42,637 results match your criteria Sepsis Bacterial


Tanshinone IIA attenuates sepsis-induced immunosuppression and improves survival rate in a mice peritonitis model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Feb 19;112:108609. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Translational Medicine Center of Sepsis, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410013, People's Republic of China; Department of Critical Care Medicine, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410013, People's Republic of China; Department of Pathophysiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410078, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: The importance of sepsis-induced immunosuppression and its contribution to mortality has recently emerged. In this study we examined the effects of Tanshinone II-A (TSN), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, on immunosuppression in experimental peritonitis induced septic mice.

Materials And Methods: Sepsis was achieved by means of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108609DOI Listing
February 2019

Epidemiology of sepsis in Korea: a population-based study of incidence, mortality, cost and risk factors for death in sepsis.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Objective: To investigate the epidemiology of sepsis in Korea and identify risk factors for death in sepsis.

Methods: We conducted a longitudinal, population-based epidemiological study of sepsis in Korea from 2005 to 2012 using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, a population-based cohort representing 2.2% of the Korean population. Read More

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http://www.ceemjournal.org/journal/view.php?doi=10.15441/cee
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15441/ceem.18.007DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Low Endotoxin Recovery-Masking of Naturally Occurring Endotoxin.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 15;20(4). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany.

Endotoxins are cell wall components of Gram-negative bacteria. A release of endotoxins into the human blood stream results in an inflammation reaction that can lead to life-threatening conditions like sepsis. Therefore, control for endotoxin contamination of intravenously administered drugs is crucial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040838DOI Listing
February 2019

Posttransplant Care of Kidney Transplant Recipients and Their Donors in Nigeria.

Exp Clin Transplant 2019 Jan;17(Suppl 1):50-56

From the Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria; and the Department of Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Objectives: Kidney transplantation is not readily available in low-resource settings because of poor health structure, dearth of experts, and pervading poverty. Although many centers now offer kidney transplant, patients still travel outside Nigeria for this service for many reasons and many return home without a detailed medical report.

Materials And Methods: Medical records of individuals who underwent kidney transplant in Nigeria and elsewhere and who were presently receiving posttransplant care or had received such care from 2002 to 2018 at 4 Nigerian hospitals were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.MESOT2018.L44DOI Listing
January 2019

Molecular Study of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Virulence Genes from Patients with Hospital Acquired Sepsis.

Clin Lab 2019 Jan;65(1)

Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is a common pathogen associated with hospital acquired infections. The presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes are known risk factors for the infection by this bacterial species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180709DOI Listing
January 2019

Pro-inflammatory agents released by pathogens, dying host cells, and neutrophils act synergistically to destroy host tissues: a working hypothesis.

J Inflamm Res 2019 23;12:35-47. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Pathology, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

We postulate that the extensive cell and tissue damage inflicted by many infectious, inflammatory and post-inflammatory episodes is an enled result of a synergism among the invading microbial agents, host neutrophils and dead and dying cells in the nidus. Microbial toxins and other metabolites along with the plethora of pro-inflammatory agents released from activated neutrophils massively recruited to the infectious sites and high levels of cationic histones, other cationic peptides, proteinases and Th1 cytokines released from activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and from necrotized tissues may act in concert (synergism) to bring about cell killing and tissue destruction. Multiple, diverse interactions among the many potential pro-inflammatory moieties have been described in these complex lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S190007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350637PMC
January 2019

Antibiotic use in prevention of anal fistulas following incision and drainage of anorectal abscesses: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Surg 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Centre for the Advancement of Minimally Invasive Surgery (CAMIS), Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Treatment of anorectal abscesses continues to revolve around early surgical drainage and control of perianal sepsis. Yet even with prompt drainage, abscess recurrence and postoperative fistula formation rates are as high as 40% within 12 months. These complications are thought to be associated with inadequate drainage, elevated bacterial load, or a noncryptoglandular etiology of disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.01.015DOI Listing
January 2019

PROFIT, a PROspective, randomised placebo controlled feasibility trial of Faecal mIcrobiota Transplantation in cirrhosis: study protocol for a single-blinded trial.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e023518. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

