartilage.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Sep 13;135(5):2117-2134. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Legal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Melatengürtel 60-62, 50823, Cologne, Germany.

This work deals with the examination of tool marks in human cartilage. We compared the effectiveness of several cleaning methods on cut marks in porcine cartilage. The method cleaning by multiple casts achieved the significantly highest scores (P = 0. Read More

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September 2021

Criminal mutilation in Sweden from 1991 to 2017.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Sep 6;66(5):1788-1796. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.

We identified 43 cases of mutilation homicides in a nationwide population-based study in Sweden during the period of 1991-2017. 70% of cases were classified as defensive mutilations where the main motive was disposal of the body, while 30% were classified as offensive, that is, due to an expression of strong aggression, necro-/sexual sadism, or psychiatric illness. In comparison with a previous study covering mutilation homicides in Sweden between 1961 and 1990, we noted an increase in incidence. Read More

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September 2021

Aquaporin 1 and 3 as local vitality markers in mechanical and thermal skin injuries.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Sep 14;135(5):1837-1842. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Legal Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Stiftsplatz 12, 53111, Bonn, Germany.

Assessment of the vitality of an injury is one of to the main tasks in daily forensic casework. Aquaporins belong to the family of water channels. They enable the transport of water and of small molecules like glycerol through biological channels. Read More

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September 2021

Head/skull injury potential of empty 0.5-l beer glass bottles vs. 0.33-l Coke bottles.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Sep 30;135(5):2091-2100. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

The medical and biomechanical assessment of injuries from blows to the head is a common task in forensic medicine. In the context of a criminal justice process, the injury potential of different striking weapons is important. The article at hand compares the injury potential of assaults with a 0. Read More

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September 2021

Crossbow injuries: A case report with experimental reconstruction study and a systematic review of literature.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Apr 27;79:102147. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopaedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

In modern times crossbow - a ranged weapon diffused during Middle Ages - is increasing its popularity in recreational hunting and sports; crossbow bolts have a great penetration capacity, despite their low initial velocity. Great concerns emerge when considering that notwithstanding crossbow is a potentially lethal distance weapon, it is easy to obtain without having to undertake any tests on the buyer's mental or physical health. Although rare, crossbow injuries can be challenging for the forensic pathologist due to great similarities with other wounds pattern (gunshots wounds or injury due to sharp force). Read More

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Cut or burnt? - Categorizing morphological characteristics of heat-induced fractures and sharp force trauma.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 May 28;50:101868. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Cranfield Forensic Institute, Cranfield University, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Shrivenham, UK. Electronic address:

Distinguishing trauma from heat-induced fractures is a challenge faced by forensic anthropologists and pathologists during medicolegal investigations in which fire has been used by the perpetrators to destroy evidence. This paper aims to validate the provided identification features to distinguish between fire induced alterations and sharp force trauma. A total of 80 cremated adult individuals were used in this paper: 3 recently deceased embalmed cadavers from Cementerio Sur de Madrid for the sharp force trauma experiment in which 55 pre-burning injuries were inflicted using a machete and a serrated knife in different anatomical regions. Read More

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Individualized endoscopic management strategy for impacting jujube pits in the upper gastrointestinal tract: a 3-year single-center experience in northern China.

BMC Surg 2021 Jan 6;21(1):18. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue-Fu Road, Nan-Gang District, Harbin, 150086, China.

Background: Impaction of jujube pits in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a special clinical condition in the northern Chinese population. Endoscopic removal is the preferred therapy, but there is no consensus on the management strategies. We reported our individualized endoscopic strategies on the jujube pits impacted in the upper GI tract. Read More

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January 2021

A histological comparison of non-human rib models suited for sharp force trauma analysis.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Feb 19;319:110661. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Center for Forensic Medicine, Unit of Forensic Anthropology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Cut marks provide essential knowledge to interpret which and how tools were used, both in archaeological and forensic context. Lots of studies focused on experimentally produced cut marks on animal models to develop methods for stabbing incidents. However, animal models are criticized to be morphologically different in comparison to human bones. Read More

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February 2021

Through fire and flames: post-burning survival and detection of dismemberment-related toolmarks in cremated cadavers.

Int J Legal Med 2021 May 21;135(3):801-815. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Departamento de Medicina Legal Psiquiatría y Patología, Laboratorio de Antropología y Odontología Forense, Madrid, Spain.

During a homicide investigation in which fire has been used to reduce the size of the cadaver and conceal the evidence of injuries, the identification of perimortem trauma presents a challenge, in particular in cases when the perpetrator has dismembered the body followed by burning the remains. It is therefore important to understand the effects which heat causes on fresh bone. The aim of this paper is to perform a pilot study on the survival ratio of toolmarks in different anatomical regions associated with dismemberment, and a descriptive analysis of the variables that may potentially influence the post-burning survival and detection. Read More

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On a knife edge: A preliminary investigation of clothing damage using rounded-tip knives.

Sci Justice 2020 11 15;60(6):495-503. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK.

Bladed weapons are frequently encountered in violent crime offences including street based and armed robberies, murder, sexual assaults and terrorism. A study was conducted involving four frequently encountered clothing fabrics: t-shirt (knitted cotton), denim jeans (twill woven cotton), long sleeved top (knitted synthetic blend), and skirt (non-woven faux leather) and five knives to investigate any damage resulting from a downward stabbing motion, with 300 stabs in total. Any resultant penetrating severance damage was then photographed, measured and analysed. Read More

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November 2020

Forensic cases of suspected dog and cat abuse in the Community of Madrid (Spain), 2014-2019.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Nov 24;316:110522. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain; Department of Internal Medicine and Animal Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Companion animal abuse is an issue that concerns not only veterinarians and law enforcement agencies but also society in general. Animals that die under suspicious or violent circumstances should be submitted to reference laboratories for a postmortem examination by veterinary forensic pathologists trained to recognize animal abuse. Nevertheless, the low notification rate of such cases in Spain may explain the country's lag in the development of veterinary forensics and the limited information available on animal abuse epidemiology in comparison with other countries. Read More

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November 2020