200 results match your criteria Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases[Journal]


Ralph D. Feigin, MD: Chairman of Pediatrics at Baylor College of Medicine, Physician-in-Chief of Texas Children's Hospital, and Editor-in-Chief of Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

Authors:
B Lee Ligon

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Oct;17(4):213-24

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.08.009DOI Listing
October 2006
3 Reads

Live attenuated influenza vaccine in children.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Oct;17(4):206-12

MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA.

Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) offers a novel approach to influenza vaccination and is approved for healthy individuals 5 to 49 years of age. In placebo-controlled studies in children, LAIV was 73 to 93 percent efficacious, and protection lasted more than 12 months. In head-to-head studies in children, LAIV demonstrated a 35 to 53 percent reduction in influenza attack rates compared with injectable influenza vaccine (TIV) for matched strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.08.007DOI Listing
October 2006
4 Reads

The use of inactivated influenza vaccine in children.

Authors:
Peter F Wright

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Oct;17(4):200-5

Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

The impact of influenza in the very young appears to be comparable to that in the elderly. Influenza vaccine strategy is changing to reflect that impact. Currently, the broader recommendations include vaccination with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIVs) for children aged 6 to 59 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.08.004DOI Listing
October 2006
4 Reads

The pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq.

Authors:
David O Matson

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Oct;17(4):195-9

Graduate Program in Public Health, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23501, USA.

Vaccination against rotavirus disease has been a global preventive health priority since rotaviruses were first discovered in the 1970s. The first licensed rotavirus vaccine, RRV-TV, was removed from the market shortly after licensure because of an unexpected serious adverse event, intussusception. A pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, PRV, is the second FDA-licensed rotavirus vaccine and does not signal the risk observed with RRV-TV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.08.005DOI Listing
October 2006
13 Reads

Live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Oct;17(4):188-94

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH 45229, USA.

Rotavirus infections are the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Recently two new rotavirus vaccines have entered the world market. This review provides a summary of the rationale, development, and evaluation of one of these vaccines, Rotarix. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.08.006DOI Listing
October 2006
3 Reads

An unusual cause of sepsis and meningitis in a neonate.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Oct;17(4):187, 225-7

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.08.003DOI Listing
October 2006
4 Reads

Dr. Lee Jong-wook, former Director-General of the World Health Organization: a tribute.

Authors:
B Lee Ligon

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jul;17(3):171-6

Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX 77373, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.06.009DOI Listing
July 2006
3 Reads

Plague: a review of its history and potential as a biological weapon.

Authors:
B Lee Ligon

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jul;17(3):161-70

Department of Pediactrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

The increased threat of terrorism has revealed the importance of various diseases as potential weapons of destruction. Among the diseases that have been identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as being caused by category A organisms is plague. An ancient disease, it has played a role in both natural disasters and war and has been used as a weapon since at least medieval times. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.07.002DOI Listing
July 2006
3 Reads

Viridans group streptococcal infections among children with cancer and the importance of emerging antibiotic resistance.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jul;17(3):153-60

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology/HSCT, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.

Viridans group streptococci (VGS) are major pathogens among children with cancer or receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality rates. The incidence and severity of VGS infections have increased during the past 15 years and account for as many as one third of all bacteremic episodes. Risk factors include severe neutropenia, mucositis, gastrointestinal toxicity, pneumonia, younger age, and high-intensity chemotherapy (especially cytosine arabinoside). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.06.008DOI Listing
July 2006
3 Reads

Issues of antimicrobial resistance in group B streptococcus in the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis.

