43,011 results match your criteria Sepsis Bacterial


Curcumin and Intestinal Inflammatory Diseases: Molecular Mechanisms of Protection.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 18;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 1200 North Everett Drive, ETNP7504, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, are becoming increasingly prevalent. While knowledge of the pathogenesis of these related diseases is currently incomplete, each of these conditions is thought to involve a dysfunctional, or overstated, host immunological response to both bacteria and dietary antigens, resulting in unchecked intestinal inflammation and, often, alterations in the intestinal microbiome. This inflammation can result in an impaired intestinal barrier allowing for bacterial translocation, potentially resulting in systemic inflammation and, in severe cases, sepsis. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/8/1912
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081912DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Protocol-based perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in urologic surgeries: Feasibility and lessons learned.

Indian J Urol 2019 Apr-Jun;35(2):141-146

Department of Urology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Introduction: Rational use of antibiotics and strict adherence to practice guidelines is essential to prevent antibiotic resistance. The best surgical prophylaxis protocol requires tailoring of the available guidelines in accordance to the local bacterial flora. We designed a protocol for surgical prophylaxis to check the rampant abuse of antibiotics in the department of urology and evaluated its feasibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/iju.IJU_270_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458815PMC

Major Adverse Kidney Events in Pediatric Sepsis.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background And Objectives: Major adverse kidney events, a composite of death, new kidney replacement therapy, or persistent kidney dysfunction, is a potential patient-centered outcome for clinical trials in sepsis-associated kidney injury. We sought to determine the incidence of major adverse kidney events within 30 days and validate this end point in pediatric sepsis.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: We conducted a retrospective observational study using the Pediatric Health Information Systems Plus database of patients >6 months to <18 years old with a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock; orders for bacterial blood culture, antibiotics, and at least one fluid bolus on hospital day 0/1; and known hospital disposition between January 2007 and December 2011. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.12201018DOI Listing

Cholecystokinin Modulates the Mucosal Inflammatory Response and Prevents the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction.

Shock 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Physiology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School. University of São Paulo. Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

The intestinal mucosa plays a critical role in the organism, acting as an interface between the lamina propria and the harmful antigens in the lumen. Sepsis is associated with primary injury to the intestinal mucosa, which in turn induces bacterial translocation and hyperpermeability. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide synthesized by several cell types, whose immunomodulatory activity has been reported in experimental models of inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001355DOI Listing

Phase 1 trial of intrapleural LTI-01; single chain urokinase in complicated parapneumonic effusions or empyema.

JCI Insight 2019 Apr 18;5. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Background: Current dosing of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) in adults with complicated parapneumonic effusion (CPE) / empyema is empiric, as dose-escalation trials have not previously been conducted. We hypothesized that LTI-01 (scuPA), which is relatively resistant to PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), would be well-tolerated.

Methods: This was an open-label, dose-escalation trial of LTI-01 IPFT at 50,000-800,000 IU daily for up to 3 days in adults with loculated CPE/empyema and failed pleural drainage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.127470DOI Listing

Co-infection with bacterial and fungal endocarditis at scar tissue in an immunocompromised patient.

J Cardiol Cases 2019 Apr 17;19(4):117-120. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

We present the case of a 65-year-old immunocompromised male with a history of kidney transplantation, diabetes, coronary artery bypass, and cardiac resynchronization therapy device implantation who was finally diagnosed with an unusual form of infective endocarditis due to co-infection of fungal and bacterial pathogens. He was afebrile at the time of admission and presented with decompensated heart failure and pneumonia. A spleen abscess was discovered incidentally and prompted us to search for a cardiac source of emboli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jccase.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451046PMC
April 2019
1 Read

CD89 Is a Potent Innate Receptor for Bacteria and Mediates Host Protection from Sepsis.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(3):762-775.e5

INSERM U1149, Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation, Paris, France; CNRS ERL8252, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, Site Xavier Bichat, Paris, France; Inflamex Laboratory of Excellence, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Direct bacterial recognition by innate receptors is crucial for bacterial clearance. Here, we show that the IgA receptor CD89 is a major innate receptor that directly binds bacteria independently of its cognate ligands IgA and c-reactive protein (CRP). This binding is only partially inhibited by serum IgA and induces bacterial phagocytosis by CD11c dendritic cells and monocytes and/or macrophages, suggesting a physiological role in innate host defense. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247193039
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.062DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Value of serum procalcitonin for the diagnosis of bacterial septic arthritis in daily practice in rheumatology.

