68,690 results match your criteria Sensors Basel Switzerland[Journal]


A comparison of exhaled breath online and offline measurements for diabetes pre-screening by graphene-based sensor: from powder processing to clinical monitoring prototype.

J Breath Res 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

Several breath analysis studies have suggested a correlation between blood glucose (BG) levels and breath acetone, indicating acetone as a primary biomarker in exhaled breath for diabetes diagnosis. Herein, we have (i) fabricated and validated graphene based chemi-resistive sensors for selective and sensitive detection of acetone, (ii) performed offline breath analysis by static gas sensing setup to acquire olfactory signal and (iii) developed an LED based portable on/off binary e-nose system for pre-screening diabetes through online analysis. The fabricated sensors showed selective detection for acetone with high sensitivity (5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7163/ab09aeDOI Listing
February 2019

Physics or biology? Persistent chlorophyll accumulation in a shallow coastal sea explained by pathogens and carnivorous grazing.

Authors:
Kai W Wirtz

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212143. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.

One of the most striking patterns at the land-ocean interface is the massive increase of chlorophyll-a (CHL) from continental shelves towards the coast, a phenomenon that is classically linked to physical features. Here I propose that the coastal-offshore CHL gradient in a shallow sea has biological origins related to phytoplankton mortality that are neglected in state-of-the-art biogeochemical models. I integrate a trait-based ecosystem model into a modular coupling framework that is applied to the southern North Sea (SNS). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212143PLOS
February 2019

The Classification of Minor Gait Alterations Using Wearable Sensors and Deep Learning.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Objective: This paper describes how non-invasive wearable sensors can be used in combination with deep learn- ing to classify artificially induced gait alterations without the requirement for a medical professional or gait analyst to be present. This approach is motivated by the goal of diagnosing gait abnormalities on a symptom by symptom basis, irrespective of other neuromuscular movement disorders patients may be affected by. This could lead to improvements in treatment and offer a greater insight into movement disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2019.2900863DOI Listing
February 2019

An Early Disc Herniation Identification System for Advancement in the Standard Medical Screening Procedure based on Bayes Theorem.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

The aim of this research was to analyze objectively the process of disc herniation identification using Bayes Theorem. One of the symptoms of discus hernia is muscle weakness on the foot that is caused by displaced discs in the space of two vertebrae. This fact is used by experts in initial diagnosis of herniated discs and we used it to create non-invasive platform for the same purposes by measuring force values from four sensors placed on both feet (first, second and fourth metatarsal head as well as the heel). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2019.2899665DOI Listing
February 2019

Rehab-Net: Deep Learning framework for Arm Movement Classification using Wearable Sensors for Stroke Rehabilitation.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

In this paper, we present a deep learning framework 'Rehab-Net' for effectively classifying three upper limb movements of the human arm, involving extension, flexion and rotation of the forearm which over the time could provide a measure of rehabilitation progress. The proposed framework, Rehab-Net is formulated with a personalized, light weight and low complex, customized CNN model, using 2-layers of Convolutional neural network (CNN), interleaved with pooling layers, followed by a fully-connected layer that classifies the three movements from tri-axial acceleration input data collected from the wrist. The proposed Rehab-net framework was validated on sensor data collected in two situations-a) seminaturalistic environment involving an archetypal activity of 'making-tea' with 4 stroke survivors and b) natural environment, where 10 stroke survivors were free to perform any desired arm movement for a duration of 120 minutes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2019.2899927DOI Listing
February 2019

A Molecularly Imprinted Poly(thionine)-Based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Fast and Selective Ultratrace Determination of Patulin.

Anal Chem 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

An innovative approach based on a surface functional monomer-directing strategy for the construction of a sensitive and selective molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for patulin (PAT) recognition is described. A PAT imprinted platinum nanoparticle (PtNP)-coated poly(thionine) film was grown on a pre-formed thionine (TH) tailed surface of PtNP-nitrogen-doped graphene (NGE) by electropolymerization, which provided high capacity and fast kinetics to uptake PAT molecules. TH acted not only as a functional monomer for molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), but also as a signal indicator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b05791DOI Listing
February 2019

Silicon substrate effects on ionic current blockade in solid-state nanopores.

