327 results match your criteria Sharp Force Injuries


[Multicenter cross-sectional investigation on the cleaning status and influencing factors of skin cleaning outside the wound in adult trauma patients].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2021 May;37(5):429-436

Nursing Department, the 981st Hospital of the Joint Logistic Support Force of PLA, Chengde 067000, China.

To investigate the status and influencing factors of skin cleaning outside wound (hereinafter referred to as skin) in adult trauma patients. A multicenter cross-sectional investigation was conducted. From September 1 to 30, 2020, a total of 952 adult trauma patients who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to wound care clinics or trauma surgery wards of 13 military or local Grade Ⅲ Level A hospitals, including the General Hospital of the Eastern Theater Command of People's Liberation Army and the Army Medical Center, etc. Read More

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Aquaporin 1 and 3 as local vitality markers in mechanical and thermal skin injuries.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Legal Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Stiftsplatz 12, 53111, Bonn, Germany.

Assessment of the vitality of an injury is one of to the main tasks in daily forensic casework. Aquaporins belong to the family of water channels. They enable the transport of water and of small molecules like glycerol through biological channels. Read More

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Head/skull injury potential of empty 0.5-l beer glass bottles vs. 0.33-l Coke bottles.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

The medical and biomechanical assessment of injuries from blows to the head is a common task in forensic medicine. In the context of a criminal justice process, the injury potential of different striking weapons is important. The article at hand compares the injury potential of assaults with a 0. Read More

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Crossbow injuries: A case report with experimental reconstruction study and a systematic review of literature.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Apr 27;79:102147. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopaedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

In modern times crossbow - a ranged weapon diffused during Middle Ages - is increasing its popularity in recreational hunting and sports; crossbow bolts have a great penetration capacity, despite their low initial velocity. Great concerns emerge when considering that notwithstanding crossbow is a potentially lethal distance weapon, it is easy to obtain without having to undertake any tests on the buyer's mental or physical health. Although rare, crossbow injuries can be challenging for the forensic pathologist due to great similarities with other wounds pattern (gunshots wounds or injury due to sharp force). Read More

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Cut or burnt? - Categorizing morphological characteristics of heat-induced fractures and sharp force trauma.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 May 28;50:101868. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Cranfield Forensic Institute, Cranfield University, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Shrivenham, UK. Electronic address:

Distinguishing trauma from heat-induced fractures is a challenge faced by forensic anthropologists and pathologists during medicolegal investigations in which fire has been used by the perpetrators to destroy evidence. This paper aims to validate the provided identification features to distinguish between fire induced alterations and sharp force trauma. A total of 80 cremated adult individuals were used in this paper: 3 recently deceased embalmed cadavers from Cementerio Sur de Madrid for the sharp force trauma experiment in which 55 pre-burning injuries were inflicted using a machete and a serrated knife in different anatomical regions. Read More

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Individualized endoscopic management strategy for impacting jujube pits in the upper gastrointestinal tract: a 3-year single-center experience in northern China.

BMC Surg 2021 Jan 6;21(1):18. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue-Fu Road, Nan-Gang District, Harbin, 150086, China.

Background: Impaction of jujube pits in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a special clinical condition in the northern Chinese population. Endoscopic removal is the preferred therapy, but there is no consensus on the management strategies. We reported our individualized endoscopic strategies on the jujube pits impacted in the upper GI tract. Read More

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January 2021

A histological comparison of non-human rib models suited for sharp force trauma analysis.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Feb 19;319:110661. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Center for Forensic Medicine, Unit of Forensic Anthropology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Cut marks provide essential knowledge to interpret which and how tools were used, both in archaeological and forensic context. Lots of studies focused on experimentally produced cut marks on animal models to develop methods for stabbing incidents. However, animal models are criticized to be morphologically different in comparison to human bones. Read More

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February 2021

Through fire and flames: post-burning survival and detection of dismemberment-related toolmarks in cremated cadavers.

