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    Evaluation of the Sepsis Flow Chip assay for the diagnosis of blood infections.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(5):e0177627. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Microbiology, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de Alicante (ISABIAL - FISABIO), Alicante, Spain.
    Background: Blood infections are serious complex conditions that generally require rapid diagnosis and treatment. The big challenge is to reduce the time necessary to make a diagnosis with current clinical microbiological methods so as to improve the treatment given to patients.

    Methods: In this study, we assess for the first time the Sepsis Flow Chip assay, which is a novel diagnostic assay for simultaneous rapid-detection of the vast majority of bloodstream pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, in the same assay, and for the detection of most common antibiotic resistance genes. Read More

    Synthetic anti-endotoxin peptides inhibit cytoplasmic LPS-mediated responses.
    Biochem Pharmacol 2017 May 21. Epub 2017 May 21.
    Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Pharmacy (Pharmacology and Toxicology), Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-independent recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cytosol by inflammatory caspases leads to non-canonical inflammasome activation and induction of IL-1 secretion and pyroptosis. The discovery of this novel mechanism has potential implications for the development of effective drugs to treat sepsis since LPS-mediated hyperactivation of caspases is critically involved in endotoxic shock. Previously, we demonstrated that Pep19-2. Read More

    Abdominal and pelvic actinomycosis due to longstanding intrauterine device: a slow and devastating infection.
    Autops Case Rep 2017 Jan-Mar;7(1):43-47. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Division of Surgery - Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo/SP - Brazil.
    Actinomycosis is a chronic or subacute bacterial infection characterized by large abscess formation, caused mainly by the gram-positive non-acid-fast, anaerobic, or microaerophilic/capnophilic, obligate parasites bacteria from the Actinomyces genus. Although pelvic inflammatory disease is an entity associated with the longstanding use of intrauterine devices (IUDs), actinomycosis is not one of the most frequent infections associated with IUDs. We present the case of a 43-year-old female patient who was referred to the emergency facility because of a 20-day history of abdominal pain with signs of peritoneal irritation. Read More

    Pathological fracture of the femoral neck following septic coxitis and chronic osteomyelitis: a potential complication of Lemierre's syndrome.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 May 22;2017. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Klinik für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie, Universitatsklinikum Schleswig Holstein - Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
    We portray the case of a 16-year-old girl who was initially admitted to the paediatric emergency department with non-specific symptoms of a severe cold and was first treated symptomatically on an ambulatory basis. Within 6 days she developed the full clinical picture of Lemierre's syndrome with the extraordinary manifestation of involvement of her right hip. Despite an interdisciplinary coordinated treatment as well as surgical therapy, a full-blown sepsis evolved within a short time period and resulted in almost 2 months of intensive care. Read More

    [Acute haematogenous osteomyelitis in children : Diagnostic algorithm and treatment strategies].
    Orthopade 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Universitätsklinik für Orthopädie, Medizinische Universität Wien, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Wien, Österreich.
    Acute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) in children is a severe condition. A delay in diagnosis and insufficient treatment may result in deformities, chronicity and sepsis. Therefore a structured diagnostic workup has to be followed in order to diagnose or rule out osteomyelitis. Read More

    Analysis of Mitochondrial Transfer in Direct Co-cultures of Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages (MDM) and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC).
    Bio Protoc 2017 May;7(9)
    Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are adult stem cells which have been shown to improve survival, enhance bacterial clearance and alleviate inflammation in pre-clinical models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. These diseases are characterised by uncontrolled inflammation often underpinned by bacterial infection. The mechanisms of MSC immunomodulatory effects are not fully understood yet. Read More

    Celecoxib Enhances the Efficacy of Low-Dose Antibiotic Treatment against Polymicrobial Sepsis in Mice and Clinical Isolates of ESKAPE Pathogens.
    Front Microbiol 2017 8;8:805. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Animal Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of HyderabadHyderabad, India.
    Treatment of multidrug resistant bacterial infections has been a great challenge globally. Previous studies including our study have highlighted the use of celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in combination with antibiotic has decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration to limit Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the efficacy of this combinatorial treatment against various pathogenic bacteria is not determined. Read More

    [Clinical and demographic profile and risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection].
    Biomedica 2017 Jan 24;37(1):53-61. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Departamento de Cuidado Crítico, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, Medellín, Colombia.
    Introduction: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease.