Nanoscale 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Japan.

We investigated the roles of silicon substrate material compositions in ionic current blockade in solid-state nanopores. When detecting single nanoparticles using an ionic current in a Si3N4 nanopore supported on a doped silicon wafer, resistive pulses were found to be blunted significantly via signal retardation due to predominant contributions of large capacitance at the ultrathin membrane. Unexpectedly, in contrast, changing the substrate material to non-doped silicon led to the sharpening of the spike-like signal feature, suggesting a better temporal resolution of the cross-channel ionic current measurements by virtue of the thick intrinsic semiconductor layer that served to diminish the net chip capacitance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8nr09042dDOI Listing
February 2019

Measuring the interaction of transcription factor Nrf2 with its negative regulator Keap1 in single live cells by an improved FRET/FLIM analysis.

Chem Res Toxicol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its principal negative regulator, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), comprise a molecular sensor and an effector system that robustly responds to perturbations of the cellular redox homeostasis by orchestrating a comprehensive cytoprotective program. Under homeostatic conditions, Nrf2 is a short-lived protein, which is targeted for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Upon encounter of electrophiles, oxidants or pro-inflammatory stimuli, the cysteine sensors in Keap1 are chemically modified, rendering Keap1 unable to target Nrf2 for degradation, and consequently leading to accumulation of the transcription factor and enhanced transcription of cytoprotective genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8b00354DOI Listing
February 2019

A Fully Integrated Wireless Flexible Ammonia Sensor Fabricated by Soft Nano-Lithography.

ACS Sens 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Flexible ammonia (NH3) sensors based on one-dimensional nanostructures have attracted great attention due to their high flexibility and low-power consumption. However, it is still challenging to reliably and cost-effectively fabricate ordered nanostructure-based flexible sensors. Herein, a smartphone-enabled fully integrated system based on a flexible nanowire sensor was developed for real-time NH3 monitoring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.8b01690DOI Listing
February 2019

Opportunities and challenges for electrochemistry in studying the electronic structure of nanocrystals.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, 72076 Tübingen, Germany and Center for Light-Matter Interaction, Sensors & Analytics LISA+, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 15, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

We review the state-of-the-art of determining the electronic structure of nanocrystals in thin films by electrochemistry. Our core conclusion, the necessity of combining electrochemical with spectroscopic techniques, is illustrated with the holistic analysis of thin films of CdSe nanocrystals cross-linked with electroactive metal β-tetraaminophthalocyanines by differential pulse voltammetry, optical spectroscopy and potential modulated absorption spectroscopy. We show that the same nanocrystals cross-linked with phthalocyanines of different metal centers exhibit rather similar electrochemical signatures, but behave distinctly different in spectroelectrochemical investigations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cp00301kDOI Listing
February 2019

Use of wearable sensors for pregnancy health and environmental monitoring: Descriptive findings from the perspective of patients and providers.

Digit Health 2019 Jan-Dec;5:2055207619828220. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mountain Area Health Education Center, USA.

Background: Wearable sensors and other smart technology may be especially beneficial in providing remote monitoring of sub-clinical changes in pregnancy health status. Yet, limited research has examined perceptions among pregnant patients and providers in incorporating smart technology into their daily routine and clinical practice.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of pregnant women and their providers at a rural health clinic on the use of wearable technology to monitor health and environmental exposures during pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055207619828220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376550PMC
February 2019

Accuracy of the energy expenditure during uphill exercise measured by the Waist-worn ActiGraph.

J Exerc Sci Fit 2019 Jan 23;17(2):62-66. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Graduate Institute of Sports Science, National Taiwan Sport University, No. 250, Wenhua 1st Rd., Guishan District, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.

Background/objective: The application of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS) as measurements of energy expenditure (EE) has certain disadvantages. For example, the inertial sensors cannot easily distinguish changes in ground slope during walking/running conditions, so the accuracy of EE calculation is biased. To resolve this issue, heart rate (HR) and heart rate reserve (HRR) were used as compensatory factors respectively to correct the classical empirical formula of the accelerometer analyzer for EE in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesf.2019.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370579PMC
January 2019

Physical Activity and Bone Health: What Is the Role of Immune System? A Narrative Review of the Third Way.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 7;10:60. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.

