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    miR-718 Represses Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production Through Targeting PTEN.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    University of Massachusetts Medical School, United States.
    Bacterial sepsis involves a complex interaction between the host immune response and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS binds Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, which leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are essential for a potent innate immune response against pathogens. The innate immune system is tightly regulated as excessive inflammation can lead to organ failure and death. Read More

    Septic transfusion case caused by a platelet pool with visible clotting due to contamination with Staphylococcus aureus.
    Transfusion 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Canadian Blood Services.
    Background: Contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) with Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant ongoing transfusion safety risks in developed countries.

    Case Report: This report describes a transfusion reaction in an elderly patient diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, transfused with a 4-day-old buffy coat PC through a central venous catheter. The transfusion was interrupted when a large fibrous clot in the PC obstructed infusion pump flow. Read More

    The influencing factors on procalcitonin values in newborns with noninfectious conditions during the first week of life.
    Korean J Pediatr 2017 Jan 16;60(1):10-16. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: Although procalcitonin (PCT) level is useful for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, PCT reliability is inconsistent because of the varied conditions encountered in neonatal intensive care units. This study aimed to investigate PCT levels and factors influencing increased PCT levelin newborns without bacterial infection during the first week of life.

    Methods: In newborns hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2015, PCT levels were measured on the first, third, and seventh days after birth. Read More

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Improves Phagocytic Activity and Decreases Bacterial Growth and the Systemic Inflammatory Response in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation and Puncture.
    Front Microbiol 2017 1;8:148. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Laboratory of Immunophysiology, Federal University of MaranhãoSão Luís, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Federal University of MaranhãoSão Luís, Brazil.
    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Amaranthaceae) is often used in different kinds of vegetal preparations for medicinal purposes in many clinical situations. Some studies have demonstrated its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Read More

    From amino acids polymers, antimicrobial peptides, and histones, to their possible role in the pathogenesis of septic shock: a historical perspective.
    J Inflamm Res 2017 1;10:7-15. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dental Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
    This paper describes the evolution of our understanding of the biological role played by synthetic and natural antimicrobial cationic peptides and by the highly basic nuclear histones as modulators of infection, postinfectious sequelae, trauma, and coagulation phenomena. The authors discuss the effects of the synthetic polymers of basic poly α amino acids, poly l-lysine, and poly l-arginine on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, bacterial killing, and blood vessels; the properties of natural and synthetic antimicrobial cationic peptides as potential replacements or adjuncts to antibiotics; polycations as opsonizing agents promoting endocytosis/phagocytosis; polycations and muramidases as activators of autolytic wall enzymes in bacteria, causing bacteriolysis and tissue damage; and polycations and nuclear histones as potential virulence factors and as markers of sepsis, septic shock, disseminated intravasclar coagulopathy, acute lung injury, pancreatitis, trauma, and other additional clinical disorders. Read More

    [Pathogens of infections in the induction period of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and drug resistance of isolated strains].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Feb;19(2):176-181
    Fujian Institute of Hematology/Fujian Key Laboratory on Hematology/Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, China.
    Objective: To investigate the infections occurring in the induction period of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the pathogens of the infections, and drug resistance of isolated strains.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 130 children with newly-diagnosed childhood ALL. Infections occurring during the induction chemotherapy, pathogenic strains, and drug-resistance spectrum were analyzed. Read More

    Alemtuzumab as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis strategy in a developing country: lower rate of acute GVHD, increased risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation.
    Braz J Med Biol Res 2017 Feb 9;50(2):e5566. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Hematology-Oncology Division, C.H.U. Saint-Justine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and cytomegalovirus reactivation are important complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Here, we evaluated the impact of treatment with alemtuzumab on the occurrence of aGVHD, cytomegalovirus reactivation and survival after alloHSCT. This was a prospective cohort study conducted at the allo-HSCT unit of Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil, from January 2009 to December 2011. Read More

    Structure of a lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase suggests how conformational changes govern substrate binding.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    School of Molecular Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia;
    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria have increased the prevalence of fatal sepsis in modern times. Colistin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) antibiotic that permeabilizes the bacterial outer membrane (OM) and has been used to treat these infections. The OM outer leaflet is comprised of endotoxin containing lipid A, which can be modified to increase resistance to CAMPs and prevent clearance by the innate immune response. Read More