Authors:
Morven S Edwards

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jul;17(3):149-52

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

The implementation of a culture screening-based approach to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has been associated with substantial reduction in the incidence of early-onset group B streptococcal disease. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recognized as an interim strategy awaiting the licensure of a safe and effective conjugate vaccine for prevention of group B streptococcal infections in all susceptible populations. This article addresses concerns relating to antimicrobial resistance among group B streptococci that have arisen from use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis and from increases in resistance in other gram-positive bacteria related genetically to group B streptococci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.06.007DOI Listing
July 2006
3 Reads

Group A streptococcus.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jul;17(3):140-8

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Group A streptococci (GAS) are gram positive cocci that can be divided into more than 100 M-serotypes or emm types based on their M proteins. Their virulence is related directly to the M protein on the cell surface that inhibits phagocytosis. Although it is more commonly thought of in the context of causing clinical illness, Streptococcus pyogenes can colonize the pharynx and skin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.07.001DOI Listing
July 2006
3 Reads

Enterococcal infection in children.

Authors:
Karina M Butler

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jul;17(3):128-39

Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin & The Children's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

From relative obscurity, enterococci have become a leading cause of nosocomial infection. This has been attributed, in part, to the growth in susceptible host populations, increased use of intravascular devices, prolonged hospital stay, and widespread antibiotics use. Furthermore, the facility with which enterococci acquire resistance characteristics coupled with their capacity to survive in the environment renders them uniquely suited as nosocomial opportunists and have resulted in global dissemination of resistant strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.06.006DOI Listing
July 2006
3 Reads

Coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in the neonate and child: an update.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jul;17(3):120-7

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030-2300, USA.

Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CONS) infection is the most common bloodstream infection treated in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units and significantly impacts patient mortality and morbidity. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common CONS species isolated clinically and investigated for its pathogenicity and virulence. Difficulties exist in the differentiation of CONS infection from culture contamination in clinical specimens, as CONS is a common skin commensal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.06.005DOI Listing
July 2006
3 Reads

Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in children.

Authors:
Sheldon L Kaplan

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jul;17(3):113-9

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is now an established community pathogen in many areas of the United States as well as the world. Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections have changed several aspects of staphylococcal infections in children including the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory approach, antibiotic management, and prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.06.004DOI Listing
July 2006
3 Reads

An unusual cause of appendicitis in a child.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jul;17(3):111-2, 177-9

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.06.003DOI Listing
July 2006
7 Reads

Reemergence of an unusual disease: the chikungunya epidemic.

Authors:
B Lee Ligon

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Apr;17(2):99-104

Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Since the beginning of 2006, a crippling mosquito-borne disease has shown an explosive emergence in nations in the Indian Ocean area. By March 7, 2006, 157,000 people had been infected in the French island La RĂ©union, and the disease had spread to the islands of Seychelles, Mauritius, and Mayotte (French). Subsequently, the disease appeared in India, China, and European countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.04.009DOI Listing
April 2006
3 Reads

Integrated management of childhood illness: an emphasis on the management of infectious diseases.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Apr;17(2):80-98

Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, Washington, DC 20037-2895, USA.

The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy has helped strengthen the application and expand coverage of key child survival interventions aimed at preventing deaths from infectious disease, respiratory illness, and malnutrition, whether at the health services, in the community, or at home. IMCI covers the prevention, treatment, and follow-up of the leading causes of mortality, which are responsible for at least two-thirds of deaths of children younger than 5 years in the countries of the Americas. The IMCI clinical guidelines take an evidence-based, syndrome approach to case managment that supports the rational, effective, and affordable use of drugs and diagnostic tools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.04.006DOI Listing
April 2006
4 Reads

Extracorporeal therapies in the treatment of sepsis: experience and promise.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Apr;17(2):72-9

Critical Care Division, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Desire to restore the balance of body elements has enamored physicians since the ancient practice of bloodletting. More recently, extracorporeal techniques have been employed in both adults and children in treating sepsis. Extracorporeal therapies include continuous renal replacement (CRRT), plasma-based removal techniques, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.04.005DOI Listing
April 2006
17 Reads

Infection in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Authors:
Otwell Timmons

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Apr;17(2):65-71

Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203, USA.

Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe lung injury caused by pneumonia, sepsis, and trauma. ARDS results from inflammation and pulmonary capillary leak causing major changes in lung architecture and function. It has a low incidence, but its severity and duration cause major morbidity, mortality, and use of resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.04.004DOI Listing
April 2006
3 Reads

Ventilator-associated pneumonia in children.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Apr;17(2):58-64

Department of Pediatrics, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

The purpose of this report is to review the current knowledge base related to the epidemiology, microbiology, diagnosis, and morbidity and mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia and to review strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring this condition. Published guidelines are based largely on data from adult populations, and implications for the pediatric population must be extrapolated to a great extent. Some interventions, including elevation of the head of the bed for most patients and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in older pediatric patients, seem reasonable based on available literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.04.003DOI Listing
April 2006
3 Reads

Nitric oxide.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Apr;17(2):55-7

Children's Hospital, Pediatric Critical Care Section, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas that is involved in many biologic processes. It is synthesized, by the NO synthases. The synthesis of NO by vascular endothelium is responsible for the vasodilator tone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.04.002DOI Listing
April 2006
6 Reads

Cough and apnea in a young infant.

Authors:
Bonnie M Word

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Apr;17(2):54, 105-6

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.04.007DOI Listing
April 2006
4 Reads

Infection control in the emergency department.

Authors:
J E Shook

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):265-72

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 7703, USA.

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October 1995
4 Reads

Immunization administration and disease reporting in the emergency department.

Authors:
M Ward

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):255-64

Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

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October 1995
3 Reads

Initial approach to the child who presents with tropical disease.

Authors:
M Anderson Lyn

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):249-54

Section of Pediatric Emergency Me&cine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

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October 1995
3 Reads

Initial approach to the child who presents with bites or stings.

Authors:
E E Endom

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):240-8

Texas Children's Hospital, Section ofPediatric Emergen 9 Medicine, 6621 Fannin, MC 1-1481, Houston, TX 77074, USA.

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October 1995
3 Reads

Initial approach to the child who presents HIV-positive or immunocompromised.

Authors:
B M Devillier

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):237-9

Cook Children's Medical Center, Emergenqy Services, 801 Seventh Ave, Fort Worth, TX 76104, USA.

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October 1995
3 Reads

Initial approach to the child who presents with sickle-cell disease and fever.

Authors:
Z E Dreyer

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):232-6

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

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October 1995
3 Reads

Initial approach to the child who presents in presumed septic shock.

Authors:
P T Louis

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):223-31

Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

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October 1995
3 Reads

Febrile seizures: a review of the literature and a systematic approach to the evaluation and management of simple febrile seizures.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):218-22

Section of Pediatric Emergenqy Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

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October 1995
4 Reads

Initial approach to the infant younger than 2 months of age who presents with fever.

Authors:
R R Lynn R A Wiebe

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):212-7

Department of Pediatrics, Emergency Services, Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Fever is common in infants presenting to their physicians for evaluation. Infants younger than 2 months of age are at increased risk of SBI because of their exposure to different pathogens and because of their immature immune systems. The bacteria that may infect them include E coli, group B Streptococcus, and L monocytogenes, as well as Pneumococcus, Neisseria meningitidis, S aureus, and H influenzae. Read More

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October 1995
4 Reads

Infectious diseases in the emergency setting Part 1. Introduction.

Authors:
J E Shook

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):211

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October 1995
8 Reads

Infectious diseases in the emergency setting Part 1. Editorial.

Authors:
R D Feigin

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1995 Oct;6(4):209-10

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October 1995
6 Reads

Infectious diseases that pose specific challenges after natural disasters: a review.

Authors:
B Lee Ligon

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jan;17(1):36-45

Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

In a time span of less than one year, December 2004 to October 2005, several natural disasters of extreme proportions struck different areas of the world, causing unparalleled destruction and loss of lives and property. In each of these instances, the potential existed for acquisition of infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, mold, and mildew and demonstrated that such disasters represent a public health concern, which is exacerbated by the fact that many factors may work synergistically to increase the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by communicable diseases. This article reviews causes, symptoms, and treatments of various infectious diseases that pose a threat in the event of a natural disaster. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2006.01.002DOI Listing
January 2006
4 Reads

Innate immunity in critical care.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jan;17(1):25-35