Bone tissue can be seen as a physiological hub of several stimuli of different origin (e.g., dietary, endocrine, nervous, immune, skeletal muscle traction, biomechanical load). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374307PMC
February 2019

Quantification of an alpha flux based radiological dose from seasonal exposure to Rn, Rn and their different EEC species.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2515. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India.

This study summarizes the seasonal experimental data on the activity concentrations of indoor Rn (Radon), Rn (Thoron) and their progeny in Mansa and Muktsar districts of Punjab (India) using LR-115 solid state nuclear track detector based time integrated pin-hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors for the assessment of radiological dose. The indoor Rn concentration was observed higher in the rainy and winter seasons while Rn concentration was observed higher in the winter season. However, Equilibrium Equivalent Concentrations (EECs) of Rn and Rn exhibited distinct seasonal behaviour unlike their parent nuclides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38871-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Graphene Oxide Induced Surface Modification for Functional Separators in Lithium Secondary Batteries.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2464. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Research Group of Multidisciplinary Sensors, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon, 34129, Republic of Korea.

Functional separators, which have additional functions apart from the ionic conduction and electronic insulation of conventional separators, are highly in demand to realize the development of advanced lithium ion secondary batteries with high safety, high power density, and so on. Their fabrication is simply performed by additional deposition of diverse functional materials on conventional separators. However, the hydrophobic wetting nature of conventional separators induces the polarity-dependent wetting feature of slurries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39237-8DOI Listing
February 2019

A New Model and Its Application for the Dynamic Response of RGO Resistive Gas Sensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

School of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054, China.

An reduced graphene oxide (RGO) resistive gas sensor was prepared to detect ammonia at room temperature, the result indicated that the desorption of gas (NH 3 ) molecules from a graphene-based sensor was difficult, which lead to a baseline drift. The responses of different concentrations were compared and studied. It was found that both the response rate and its acceleration were affected by the gas concentration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040889DOI Listing
February 2019

A Low-Power MEMS IDE Capacitor with Integrated Microhotplate: Application as Methanol Sensor using a Metal-Organic Framework Coating as Affinity Layer.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Beijing Research Centre, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands.

Capacitors made of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) as a transducer platform for the sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have advantages due to their lower power operation and fabrication using standard micro-fabrication techniques. Integrating a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), such as a microhotplate with IDE capacitor, further allows study of the temperature- dependent sensing response of VOCs. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of a low-power MEMS microhotplate with IDE capacitor to study the temperature-dependent sensing response to methanol using Zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8), a class of metal-organic framework (MOF), is presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040888DOI Listing
February 2019

Deep Learning for Sensor-Based Rehabilitation Exercise Recognition and Evaluation.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-tech Innovations, Center for Innovative Research on Aging Society (CIRAS) and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 62102, Taiwan.

In this paper, a multipath convolutional neural network (MP-CNN) is proposed for rehabilitation exercise recognition using sensor data. It consists of two novel components: a dynamic convolutional neural network (D-CNN) and a state transition probability CNN (S-CNN). In the D-CNN, Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) are exploited to capture the distribution of sensor data for the body movements of the physical rehabilitation exercises. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040887DOI Listing
February 2019

A Precise and GNSS-Free Landing System on Moving Platforms for Rotary-Wing UAVs.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Robotics, Vision and Control Group, University of Seville, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain.

This article presents a precise landing system that allows rotary-wing UAVs to approach and land safely on moving platforms, without using GNSS at any stage of the landing maneuver, and with a centimeter level accuracy and high level of robustness. This system implements a novel concept where the relative position and velocity between the aerial vehicle and the landing platform are calculated from the angles of a cable that physically connects the UAV and the landing platform. The use of a cable also incorporates a number of extra benefits, such as increasing the precision in the control of the UAV altitude. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040886DOI Listing
February 2019

Virtual Touch Sensor Using a Depth Camera.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Computer Software Engineering, Dong-eui University, Busan 47340, Korea.