    Objective: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. Read More

    Patients with community-acquired bacteremia of unknown origin: clinical characteristics and usefulness of microbiological results for therapeutic issues: a single-center cohort study.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 May 19;16(1):40. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Infectious Diseases Department, Hôpital Archet 1, Nice Academic Hospital, Infectiologie 151 Route de St Antoine de Ginestière, 06200, Nice, France.
    Bacteremia of unknown origin (BUO) are associated with increased mortality compared to those with identified sources. Microbiological data of those patients could help to characterize an appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment before bloodcultures results are available during sepsis of unknown origin. Based on the dashboard of our ward that prospectively records several parameters from each hospitalization, we report 101 community-acquired BUO selected among 1989 bacteremic patients from July 2005 to April 2016, BUO being defined by the absence of clinical and paraclinical infectious focus and no other microbiological samples retrieving the bacteria isolated from blood cultures. Read More

    Increased resistance of gram-negative urinary pathogens after kidney transplantation.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 May 19;18(1):164. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147, Essen, Germany.
    Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common complication after kidney transplantation. It can cause severe sepsis and transplant loss. Emergence of drug resistance among gram-negative urinary pathogens is the current challenge for urinary tract infection treatment after kidney transplantation. Read More

    Bioengineering bacterial outer membrane vesicles as vaccine platform.
    Biotechnol Adv 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc), Process Development Bacterial Vaccines, P.O. Box 450, 3720 AL Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally non-replicating, highly immunogenic spherical nanoparticles derived from Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs from pathogenic bacteria have been successfully used as vaccines against bacterial meningitis and sepsis among others and the composition of the vesicles can easily be engineered. OMVs can be used as a vaccine platform by engineering heterologous antigens to the vesicles. Read More

    Prothymosin alpha: an alarmin and more...
    Curr Med Chem 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72076. Germany.
    Background/objective: Prothymosin alpha (proTα) is a ubiquitous polypeptide first isolated by Haritos in 1984, whose role still remains partly elusive. We know that proTα acts both, intracellularly, as an anti-apoptotic and proliferation mediator, and extracellularly, as a biologic response modifier mediating immune responses similarly to molecules termed "alarmins". Our research team pioneered the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the observed activities of proTα. Read More

    Incidence of respiratory viral infection in infants with respiratory symptoms evaluated for late-onset sepsis.
    J Perinatol 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Pediatrics/Division of Neonatology, Albany Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA.
    Objective: To determine the frequency, etiology and impact of respiratory viral infection (RVI) on infants evaluated for late-onset sepsis (LOS), defined as sepsis occurring >72 h of life, in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Study Design: Prospective observational study conducted from 6 March 2014 to 3 May 2016 on infants evaluated for LOS. PCR viral panel performed on nasopharyngeal specimens among infants with clinical suspicion for RVI. Read More

    Potentially hazardous Streptococcus suis strains latent in asymptomatic pigs in a major swine production area of Thailand.
    J Med Microbiol 2017 May 18;66(5):662-669. Epub 2017 May 18.
    3​Division of Bacterial and Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856, Japan 5​The United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.
    Purpose: Carrier pigs have been considered as the major reservoir of Streptococcus suis and couldbe a significant source of human infection. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of latent S. suis in asymptomatic pigs in the pig-farming area of central Thailand, and compared the data to those previously reported in other regions. Read More

    A Model Specific Role of MicroRNA-223 as a Mediator of Kidney Injury During Experimental Sepsis.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 May 17:ajprenal.00493.2016. Epub 2017 May 17.
    University of Colorado School of Medicine
    Sepsis outcomes are heavily dependent on the development of septic organ injury, but no interventions exist to interrupt or reverse this process. MicroRNA-223 (miR-223) is known to be involved in both inflammatory gene regulation and host-pathogen interactions key to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The goal of this study was to determine the role of miR-223 as a mediator of septic kidney injury. Read More

    Rapid diagnosis of sepsis with TaqMan-Based multiplex real-time PCR.
    J Clin Lab Anal 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of General Surgery, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.
    Background: The survival rate of septic patients mainly depends on a rapid and reliable diagnosis. A rapid, broad range, specific and sensitive quantitative diagnostic test is the urgent need. Thus, we developed a TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens within a few hours. Read More