Clin Rheumatol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

CHRU Jean Minjoz, Service de Rhumatologie, 3 Boulevard Alexandre Fleming, 25000, Besancon, France.

Introduction/objectives: Septic arthritis is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency because of a high morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, the etiologic diagnosis is often difficult. The aim of our study was to determine if serum procalcitonin was a discriminatory biomarker in case of arthritis of undetermined etiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04542-0DOI Listing
April 2019
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Current status of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in clinical microbiology.

J Food Drug Anal 2019 Apr 31;27(2):404-414. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Bruker Taiwan Co., Ltd., Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Mass spectrometry (MS) is a type of analysis used to determine what molecules make up a sample, based on the mass spectrum that are created by the ions. Mass spectrometers are able to perform traditional target analyte identification and quantitation; however, they may also be used within a clinical setting for the rapid identification of bacteria. The causative agent in sepsis is changed over time, and clinical decisions affecting the management of infections are often based on the outcomes of bacterial identification. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10219498193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2019.01.001DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Risk factors for death among children 0-59 months of age with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Manhiça district, southern Mozambique.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 15;19(1):322. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Rúa 12, Vila da Manhiça, 1929, Maputo, CP, Mozambique.

Background: Despite major improvements in child survival rates, the number of deaths due to diarrhea remains unacceptably high. We aimed to describe diarrhea-associated mortality and evaluate risk factors for death among Mozambican children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD).

Methods: Between December 2007 and November 2012, children under-five with MSD were enrolled in Manhiça district, as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter study (GEMS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3948-9DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Novel Mutation in GALT Gene in Galactosemia Patient with Group B Streptococcus Meningitis and Acute Liver Failure.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 Apr 4;55(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Second Pediatric Clinic, Department of Mother and Child, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hațieganu" Cluj-Napoca, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) involved in galactose metabolism. Bacterial infections are a known cause of early morbidity and mortality in children with classic galactosemia. The most common agent is but in rare situations, other bacteria are incriminated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040091DOI Listing
April 2019
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Antibiotic therapy as personalized medicine - general considerations and complicating factors.

APMIS 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The discovery of antibiotic drugs is considered one of the previous century's most important medical discoveries (1). Appropriate use of antibiotics saves millions of lives each year and prevents infectious complications for numerous people. Still, infections kill unacceptable many people around the world, even in developed countries with easy access to most antibiotic drugs. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/apm.12951
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12951DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Augmented Adsorptive Blood Purification during Continuous Veno-Venous Haemodiafiltration in a Severe Septic, Acute Kidney Injury Patient: Use of oXiris®: A Single Centre Case Report.

Blood Purif 2019 12;47 Suppl 3:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Renal Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singhealth-Duke Academic Medical Centre, Singapore, Singapore.

The use of the oXiris® haemofilter during continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) for acute kidney injury (AKI) and severe sepsis is not completely understood. Although this filter has in vitro adsorptive properties for blood-borne cytokines and other humoural mediators of sepsis, its clinical usefulness is uncertain. Given its inherent adsorptive limitation for septic mediators, we developed a CVVHDF protocol in which the oXiris haemofilter was electively changed every 12 h even though there was no clotting or adverse circuit pressures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499633DOI Listing
April 2019
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Analysis of Endotoxin Adsorption in Two Swedish Patients with Septic Shock.

Blood Purif 2019 12;47 Suppl 3:1-3. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Perioperative and Intensive Care, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) from the outer Gram-negative bacterial wall can induce a harmful immunologic response, involving hemodynamic deprivation, and is one important motor driving the septic cascade. The positively charged poly-imine ethylene layer on the oXiris membrane is capable of adsorbing negatively charged endotoxin molecules and removing them from the blood compartment. Endotoxin is detrimental and should be removed from blood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499546DOI Listing
April 2019
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Platelet enhancement of bacterial growth during room temperature storage: mitigation through refrigeration.

Transfusion 2019 Apr;59(S2):1479-1489

U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, Coagulation and Blood Research Task Area, Texas.

