934 results match your criteria Septic Arthritis Pediatrics

Glycolysis Inhibition Induces Functional and Metabolic Exhaustion of CD4 T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:669456. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Rangos Research Center, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

In Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), CD4 T cells initiate autoimmune attack of pancreatic islet β cells. Importantly, bioenergetic programs dictate T cell function, with specific pathways required for progression through the T cell lifecycle. During activation, CD4 T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to the less efficient aerobic glycolysis, similarly to highly proliferative cancer cells. Read More

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Masses of the Sternoclavicular Area: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

Clin Med Insights Pediatr 2021 8;15:11795565211021600. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Objective: Masses of the sternoclavicular area are rare, and are not well described in the literature. We aim to present a series of patients with masses in this location and to review all reported English language cases of sternoclavicular masses in pediatric patients.

Methods: This is a case series of pediatric patients with masses of the sternoclavicular area presenting to a tertiary care pediatric hospital from 2010 through 2017. Read More

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Validation of Septic Knee Monoarthritis Prediction Rule in a Lyme Disease Endemic Area.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

From the *Brown University, Providence, RI †Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA ‡Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI §Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA ∥Departments of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Hasbro Children's Hospital, Providence, RI ¶Division of Emergency Medicine, Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE #Department of Emergency Medicine, Children's Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN **Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objective: In Lyme disease endemic areas, Lyme and septic arthritis often present similarly. A published septic knee arthritis clinical prediction rule includes 2 high-risk predictors: absolute neutrophil count of 10,000 cells/mm or greater and erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 40 mm/h or greater. The objective of the study was to externally validate this prediction rule in a multicenter prospective cohort. Read More

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Septic polyarthritis with in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency: case report and review of the literature.

Access Microbiol 2021 9;3(4):000221. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

is a common mycoplasma usually isolated from human oropharynx, particularly from individuals with periodontal disease. It is also among the more common mycoplasmal contaminants of eukaryotic cell cultures. Although has been isolated occasionally from abscesses and other sterile sites, to our knowledge, only three cases of septic arthritis have been documented in the past due to this organism, all in patients with humoral immunodeficiency. Read More

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Attainment of Inactive Disease Following Discontinuation of Adalimumab Monotherapy in Patients With Enthesitis-Related Arthritis: A Real-Life, Dual-Center Experience.

J Clin Rheumatol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

From the Infectious Diseases, Immunology and Rheumatology Unit, Second Department of Paediatrics, "P. & A. Kyriakou" Children's Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece Rheumatology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, "Archbishop Makarios III" Children's Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus.

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Fine-mapping, trans-ancestral and genomic analyses identify causal variants, cells, genes and drug targets for type 1 diabetes.

Nat Genet 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

We report the largest and most diverse genetic study of type 1 diabetes (T1D) to date (61,427 participants), yielding 78 genome-wide-significant (P < 5 × 10) regions, including 36 that are new. We define credible sets of T1D-associated variants and show that they are enriched in immune-cell accessible chromatin, particularly CD4 effector T cells. Using chromatin-accessibility profiling of CD4 T cells from 115 individuals, we map chromatin-accessibility quantitative trait loci and identify five regions where T1D risk variants co-localize with chromatin-accessibility quantitative trait loci. Read More

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Review on Pneumococcal Infection in Children.

Cureus 2021 May 9;13(5):e14913. Epub 2021 May 9.

Paediatrics, Base Hospital, Mahaoya, LKA.

Childhood pneumococcal infection is a growing concern among paediatricians especially, in countries where there is no routine vaccination program against . The disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in young children particularly those who are under the age of two years. Its main virulent factors include polysaccharide capsule, autolysin, pneumolysin, choline-binding Protein A, the higher chance for genetic transformation, and the presence of pilli that facilitate enhanced binding of bacteria to host cellular surfaces. Read More

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Post SARS-CoV-2 infection reactive arthritis: a brief report of two pediatric cases.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2021 Jun 12;19(1):89. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Although, preliminary reports of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 infection suggest that the infection causes a less severe illness in children, there is now growing evidence of other rare or even serious complications of disease.

Case Presentation: During the recent COVID-19 pandemic in Kerman, Iran, two children (an 8 year-old boy and a 6 year-old girl) were referred to outpatient Clinic of Pediatric Rheumatology with complaints of limping. Both children had experienced fever and mild respiratory tract infection. Read More

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Contemporary clinical isolates of from pediatric osteomyelitis patients display unique characteristics in a mouse model of hematogenous osteomyelitis.