    Immune Dysfunction in Cirrhosis.
    J Clin Transl Hepatol 2017 Mar 10;5(1):50-58. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Sri Aurobindo Medical College and Post Graduate Institute, Indore, India.
    Cirrhosis due to any etiology disrupts the homeostatic role of liver in the body. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction leads to alterations in both innate and acquired immunity, due to defects in the local immunity of liver as well as in systemic immunity. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction is a dynamic phenomenon, comprised of both increased systemic inflammation and immunodeficiency, and is responsible for 30% mortality. Read More

    Efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy in Chinese patients with AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: An observational study.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 15;7(1):1905. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Clinical and Research Center of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100015, China.
    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy in HIV-infected patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving CHOP ± R (n = 17) or Burkitt lymphoma (BL) receiving CODOX-M/IVAC ± R (n = 15). The study was conducted in Beijing Ditan Hospital from January 2009 to August 2015. The following grade 4 adverse effects were observed in BL and DLBCL patients, respectively: neutropenia (80% versus 47. Read More

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Germany from 2004-2005 to 2014-2015.
    Int J Med Microbiol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, National Reference Center for Streptococci, University Hospital (RWTH), Aachen, Germany.
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Prevalence of levofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates in Germany and associated mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), as well as serotype distribution and multi locus sequence types (MLST) are shown. Read More

    [Relationship between fever degree and prognosis in children with bacterial bloodstream infection].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 May;19(5):560-563
    Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China.
    Objective: To study the relationship between the degree of fever within 48 hours of admission and the prognosis in children with bacterial bloodstream infection.

    Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of all patients diagnosed with sepsis who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University between September 2008 and September 2016. The children with bacterial bloodstream infection were classified into 5 groups according to the maximum temperature within 48 hours of admission: <36. Read More

    Vendor effects on murine gut microbiota influence experimental abdominal sepsis.
    J Surg Res 2017 May 14;211:126-136. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Experimental animal models are indispensable components of preclinical sepsis research. Reproducible results highly rely on defined and invariant baseline conditions. Our hypothesis was that the murine gut microbiota varies among different distributors of laboratory animals and that these variations influence the phenotype of abdominal sepsis derived from a bacterial inoculum model (intraperitoneal stool injection). Read More

    Gastrointestinal Colonization of Candida Albicans Increases Serum (1→3)-β-D-Glucan, without Candidemia, and Worsens Cecal Ligation and Puncture Sepsis in Murine Model.
    Shock 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    *Interdisciplinary Program of Medical Microbiology, Graduate school, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand †Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand ‡Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand §Omics Sciences and Bioinformatics Center, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand ||Department of Water Resources Management, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Mulawarman University, Indonesia ¶Associates of Cape Cod, Inc., East Falmouth, MA, USA **Center of Excellence in Immunology and Immune-mediated Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand ††STAR on Craniofacial and Skeleton Disorders, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    The role of intestinal Candida albicans in bacterial sepsis, in the absence of candidemia, was investigated in murine models. Live C. albicans or normal saline solution (NSS) was administered orally once, followed by 5 days of daily oral antibiotic-mixtures (ATB). Read More

    Interleukin-22 Prevents Microbial Dysbiosis and Promotes Intestinal Barrier Regeneration Following Acute Injury.
    Shock 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    *Alcohol Research Program †Burn & Shock Trauma Research Institute ‡Department of Surgery §Department of Microbiology and Immunology ||Integrative Cell Biology Program ¶Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Division, Maywood, IL, USA **Laboratory of Liver Diseases, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Intestine barrier disruption and bacterial translocation can contribute to sepsis and multiple organ failure- leading causes of mortality in burn-injured patients. Additionally, findings suggest ethanol (alcohol) intoxication at the time of injury worsens symptoms associated with burn injury. We have previously shown that interleukin-22 (IL-22) protects from intestinal leakiness and prevents overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria following ethanol and burn injury, but how IL-22 mediates these effects has not been established. Read More

    A Review of the Value of Procalcitonin as a Marker of Infection.
    Cureus 2017 Apr 10;9(4):e1148. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Medical Student, University of Central Florida College of Medicine.
    Septicemia is a growing problem within the United States (US), which increases mortality and the cost of care. Procalcitonin is a pro-inflammatory marker that could be useful in the diagnosis of infection. In the past, procalcitonin levels have been evaluated to diagnose sepsis or guide antibiotic therapy, but it was not determined if it would differentiate between sepsis and other causes of inflammation. Read More

