47,824 results match your criteria Sepsis Bacterial


Sildenafil in endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension: an experimental study.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Cirurgia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Sepsis and septic shock still represent great challenges in critical care medicine. Sildenafil has been largely used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its effects in sepsis are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that sildenafil can attenuate endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension in a porcine model of endotoxemia. Read More

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AMPK activates Parkin independent autophagy and improves post sepsis immune defense against secondary bacterial lung infections.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12387. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294-0012, USA.

Metabolic and bioenergetic plasticity of immune cells is essential for optimal responses to bacterial infections. AMPK and Parkin ubiquitin ligase are known to regulate mitochondrial quality control mitophagy that prevents unwanted inflammatory responses. However, it is not known if this evolutionarily conserved mechanism has been coopted by the host immune defense to eradicate bacterial pathogens and influence post-sepsis immunosuppression. Read More

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Pneumocephalus with meningitis secondary to an old traumatic anterior cranial fossa defect.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 11;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Emergency Medicine, Kasturba Hospital Manipal, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented with altered mental status, fever, headache and vomiting for 3 days. An initial CT scan of the brain revealed the presence of pneumocephalus with a bony defect in the anterior cranial fossa. The pneumocephalus was not explained initially and the patient was re-examined for any signs of trauma to the face, and a review of the history revealed a series of three traumatic events months prior to this illness. Read More

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Centrally administered butyrate improves gut barrier function, visceral sensation and septic lethality in rats.

J Pharmacol Sci 2021 Aug 28;146(4):183-191. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of General Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Japan.

Short chain fatty acids readily crosses the gut-blood and blood-brain barrier and acts centrally to influence neuronal signaling. We hypothesized that butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by bacterial fermentation, in the central nervous system may play a role in the regulation of intestinal functions. Colonic permeability and visceral sensation was evaluated in rats. Read More

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Comparison of renal histopathology and gene expression profiles between severe COVID-19 and bacterial sepsis in critically ill patients.

Crit Care 2021 Jun 10;25(1):202. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Critical Care, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The mechanisms driving acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill COVID-19 patients are unclear. We collected kidney biopsies from COVID-19 AKI patients within 30 min after death in order to examine the histopathology and perform mRNA expression analysis of genes associated with renal injury.

Methods: This study involved histopathology and mRNA analyses of postmortem kidney biopsies collected from patients with COVID-19 (n = 6) and bacterial sepsis (n = 27). Read More

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Infectious agents including COVID-19 and the involvement of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. A narrative review.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 May;25(10):3886-3897

Department of Medical Science and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Objective: Platelets, blood coagulation along with fibrinolysis are greatly involved in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases induced by bacteria, parasites and virus. This phenomenon is not surprising since both the innate immunity and the hemostatic systems are two ancestral mechanisms which closely cooperate favoring host's defense against foreign invaders. However, the excessive response of these systems may be dangerous for the host itself. Read More

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Case Report: A Severe and Multi-Site Infection Rapidly and Precisely Identified by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:669552. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

genus is an aerobic, gram-positive, and opportunistic pathogen, which mainly affects cell-mediated immunosuppressed patients. Early diagnosis and treatment greatly improve prognosis. However, the limitation of golden standard-bacterial culture exists. Read More

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A single transcript for the prognosis of disease severity in COVID-19 patients.

Authors:
Hongxing Lei

Sci Rep 2021 06 9;11(1):12174. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and China National Center for Bioinformation, Beijing, China.

With many countries strapped for medical resources due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is highly desirable to allocate the precious resources to those who need them the most. Several markers have been found to be associated with the disease severity in COVID-19 patients. However, the established markers only display modest prognostic power individually and better markers are urgently needed. Read More

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Novel therapeutic interventions towards improved management of septic arthritis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 9;22(1):530. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Hand and Foot Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, 250000, China.

Septic arthritis (SA) represents a medical emergency that needs immediate diagnosis and urgent treatment. Despite aggressive treatment and rapid diagnosis of the causative agent, the mortality and lifelong disability, associated with septic arthritis remain high as close to 11%. Moreover, with the rise in drug resistance, the rates of failure of conventional antibiotic therapy have also increased. Read More

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Risk factors for the development of neonatal sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital of Nepal.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 9;21(1):546. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Sepsis is an overwhelming and life-threatening response to bacteria in bloodstream and a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Understanding the etiology and potential risk factors for neonatal sepsis is urgently required, particularly in low-income countries where burden of infection is high and its epidemiology is poorly understood.

Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted between April 2016 and October 2017 in a level three NICU at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal to determine the bacterial etiology and potential risk factors for neonatal sepsis. Read More

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Heparin-based blood purification attenuates organ injury in baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 06 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the use of antibiotics, and novel therapies are urgently needed. Building on previous work, we aimed to 1) develop a baboon model of severe pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis with organ dysfunction; and 2) test the safety and efficacy of a novel extracorporeal blood filter to remove pro-inflammatory molecules and improve organ function.