    Herpes Simplex Virus in the Neonate.
    Pediatr Ann 2017 Feb;46(2):e42-e46
    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease is a serious, life-threatening condition that should be considered in neonates with fever, vesicular rash, culture negative sepsis, and/or seizure activity. Because signs and symptoms of neonatal HSV may closely resemble those of bacterial sepsis, a thorough history and appropriate testing are imperative to accurately confirm the diagnosis. Failure to treat vesicular lesions from HSV in the neonate leads to an approximate 75% chance of progression to disseminated disease and/or meningoencephalitis. Read More

    Type I interferon signalling is not required for the induction of endotoxin tolerance.
    Cytokine 2017 Feb 8;95:7-11. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4K1, Canada. Electronic address:
    Endotoxin, or LPS tolerance, is an immunomodulatory mechanism that results in a significantly diminished response to secondary LPS exposure, which may serve to protect the host against endotoxic shock. Type I interferons (IFNs) are cytokines released upon LPS binding to TLR4 and have been shown to have immunomodulatory properties. Due to this regulatory function of type I IFN, we aimed to investigate the role of type I IFN signalling in LPS tolerance. Read More

    Targeted proteomics and absolute protein quantification for the construction of a stoichiometric host-pathogen surface density model.
    Mol Cell Proteomics 2017 Feb 9. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Lund University, Sweden;
    Sepsis is a systemic immune response responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Molecular modelling of host-pathogen interactions in the disease state represents a promising strategy to define molecular events of importance for the transition from superficial to invasive infectious diseases. Here we used the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes as a model system to establish a mass spectrometry based workflow for the construction of a stoichiometric surface density model between the S. Read More

    Deceased donor renal transplantation: A single center experience.
    Indian J Nephrol 2017 Jan-Feb;27(1):4-8
    Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Deceased donor renal transplantation (DDRT) constitutes less than 5% of all kidney transplantats in India. A retrospective analysis of 173 deceased donor renal transplants performed in a public funded government hospital was done. Mean age of the recipients was 36 years (male:female ratio 2. Read More

    Structural And Dynamic Insights into A Glycine-Mediated Short Analogue of A Designed Peptide in Lipopolysaccharide Micelles: Correlation Between Compact Structure And Anti-Endotoxin Activity.
    Biochemistry 2017 Feb 7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    In this study, we report an interaction study of a 13-residue analogue peptide VG13P (VARGWGRKCPLFG), derived from designed VG16KRKP peptide (VARGWKRKCPLFGKGG), with Lys6Gly mutation and removal of last three residues Lys14-Gly15-Gly16, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer-membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and responsible for sepsis or septic shock. VG13P displays an enhanced anti-endotoxin property as evident from significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-α gene expression levels in monocytic cell line, while it retains almost unchanged antimicrobial activity as its parent VG16KRKP against Gram-negative bacterial as well as fungal pathogens. In addition, in vitro LPS binding properties of VG13P in comparison to its parent VG16KRKP also remained unhindered; suggesting that the flexible C-terminal end of VG16KRKP may not play a major role in its observed anti bacterial and LPS binding properties. Read More

    Myeloid-specific knockout of NFI-A improves sepsis survival.
    Infect Immun 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University College of Medicine
    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) arise from myeloid progenitors and suppress both innate and adaptive immunity. MDSCs expand during the later phases of sepsis in mice, promote immunosuppression, and reduce survival. Here, we report that the myeloid differentiation-related transcription factor NFI-A controls MDSC expansion during sepsis and impacts survival. Read More

    The MiiA motif is a common marker present in polytopic surface proteins of oral and urinary tract invasive bacteria.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 Feb 4;49:283-292. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Carretera a Pozuelo, km 2.2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
    Many surface virulence factors of bacterial pathogens show mosaicism and confounding phylogenetic origin. The Streptococcus gordonii platelet-binding GspB protein, the Streptococcus sanguinis SrpA adhesin and the Streptococcus pneumoniae DiiA protein, share an imperfect 27-residue motif. Given the disparate domain architectures of these proteins and its association to invasive disease, this motif was named MiiA from Multiarchitecture invasion-involved motif A. Read More