    Rapid separation of very low concentrations of bacteria from blood.
    J Microbiol Methods 2017 May 8;139:48-53. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Chemical Engineering Department, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA. Electronic address:
    A rapid and accurate diagnosis of the species and antibiotic resistance of bacteria in septic blood is vital to increase survival rates of patients with bloodstream infections, particularly those with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections. The extremely low levels in blood (1 to 100CFU/ml) make rapid diagnosis difficult. In this study, very low concentrations of bacteria (6 to 200CFU/ml) were separated from 7ml of whole blood using rapid sedimentation in a spinning hollow disk that separated plasma from red and white cells, leaving most of the bacteria suspended in the plasma. Read More

    Coagulation factor XI improves host defence during murine pneumonia-derived sepsis independent of factor XII activation.
    Thromb Haemost 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Ingrid Stroo, Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, G2-1051105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Tel.: +31 20 5666034, E-mail:
    Bacterial pneumonia, the most common cause of sepsis, is associated with activation of coagulation. Factor XI (FXI), the key component of the intrinsic pathway, can be activated via factor XII (FXII), part of the contact system, or via thrombin. To determine whether intrinsic coagulation is involved in host defence during pneumonia and whether this is dependent on FXII activation, we infected in parallel wild-type (WT), FXI knockout (KO) and FXII KO mice with two different clinically relevant pathogens, the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, via the airways. Read More

    Neonatal sepsis in rural India: timing, microbiology and antibiotic resistance in a population-based prospective study in the community setting.
    J Perinatol 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Objective: To examine the timing and microbiology of neonatal sepsis in a population-based surveillance in the Indian community setting.

    Study Design: All live born infants in 223 villages of Odisha state were followed at home for 60 days. Suspect sepsis cases were referred to study hospitals for further evaluation including blood culture. Read More

    An AAAG-Rich Oligodeoxynucleotide Rescues Mice from Bacterial Septic Peritonitis by Interfering Interferon Regulatory Factor 5.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 May 11;18(5). Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China.
    A previous study found that an AAAG-rich Oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), designated as MS19, could lessen the acute lung inflammatory injury (ALII) in mice infected by influenza viruses. Bioinformatics analysis found that MS19 is consensus with the binding site of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) in the regulatory elements of pro-inflammatory genes. This study established a septic peritonitis model in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice infected with Escherichia coli (E. Read More

    Ectodomain Shedding by ADAM17: Its Role in Neutrophil Recruitment and the Impairment of This Process during Sepsis.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 25;7:138. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of MinnesotaSt. Paul, MN, USA.
    Neutrophils are specialized at killing bacteria and are recruited from the blood in a rapid and robust manner during infection. A cascade of adhesion events direct their attachment to the vascular endothelium and migration into the underlying tissue. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) functions in the cell membrane of neutrophils and endothelial cells by cleaving its substrates, typically in a cis manner, at an extracellular site proximal to the cell membrane. Read More

    Lipid testing in infectious diseases: possible role in diagnosis and prognosis.
    Infection 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ioannina School of Health Sciences-Faculty of Medicine, 45 110, Ioannina, Greece.
    Introduction: Acute infections lead to significant alterations in metabolic regulation including lipids and lipoproteins, which play a central role in the host immune response. In this regard, several studies have investigated the role of lipid levels as a marker of infection severity and prognosis.

    Scope Of Review: We review here the role of lipids in immune response and the potential mechanisms underneath. Read More

    Selective phenylalanine to proline substitution for improved antimicrobial and anticancer activities of peptides designed on phenylalanine heptad repeat.
    Acta Biomater 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Molecular and Structural Biology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031, India. Electronic address:
    Introducing cell-selectivity in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) without compromising the antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin properties is a crucial step towards the development of new antimicrobial agents. A peptide designed on phenylalanine heptad repeat possesses significant cytotoxicity along with desired antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin properties. Amino acid substitutions at 'a' and/or 'd' positions of heptad repeats of AMPs could alter their helical structure in mammalian membrane-mimetic environments and cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells. Read More

    Therapeutic effect of Schistosoma japonicum cystatin on bacterial sepsis in mice.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 May 8;10(1):222. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Basic Medical College of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, 233000, China.
    Background: Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of an infection and remains one of the leading causes of mortality in surgical patients. Bacteremia induces excessive inflammatory responses that result in multiple organ damage. Chronic helminth infection and helminth-derived materials have been found to immunomodulate host immune system to reduce inflammation against some allergic or inflammatory diseases. Read More