Introduction: Due to high risk of septic transfusion reactions arising from bacterial contamination, US Food and Drug Administration regulations currently limit platelet storage to 5 days at room temperature (RT). However, blood culturing methods can take up to 7 days to detect bacteria, allowing transfusion of potentially contaminated units. Thus, cold storage (CS) may be a viable means of extending shelf life and improving safety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15255DOI Listing
April 2019
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Microfluidics-Based Organism Isolation from Whole Blood: An Emerging Tool for Bloodstream Infection Diagnosis.

Ann Biomed Eng 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA.

The diagnosis of bloodstream infections presents numerous challenges, in part, due to the low concentration of pathogens present in the peripheral bloodstream. As an alternative to existing time-consuming, culture-based diagnostic methods for organism identification, microfluidic devices have emerged as rapid, high-throughput and integrated platforms for bacterial and fungal enrichment, detection, and characterization. This focused review serves to highlight and compare the emerging microfluidic platforms designed for the isolation of sepsis-causing pathogens from blood and suggest important areas for future research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-019-02256-7DOI Listing
April 2019
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Biomarkers of post-discharge mortality among children with complicated severe acute malnutrition.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 12;9(1):5981. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

The Childhood Acute Illness & Nutrition (CHAIN) Network, Nairobi, Kenya.

High mortality after discharge from hospital following acute illness has been observed among children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM). However, mechanisms that may be amenable to intervention to reduce risk are unknown. We performed a nested case-control study among HIV-uninfected children aged 2-59 months treated for complicated SAM according to WHO recommendations at four Kenyan hospitals. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42436-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42436-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461700PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Procalcitonin-Guided Treatment on Duration of Antibiotic Therapy and Cost in Septic Patients (PRODA): a Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Korean Med Sci 2019 Apr 15;34(14):e110. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The objective of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic discontinuation in critically ill patients with sepsis in a country with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and a national health insurance system.

Methods: In a multi-center randomized controlled trial, patients were randomly assigned to a PCT group (stopping antibiotics based on a predefined cut-off range of PCT) or a control group. The primary end-point was antibiotic duration. Read More

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https://jkms.org/DOIx.php?id=10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e110
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460106PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Impact of cytomegalovirus load on host response to sepsis.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 110 Francis St, Lowry 2G, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

There is a decades old association between cytomegalovirus reactivation and sepsis in immune-competent hosts. Much has been learned about this relationship, which has been described as bidirectional, meaning that the virus incites and is incited by the host's inflammatory response. More recent work has suggested that chronic viral infection leaves the host with exaggerated immunity to bacterial infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00603-yDOI Listing
April 2019
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3.038 Impact Factor

Mediatory roles of leukotriene B receptors in LPS-induced endotoxic shock.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 11;9(1):5936. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Korea.

Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection, is the most common disease in patients treated in intensive care units. Endotoxic shock, the most critical form of sepsis, is caused by gram-negative bacterial infection. However, the detailed mechanism of endotoxic shock remains unclear. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42410-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42410-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459907PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Minimal adjuvant chemotherapy for children with hepatoblastoma resected at diagnosis (AHEP0731): a Children's Oncology Group, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Hepatoblastoma treatment with curative intent requires surgical resection, but only about a third of newly diagnosed patients with hepatoblastoma have resectable disease at diagnosis. Patients who have upfront resection typically receive a total of 4-6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy post-surgery, with the combination of cisplatin, fluorouracil, and vincristine. We aimed to investigate whether event-free survival in children with hepatoblastoma who had complete resection at diagnosis could be maintained with two cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30895-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Postpartum endometritis and obstetrical sepsis associated with Eggerthella lenta. Case report and review of the literature.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Apr 12:1-5. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

f International Cooperation Department , National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology named after Academician V. I. Kulakov of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation , Moscow , Russia.

Sepsis, associated with Eggerthella lenta is rarely reported, despite current possibilities for microorganisms isolation and identification. About 100 cases of bacteriemia associated with this pathogen have been reported so far. Postpartum infectious complications are mostly associated with bacterial inhabitants of gastrointestinal tract and vagina, including obligatory anaerobes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1602602DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Early Blood Biomarkers to Improve Sepsis/Bacteremia Diagnostics in Pediatric Emergency Settings.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 Apr 10;55(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Sepsis is the leading cause of death in children worldwide. Early recognition and treatment are essential for preventing progression to lethal outcomes. CRP and Complete Blood Count (CBC) are the initial preferred tests to distinguish between bacterial and viral infections. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1010-660X/55/4/99
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040099DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Bacterial Resistance in Pneumonia in Developing Countries-A Role for Iron Chelation.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Apr 10;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management and Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 1X5, Canada.