In this paper, a virtual touch sensor using a depth camera is proposed. Touch regions are detected by finding each region that consists of pixels within a certain distance from a touch surface. Touch points are detected by finding a pixel in each touch region whose neighboring pixels are closest to surfaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040885DOI Listing
February 2019

Danger-Pose Detection System Using Commodity Wi-Fi for Bathroom Monitoring.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Graduate School/Faculty of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan.

A bathroom has higher probability of accidents than other rooms due to a slippery floor and temperature change. Because of high privacy and humidity, we face difficulties in monitoring inside a bathroom using traditional healthcare methods based on cameras and wearable sensors. In this paper, we present a danger-pose detection system using commodity Wi-Fi devices, which can be applied to bathroom monitoring, preserving privacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040884DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of Acidity Levels and Feed Rate on the Porosity of Aerogel Extracted from Rice Husk under Ambient Pressure.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehakro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588, Korea.

Silica aerogels have attracted tremendous interest due to their high specific surface area and the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties as promising materials for thermal insulation, chemical sensors, and energy storage devices. However, large-scale production of silica aerogels remains a challenge due to costly alkoxide precursors and energy-intensive supercritical drying processes. This paper analyzes the effect of acidity levels and feed rate on the porosity of rice husk aerogels with high specific surface area under ambient pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9020300DOI Listing
February 2019

Orthogonal Chirp Coded Excitation in a Capacitive Micro-machined Ultrasonic Transducer Array for Ultrasound Imaging: A Feasibility Study.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Health & Medical Equipment Department, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd, Suwon-si 16678, Korea.

It has been reported that the frequency bandwidth of capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is relatively broader than that of other ceramic-based conventional ultrasonic transducers. In this paper, a feasibility study for orthogonal chirp coded excitation to efficiently make use of the wide bandwidth characteristic of CMUT array is presented. The experimental result shows that the two orthogonal chirps mixed and simultaneously fired in CMUT array can be perfectly separated in decoding process of the received echo signal without sacrificing the frequency bandwidth each chirp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040883DOI Listing
February 2019

A Three-Dimensional Hough Transform-Based Track-Before-Detect Technique for Detecting Extended Targets in Strong Clutter Backgrounds.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

School of Aerospace Science and Technology, XIDIAN University, 266 Xinglong Section of Xifeng Road, Xi'an 710126, China.

Hough Transform (HT), which has a low sensitivity to local faults and good ability in suppressing noise and clutters, usually applies to trajectory detection in a cluttered environment. This paper describes its application for detecting the trajectories of extended targets in three-dimensional measurements, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040881DOI Listing
February 2019

Analyzing Power Beacon Assisted Transmission with Imperfect CSI in Wireless Powered Sensor Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

College of Communications Engineering, Army Engineering University of PLA, No. 88 Houbiaoying, Qinhuai District, Nanjing 210007, China.

This paper proposes the maximal ratio transmission (MRT) and maximal ratio combining (MRC) protocols for the power beacon (PB) assisted wireless powered sensor networks and analyzes the impact of the imperfect channel state information (CSI) on the performance using the Markov chain theory. The wireless powered sensor chooses to transmit information to the destination or harvest energy from the PB when its energy can or cannot supply a transmission, respectively. The energy arrival and departure of the sensor is characterized, and the analytical expressions of the network transmit probability, and effective and overall ergodic capacities are formulated and derived. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040882DOI Listing
February 2019

Automated Chemical Sensing Unit Integration for Parallel Optical Interrogation.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Centre for Biomedical Technology, Optics, Photonics and Biophotonics Laboratory, Campus Montegancedo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid, Spain.

We report the integration of an automated chemical optical sensing unit for the parallel interrogation of 12 BICELLs in a sensing chip. The work was accomplished under the European Project Enviguard (FP7-OCEAN-2013-614057) with the aim of demonstrating an optical nano-biosensing unit for the in-situ detection of various chemical pollutants simultaneously in oceanic waters. In this context, we designed an optical sensing chip based on resonant nanopillars (R-NPs) transducers organized in a layout of twelve biophotonic sensing cells (BICELLs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040878DOI Listing
February 2019

Recognizing Physical Activity of Older People from Wearable Sensors and Inconsistent Data.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Computer Engineering and Informatics, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece.