James Black Centre, School of Immunology & Microbial Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Patients with advanced cirrhosis have enteric bacterial dysbiosis and translocation of bacteria and their products across the gut epithelial barrier. This culminates in systemic inflammation and endotoxaemia, inducing innate immune dysfunction which predisposes to infection, and development of complications such as bleeding, sepsis and hepatic encephalopathy. This feasibility study aims to assess the safety of administering faecal microbiota transplantion to patients with cirrhosis and explore the effect of the intervention on their prognosis by achieving restoration of a healthy gut microbiome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023518DOI Listing
February 2019
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Safety of Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion with Melphalan in Patients with Unresectable Liver Metastases from Ocular Melanoma Using the Delcath Systems' Second-Generation Hemofiltration System: A Prospective Non-randomized Phase II Trial.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To investigate the safety and toxicity of percutaneous hepatic perfusion with melphalan (M-PHP) with the Delcath Systems' second-generation (GEN 2) filter and compare the outcomes with historical data from studies using the first-generation filter.

Materials And Methods: A prospective, single-arm, single-center phase II study was carried out including 35 patients with unresectable, histologically confirmed liver metastases from ocular melanoma between February 2014 and June 2017. Main exclusion criteria were extrahepatic disease and age > 75 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-019-02177-xDOI Listing
February 2019
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Sepsis: mechanisms of bacterial injury to the patient.

Authors:
Hayk Minasyan

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2019 Feb 14;27(1):19. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

, Yerevan, Armenia.

In bacteremia the majority of bacterial species are killed by oxidation on the surface of erythrocytes and digested by local phagocytes in the liver and the spleen. Sepsis-causing bacteria overcome this mechanism of human innate immunity by versatile respiration, production of antioxidant enzymes, hemolysins, exo- and endotoxins, exopolymers and other factors that suppress host defense and provide bacterial survival. Entering the bloodstream in different forms (planktonic, encapsulated, L-form, biofilm fragments), they cause different types of sepsis (fulminant, acute, subacute, chronic, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13049-019-0596-4DOI Listing
February 2019
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Rapid susceptibility testing of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella by glucose metabolization monitoring.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Institute for Clinical Chemistry, Medical Faculty Mannheim of Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany, Phone: +49 - 621 383 2222, Fax: +49 - 621 383 3819.

Background The increasing number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria provides enormous challenges for choosing an appropriate antibiotic therapy in the early phase of sepsis. While bacterial identification has been greatly accelerated by the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) remains time-consuming. Here, we present a rapid susceptibility testing method for testing Gram-negative bacteria, exemplarily validated for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2018-1178DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Hemodynamic consequences of intravenously given E. coli suspension: observations in a fulminant sepsis model in pigs, a descriptive case-control study.

Eur J Med Res 2019 Feb 13;24(1):11. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt 98, Debrecen, 4032, Hungary.

Background: The aim of the present work was to assess systemic hemodynamic changes using PiCCo monitoring in a porcine model of E. coli-induced fulminant sepsis.

Methods: Thirty-one healthy female Hungahib pigs were randomly assigned into control (n = 15) or septic groups (n = 16). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40001-019-0372-yDOI Listing
February 2019
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Utility of qSOFA score in identifying patients at risk for poor outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):149. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, 1985 Zonal Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA.

Background: The prognostic capability of the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) bedside scoring tool is uncertain in non-ICU patients with sepsis due to bacteremia given the low number of patients previously evaluated.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult hospitalized patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Medical charts were reviewed to determine qSOFA score, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, and Pitt bacteremia score (PBS) at initial presentation; their predictive values were compared for ICU admission within 48 h, ICU stay duration > 72 h, and 30-day mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3770-4DOI Listing
February 2019
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Using machine learning to guide targeted and locally-tailored empiric antibiotic prescribing in a children's hospital in Cambodia.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 10;3:131. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

: Early and appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment of patients suspected of having sepsis is associated with reduced mortality. The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance reduces the efficacy of empiric therapy guidelines derived from population data. This problem is particularly severe for children in developing country settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.14847.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352926PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins: Guardians of host defense in health and disease.

J Exp Med 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD

Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) have recently emerged as central orchestrators of immunity to infection, inflammation, and neoplastic diseases. Within numerous host cell types, these IFN-induced GTPases assemble into large nanomachines that execute distinct host defense activities against a wide variety of microbial pathogens. In addition, GBPs customize inflammasome responses to bacterial infection and sepsis, where they act as critical rheostats to amplify innate immunity and regulate tissue damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20182031DOI Listing
February 2019
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Antibiotics for Ceftriaxone Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Bloodstream Infections-Reply.