Int J Legal Med 2021 May 21;135(3):801-815. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Departamento de Medicina Legal Psiquiatría y Patología, Laboratorio de Antropología y Odontología Forense, Madrid, Spain.

During a homicide investigation in which fire has been used to reduce the size of the cadaver and conceal the evidence of injuries, the identification of perimortem trauma presents a challenge, in particular in cases when the perpetrator has dismembered the body followed by burning the remains. It is therefore important to understand the effects which heat causes on fresh bone. The aim of this paper is to perform a pilot study on the survival ratio of toolmarks in different anatomical regions associated with dismemberment, and a descriptive analysis of the variables that may potentially influence the post-burning survival and detection. Read More

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Forensic cases of suspected dog and cat abuse in the Community of Madrid (Spain), 2014-2019.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Nov 24;316:110522. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain; Department of Internal Medicine and Animal Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Companion animal abuse is an issue that concerns not only veterinarians and law enforcement agencies but also society in general. Animals that die under suspicious or violent circumstances should be submitted to reference laboratories for a postmortem examination by veterinary forensic pathologists trained to recognize animal abuse. Nevertheless, the low notification rate of such cases in Spain may explain the country's lag in the development of veterinary forensics and the limited information available on animal abuse epidemiology in comparison with other countries. Read More

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November 2020

Correlation between saw blade width and kerf width.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Jan 21;66(1):25-43. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Forensic Anthropology Program, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Most studies of saw marks have focused on morphological characteristics and their utility in identifying saws suspected to have been utilized in cases of criminal dismemberment. The present study examined the extent to which metric analysis may be used to correlate saw blade measurements with minimum kerf widths (MKWs). A sample of 56 partially defleshed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) long bones was utilized as proxy for human remains. Read More

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January 2021

A Brief Review of Scanning Electron Microscopy With Energy-Dispersive X-ray Use in Forensic Medicine.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2020 Dec;41(4):280-286

From the Laboratorio di Istopatologia Forense e Microbiologia Medico Legale, Sezione di Medicina Legale e delle Assicurazioni, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis is an investigation whose potential has become increasingly important in the field of forensic research and diagnosis. We present the procedure to perform a well-carried-out SEM/EDX analysis on corpses affected by different types of injuries, such as blunt force trauma, ligature strangulation, electrocution, sharp force trauma, gunshot wounds, and intoxication. After the areas of forensic interest have been macroscopically identified, the sampling can be performed in 2 different ways: apposition of the double-sided graphite tape on the damaged area or performing the excision of a biological sample. Read More

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December 2020

Toward a global and reproducible science for brain imaging in neurotrauma: the ENIGMA adult moderate/severe traumatic brain injury working group.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Apr;15(2):526-554

Department of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London, London, UK.

The global burden of mortality and morbidity caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant, and the heterogeneity of TBI patients and the relatively small sample sizes of most current neuroimaging studies is a major challenge for scientific advances and clinical translation. The ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Adult moderate/severe TBI (AMS-TBI) working group aims to be a driving force for new discoveries in AMS-TBI by providing researchers world-wide with an effective framework and platform for large-scale cross-border collaboration and data sharing. Based on the principles of transparency, rigor, reproducibility and collaboration, we will facilitate the development and dissemination of multiscale and big data analysis pipelines for harmonized analyses in AMS-TBI using structural and functional neuroimaging in combination with non-imaging biomarkers, genetics, as well as clinical and behavioral measures. Read More

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Beer stein blast to the head a rare case of combined blunt and sharp force trauma.