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Innate and adaptive immunity are required for effective control of infection. Numerous breakthroughs have been achieved in the last 15 years with regard to the functioning of the innate immune system. This article focuses on new paradigms of microorganism recognition, discusses recently described (or rediscovered) cytokines that provide further insight into the development of sepsis, and reviews both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways for control of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.11.007DOI Listing
January 2006
3 Reads

Catheter-related bloodstream infections in the pediatric intensive care unit.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jan;17(1):20-4

Department of Pediatrics and Critical Care, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are a significant complication for children treated in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). This review seeks to identify the epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and prevention strategies for CRBSIs in the PICU. Factors such as catheter type, insertion site, number of lumens, indwelling time, and medications delivered all can influence the rate of CRBSIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.11.006DOI Listing
January 2006
4 Reads

Pertussis in infants, children, and adolescents: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Authors:
Flor M Munoz

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jan;17(1):14-9

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, and Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Pertussis, or "whooping cough," caused by the gram-negative pleomorphic bacillus Bordetella pertussis, is a highly contagious, potentially life-threatening respiratory tract illness that has re-emerged worldwide as a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in infants, children, and adolescents, despite high vaccination rates. Increased awareness and reporting, in addition to the availability of better diagnostic tests, partially explain the recent resurgence of pertussis. However, waning immunity after childhood immunization has resulted in a growing pool of susceptible adolescents and adults who are capable of transmitting pertussis to vulnerable unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.11.005DOI Listing
January 2006
4 Reads

Tracheitis in pediatric patients.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jan;17(1):11-3

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Despite the advances that have been achieved in supportive pediatric intensive care, tracheitis remains a significant cause of reversible upper-airway obstruction in pediatric patients. This discussion highlights the epidemiology and clinical presentation of tracheitis in the twenty-first century and reviews diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. The gold standard for therapy remains supportive airway management in conjunction with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.11.004DOI Listing
January 2006
5 Reads

Acute infectious upper airway obstructions in children.

Authors:
Laura Loftis

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jan;17(1):5-10

Baylor College of Medicine, Section of Critical Care Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030-2399, USA.

There are numerous causes of acquired acute upper airway obstructions in children but most are secondary to infections, foreign bodies, and trauma. Recognizing impending airway obstructions is important because cardiopulmonary arrest rarely is a sudden event but rather follows a progressive deterioration in respiratory function. From an anatomic perspective, acute obstructions may present in the pharyngeal or laryngeal regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.11.003DOI Listing
January 2006
5 Reads

An unusual case of chronic soft-tissue infection and more in a young infant.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2006 Jan;17(1):4, 46-9

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.11.002DOI Listing
January 2006
4 Reads

Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser: discoverer of the cause of gonorrhea.

Authors:
B Lee Ligon

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005 Oct;16(4):336-41

Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

The history of sexually transmitted diseases is thought to date back to earliest times, and many ancient texts describe conditions that may be those of syphilis and gonorrhea, which at one time were thought to be the same disease. A main figure in the research in this area was Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser, who discovered the gonococcus in 1879 and later produced the most comprehensive account of experimental syphilis ever published. This article provides a brief biography of Albert Neisser, focusing on his discoveries in the area of infectious diseases, the so-called Neisser-Hansen controversy, and the situation leading to changes in defining bioethics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.07.001DOI Listing
October 2005
3 Reads

Avian influenza virus H5N1: a review of its history and information regarding its potential to cause the next pandemic.

Authors:
B Lee Ligon

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005 Oct;16(4):326-35

Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Avian influenza virus H5N1, which has been limited to poultry, now has spread to migrating birds and has emerged in mammals and among the human population. It presents a distinct threat of a pandemic for which the World Health Organization and other organizations are making preparations. This article reviews information about the virus itself and its spread among poultry, migrating birds, mammals, and humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.07.002DOI Listing
October 2005
6 Reads

Sexually transmitted diseases in prepubertal children: mechanisms of transmission, evaluation of sexually abused children, and exclusion of chronic perinatal viral infections.