JAMA 2019 02;321(6):613

University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.19353DOI Listing
February 2019

Antibiotics for Ceftriaxone-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Bloodstream Infections.

JAMA 2019 02;321(6):613

Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.19349DOI Listing
February 2019

Antibiotics for Ceftriaxone-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Bloodstream Infections.

JAMA 2019 02;321(6):612-613

Clinical Microbiology, Central Hospital, Växjö, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.19345DOI Listing
February 2019

Low-risk factors for severe bacterial infection and acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell disease.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 Feb 10:e27667. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: The rate of bacterial infections in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) has decreased in recent years, mainly due to penicillin prophylaxis and vaccination.

Objectives: To determine the rate of severe bacterial infection (SBI) in a cohort of children with SCD and to describe low-risk factors for confirmed SBI (CSBI) and acute chest syndrome (ACS).

Methods: This 11-year retrospective cohort study included children with febrile SCD admitted to a reference hospital in Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27667DOI Listing
February 2019
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Fli-1 transcription factor regulates the expression of caspase-1 in lung pericytes.

Mol Immunol 2019 Feb 7;108:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States; Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States. Electronic address:

Our previous data demonstrated that Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (Fli-1), an ETS transcription factor, governs pericyte loss and vascular dysfunction in cecal ligation and puncture-induced murine sepsis by regulating essential pyroptosis markers including caspase-1. However, whether Fli-1 regulates caspase-1 expression levels in vitro and how Fli-1 regulates caspase-1 remain unknown. Our present work further demonstrated that overexpressed Fli-1 significantly increased caspase-1 and IL-18 expression levels in cultured mouse lung pericytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019
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Unraveling the Molecular Mechanism of Selective Antimicrobial Activity of 2(5)-Furanone Derivative against .

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 6;20(3). Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics of Microorganisms, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya street, Kazan 420008, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

causes various infectious diseases, from skin impetigo to life-threatening bacteremia and sepsis, thus appearing an important target for antimicrobial therapeutics. In turn, the rapid development of antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation makes it extremely robust against treatment. Here, we unravel the molecular mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of the recently unveiled consisting of three pharmacophores: chlorinated 2(5)-furanone, sulfone, and -menthol moieties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030694DOI Listing
February 2019

Connexin-43-dependent ATP release mediates macrophage activation during sepsis.

Elife 2019 Feb 8;8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department for BioMedical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Bacterial spillage into a sterile environment following intestinal hollow-organ perforation leads to peritonitis and fulminant sepsis. Outcome of sepsis critically depends on macrophage activation by extracellular ATP-release and associated autocrine signaling via purinergic receptors. ATP-release mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.42670DOI Listing
February 2019
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Intramural oesophageal abscess: an unusual complication of tonsillitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Feb 6;12(2). Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of General Surgery, University Hospital Crosshouse, Kilmarnock, Scotland.

Tonsillitis is an extremely common condition, usually it is self-limiting, of viral origin, and managed conservatively in general practice. Rarely patients require inpatient management, usually when bacterial infection is present or when the cause is virulent organisms such as Epstein Barr virus. Complications can be divided into non-suppurative; sepsis, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis and Lemierres disease, and suppurative; quinsy, parapharyngeal abscess and retropharyngeal abscess, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-226010DOI Listing
February 2019
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Ureteral stent-associated infection and sepsis: pathogenesis and prevention: a review.

Biofouling 2019 Feb 8:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

a Department of Urologic Sciences , The Stone Centre at Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia , Vancouver , BC , Canada.

Ureteral stents are commonly used devices in hospital settings. However, their usage is often complicated by associated urinary tract infections as a result of bacterial adhesion onto the indwelling implant surfaces, followed by the formation of layers of biofilm. Once formed, the biofilm is exceedingly difficult to remove, potentially leading to further morbidity and even urosepsis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2018.1562549DOI Listing
February 2019
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Exploring the roles of MSCs in infections: focus on bacterial diseases.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Unit of Histology, Embryology and Applied Biology, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Despite human healthcare advances, some microorganisms continuously react evolving new survival strategies, choosing between a commensal fitness and a pathogenic attitude. Many opportunistic microbes are becoming an increasing cause of clinically evident infections while several renowned infectious diseases sustain a considerable number of deaths. Besides the primary and extensively investigated role of immune cells, other cell types are involved in the microbe-host interaction during infection. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00109-019-01752-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-019-01752-6DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

α-toxin impairs granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor-mediated granulocyte production while triggering septic shock.