    [A multicenter randomized controlled study of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in infants and young children].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 May;55(5):349-354
    West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in infants and young children. Method: From November 2012 to September 2013, ten research units of large teaching hospitals or children's hospitals participated in this multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. Hospitalized young children aged between 1 month and 3 years (nongastrointestinal infection and antibiotic therapy required)were involved in our study. Read More

    Using Procalcitonin to Guide Antibiotic Therapy.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 7;4(1):ofw249. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School/Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Procalcitonin levels rise in response to systemic inflammation, especially of bacterial origin. Multiple randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that procalcitonin-based algorithms can safely reduce antibiotic use in 2 clinical scenarios. First, in stable, low-risk patients with respiratory infections, procalcitonin levels of <0. Read More

    Mass Spectrometry for Profiling LOS and Lipid A Structures from Whole-Cell Lysates: Directly from a Few Bacterial Colonies or from Liquid Broth Cultures.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1600:187-198
    Institute of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Medicine and Szentágothai Research Center, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, endotoxins) are components of the outer cell membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria and can play an important role in a number of diseases of bacteria, including Gram-negative sepsis. The hydrophilic carbohydrate part of LPSs consists of a core oligosaccharide (in the case of an R-type LPS or lipooligosaccharide, LOS) linked to an O-polysaccharide chain (in the case of an S-type LPS), which is responsible for O-specific immunogenicity. The hydrophobic lipid A anchor is composed of a phosphorylated diglucosamine backbone to which varying numbers of ester- and amide-linked fatty acids are attached and this part of the LPSs is associated with endotoxicity. Read More

    Capillary Electrophoresis Chips for Fingerprinting Endotoxin Chemotypes and Subclasses.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1600:151-165
    Institute of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Medicine and Szentágothai Research Center, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS; lipooligosaccharides, LOS) are components of the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. These molecules, responsible for both advantageous and harmful biological activity of these microorganisms, are highly immunogenic and directly involved in numerous bacterial diseases in humans, such as Gram-negative sepsis. The characterization of endotoxins is of importance, since their physiological and pathophysiological effects depend on their chemical structure. Read More

    Maternal colonization with S. aureus and Group B Streptococcus is associated with colonization in newborns.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 May 3. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Objectives: Although Staphylococcus aureus and group B Streptococcus (GBS) are major causes of neonatal sepsis in sub-Saharan Africa, it is unclear how these bacteria are transmitted to the neonate.

    Methods: In a cohort of 377 Gambian women and their newborns, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at delivery (day 0), and 3, 6, 14 and 28 days later. Breast milk samples and vaginal swabs were collected from the mother. Read More

    Detection and quantification of intracellular bacterial colonies by automated, high-throughput microscopy.
    J Microbiol Methods 2017 May 3;139:37-44. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:
    To target bacterial pathogens that invade and proliferate inside host cells, it is necessary to design intervention strategies directed against bacterial attachment, cellular invasion and intracellular proliferation. We present an automated microscopy-based, fast, high-throughput method for analyzing size and number of intracellular bacterial colonies in infected tissue culture cells. Cells are seeded in 48-well plates and infected with a GFP-expressing bacterial pathogen. Read More

    Holocranohistochemistry enables the visualization of α-synuclein expression in the murine olfactory system and discovery of its systemic anti-microbial effects.
    J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Program in Neuroscience, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Braak and Del Tredici have proposed that typical Parkinson disease (PD) has its origins in the olfactory bulb and gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of the olfactory system has insufficiently been explored in the pathogeneses of PD and Alzheimer disease (AD) in laboratory models. Here, we demonstrate applications of a new method to process mouse heads for microscopy by sectioning, mounting, and staining whole skulls ('holocranohistochemistry'). Read More

    A presumed antagonistic LPS identifies distinct functional organization of TLR4 in mouse microglia.
    Glia 2017 Jul 4;65(7):1176-1185. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Institute of Neuropathology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, 37075, Germany.
    Microglia as principle innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are the first line of defense against invading pathogens. They are capable of sensing infections through diverse receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This receptor is best known for its ability to recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a causative agent of gram-negative sepsis and septic shock. Read More