Infect Immun 2021 Jun 7:IAI0018021. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Bone & Mineral Diseases, Musculoskeletal Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Osteomyelitis can result from the direct inoculation of pathogens into bone during injury or surgery, or from spread via the bloodstream, a condition called hematogenous osteomyelitis (HOM). HOM disproportionally affects children, and more than half of cases are caused by . Laboratory models of osteomyelitis mostly utilize direct injection of bacteria into the bone or the implantation of foreign material, and therefore do not directly interrogate the pathogenesis of pediatric hematogenous osteomyelitis. Read More

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Streptococcal infection in childhood Henoch-Schönlein purpura: a 5-year retrospective study from a single tertiary medical center in China, 2015-2019.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2021 Jun 2;19(1):79. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Chaohu Hospital of Anhui Medical University, No.64 Chaohu North Road, Hefei, 230022, People's Republic of China.

Background: The present study focuses on the associations of streptococcal infection with the clinical phenotypes, relapse/recurrence and renal involvement in Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) children.

Methods: Two thousand seventy-four Chinese children with HSP were recruited from January 2015 to December 2019. Patients' histories associated with HSP onset were obtained by interviews and questionnaires. Read More

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Biologics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis-main advantages and major challenges: A narrative review.

Arch Rheumatol 2021 Mar 25;36(1):146-157. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The disease is divided in different subtypes based on main clinical features and disease course. Emergence of biological agents targeting specific pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for the disease pathogenesis represents the revolution in the JIA treatment. Read More

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Quantitative analysis of the natural history of prolidase deficiency: description of 17 families and systematic review of published cases.

Genet Med 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Purpose: Prolidase deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism causing ulcers and other skin disorders, splenomegaly, developmental delay, and recurrent infections. Most of the literature is constituted of isolated case reports. We aim to provide a quantitative description of the natural history of the condition by describing 19 affected individuals and reviewing the literature. Read More

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Macrophage Activation Syndrome in a Child with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Secondary to SARS-CoV-2.

J Trop Pediatr 2021 05;67(2)

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Rheumotology Unit, Koc University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic affecting many countries and millions of people. Physicians have encountered some rare and challenging cases related to SARS-CoV-2, a novel virus with still many unknowns. In order to share our experience of a such clinical picture, we present here a child with SARS-CoV-2-induced macrophage activation syndrome in the setting of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Read More

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Internet and smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment and personalized advice (PROfeel) in adolescents with chronic conditions: A feasibility study.

Internet Interv 2021 Sep 20;25:100395. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Objective: Growing up with a chronic disease comes with challenges, such as coping with fatigue. Many adolescents are severely fatigued, though its associated factors exhibit considerable interpersonal and longitudinal variation. We assessed whether PROfeel, a combination of a smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) method using the internet, followed by a face-to-face dialogue and personalized advice for improvement of symptoms or tailor treatment based on a dynamic network analysis report, was feasible and useful. Read More

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September 2021

septic arthritis in an immunocompetent child: A case report.

IDCases 2021 30;24:e01145. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, 3100 SW 62nd Ave, Miami, FL 33155, USA.

A 2-year-old, previously healthy, male presented with an insidious history of intermittent left knee pain and edema who had been evaluated in the emergency department on multiple occasions with unremarkable imaging and normal laboratory results. On the day of presentation, he had mild edema of the left knee and inability to bear weight. Synovial fluid analysis showed an elevated white cell count with neutrophil predominance and mildly elevated inflammatory markers, consistent with septic arthritis. Read More

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An unusual aggressive presentation of late onset sepsis due to Staphylococcus aureus MRSA producing Panton-Valentine Leukocidin in preterm neonate.

Acta Biomed 2021 04 30;92(S1):e2021147. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Neonatology, Pediatrics. Departement of Translational Medical Science. University Federico II, Napoli. Italy.

We report an unusual and rare case of infection from methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin in a preterm neonate in NICU. On day of life 8, a preterm baby boy suddenly developed arthritis, giant cutaneous abscesses and an osteomyelitic focus with pour clinical condition. This very aggressive presentation of infection from MRSA push us to test Panton-Valentine leukocidin resulted positive and to test contacts to discover the bearer of the germ. Read More

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Type I Interferonopathies in Children: An Overview.

Front Pediatr 2021 31;9:631329. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Notable advances in gene sequencing methods in recent years have permitted enormous progress in the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of autoinflammatory syndromes. Interferonopathies are a recent group of inherited autoinflammatory diseases, characterized by a dysregulation of the interferon pathway, leading to constitutive upregulation of its activation mechanisms or downregulation of negative regulatory systems. They are clinically heterogeneous, but some peculiar clinical features may lead to suspicion: a familial "idiopathic" juvenile arthritis resistant to conventional treatments, an early necrotizing vasculitis, a non-infectious interstitial lung disease, and a panniculitis associated or not with a lipodystrophy may represent the "interferon alarm bells. Read More

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The role of antirheumatics in patients with COVID-19.

Lancet Rheumatol 2021 Jun 30;3(6):e447-e459. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Danish Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, University of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg, Danmark.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more than 2 million deaths globally. Two interconnected stages of disease are generally recognised; an initial viral stage and a subsequent immune response phase with the clinical characteristics of hyperinflammation associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, many immune modulators and immunosuppressive drugs, which are widely used in rheumatological practice, have been proposed as treatments for patients with moderate or severe COVID-19. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2021 Feb(311):130-135

NCJSC «Semey Medical University», Kazakhstan.