Authors:
Charles R Woods

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005 Oct;16(4):317-25

Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.06.012DOI Listing
October 2005
7 Reads

Human papillomavirus infections of the genital and respiratory tracts in young children.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005 Oct;16(4):306-16

Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes papillomas (warts) on the skin and respiratory mucosal surfaces (laryngeal and oral papillomas) in addition to condyloma acuminata (anogenital warts). HPV has become one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in adults. Vertical transmission from mother to infant during birth is well recognized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.06.010DOI Listing
October 2005
6 Reads

Hepatitis B and C viruses in infants and young children.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005 Oct;16(4):296-305

Department of Pediatrics and Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Advances during the past 20 years have led to a better understanding of the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infections in the pediatric population. Universal vaccination and prenatal testing for HBV have decreased the incidence rate of acute HBV infections from more than 3/100,000 to 0.34/100,000 in all children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.06.009DOI Listing
October 2005
3 Reads

Perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection: prevention and evaluation of HIV-exposed infants.

Authors:
Avinash K Shetty

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005 Oct;16(4):282-95

Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest University Health Sciences and Brenner Children's Hospital, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the primary cause of pediatric HIV infections. In recent years, perinatal HIV-1 transmission rates in the United States have declined markedly because of several factors that include enhanced voluntary counseling and HIV-1 testing (VCT) for pregnant women, widespread use of antiretroviral prophylaxis or combination antiretroviral therapy, avoidance of breastfeeding, and elective cesarean delivery. However, perinatal transmission of HIV-1 still occurs, and 300 to 400 infected infants are born annually, primarily because of missed prevention opportunities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.06.008DOI Listing
October 2005
3 Reads

Herpes simplex virus infections in neonates and early childhood.

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005 Oct;16(4):271-81

Department of Pediatrics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA.

Of the commonly considered congenital infections, those caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), syphilis, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are frequently (CMV, HSV) or exclusively (syphilis) acquired sexually by the mother, with subsequent transmission to the developing fetus. Of the other commonly considered congenital infections, including rubella and toxoplasma infections, the mother is exposed to the infectious agent via interpersonal or environmental contacts. Unlike each of these other pathogens, which are transmitted transplacentally to the developing fetus following maternal infection though, HSV usually is transmitted perinatally as the neonate is exposed to the virus during passage through an infected birth canal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.06.007DOI Listing
October 2005
3 Reads

Gonococcal infections in neonates and young children.

Authors:
Charles R Woods

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005 Oct;16(4):258-70

Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.

Gonorrhea has been recognized since antiquity, and more than 60 million new cases occur yearly worldwide. Much has been learned about the molecular pathogenesis of infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but immunity from natural infection does not protect against reinfection with the same strain, and the goal of a protective vaccine remains elusive. Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum is the most common manifestation in infants born to mothers with gonococcal genital tract infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.06.006DOI Listing
October 2005
25 Reads

Syphilis in children: congenital and acquired.

Authors:
Charles R Woods

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005 Oct;16(4):245-57

Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.

Syphilis rates in women and congenital syphilis rates have declined steadily in the United States in recent years. However, syphilis remains a worldwide public health problem, with more than 12 million cases in adults and more than half a million pregnancies affected yearly. Prenatal screening and treatment programs are limited or nonexistent in many developing countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.06.005DOI Listing
October 2005
3 Reads

Chlamydia trachomatis infections in neonates and young children.

Authors:
Toni Darville

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2005 Oct;16(4):235-44

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.

In 1911, Lindner and colleagues identified intracytoplasmic inclusions in infants with a nongonococcal form of ophthalmia neonatorum called inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn (ICN). Mothers of affected infants were found to have inclusions in their cervical epithelial cells, fathers of such infants had inclusions in their urethral cells, and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted chlamydial infections was revealed. Fifty years later, chlamydial isolation procedures were developed, and studies again demonstrated Chlamydia trachomatis as an etiology of ICN and the female birth canal as the reservoir. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S104518700500066
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2005.06.004DOI Listing
October 2005
4 Reads