    Neonatal sepsis in a Nigerian private tertiary hospital: Bacterial isolates, risk factors, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns.
    Ann Afr Med 2017 Apr-Jun;16(2):52-58
    Department of Pediatrics, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.
    Background/objectives: Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group in spite of several attempts at mitigating its effects. This article determines the prevalence of neonatal sepsis and the pathogens responsible for sepsis as well as risk factors and outcome at the Babcock University Teaching Hospital.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis of laboratory records of consecutive babies delivered within and outside our hospital suspected of having sepsis over a 1-year period. Read More

    The Angiopoietin-Tie2 Signaling Axis in Systemic Inflammation.
    J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Division of Nephrology and Center for Vascular Biology Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Systemic inflammation is a hallmark of commonly encountered diseases ranging from bacterial sepsis to sterile syndromes such as major trauma. Derangements in the host vasculature contribute to the cardinal manifestations of sepsis in profound ways. Recent studies of control pathways regulating the vascular endothelium have illuminated how this single cell layer toggles between quiescence and activation to affect the development of shock and multiorgan dysfunction. Read More

    Pulmonary strongyloidiasis: assessment between manifestation and radiological findings in 16 severe strongyloidiasis cases.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 May 2;17(1):320. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory, and Digestive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa, 903-0215, Japan.
    Background: Strongyloidiasis is a chronic parasitic infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Severe cases such as, hyperinfection syndrome (HS) and disseminated strongyloidiasis (DS), can involve pulmonary manifestations. These manifestations frequently aid the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis. Read More

    On-Chip spectroscopic assessment of microbial susceptibility to antibiotics within 3.5 hours.
    J Biophotonics 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Jena, Germany.
    In times of rising antibiotic resistances, there is a high need for fast, sensitive and specific methods to determine antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial pathogens. Here, we present an integrated microfluidic device in which bacteria from diluted suspensions are captured in well-defined regions using on-chip dielectrophoresis and further analyzed in a label-free and non-destructive manner using Raman spectroscopy. Minimal sample preparation and automated sample processing ensure safe handling of infectious material with minimal hands-on time for the operator. Read More

    Brd4 modulates the innate immune response through Mnk2-eIF4E pathway-dependent translational control of IκBα.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 May 1;114(20):E3993-E4001. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801;
    Bromodomain-containing factor Brd4 has emerged as an important transcriptional regulator of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory gene expression. However, the in vivo physiological function of Brd4 in the inflammatory response remains poorly defined. We now demonstrate that mice deficient for Brd4 in myeloid-lineage cells are resistant to LPS-induced sepsis but are more susceptible to bacterial infection. Read More

    Inflammatory responses and histopathological changes in a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced bloodstream infections.
    J Infect Dev Ctries 2017 Apr 30;11(4):294-305. Epub 2017 Apr 30.
    Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus-induced bloodstream infections (BSIs) remain a prevalent clinical challenge and the underlying pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory responses and histopathological changes in BSIs in mice.

    Methodology: Male C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with S. Read More

    Investigating the role of pentraxin 3 as a biomarker for bacterial infection in subjects with COPD.
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2017 18;12:1199-1205. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford.
    Background: Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase protein, involved in antibacterial resistance. Recent studies have shown PTX3 levels to be elevated in the presence of a bacterial infection and in a murine sepsis model.

    Objective: We aim to investigate if sputum PTX3 can be used as a biomarker for bacterial infection in subjects with COPD. Read More

    The Potential Role of Fosfomycin in Neonatal Sepsis Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.
    Drugs 2017 Jun;77(9):941-950
    Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK.
    The broad-spectrum activity of fosfomycin, including against multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, has led to renewed interest in its use in recent years. Neonatal sepsis remains a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality at a global level, with evidence that MDR bacteria play an increasing role. The evidence for use of fosfomycin in neonatal subjects is limited. Read More

    Functional characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei biotin protein ligase: A toolkit for anti-melioidosis drug development.
    Microbiol Res 2017 Jun 19;199:40-48. Epub 2017 Mar 19.
    Comparative Genomics Centre, James Cook University, DB21, James Cook Drive, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia. Electronic address:
    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is the causative agent of melioidosis. The bacterium is responsible for 20% of community-acquired sepsis cases and 40% of sepsis-related mortalities in northeast Thailand, and is intrinsically resistant to aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifamycins, cephalosporins, and nonureidopenicillins. There is no vaccine and its diagnosis is problematic. Read More

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