Reactive arthritis is an aseptic inflammatory arthritis that is associated with intestinal, urogenital, and nasopharyngeal infections, and represents a systemic clinical presentation of these infections. Reactive arthritis among children still remains an issue in pediatric rheumatology. The variety of the clinical manifestations makes it difficult to diagnose and detect reactive arthritis. Read More

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February 2021

T and B Lymphocyte Transcriptional States Differentiate between Sensitized and Unsensitized Individuals in Alpha-Gal Syndrome.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 20;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina Food Allergy Initiative, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

The mechanisms of pathogenesis driving alpha-gal syndrome (AGS) are not fully understood. Differences in immune gene expression between AGS individuals and non-allergic controls may illuminate molecular pathways and targets critical for AGS development. We performed immune expression profiling with RNA from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of seven controls, 15 AGS participants, and two participants sensitized but not allergic to alpha-gal using the NanoString nCounter PanCancer immune profiling panel, which includes 770 genes from 14 different cell types. Read More

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Gain-of-function variants in SYK cause immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation in humans and mice.

Nat Genet 2021 04 29;53(4):500-510. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a critical immune signaling molecule and therapeutic target. We identified damaging monoallelic SYK variants in six patients with immune deficiency, multi-organ inflammatory disease such as colitis, arthritis and dermatitis, and diffuse large B cell lymphomas. The SYK variants increased phosphorylation and enhanced downstream signaling, indicating gain of function. Read More

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Clinical Epidemiology and Outcomes of Pediatric Musculoskeletal Infections.

J Pediatr 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Vanderbilt Vaccine Research Program, Department of Pediatrics and Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN. Electronic address:

Objectives: To understand the epidemiology of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, including clinical and demographic features, microbiology, treatment approaches, treatment-associated complications, and outcomes.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study of 453 children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis from 2009 to 2015.

Results: Among the 453 patients, 218 (48%) had acute hematogenous osteomyelitis, 132 (29%) had septic arthritis, and 103 (23%) had concurrent acute hematogenous osteomyelitis/septic arthritis. Read More

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Pulmonary involvement in brucellosis: A case report and literature review.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Mar 24;9(3):1354-1357. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran Iran.

Although pulmonary involvement is rare in brucellosis it should be considered as a causative agent in patients with prolonged fever and arthritis. Also, it should be presented with manifestations resembling systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Read More

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Acute Rheumatic Fever: Where Do We Stand? An Epidemiological Study in Northern Italy.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:621668. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Desio Hospital, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Monza, Monza, Italy.

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a non-septic complication of group A β-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) throat infection. Since 1944, ARF diagnosis relies on the Jones criteria, which were periodically revised. The 2015 revision of Jones criteria underlines the importance of knowing the epidemiological status of its own region with updated data. Read More

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February 2021

Osteoarticular infection in children.

Bone Joint J 2021 Mar;103-B(3):578-583

Pediatric Orthopedics Service, Geneva Children's Hospital, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Aims: We aimed to describe the epidemiological, biological, and bacteriological characteristics of osteoarticular infections (OAIs) caused by .

Methods: The medical charts of all children presenting with OAIs to our institution over a 13-year period (January 2007 to December 2019) were reviewed. Among these patients, we extracted those which presented an OAI caused by and their epidemiological data, biological results, and bacteriological aetiologies were assessed. Read More

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Novel mutation in X-linked agammaglobulinemia: Report of a 17-year-old male.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2021 1;49(2):80-83. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Expert Group (SRMEG), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran.

Introduction And Objectives: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), the first known primary immunodeficiency, is caused by rare mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. Mutations in the BTK gene lead to a failure in the development and maturation of B-cell linage. A decreased number of B-cells results in agammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to a variety of infections. Read More

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Breadth and function of antibody response to acute SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans.

PLoS Pathog 2021 02 26;17(2):e1009352. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Serological and plasmablast responses and plasmablast-derived IgG monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been analysed in three COVID-19 patients with different clinical severities. Potent humoral responses were detected within 3 weeks of onset of illness in all patients and the serological titre was elicited soon after or concomitantly with peripheral plasmablast response. An average of 13. Read More

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February 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Read More

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January 2021

LACC1 deficiency links juvenile arthritis with autophagy and metabolism in macrophages.

J Exp Med 2021 Mar;218(3)

Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie/International Center for Infectiology Research, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U1111, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR5308, Lyon, France.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease in children, and its etiology remains poorly understood. Here, we explored four families with early-onset arthritis carrying homozygous loss-of-expression mutations in LACC1. To understand the link between LACC1 and inflammation, we performed a functional study of LACC1 in human immune cells. Read More

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