The physiological monitoring of older people using wearable sensors has shown great potential in improving their quality of life and preventing undesired events related to their health status. Nevertheless, creating robust predictive models from data collected unobtrusively in home environments can be challenging, especially for vulnerable ageing population. Under that premise, we propose an activity recognition scheme for older people exploiting feature extraction and machine learning, along with heuristic computational solutions to address the challenges due to inconsistent measurements in non-standardized environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040880DOI Listing
February 2019

A Novel Microwave Staring Correlated Radar Imaging Method Based on Bi-Static Radar System.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Space Information, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, China.

The stochastic characteristic of the radiation field of a mono-static microwave staring correlated imaging (MSCI) radar degenerates with the increase of the imaging distance, which results in degradation of the image quality. To address this issue, a novel MSCI method based on bi-static radar is proposed from two perspectives: site-deploying and waveform design. On the one hand, a new bi-static MSCI site-deploying scheme is proposed which adopts two transmitting stations with their azimuth angles relative to the center of the imaging region differing by 90 degrees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040879DOI Listing
February 2019

Review of Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Fire Engineering.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA.

Reliable and accurate measurements of temperature and strain in structures subjected to fire can be difficult to obtain using traditional sensing technologies based on electrical signals. Fiber optic sensors, which are based on light signals, solve many of the problems of monitoring structures in high temperature environments; however, they present their own challenges. This paper, which is intended for structural engineers new to fiber optic sensors, reviews various fiber optic sensors that have been used to make measurements in structure fires, including the sensing principles, fabrication, key characteristics, and recently-reported applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040877DOI Listing
February 2019

An Analysis Method for Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducer (CMUT) Energy Conversion during Large Signal Operation.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.

With Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (CMUTs) increasingly being used for high intensity, large signal ultrasound applications and several drive methods being proposed, the efficiency of these devices in this operation regime have not been quantitatively evaluated. Since well-known frequency and capacitance-based coupling coefficients definitions are not valid for large signal, nonlinear operation, an energy-based definition should be used. In this paper, an expression for mechanical energy in a CMUT is obtained based on the assumption that CMUT is a linear time varying capacitor in all regimes of operation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040876DOI Listing
February 2019

A Novel Passive Indoor Localization Method by Fusion CSI Amplitude and Phase Information.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

College of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China.

With the rapid development of wireless network technology, wireless passive indoor localization has become an increasingly important technique that is widely used in indoor location-based services. Channel state information (CSI) can provide more detailed and specific subcarrier information, which has gained the attention of researchers and has become an emphasis in indoor localization technology. However, existing research has generally adopted amplitude information for eigenvalue calculations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040875DOI Listing
February 2019

Self-Weighted Multilateration for Indoor Positioning Systems.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, Italy.

The paper proposes an improved method for calculating the position of a movable tag whose distance to a (redundant) set of fixed beacons is measured by some suitable physical principle (typically ultra wide band or ultrasound propagation). The method is based on the multilateration technique, where the contribution of each individual beacon is weighed on the basis of a recurring, self-supported calibration of the measurement repeatability of each beacon at a given distance range. The work outlines the method and its implementation, and shows the improvement in measurement quality with respect to the results of a commercial Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB) system when tested on the same set of raw beacon-to-tag distances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040872DOI Listing
February 2019

Flexural Capacity and Deflection of Fiber-Reinforced Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Bars.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

School of Civil Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Adding fibers is highly effective to enhance the deflection and ductility of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)-reinforced beams. In this study, the stress and strain conditions of FRP-reinforced lightweight aggregate concrete (LWC) beams with and without fibers at ultimate load level were specified. Based on the sectional analyses, alternative equations to predict the balanced reinforcement ratio and flexural capacity for beams failed by balanced failure and concrete crushing were established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040873DOI Listing
February 2019

Microcomputed Tomography Evaluation of Root Dentin Caries Prevention by Topical Fluorides and Potassium Iodide.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

The mineral content of dental hard tissues has traditionally been measured by destructive tests such as transverse microradiography. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro CT) has enabled non-destructive 3D assessment of tooth demineralization. This study compared the preventive effects of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) and potassium iodide (KI) in comparison with fluoride varnish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040874DOI Listing
February 2019

Parallel Connected Generative Adversarial Network with Quadratic Operation for SAR Image Generation and Application for Classification.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Geospatial Technology, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China.