Commun Biol 2019 31;2:45. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima, 770-8514 Japan.

During bacterial infection, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is produced and accelerates neutrophil production from their progenitors. This process, termed granulopoiesis, strengthens host defense, but α-toxin impairs granulopoiesis via an unknown mechanism. Here, we tested whether G-CSF accounts for the α-toxin-mediated impairment of granulopoiesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0280-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355902PMC
January 2019
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Characterization of Pathogenic Sepsis Etiologies and Patient Profiles: A Novel Approach to Triage and Treatment.

Microbiol Insights 2019 27;12:1178636118825081. Epub 2019 Jan 27.

Departments of Medicine and Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USA.

Pathogenic sepsis is not a monolithic condition. Three major types of sepsis exist within this category: bacterial, viral, and fungal, each with its own mechanism of action. While similar in symptoms, the etiologies and immune mechanisms of these types differ enough that a discrete patient base can be recognized for each one. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178636118825081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350122PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Modulation of the sigma-1 receptor-IRE1 pathway is beneficial in preclinical models of inflammation and sepsis.

Sci Transl Med 2019 Feb;11(478)

Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

Sepsis is an often deadly complication of infection in which systemic inflammation damages the vasculature, leading to tissue hypoperfusion and multiple organ failure. Currently, the standard of care for sepsis is predominantly supportive, with few therapeutic options available. Because of increased sepsis incidence worldwide, there is an urgent need for discovery of novel therapeutic targets and development of new treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aau5266DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Different Bactericidal and Inflammatory Activities of Human and Mouse Blood.

Shock 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

We performed side-by-side experiments to compare the behavior of four strains of Escherichia coli and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in fresh human and mouse blood. Bacteria multiplied in mouse whole blood and plasma but were killed in human whole blood and plasma. The percentage of granulocytes associated with fluorescence-labeled heat-killed E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001302DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Dopamine Is a Siderophore-Like Iron Chelator That Promotes Serovar Typhimurium Virulence in Mice.

MBio 2019 Feb 5;10(1). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Internal Medicine II (Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Rheumatology and Pneumology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

We have recently shown that the catecholamine dopamine regulates cellular iron homeostasis in macrophages. As iron is an essential nutrient for microbes, and intracellular iron availability affects the growth of intracellular bacteria, we studied whether dopamine administration impacts the course of infections. Dopamine was found to promote the growth of both in culture and within bone marrow-derived macrophages, which was dependent on increased bacterial iron acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02624-18DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

CXCL1 regulates neutrophil homeostasis in pneumonia-derived sepsis caused by serotype 3.

Blood 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Pathobiological Sciences and Center for Experimental Infectious Disease Research, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University (LSU), Baton Rouge, LA, United States

Neutrophil migration to the site of bacterial infection is a critical step in host defense. Exclusively produced in the bone marrow, neutrophil release into the blood is tightly controlled. Although the chemokine CXCL1 induces neutrophil influx during bacterial infections, its role in regulating neutrophil recruitment, granulopoiesis, and neutrophil mobilization in response to lung infection-induced sepsis is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-10-878082DOI Listing
February 2019
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Differentiating Acute Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome From Its Mimics: A Comparison of Clinical Features and Routine Laboratory Biomarkers.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Feb 25;7(2):471-478.e3. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Department of Allergy and Immunology, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is frequently misdiagnosed and subject to diagnostic delay. Profuse vomiting, the cardinal feature of acute FPIES, may occur in more common pediatric disorders such as gastroenteritis and sepsis.

Objectives: We sought to determine differentiating features at acute presentation between FPIES, gastroenteritis, and sepsis in young children presenting to an emergency department (ED) with profuse vomiting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2018.10.020DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Protection against Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia-induced mortality depends on ILC2s and eosinophils.

JCI Insight 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

The dysregulated, unbalanced immune response of sepsis results in a mortality exceeding 20%, yet recent findings by our group indicate that patients with allergic, type 2-mediated immune diseases are protected from developing sepsis. We evaluated CD4+ T helper (Th) cell polarization among patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and confirmed that survivors had a higher percentage of circulating Th2 cells, but lower frequencies of Th17 cells and neutrophils early in the course of infection. To establish the mechanism of this protection, we employed a mouse model of lethal S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.124168DOI Listing
February 2019
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Procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic stewardship: an international experts consensus on optimized clinical use.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology, Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Winchester and Basingstoke, UK.