    Micheliolide provides protection of mice against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA infection by down-regulating inflammatory response.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 6;7:41964. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China.
    A major obstacle to therapy in intensive care units is sepsis caused by severe infection. In recent years gram-positive (G(+)) bacteria, most commonly staphylococci, are thought to be the main pathogens. Micheliolide (MCL) was demonstrated to provide a therapeutic role in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory intestinal disease, colitis-associated cancer, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the main component of G(-) bacterial cell wall) induced septic shock. Read More

    Lepidopteran species have a variety of defence strategies against bacterial infections.
    J Invertebr Pathol 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The insect immune system has versatile ways of coping with microbial insults. Currently, innate immune priming has been described in several invertebrates, and the first insights into its mechanistic basis have been described. Here we studied infections with two different strains of Serratia marcescens bacteria in two different Lepidopteran hosts. Read More

    Usefulness of procalcitonin in differentiating Candida and bacterial blood stream infections in critically ill septic patients outside the intensive care unit.
    Intern Emerg Med 2017 Feb 4. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    We aimed to explore the role of procalcitonin (PCT) for the diagnosis of Candida spp. bloodstream infections in a population of critically ill septic patients admitted to internal medicine units. This is a retrospective case-control study considering all cases of candidemia identified in three internal medicine units, from January 1st 2012 to May 31st 2016. Read More

    IL-17A and complement contribute to killing of pneumococci following immunization with a pneumococcal whole cell vaccine.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 1;35(9):1306-1315. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Centro de Biotecnologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The pneumococcal whole cell vaccine (PWCV) has been investigated as an alternative to polysaccharide-based vaccines currently in use. It is a non-encapsulated killed vaccine preparation that induces non-capsular antibodies protecting mice against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage via IL-17A activation of mouse phagocytes. Here, we show that PWCV induces antibody and IL-17A production to protect mice against challenge in a fatal aspiration-sepsis model after only one dose. Read More

    Loss of cutaneous microbial diversity during first three weeks of life in very low birth weight infants.
    Exp Dermatol 2017 Feb 3. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Neonatal sepsis (NS) is a frequent problem in neonatal intensive care, especially in preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The objective of the study was to characterize the cutaneous bacterial microbiome in VLBW infants treated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Non-invasive skin microbiome specimens were taken repeatedly from 12 VLBW infants during treatment in NICU starting on the first day of life. Read More

    DnaJ (hsp40) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is involved in bacterial virulence and elicits a strong natural immune reaction via PI3K/JNK.
    Mol Immunol 2017 Mar 30;83:137-146. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Key Laboratory of Diagnostic Medicine Designated by the Ministry of Education Chongqing Medical University, 400016, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:
    As a heat shock protein, DnaJ plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal infection. However, how the virulence factor-DnaJ elicits host natural immunity still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of dnaJ deficiency in Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. Read More

    Toxin Mediates Sepsis Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 2;13(2):e1006153. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Pathogen Molecular Genetics Section, Laboratory of Bacteriology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
    Bacterial sepsis is a major killer in hospitalized patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) with the leading species Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequent causes of nosocomial sepsis, with most infectious isolates being methicillin-resistant. However, which bacterial factors underlie the pathogenesis of CNS sepsis is unknown. Read More

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Associated Diarrheal Diseases in Children.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Jan 31. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    *Department of Pediatrics, St. Paul's Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; †Molecular Infectious Diseases Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; ‡School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei, Taiwan; and §Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Background: The gastrointestinal tract is not the common infection site of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The role of P. aeruginosa as a causative agent for diarrhea in children without pre-existing disease is controversial. Read More

    Efficacy of and potential morbidities associated with the use of antacid medications in preterm neonates.
    J Perinat Med 2017 Jan 31. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Objectives: Antacid medications are frequently administered to preterm infants. These medications can change gastric pH levels and can affect regular gastrointestinal function and gut micro-bacterial flora. We hypothesized that preterm infants exposed to antacid medications are at a greater risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis, and set out to determine any association, as well as to assess the clinical efficacy of these medications. Read More

    Diagnosis of paediatric sepsis by automated blood culture system and conventional blood culture.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Feb;67(2):192-195
    Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Objective: To evaluate the time required for isolation of aerobic bacterial pathogen from paediatric septicaemia suspects by using BACTEC 9240 blood culture system, and to compare the results with conventional blood culture technique.

    Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from July to December 2013, and comprised blood samples of suspected septicaemia children. The blood samples were inoculated into automated BACTEC 9240 Peds Plus/F resin-based media. Read More

    Case report: when two and ½ men go camping….
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jan 30;17(1):102. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Applied Microbiology Research, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Background: In patients, rapid identification of bacterial species may help to guide treatment at early stages. New protocols for the identification directly from positive blood culture flasks significantly helped in the presented case report.

    Case Presentation: Two patients (a father and son) presented with diarrhea, malaise, and fever of 3 to 4 days duration. Read More

    Tissue thyroid hormone metabolism is differentially regulated during illness in mice.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Jan 27. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    E Fliers, Dept of Endocrinology, AZUA - AMC, F5.258, Amsterdam, NL1105 AZ , Netherlands.
    Illness induces major modifications in central and peripheral thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism, so-called nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). As a result, organ specific changes in local TH availability occur depending on the type and severity of illness. Local TH availability is of importance for the regulation of the tissue specific TH target genes and determined by the interplay between deiodinating enzymes, TH transport and TH receptor (TR) expression. Read More

    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Jan 27:ajplung.00441.2016. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    University of Illinois at Chicago
    The prevailing morbidity and mortality in sepsis are largely due to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD), most commonly lung injury, as well as renal and cardiac dysfunction. Despite recent advances in defining many aspects of the pathogenesis of sepsis-related MOD, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there are currently no effective pharmacological or cell-based treatments for the disease. Human and animal studies have shown that pulmonary thrombosis is common in sepsis-induced ARDS, and pre-clinical studies have shown that anti-coagulation may improve outcome following sepsis challenge. Read More

    Similar pattern of chemokines after acute viral and bacterial infection.
    Scand J Immunol 2017 Jan 27. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi.
    Read with great interest the article by Cavalcanti et al (1). Which describes the levels of chemokine such as MCP-1, RANETS, MIG and IP-10 in children with sepsis community acquired pneumonia and skin abscess. Author has found increased levels of RANETS in all infections mentioned above. Read More

    Circulating bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation reduces flow in brain-irrigating arteries independently from cerebrovascular prostaglandin production.
    Neuroscience 2017 Jan 23;346:160-172. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    CNRS, Résonance Magnétique des Systèmes Biologiques, UMR 5536, Bordeaux, France; Univ. Bordeaux, RMSB, UMR 5536, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:
    Brain dysfunction is a frequent complication of the systemic inflammatory response to bacterial infection or sepsis. In the present work, the effects of intravenous bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on cerebral arterial blood flow were assessed with time-of-flight (TOF)-based magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in mice. Cerebral expression of the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and c-Fos and that of enzymes synthesizing vasoactive mediators, such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide, known to be increased under inflammatory conditions, were studied in the same animals. Read More

    Ruptured aortic aneurysm due to Mycobacterium bovis BCG with a delayed bacteriological diagnosis due to false negative result of the MPB 64 immunochromatographic assay.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Jan 26;10(1):64. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Microbiology Unit, Laboratory Department, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium.
    Background: Adjuvant therapy with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, has become the treatment of choice for low-risk superficial bladder carcinoma following transurethral resection of the bladder. Complications following vesical BCG instillations are uncommon but, in some cases, severe side-effects can occur such as sepsis or mycotic aneurysm. Besides usual laboratory techniques used for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infections (smear microscopy and cultures), commercial immunochromatographic assays detecting MBP64, a 24 kDa M. Read More

    Excavatolide B Modulates the Electrophysiological Characteristics and Calcium Homeostasis of Atrial Myocytes.
    Mar Drugs 2017 Jan 24;15(2). Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Division of Cardiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan.
    Severe bacterial infections caused by sepsis always result in profound physiological changes, including fever, hypotension, arrhythmia, necrosis of tissue, systemic multi-organ dysfunction, and finally death. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provokes an inflammatory response under sepsis, which may increase propensity to arrhythmogenesis. Excavatolide B (EXCB) possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

    Bacteremia caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria among hospitalized malnourished children in Mwanza, Tanzania: a cross sectional study.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Jan 25;10(1):62. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania.
    Background: Severe malnutrition has been known to increase susceptibility and severity of infections. Bacteremia in malnourished children has been found to increase morbidity and mortality especially if is due to multidrug resistant bacteria. Here, we report the prevalence of bacteremia among children under 5 years of age and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates; the information that can be used by clinicians to guide on the empirical antibiotic treatment. Read More

    Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis mimics many common conditions: case series and review of literature.
    Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Jan;49(1):31-41
    Department of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1400 Pelham Parkway S, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.
    Introduction. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a rare but potentially fatal disease, is characterized by excessive immune activation and cytokine release which stimulates bone marrow macrophages to engulf hematopoietic cells. HLH could be secondary to infections: viral, fungal, and bacterial; malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Read More

    Rapid CD8(+) Function Is Critical for Protection of Neonatal Mice from an Extracellular Bacterial Enteropathogen.
    Front Pediatr 2016 9;4:141. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine , Miami, FL , USA.
    Both human and murine neonates are characteristically highly susceptible to bacterial infections. However, we recently discovered that neonatal mice are surprisingly highly resistant to oral infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. This resistance was linked with activation of both innate and adaptive responses, involving innate phagocytes, CD4(+) cells, and B cells. Read More

    High efficiency binding aptamers for a wide range of sepsis bacterial agents.
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Jan 24. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Instituto de Biologia Molecular do Paraná, Department of Research and Development, 3375 Professor Algacyr Munhoz Mader Street, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
    Sepsis is a major health problem worldwide, with an extremely high rate of morbidity and mortality, partly due to delayed diagnosis during early disease. Currently, sepsis diagnosis requires bacterial culturing of blood samples over several days, while PCR-based molecular diagnosis methods are faster, but lack sensitivity. The use of biosensors containing nucleic acid aptamers that bind targets with high affinity and specificity could accelerate sepsis diagnosis. Read More

    Characteristics of children with microbiologically confirmed invasive bacterial infections in the emergency department.
    Eur J Emerg Med 2017 Jan 21. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    aPaediatric Emergency Department, Cruces University Hospital bDepartment of Microbiology, Cruces University Hospital, BioCruces Health Research Institute, University of the Basque Country cEpidemiology Unit, Cruces University Hospital, BioCruces Health Research Institute, Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain.
    Background: Determination of the characteristics of paediatric invasive bacterial infections (IBI) is essential for early identification of children requiring immediate antibiotic therapy. The main objective is to characterize the emergency presentation of the IBI among children aged younger than 14 years.

    Patients And Methods: A prospective registry-based cohort study including all patients aged younger than 14 years diagnosed with confirmed IBI (culture or genomic detection using the polymerase chain reaction) was carried out in a paediatric emergency department between 2008 and 2015. Read More

    Acetabular Prosthetic Protrusio after Bipolar Hemi-Arthroplasty of the Hip: Case Report and Review of the literature.
    J Orthop Case Rep 2016 Jul-Aug;6(3):28-31
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, S169608, Republic of Singapore.
    Introduction: Bipolar hemi-arthroplasty of the hip is a commonly performed procedure in elderly patients with intra-capsular fracture of the neck of the femur with good short-term results for pain relief, return to activity and morbidity. The incidence of intra-pelvic prosthesis migration or protrusion is rare and one of the inciting factors is chronic low-grade sepsis. Acetabular prosthesis protrusion poses a difficult and challenging surgical problem due to surrounding neurovascular structures. Read More

    Perturbations of Phosphatidate Cytidylyltransferase (CdsA) Mediate Daptomycin Resistance in Streptococcus mitis by a Novel Mechanism.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    University of California, CA 94143 and.
    Streptococcus mitis is an important pathogen, causing life-threatening infections such as endocarditis and severe sepsis in immunocompromised patients. The β-lactam antibiotics are the usual therapy of choice for this organism, but their effectiveness is threatened by the frequent emergence of resistance. The lipopeptide, daptomycin ( DAP: ), has been suggested for such resistant S. Read More

    Procalcitonin-guided diagnosis and antibiotic stewardship revisited.
    BMC Med 2017 Jan 24;15(1):15. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    University Department of Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Tellstrasse, CH-5001, Aarau, Switzerland.
    Several controlled clinical studies have evaluated the potential of the infection biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) to improve the diagnostic work-up of patients with bacterial infections and its influence on decisions regarding antibiotic therapy. Most research has focused on lower respiratory tract infections and critically ill sepsis patients. A clinical utility for PCT has also been found for patients with urinary tract infections, postoperative infections, meningitis, and patients with acute heart failure with possible superinfection (i. Read More