Thanks to the availability of large-scale data, deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have witnessed success in various applications of computer vision. However, the performance of CNNs on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image classification is unsatisfactory due to the lack of well-labeled SAR data, as well as the differences in imaging mechanisms between SAR images and optical images. Therefore, this paper addresses the problem of SAR image classification by employing the Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) to produce more labeled SAR data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040871DOI Listing
February 2019

Compensation for Process and Temperature Dependency in a CMOS Image Sensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

EI Lab, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands.

This paper analyzes and compensates for process and temperature dependency among a (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) CMOS image sensor (CIS) array. Both the analysis and compensation are supported with experimental results on the CIS's dark current, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), and conversion gain (CG). To model and to compensate for process variations, process sensors based on pixel source follower (SF)'s transconductance have been proposed to model and to be compared against the measurement results of SF gain . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040870DOI Listing
February 2019

A Semantic-Enabled Platform for Realizing an Interoperable Web of Things.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Network Planning and Mobile Communications Lab, University of Cantabria, 39012 Santander, Spain.

Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is experiencing a lack of interoperability across the multiple competing platforms that are available. Consequently, service providers can only access vertical data silos that imply high costs and jeopardize their solutions market potential. It is necessary to transform the current situation with competing non-interoperable IoT platforms into a common ecosystem enabling the emergence of cross-platform, cross-standard, and cross-domain IoT services and applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040869DOI Listing
February 2019

Affinity of Electrochemically Deposited Sol⁻Gel Silica Films towards Catecholamine Neurotransmitters.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Departmento Química Física e Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Universidad de Alicante, Carretera San Vicente del Raspeig s/n San Vicente del Raspeig, E-03690 Alicante, Spain.

Dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine neurotransmitters can be detected by electrochemical oxidation in conventional electrodes. However, their similar chemical structure and electrochemical behavior makes a difficult selective analysis. In the present work, glassy carbon electrodes have been modified with silica layers, which were prepared by electroassisted deposition of sol⁻gel precursors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040868DOI Listing
February 2019

Bacteria Interactive Cost and Balanced-Compromised Approach to Clustering and Transmission Boundary-Range Cognitive Routing In Mobile Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Computer Engineering, Firat University, 23100 Elazig, Turkey.

The improvement of stable, energy-efficient mobile-based clustering and routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has become indispensable so as to develop large-scale, versitale, and adaptive applications. Data is gathered more efficiently and the total path length is shortened optimally by means of mobile sink (MS). Two algorithms as bacterial interaction based cluster head (CH) selection and energy and transmission boundary range cognitive routing algorithm with novel approach for heterogeneous mobile networks are proposed in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040867DOI Listing
February 2019

Exploring RGB+Depth Fusion for Real-Time Object Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

EAVISE, KU Leuven, 2860 Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium.

In this paper, we investigate whether fusing depth information on top of normal RGB data for camera-based object detection can help to increase the performance of current state-of-the-art single-shot detection networks. Indeed, depth sensing is easily acquired using depth cameras such as a Kinect or stereo setups. We investigate the optimal manner to perform this sensor fusion with a special focus on lightweight single-pass convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures, enabling real-time processing on limited hardware. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040866DOI Listing
February 2019

Luminescence from Si-Implanted SiO₂-Si₃N₄ Nano Bi-Layers for Electrophotonic Integrated Si Light Sources.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona, CNM-CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

In this paper, we present structural and luminescence studies of silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRO) and SRO-Si 3 N 4 bi-layers for integration in emitter-waveguide pairs that can be used for photonic lab-on-a-chip sensing applications. The results from bi and mono layers are also compared. Two clearly separated emission bands are respectively attributed to a combination of defect and quantum confinement⁻related emission in the SRO, as well as to defects found in an oxynitride transition zone that forms between the oxide and the nitride films, while ruling out quantum-confinement phenomena in the silicon nitride. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040865DOI Listing
February 2019

Laterally Movable Triple Electrodes Actuator toward Low Voltage and Fast Response RF-MEMS Switches.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Management of Industry and Technology, Graduate of School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 561-0871, Japan.