Background Procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic stewardship (ABS) has been shown to reduce antibiotics (ABxs), with lower side-effects and an improvement in clinical outcomes. The aim of this experts workshop was to derive a PCT algorithm ABS for easier implementation into clinical routine across different clinical settings. Methods Clinical evidence and practical experience with PCT-guided ABS was analyzed and discussed, with a focus on optimal PCT use in the clinical context and increased adherence to PCT protocols. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2018-1181DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Hematological and immune changes in Piaractus mesopotamicus in the sepsis induced by Aeromonas hydrophila.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Veterinarian Pathology, Faculty of Agrarian and Veterinarian Sciences, São Paulo State University, Unesp, Brazil; Aquaculture Center of UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The pathogenesis of sepsis involves complex systems and multiple interrelationships between the host and pathogen producing high mortality rates in various animal species. In this study, hematological disturbances, innate immunity and survival during the septic process in Piaractus mesopotamicus inoculated with Aeromonas hydrophila were studied. For this aim, fish blood samples were taken from control and infected groups 1, 3, 6, and 9 h post-inoculation (HPI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.01.044DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Ceftaroline Fosamil Therapy in Patients With Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections With Systemic Inflammatory Signs: A Retrospective Dose Comparison Across Three Pivotal Trials.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Post-hoc analysis compared pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes of ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg every 12 (q12h) versus every 8 hours (q8h), in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and signs of sepsis.

Methods: Clinical outcomes at test-of-cure in patients with ABSSSI and systemic inflammatory signs/systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and ceftaroline minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against baseline pathogens were compared between COVERS (ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg q8h, 2-h infusion) and the CANVAS 1 and 2 trials (ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg q12h, 1-h infusion). Ceftaroline exposures among patients in COVERS with or without markers of sepsis were compared using population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2019.01.016DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Prospective surveillance of bacterial colonization and primary sepsis - findings of a tertiary neonatal intensive and intermediate care unit.

J Hosp Infect 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Preterm infants and critically ill neonates are predisposed to nosocomial infections as sepsis. Moreover, these infants acquire commensal bacteria, which might become potentially harming. On-ward transmission of these bacteria can cause outbreaks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2019.01.021DOI Listing
February 2019
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Dietary Supplementation With High Fiber Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses Caused by Severe Sepsis in Mice Without Altering Microbiome Diversity.

Front Physiol 2018 18;9:1929. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

In this study, we demonstrated the effects of a high-fiber diet on intestinal lesions, oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in a murine model of endotoxemia. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to four groups: the control group (CONTROL), which received a commercial normal-fiber rodent diet comprising normal fiber; a CLP group, which received a commercial normal-fiber rodent diet and underwent caecal ligation puncture (CLP); a high-fiber group (HFG), which received a commercial high-fiber rodent diet; and a high fiber + CLP group (HFCLP) which received a commercial high-fiber rodent diet and underwent CLP (30%). The sepsis model was created via CLP after 2 weeks of dietary intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345681PMC
January 2019
1 Read

The Double Life of Group B Streptococcus: Asymptomatic Colonizer and Potent Pathogen.

J Mol Biol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, WA, USA; Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle 98101, WA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle 98195, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a β-hemolytic gram-positive bacterium that colonizes the lower genital tract of approximately 18% of women globally as an asymptomatic member of the gastrointestinal and/or vaginal flora. If established in other host niches, however, GBS is highly pathogenic. During pregnancy, ascending GBS infection from the vagina to the intrauterine space is associated with preterm birth, stillbirth, and fetal injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2019.01.035DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The role of real-time PCR testing in the investigation of paediatric patients with community-onset osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

Ir J Med Sci 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Irish Meningitis and Sepsis Reference Laboratory, Temple Street Children's University Hospital, Dublin 1, Ireland.

Background: Culture yield in osteomyelitis and septic arthritis is low, emphasising the role for molecular techniques.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to review the laboratory investigation of childhood osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

Methods: A retrospective review was undertaken in an acute tertiary referral paediatric hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11845-019-01973-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11845-019-01973-1DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Non-uremic calciphylaxis associated with alcoholic hepatitis: A case report.

World J Hepatol 2019 Jan;11(1):127-132

Department of Dermatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland 44195, OH, United States.