Int J Legal Med 2020 Sep 6;134(5):1791-1796. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Ludwig-Maximillians Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Cases of combined blunt and sharp force trauma to the head caused by one striking tool are rare. When beer steins are used as an assault weapon, they can cause blunt traumas upon initial contact phase. If the impact force exceeds the mechanical stability of the beer stein, it breaks into several sharp-edged pieces, which then can cause sharp force trauma injuries due to the interaction between the head and the stein fragments. Read More

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September 2020

Stabbing angle alters peak force and work during sharp force trauma of porcine ribs.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Sep 20;314:110373. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Bharti School of Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Forensic anthropologists have traditionally relied on a qualitative scale (mild, moderate, severe) for describing the forces required to generate a bony injury; however, recently efforts have focused on providing more quantitative data. The current study considers the effects of blade angle on the peak force, average force, and work measured during an instrumented sharp force impact. Sixty-two porcine side ribs were stabbed with the long axis of the blade perpendicular to the convex surface and the blade edge in one of three orientations (0°, 45°, 90°). Read More

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September 2020

Examination of Hacking and Blunt Force Skeletal Trauma.

J Forensic Sci 2020 Sep 24;65(5):1416-1423. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

MS in Statistical Practice Program, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University College of Arts & Sciences, Boston, MA, 02115.

Hacking trauma is prevalent in forensic cases involving genocide and dismemberment, but research into the identification of this type of trauma is lacking. The present study examines characteristics of hacking and blunt force skeletal trauma in order to determine if there is a point at which blunt force trauma becomes distinguishable from hacking trauma. Ten implements with a range of blade angles (i. Read More

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September 2020

Biomechanical evaluation of an autologous flexor digitorum lateralis graft to augment the surgical repair of gastrocnemius tendon laceration in a canine ex vivo model.

Vet Surg 2020 Dec 14;49(8):1545-1554. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Department of Veterinary Administration, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of an autologous flexor digitorum lateralis (FDL) graft to augment a three-loop pulley (3LP) core repair in a canine cadaveric gastrocnemius tendon (GT) laceration model.

Study Design: Ex vivo, biomechanical study.

Sample Population: Twenty-six canine cadaveric hind limbs. Read More

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December 2020

Cutaneous wound metallic residues pattern analysis with SEM-EDX in a forensic case of overkill.

Med Leg J 2020 Sep 3;88(3):155-159. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute - Sezione di Medicina Legale e delle Assicurazioni - Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

The term identifies the infliction of massive injuries that greatly exceed those needed to kill the victim both in number and intensity. We present the case of a Peruvian transsexual, who was choked and hit by 11 sharp-force wounds all in the facial area. The scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion X-ray analysis carried out on the skin of the facial wounds proved crucial in proving that two different point-and-edge weapons were used, following the finding of metallic micro-traces of heterogeneous composition. Read More

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September 2020

An evaluation of human stabbing performance to inform the standardisation of textile damage examinations: Do simulation trials correlate to reported stabbings?

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Jul 25;312:110305. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Forensic textile damage examinations are commonly requested in cases such as stabbings. These requests often involve the testing of knives or other weapons submitted to determine if they could have caused the damage to the evidential garment. Currently a forensic practitioner conducts this testing by manually performing the stabbing action. Read More

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Improved medical treatment could explain a decrease in homicides with a single stab wound.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2020 09 4;16(3):415-422. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederik V's vej 11, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Since the 1990s, there has been a reduction in the homicide rate in Denmark and other Western countries. Our hypothesis is that part of the decrease in the sharp force homicide rate can be explained by better and faster medical treatment over time, and we explore this via stab wound homicides, the largest group of homicides in Denmark. To investigate our hypothesis we undertook an epidemiological study of 428 stab wound homicides in Denmark 1992-2016 based on autopsy reports with registration of stab wounds, quantification of injury severity, treatment intensity and survival time. Read More

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September 2020

Medico-legal autopsies of homicidal deaths: A five-year retrospective study in Hospital Sungai Buloh.

Malays J Pathol 2020 Apr;42(1):65-70

Universiti Teknologi MARA, Faculty of Medicine, Sungai Buloh Campus, Selangor, Malaysia.