    Prognostic Accuracy of the SOFA Score, SIRS Criteria, and qSOFA Score for In-Hospital Mortality Among Adults With Suspected Infection Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit.
    JAMA 2017 01;317(3):290-300
    Department of Intensive Care and Hyperbaric Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Prahran, Melbourne, Australia3Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Alfred Hospital, Prahran, Melbourne, Australia8Centre for Outcome and Resource Evaluation, Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society, Melbourne, Australia.
    Importance: The Sepsis-3 Criteria emphasized the value of a change of 2 or more points in the Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, introduced quick SOFA (qSOFA), and removed the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria from the sepsis definition.

    Objective: Externally validate and assess the discriminatory capacities of an increase in SOFA score by 2 or more points, 2 or more SIRS criteria, or a qSOFA score of 2 or more points for outcomes among patients who are critically ill with suspected infection.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective cohort analysis of 184 875 patients with an infection-related primary admission diagnosis in 182 Australian and New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs) from 2000 through 2015. Read More

    Mincle activation enhances neutrophil migration and resistance to polymicrobial septic peritonitis.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jan 23;7:41106. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea.
    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to bacterial infection. The therapeutic options for treating sepsis are limited. Impaired neutrophil recruitment into the infection site is directly associated with severe sepsis, but the precise mechanism is unclear. Read More

    Neutrophil derived microparticles increase mortality and the counter-inflammatory response in a murine model of sepsis.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2017 Jan 17. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Division of Research, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267, United States. Electronic address:
    Although advances in medical care have significantly improved sepsis survival, sepsis remains the leading cause of death in the ICU. This is likely due to a lack of complete understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to dysfunctional immunity. Neutrophil derived microparticles (NDMPs) have been shown to be the predominant microparticle present at infectious and inflamed foci in human models, however their effect on the immune response to inflammation and infection is sepsis has not been fully elucidated. Read More

    Fatal sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant Bacteroides fragilis, harboring a cfiA gene and an upstream insertion sequence element, in Japan.
    Anaerobe 2017 Jan 17;44:36-39. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Department of Microbiology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:
    Here, we report a case of fatal sepsis resulting from an intra-abdominal infection caused by a Bacteroides fragilis strain containing a CfiA4 metallo-β-lactamase and an upstream insertion sequence (IS) element. Meropenem was used as empiric therapy for septic shock as a result of the intra-abdominal infection, although two rounds of carbapenem treatment had been administered previously. B. Read More

    Human Milk Banking.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2016 20;69 Suppl 2:8-15. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care Medicine and Neuropediatrics, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Read More

    Implementation of short incubation MALDI-TOF MS identification from positive blood cultures in routine diagnostics and effects on empiric antimicrobial therapy.
    Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2017 14;6:12. Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Münster, Domagkstr. 10, 48149 Münster, Germany.
    Background: Results of blood culture (BC) diagnostics should be swiftly available to guide treatment of critically ill patients. Conventional BC diagnostics usually performs species identification of microorganisms from mature solid medium colonies. Species identification might be speed up by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) of biomass from shortly incubated solid media. Read More

    Clinical and microbiological profile of babies born with risk of neonatal sepsis.
    Exp Ther Med 2016 Dec 25;12(6):3621-3625. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Department of Pediatrics, Xuzhou Central Hospital, The Affiliated Xuzhou Hospital of Medical College of Southeast University, Xuzhou Clinical Medical College of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Xuzhou Clinical School of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221009, P.R. China.
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antibiotics on the condition of babies born with risk of neonatal sepsis. From March, 2014 to February, 2015, 200 neonates born with risk factors of septicemia in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Xuzhou Central Hospital, were enrolled in the present study. Venous blood samples were collected within 6 h of birth using aseptic technique. Read More

    Evaluation of three sample preparation methods for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Jan 18;10(1):48. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Public Health England, Public Health Laboratory Birmingham, Heartlands Hospital, Bordesley Green East, Birmingham, B9 5SS, UK.
    Background: Patient mortality is significantly reduced by rapid identification of bacteria from sterile sites. MALDI-TOF can identify bacteria directly from positive blood cultures and multiple sample preparation methods are available. We evaluated three sample preparation methods and two MALDI-TOF score cut-off values. Read More

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