Background: Calciphylaxis is a form of vascular calcification more commonly associated with renal disease. While the exact mechanism of calciphylaxis is poorly understood, most cases are due to end stage kidney disease. However, it can also be found in patients without kidney disease and in such cases is termed non-uremic calciphylaxis for which have multiple proposed etiologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v11.i1.127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354123PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Mutation in Gene Can Cause Syndromic Multisystem Autoimmune Disease With Acute Liver Failure.

Pediatrics 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Departments of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology, and Hepatology and

Pediatric intractable autoimmune hepatitis is rare and may be responsible for acute liver failure. Mutations in the itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase () gene (located on chromosome 20q11.22) can lead to a deficiency of the encoded protein, resulting in increased T-cell activity with lack of immune tolerance and manifestation of a complex systemic autoimmune disease. Read More

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/lookup/doi/10.1542/ped
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1554DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Integrated Microfluidic Devices Fabricated in Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) for On-site Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Aminoglycosides in Whole Blood.

Biosensors (Basel) 2019 Jan 30;9(1). Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science (ACROSS), School of Natural Sciences-Chemistry, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.

On-site therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is important for providing a quick and accurate dosing to patients in order to improve efficacy and minimize toxicity. Aminoglycosides such as amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin are important antibiotics that have been commonly used to treat infections of chronic bacterial infections in the urinary tract, lung, and heart. However, these aminoglycosides can lead to vestibular and auditory dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios9010019DOI Listing
January 2019
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Homologous role of CovRS two-component regulatory system in NAD -glycohydrolase activity in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis as in Streptococcus pyogenes.

APMIS 2019 Feb;127(2):87-92

Department of Bacteriology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is primarily caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, but it may also be caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE). The analyses of S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12914DOI Listing
February 2019
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Update on the management of acute liver failure.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Liver Intensive Therapy Unit, Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: This review describes the current intensive care management of acute liver failure (ALF) and the latest evidence for emerging therapies.

Recent Findings: Mortality from ALF continues to improve and in some cases, medical therapy can negate the need for liver transplantation because of protocolized management in specialist centres. Liver transplantation remains the cornerstone of management for poor prognosis ALF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000583DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Dysbiosis in early sepsis can be modulated by a multispecies probiotic: a randomised controlled pilot trial.

Benef Microbes 2019 Jan 29:1-14. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

2 Center for Biomarker Research in Medicine (CBmed), Stiftingtalstrasse 5, 8010 Graz, Austria.

The gut is hypothesised to play an important role in the development and progression of sepsis. It is however unknown whether the gut microbiome and the gut barrier function is already altered early in sepsis development and whether it is possible to modulate the microbiome in early sepsis. Therefore, a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to examine the alterations of the microbiome and the gut barrier in early sepsis and the influence of a concomitant probiotic intervention on dysbiosis at this early stage of the disease was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/BM2018.0067DOI Listing
January 2019
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Evaluation of bacterial inactivation in random donor platelets and single-donor apheresis platelets by the INTERCEPT blood system.

Asian J Transfus Sci 2018 Jul-Dec;12(2):146-153

Hemogenomics Pvt Ltd., Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Blood transfusion of contaminated components is a potential source of sepsis by a wide range of known and unknown pathogens. Collection mechanism and storage conditions of platelets make them vulnerable for bacterial contamination. Several interventions aim to reduce the transfusion of contaminated platelet units; however, data suggest that contaminated platelet transfusion remains very common. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ajts.AJTS_87_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327773PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius septicemia in puppies after elective cesarean section: confirmed transmission via dam's milk.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Jan 28;15(1):41. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Clinic for Reproduction and Large Animals, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbičeva 60, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: In humans, transmission of bacteria causing fatal sepsis in the neonates through mother's milk has been reported. In dogs, it is believed that bacteria from canine milk are not the primary cause of neonatal infections. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is colonizing the skin and mucocutaneous junctions in adult dogs and can act as an opportunistic pathogen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1795-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348621PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Rapid microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to drive better patient care: an evolving scenario.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Jan;74(Supplement_1):i2-i5

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Antimicrobial chemotherapy for septic patients begins with empirical therapy and can be subsequently revised when the results of microbiological testing become available. In recent years, a number of novel technologies for the microbiological diagnosis of sepsis have been developed that return results in a shorter timeframe compared with conventional diagnostic approaches. These novel technologies aid antimicrobial stewardship when treating septic patients by reducing the time to appropriate antimicrobial chemotherapy. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jac/article/74/Supplement_1/i2/5300
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky529DOI Listing
January 2019
21 Reads