Pneumonia represents one of the major infectious diseases in developing countries and is associated with high mortality, in particular in children under the age of five. The main causative bacterial agents are and type B, accounting for 33% and 16%, respectively, of the mortality in under-fives. Iron modulates the immune response in infectious diseases and increased iron levels can lead to complications such as sepsis and multiorgan failure. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2414-6366/4/2/59
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020059DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Predicting the risk of sepsis and causative organisms following urinary stones removal using urinary versus stone and stent cultures.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Infectious Disease Unit, Rabin Medical Center-Beilinson Hospital, Petach Tikva; affiliated to Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

The association between foreign objects in the urinary system and urinary tract infections (UTI) is well established. The incidence of bacteriuria in patient with urinary catheters increases as dwelling time lengthens. The presence of ureteral stents and kidney stones is also associated with increased risk for bacteriuria and urinary tract infection. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10096-019-03555-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-019-03555-6DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

A Cohort Study of the Impact of Carbapenem-Resistant Infections on Mortality of Patients Presenting with Sepsis.

mSphere 2019 04 10;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil

The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of carbapenem-resistant (CRE) infection on sepsis 30-day mortality. A retrospective cohort of patients >18 years old with sepsis and organ dysfunction or septic shock was conducted. Univariate analysis was done for variables potentially related to 30-day mortality, and the ones with values of <0. Read More

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http://msphere.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mSphere.00052-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00052-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458433PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Community-based antibiotic delivery for possible serious bacterial infections in neonates in low- and middle-income countries.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Apr 11;4:CD007646. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Division of Neonatology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: The recommended management for neonates with a possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) is hospitalisation and treatment with intravenous antibiotics, such as ampicillin plus gentamicin. However, hospitalisation is often not feasible for neonates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, alternative options for the management of neonatal PSBI in LMICs needs to be evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007646.pub3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458055PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Surveillance for incidence and etiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis in Soweto, South Africa.

PLoS One 2019 10;14(4):e0214077. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Globally, over 400,000 neonatal deaths in 2015 were attributed to sepsis, however, the incidence and etiologies of these infections are largely unknown in low-middle income countries. We aimed to determine incidence and etiology of community-acquired early-onset (<72 hours age) sepsis (EOS) using culture and molecular diagnostics.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study, in which we conducted a surveillance for pathogens using a combination of blood culture and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214077PLOS
April 2019
3 Reads

As a Novel Procalcitonin Assay is Architect B∙R∙A∙H∙M∙S PCT; Comparison of Two Commercial Systems.

Clin Lab 2019 Apr;65(4)

Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is the precursor structure of the calcitonin hormone with 116 amino acids. The measurement of serum procalcitonin is currently being safely used in community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial peritonitis and sepsis in the diagnosis, decision on the initiation of treatment, and follow-up of the response to treatment. In this study, it is aimed to compare PCT results obtained by the VIDAS PCT that makes measurements by the enzyme-dependent fluorescence (ELFA) method and Architect PCT method, a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) that has just been put into use, both of which are B∙R∙A∙H∙M∙S licensed and have method differences. Read More

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http://www.clin-lab-publications.com/article/2932
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180727DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Decontamination Strategies for Critically Ill Patients.

JAMA 2019 04;321(14):1408-1409

Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.0452DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Decontamination Strategies for Critically Ill Patients.

JAMA 2019 04;321(14):1409

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.0448DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Decontamination Strategies for Critically Ill Patients.

JAMA 2019 04;321(14):1409-1410

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan, Taiwan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.0444DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Korean Red Ginseng enhances pneumococcal Δ vaccine efficacy by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production.

J Ginseng Res 2019 Apr 9;43(2):218-225. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Background: , more than 90 serotypes of which exist, is recognized as an etiologic agent of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization with a pneumococcal mutant (Δ) has been shown to confer comprehensive, long-term protection against even nontypeable strains. However, Δ is effective as a vaccine only after at least three rounds of immunization. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S12268453173027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437420PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

A host gene expression approach for identifying triggers of asthma exacerbations.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(4):e0214871. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Duke University Center for Applied Genomics and Precision Medicine, Durham, NC, United States of America.