Introduction: Homicide is the act of killing one human being by another, encompassing death as a result of criminal act including justifiable homicide such as judicial killing and self-defence. This study aimed to ascertain the epidemiology and patterns of injury of homicide victims.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed records of medico-legal autopsy cases performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sungai Buloh, for a period of five years, from January 2012 until December 2016. Read More

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Soleus nerve transfer to deep peroneal nerve for treatment of foot drop.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Aug 24;78:159-163. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Poursina Hospital, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran; Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Research Unit of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; BRIDGE-Brain Research-Inter-Disciplinary Guided Excellence, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; Research Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry in the Region of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. Electronic address:

Different mechanisms including knee dislocation, replacement surgery, nerve tumor, lumbar disc herniation, sharp injury, and gunshot wound lead to foot drop. Several surgical techniques have been used for treatment of foot drop, however, they have had sub-optimal outcomes. Soleus branch of tibial nerve is a good donor for nerve transfer for treatment of foot drop. Read More

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Emergencies on the train and railway stations managed at a railway station emergency care center.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Feb 28;9(2):807-811. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: With the increasing focus on setting up emergency care centers in railway stations across India by the government, there are no baseline data in India, or the world, about the profile of patients presenting with emergencies on the trains and at the railway stations.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included all people who presented with any medical emergency to the Emergency Care Center (ECC), Katpadi Railway Station in South India, between January 2017 and December 2017. Details were obtained from the register maintained by the emergency nurses stationed at the ECC. Read More

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February 2020

miR-384-5p promotes spinal cord injury recovery in rats through suppressing of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Neurosci Lett 2020 05 31;727:134937. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China; Key Laboratory of Obstetric & Gynecologic and Pediatric Diseases and Birth Defects of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most serious neurological disorders and is characterized by high morbidity and disability. Unfortunately, there is a lack of effective treatment. Recently, the micro RNA, miR-384-5p, was reported to play a significant role in cell survival in response to different insults. Read More

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The cutting edge-an investigation into the pressure necessary for cutting skin with different knife blade types.

Int J Legal Med 2020 May 11;134(3):1133-1140. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Zurich Institute of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland.

Sharp force trauma is routinely encountered in forensic practice. Often the question is posed, how much pressure or energy would have been necessary to inflict a cut with a specific knife, in order to further characterize the perpetrator or determine his intent to cause harm. This paper investigates two knife blades and its individual pressures needed to cut through the epidermis and dermis. Read More

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Development and commissioning of an instrumented pneumatic device to simulate blunt- and sharp-force trauma.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Feb 19;307:110123. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Forensic Science, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6, Canada.

Forensic investigators commonly interpret bone fracture patterns to estimate the force required to generate that trauma. Unfortunately, these estimates are limited to qualitative values such as "mild", "moderate" or "extreme" force. This work presents a new experimental forensic device developed to simulate blunt- and sharp-force trauma injuries, while recording the forces and velocities involved, so that a more quantitative relationship between force and trauma can be established. Read More

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February 2020

Characterization of the effect of fabric's tensile behavior and sharp object properties on the resistance against penetration.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Jan 29;306:110097. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Textile Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In this study, the penetration procedure of sharp objects with various geometries in the fabric was considered. To this end, five objects consisted of two single edged knives, a double edged knife and two spikes were employed. Tests were performed on fabrics with different applications such as shirting, worsted, elastic denim, artificial leather and tarpaulin. Read More

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January 2020

Fatal and Nonfatal Rip Saw Injuries.

J Forensic Sci 2020 May 9;65(3):999-1003. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava, CZ-708 52, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

This paper deals with a fatal stab wound suffered by a 29-year-old man and nonfatal injuries of 35-year-old and 67-year-old saw operators. Rip saw is a machine that is specially designed for making a rip cut, a cut made parallel to the direction of the wood grain. Rip-saw-related injuries mostly occur when a person is struck by the cutting material, which usually involves splinters of irregular shape and diameter. Read More

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