Methods: After a dose-finding pilot study, twelve animals were inoculated with S. Read More

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Case Report of Infectious Myositis in the Austere Setting.

J Spec Oper Med 2021 ;21(2):80-84

Although skin and soft tissue infections are common in the deployed setting, infectious myositis is relatively uncommon. Bacterial infection of the muscle is the most common infectious etiology and can result in a spectrum of disease, to include abscess formation to necrotizing myositis, toxic shock syndrome, and death. Diagnosis can be elusive, particularly in the early stages. Read More

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Secretory Phospholipase A Enzymes in Acute Lung Injury.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

The secretory phospholipase A (sPLA) group of secreted enzymes hydrolyze phospholipids and lead to the production of multiple biologically active lipid mediators. sPLAs and their products (e.g. Read More

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Therapeutic Potential of Novel Mastoparan-Chitosan Nanoconstructs Against Clinical MDR : In silico, in vitro and in vivo Studies.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 1;16:3755-3773. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Purpose: antibiotic resistant infections in high-risk patients are a great challenge for researchers and clinicians worldwide. In an effort to achieve potent bactericidal outcomes, a novel chitosan-mastoparan nanoconstruct (Mast-Cs NC) was designed and assessed for its therapeutic potential through in silico, in vitro and in vivo experimentation against clinical multidrug-resistant (MDR) .

Methods: Optimized 3D structures of mastoparan and chitosan were coupled computationally through an ionic cross-linker to generate a circular ring of chitosan encasing mastoparan. Read More

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Plasma from patients with bacterial sepsis or severe COVID-19 induces production of suppressive myeloid cells from human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Bacterial sepsis and severe COVID-19 share similar clinical manifestations and are both associated with dysregulation of the myeloid cell compartment. We previously reported an expanded CD14+ monocyte cell state, MS1, in patients with bacterial sepsis, and validated expansion of this cell subpopulation in 18 patients with sepsis using publicly available transcriptomics data. Here, using published scRNA-seq datasets, we show that the gene expression program associated with MS1 correlated with sepsis severity and was up-regulated in monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19. Read More

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[Consistency of peripheral whole blood and venous serum procalcitonin in children: a multicenter parallel controlled study].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jun;59(6):471-477

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China.

To explore the consistency of peripheral whole blood and venous serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels, and the value of peripheral whole blood PCT in evaluating pediatric bacterial infection. This multicenter cross-sectional parallel control study was conducted in 11 children's hospital. All the 1 898 patients older than 28 days admitted to these hospitals from March 2018 to February 2019 had their peripheral whole blood and venous serum PCT detected simultaneously with unified equipment, reagent and method. Read More

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TIGIT modulates sepsis-induced immune dysregulation in mice with preexisting malignancy.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 8;6(11). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

TIGIT is a recently identified coinhibitory receptor that is upregulated in the setting of cancer and functionally contributes to the impairment of antitumor immunity. However, its role during sepsis is unknown. Because patients with cancer are 10 times more likely to die of sepsis than previously healthy (PH) patients with sepsis, we interrogated the role of TIGIT during sepsis in the context of preexistent malignancy. Read More

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Prospective cohort study on hospitalised patients with suspected urinary tract infection and risk factors por multidrug resistance.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 7;11(1):11927. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Infectious Disease Unit, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections and a frequent cause for hospitalization in the elderly. The aim of our study was to analyse epidemiological, microbiological, therapeutic, and prognostic of elderly hospitalised patients with and to determine independent risk factors for multidrug resistance and its outcome implications. A single-centre observational prospective cohort analysis of 163 adult patients hospitalized for suspected symptomatic UTI in the Departments of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Short-Stay Medical Unit of a tertiary hospital was conducted. Read More

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Class B Scavenger Receptors BI and BII Protect Against LPS-induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Mediating LPS Clearance.

Infect Immun 2021 Jun 7:IAI0030121. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health.

Recent studies suggest an anti-inflammatory protective role for class B scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in endotoxin-induced inflammation and sepsis. Other data, including ours, provide evidence for an alternative role of SR-BI, facilitating bacterial and endotoxin uptake, and contributing to inflammation and bacterial infection. Enhanced endotoxin susceptibility of SR-BI deficient mice due to their anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid deficiency complicates understanding SR-BI's role in endotoxemia/sepsis, calling for use of alternative models. Read More

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Clinical Profile, Prognostic Factors, and Outcome Prediction in Hospitalized Patients With Bloodstream Infection: Results From a 10-Year Prospective Multicenter Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 20;8:629671. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the most common serious bacterial infections worldwide and also a major contributor to in-hospital mortality. Determining the predictors of mortality is crucial for prevention and improving clinical prognosis in patients with nosocomial BSI. A nationwide prospective cohort study was conducted from 2007 until 2016 in 16 teaching hospitals across China. Read More

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The Long Pentraxin PTX3 Controls Severe Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:666198. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Inflammation and Immunology, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Italy.

is a common pathogen in human sepsis. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains represents a major clinical challenge in nosocomial and community acquired infections. The long pentraxin PTX3, a key component of humoral innate immunity, is involved in resistance to selected pathogens by promoting opsonophagocytosis. Read More

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Management of infectious complications associated with coronavirus infection in severe patients admitted to ICU.

Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Valencia, España.

Infections have become one of the main complications of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted in ICU. Poor immune status, frequent development of organic failure requiring invasive supportive treatments, and prolonged ICU length of stay in saturated structural areas of patients are risk factors for infection development. The Working Group on Infectious Diseases and Sepsis GTEIS of the Spanish Society of Intensive Medicine and Coronary Units SEMICYUC emphasizes the importance of infection prevention measures related to health care, the detection and early treatment of major infections in the patient with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Read More

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Legionnaires' disease arising with hirsutism: case report of an extremely confusing event.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 6;21(1):532. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, Occupational Health Division, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Background: Legionella bacteria is a common cause of pneumonia, but the infection may affect several organs in the most serious cases. A systemic involvement ab initio could be non-specific, leading to a diagnostic misinterpretation.

Case Presentation: A 33-year-old woman had been complaining of mental confusion, restlessness, aggressiveness, and, subsequently, hirsutism. Read More

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Klebsiella spp. cause severe and fatal disease in Mozambican children: antimicrobial resistance profile and molecular characterization.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 5;21(1):526. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Maputo, Mozambique.

Background: Klebsiella spp. are important pathogens associated with bacteremia among admitted children and is among the leading cause of death in children < 5 years in postmortem studies, supporting a larger role than previously considered in childhood mortality. Herein, we compared the antimicrobial susceptibility, mechanisms of resistance, and the virulence profile of Klebsiella spp. Read More

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Pediatric sepsis cases diagnosed with group B streptococcal meningitis using next-generation sequencing: a report of two cases.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 5;21(1):531. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of invasive infection in neonates and infants. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and culture may not show evidence of infection early in GBS meningitis. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to detect microbial genetic material in patients with infectious diseases. Read More

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A retrospective cohort study assessing acute kidney injury and renal recovery among septic patients empirically treated with vancomycin piperacillin-tazobactam versus vancomycin cefepime.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Miami Valley Hospital, Dayton, OH, USA.

Vancomycin plus piperacillin-tazobactam (VPT) is a commonly used antimicrobial regimen for septic patients. VPT is more nephrotoxic than other regimens such as vancomycin plus cefepime (VC) when given over several days. This risk of nephrotoxicity is less clear when VPT is given for initial empiric therapy in sepsis and de-escalated quickly based on evolving clinical information. Read More

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Changes in the behaviour of monocyte subsets in acute post-traumatic sepsis patients.

Mol Immunol 2021 Jun 1;136:65-72. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Trauma remains a major public health problem worldwide, marked as the fourth leading cause of death among all diseases. Trauma patients who survived at initial stages in the Emergency Department (ED), have significantly higher chances of mortality due to sepsis associated complications in the ICU at the later stage. There is paucity of literature regarding the role of circulating monocytes subsets and development of sepsis complications following trauma haemorrhagic shock (THS). Read More

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Expression and functional analysis of the BCL2-Associated agonist of cell death (BAD) gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during bacterial infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 2;123:104160. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Guangdong Provincial Water Environment and Aquatic Products Security Engineering, Technology Research Center, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Diseases and Waterfowl Breeding, College of Animal Sciences and Technology, Zhongkai, University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510222, China. Electronic address:

The BCL2-associated agonist of cell death protein is a key participant in apoptosis dependent on mitochondria and in disease progression that involves the regulation of cell death, such as tumorigenesis, diabetes, sepsis shock, and epilepsy. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the immune responses to teleost BAD bacterial infection and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis remains unclear. In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved, in this study, a Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) BAD gene named GcBAD1 was firstly cloned and characterized. Read More

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Single-Atom Catalysis for Efficient Sonodynamic Therapy of Methicillin-Resistant -Infected Osteomyelitis.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

School of Materials Science & Engineering, the Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology by the Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Osteomyelitis, as a severe bone disease caused by bacterial infection, can result in lifelong disability or fatal sepsis. Considering that the infection is stubborn and deep-sited in bone tissue, and rapid treatments for osteomyelitis remain a significant challenge. Herein, we prepare an ultrasound (US)-activated single-atom catalyst that consists of a Au nanorod (NRs)-actuated single-atom-doped porphyrin metal-organic framework ([email protected]) and red cell membrane (RBC), which can efficiently treat methicillin-resistant (MRSA)-infected osteomyelitis under US. Read More

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Enemies at the gate: how cell-free hemoglobin and bacterial infection can cooperate to drive acute lung injury during sepsis.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, grid.14848.31University of Montreal and Research Center, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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