Rationale: Asthma exacerbations often occur due to infectious triggers, but determining whether infection is present and whether it is bacterial or viral remains clinically challenging. A diagnostic strategy that clarifies these uncertainties could enable personalized asthma treatment and mitigate antibiotic overuse.

Objectives: To explore the performance of validated peripheral blood gene expression signatures in discriminating bacterial, viral, and noninfectious triggers in subjects with asthma exacerbations. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214871PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453459PMC
April 2019
1 Read

A Retrospective Forensic Review of Unexpected Infectious Deaths.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Apr 15;6(4):ofz081. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Epidemiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Canada.

Background: There exists a knowledge gap in identifying the spectrum of infectious pathogens and syndromes that lead to fulminant decline and death. The aim of this study was to better characterize patient-, pathogen-, and disease-related factors in the phenomenon of unexpected infectious deaths.

Methods: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all community-based, unexpected infectious deaths in Ontario, Canada between January 2016 and December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441567PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Bacteria-released outer membrane vesicles promote disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Thromb Res 2019 Mar 28;178:26-33. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Hematology, The 3rd Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Biological Science and Technology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, PR China; Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Science, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, PR China; Key Laboratory of Non-resolving Inflammation and Cancer of Hunan Province, The 3rd Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, PR China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Sepsis is frequently complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which promotes multiple organ dysfunctions and significantly increase the mortality of patients with sepsis. How bacteria cause DIC is not fully understood. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are membrane-enclosed microvesicles released by variety of bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2019.03.019DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Nomogram based on actual body weight for estimation of vancomycin maintenance dose in infants.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2019 Apr 5:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

a Institute of Pharmacology, First Faculty of Medicine , Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague , Prague , Czech Republic.

Background: Vancomycin is the first-choice antibiotic for infants with β-lactam-resistant gram-positive bacterial infection. Despite long experience of prescribing of this drug optimal dosing is still challenging. This study aimed at investigating variables predicting vancomycin clearance in order to propose optimal maintenance dosing in infants treated for suspected or culture-proven sepsis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2018.1541250DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Inhibitors of the PilF ATPase provoke type IV pilus disassembly.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Pathogenesis of Vascular Infections, Department of Cell Biology and Infection, Institut Pasteur, INSERM, 75015 Paris, France;

Despite the availability of antibiotics and vaccines, remains a major cause of meningitis and sepsis in humans. Due to its extracellular lifestyle, bacterial adhesion to host cells constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. Here, we present a high-throughput microscopy-based approach that allowed the identification of compounds able to decrease type IV pilus-mediated interaction of bacteria with endothelial cells in the absence of bacterial or host cell toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1817757116DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

The effect of age on foal monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDC) maturation and function after exposure to killed bacteria.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2019 Apr 9;210:38-45. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

From the Department of Large Animal Medicine, 2200 College Station Road, University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA, 30602, USA. Electronic address:

Neonatal foals are uniquely susceptible to certain infections early in life. Dendritic cells (DC) are vital in the transition between the innate and adaptive immune response to infection, but DC biology in foals is not fully characterized. Monocyte-derived DC represent a suitable in vitro model similar to DC that differentiate from monocytes recruited from circulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2018.11.020DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Comparative efficacy of 13 antimicrobial dressings and different securement devices in reducing catheter-related bloodstream infections: A Bayesian network meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Apr;98(14):e14940

School of Nursing of Lanzhou University.

Purpose: The purpose of our study is to carry out a Bayesian network meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of different antimicrobial dressings for prevention of catheter-related blood infections (CRBSI) and rank these antimicrobial dressings for practical consideration.

Methods: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, earlier relevant meta-analysis and reference lists of included studies for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared dressings for prevention of CRBSI. Two authors independently extracted data from each included RCT according to a predesigned Excel spreadsheet and assessed the methodological quality of included RCTs using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014940DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Evaluating the best empirical antibiotic therapy in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

Dig Liver Dis 2019 Mar 31. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Department of Medicine II, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Background/aims: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a life-threatening complication of advanced cirrhosis. By studying the susceptibility of isolated organisms and analyzing empirical antibiotic therapy combined with clinical outcomes, we aimed to find an improved empirical antibiotic therapy by considering the individual acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) grade for patients with or without sepsis.