A novel actuator toward a low voltage actuation and fast response in RF-MEMS (radio frequency micro-electro-mechanical systems) switches is reported in this paper. The switch is comprised of laterally movable triple electrodes, which are bistable by electrostatic forces applied for not only the on-state, but also the off-state. The bistable triple electrodes enable the implementation of capacitive series and shunt type switches on a single switch, which leads to high isolation in spite of the small gap between the electrodes on the series switch. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040864DOI Listing
February 2019

Acoustic Field Characterization of Medical Array Transducers Based on Unfocused Transmits and Single-Plane Hydrophone Measurements.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Computer-Assisted Applications in Medicine, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.

Medical ultrasonic arrays are typically characterized in controlled water baths using measurements by a hydrophone, which can be translated with a positioning stage. Characterization of 3D acoustic fields conventionally requires measurements at each spatial location, which is tedious and time-consuming, and may be prohibitive given limitations of experimental setup (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040863DOI Listing
February 2019

A Short Review on the Role of the Metal-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructure in Promoting the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Performance.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) sensors have potential applications in essential and important areas such as bio-sensor technology, especially in medical applications and gas sensors in environmental monitoring applications. Figure of Merit (FOM) and Sensitivity (S) measurements are two ways to assess the performance of an LSPR sensor. However, LSPR sensors suffer low FOM compared to the conventional Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor due to high losses resulting from radiative damping of LSPs waves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040862DOI Listing
February 2019

An LSTM-Based Method with Attention Mechanism for Travel Time Prediction.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Traffic prediction is based on modeling the complex non-linear spatiotemporal traffic dynamics in road network. In recent years, Long Short-Term Memory has been applied to traffic prediction, achieving better performance. The existing Long Short-Term Memory methods for traffic prediction have two drawbacks: they do not use the departure time through the links for traffic prediction, and the way of modeling long-term dependence in time series is not direct in terms of traffic prediction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040861DOI Listing
February 2019

A Highlight-Generation Method for Rendering Translucent Objects.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

School of Information Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China.

The acquisition of translucent objects has become a very common task thanks to the progress of 3D scanning technology. Since the characteristic soft appearance of translucent objects is due to subsurface scattering, the details are naturally left out in this appearance. For objects that have complex shapes, this lack of detail is obviously more prominent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040860DOI Listing
February 2019

A Human⁻Machine Interface Based on Eye Tracking for Controlling and Monitoring a Smart Home Using the Internet of Things.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Postgraduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria 29075-910, Brazil.

People with severe disabilities may have difficulties when interacting with their home devices due to the limitations inherent to their disability. Simple home activities may even be impossible for this group of people. Although much work has been devoted to proposing new assistive technologies to improve the lives of people with disabilities, some studies have found that the abandonment of such technologies is quite high. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040859DOI Listing
February 2019

A Novel Antenna for Partial Discharge Measurements in GIS Based on Magnetic Field Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Electrical Sustainable Energy, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands.

This paper presents a new concept for partial discharge measurements in gas insulated systems (GIS). The proposed technique uses a novel GIS magnetic antenna that measures the magnetic field produced by partial discharges (PD) propagating in GIS. The foundations of the measurement technique and the magnetic antenna design are presented together with laboratory measurements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040858DOI Listing
February 2019

Towards a Non-Invasive Technique for Healing Assessment of Internally Fixated Femur.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

The Alfred Hospital, 55 Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia.

The lack of a quantitative method to adequately assess fractured bone healing that has undergone fixation limits prognostic capabilities on patients' optimal return to work. This paper addresses the use of vibrational analysis to monitor the state of healing of a plate-screw fixated femur and supplement the current clinical radiographic assessment. This experimental study involves an osteotomised composite femur specimen enclosed by modelling clay to simulate the damping effect of overlying soft tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040857DOI Listing
February 2019

Management and Monitoring of IoT Devices Using Blockchain .

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Faculty of Informatics and Information Technologies, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, 842 16 Bratislava, Slovakia.

Nowadays, we are surrounded by a large number of IoT (Internet of Things) devices and sensors. These devices are designed to make life easier and more comfortable. Blockchain technology, especially its mass application, is becoming a term number one. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040856DOI Listing
February 2019