Methods: Clinical outcomes of 182 patients were assessed retrospectively with multivariable regression analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2019.02.015DOI Listing
March 2019
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Flagellin attenuates experimental sepsis in a macrophage-dependent manner.

Crit Care 2019 Apr 3;23(1):106. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients, and no specific therapeutic agent is currently approved for the treatment of sepsis.

Methods: We assessed the effects of flagellin administration on survival, bacterial burden, and tissue injury after sepsis. In addition, we examined the effects on phagocytosis and bacterial killing in monocytes/macrophages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2408-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446324PMC
April 2019
6 Reads

The challenge of molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Apr 2;35(4):65. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, IdiPAZ, Paseo de La Castellana, 261, 28046, Madrid, Spain.

Early detection and identification of pathogens in bloodstream infections (BSI) is important to initiate or adjust antibiotic therapy as soon as possible. The current gold standard for diagnostic of BSI infection is the blood culture, that has a turnaround time of one to few days. Molecular tests performed directly in blood samples have promised faster diagnostics, with response times of a few hours, but their implementation into the clinical routine has been hampered by critical technical and procedural problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-019-2640-yDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Adjunctive fecal microbiota transplantation in supportive oncology: Emerging indications and considerations in immunocompromised patients.

EBioMedicine 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; IBD Service, Department of Gastroenterology, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, South Australia, Australia.

FMT has gained enormous momentum in the treatment of acute inflammatory and infectious diseases. Despite an encouraging safety profile, FMT has been met with caution in the oncological setting due to perceived infectious risks in immunocompromised patients. Theoretical risks aside, the application of FMT in oncology may stand to benefit patients, via modulation of treatment efficacy and the mitigation of treatment complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.03.070DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The Capsule Depolymerase Dpo48 Rescues and Mice From Systemic Infections.

Front Microbiol 2019 18;10:545. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

The emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant has made it difficult to treat and control infections caused by this bacterium. Thus, alternatives to conventional antibiotics for management of severe infections is urgently needed. In our previous study, we found that a capsule depolymerase Dpo48 could strip bacterial capsules, and the non-capsuled were significantly decreased in the presence of serum complement . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431613PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Myalgia, Obtundity and Fever in a Patient with a Prosthesis.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2019 8;6(2):001021. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Objective: We describe a rare case of group G streptococcus (GGS) sepsis complicated by bacterial toxin myopathy.

Case: A 65-year-old man, with a history of infection of his shoulder prosthesis, presented with multiorgan failure and notable myalgia likely caused by toxins. The patient was treated successfully with antibiotics and prosthesis removal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12890/2019_001021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432832PMC
February 2019
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Immunogenic reactivity of recombinant PKF and AbOmpA proteins as serum resistance factors against sepsis of Acinetobacter baumannii.

Microb Pathog 2019 Mar 28;131:9-14. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Bacteriology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Acinetobacter baumannii is considered as a major cause of nosocomial infection worldwide. Various vaccine formulations have been mostly studied based on secreted or surface-exposed proteins of A. baumannii in murine models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.03.031DOI Listing
March 2019
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Transfusion-Transmitted Infections Reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network Hemovigilance Module.

Transfus Med Rev 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) can be severe and result in death. Transfusion-transmitted viral pathogen transmission has been substantially reduced, whereas sepsis due to bacterial contamination of platelets and transfusion-transmitted babesiosis may occur more frequently. Quantifying the burden of TTI is important to develop targeted interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
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New Sorbent on the Basis of Covalently Immobilized Lysozyme for Removal of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (Endotoxin) from Biological Fluids.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2019 Jan;84(1):33-39

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry, Moscow, 119234, Russia.

It was demonstrated for the first time that immobilized lysozyme can efficiently remove Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) from solutions. Experimentally confirmed sorption capacity for the developed sorbent was at least 400 ng of endotoxin per ml sorbent. The new sorbent is compatible with the whole human blood and can be potentially used in extracorporeal therapy in the treatment of sepsis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297919010048DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads