669 results match your criteria Seminars in Immunopathology [Journal]


CD8 T cell exhaustion.

Authors:
Makoto Kurachi

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, 920-8640, Japan.

CD8 T cells are important for the protective immunity against intracellular pathogens and tumor. In the case of chronic infection or cancer, CD8 T cells are exposed to persistent antigen and/or inflammatory signals. This excessive amount of signals often leads CD8 T cells to gradual deterioration of T cell function, a state called "exhaustion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00744-5DOI Listing

Islet inflammation in type 2 diabetes.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University Hospital of Basel, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.

Metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes are associated with meta-inflammation. β-Cell failure is a major component of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. It is now well established that increased numbers of innate immune cells, cytokines, and chemokines have detrimental effects on islets in these chronic conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00745-4DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The role of invariant T cells in inflammation of the skin and airways.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Centre for Cancer Biology, The University of South Australia and SA Pathology, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.

Invariant and semi-invariant T cells are emerging as important regulators of host environment interactions at barrier tissues such as the airway and skin. In contrast to conventional T cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express T cell receptors of very limited diversity. iNKT and MAIT cells recognise antigens presented by the MHC class 1-like monomorphic molecules CD1d and MR1, respectively. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-019-00740-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00740-9DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The immunopathology of lung fibrosis: amphiregulin-producing pathogenic memory T helper-2 cells control the airway fibrotic responses by inducing eosinophils to secrete osteopontin.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Fibrosis is defined as excessive deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the parenchyma of various organs, and sometimes leads to irreversible organ malfunction such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal disorder of the lung. Chronic inflammatory stimuli induce fibrotic responses in various organs. Various immune cells, including T helper (Th) cells in the lung, protect the host from different harmful particles, including pathogenic microorganisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00735-6DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Regulation of T cell differentiation and function by epigenetic modification enzymes.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Peripheral naive CD4 and CD8 cells are developed in the thymus and proliferate and differentiate into various specialized T cell subsets upon activation by peptide-major histocompatibility complexes in periphery to execute different functions during immune responses. Cytokines, transcription factors, and a large number of intracellular molecules have been shown to affect T cell development, activation, and function. In addition, epigenetic modifications, such as histone modification and DNA methylation, regulate T cell biology. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-019-00731-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00731-wDOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Treg cells in autoimmunity: from identification to Treg-based therapies.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Internal Medicine III, Division of Rheumatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Regulatory (Treg) cells are key regulators of inflammation and important for immune tolerance and homeostasis. A major progress has been made in the identification and classification of Treg cells. Due to technological advances, we have gained deep insights in the epigenetic regulation of Treg cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00741-8DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Role of innate immune cells in metabolism: from physiology to type 2 diabetes.

Authors:
Elise Dalmas

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Cordeliers Research Center, INSERM, Sorbonne Université, USPC, Université Paris Diderot, F-75006, Paris, France.

Growing evidence suggests that components of the innate immune system play a crucial role in regulating metabolic homeostasis. Macrophages were the primary immune cells to be described in both the white adipose tissue and the pancreatic islets. Therein, their functions, beneficial or detrimental, are extending under steady state and in the context of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00736-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

A new therapeutic target: the CD69-Myl9 system in immune responses.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

CD69 is an activation marker on leukocytes. Early studies showed that the CD69 cells were detected in the lung of patients with asthmatic and eosinophilic pneumonia, suggesting that CD69 might play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of such inflammatory diseases, rather than simply being an activation marker. Intensive studies using mouse models have since clarified that CD69 is a functional molecule regulating the immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00734-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Epigenetic regulation of T helper cells and intestinal pathogenicity.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by relapsing and remitting chronic intestinal inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated the contributions of genetic background, environmental factors (food, microbiota, use of antibiotics), and host immunity in the development of IBDs. More than 200 genes have been shown to influence IBD susceptibility, most of which are involved in immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00732-9DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

The pathogenicity of Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Laboratory of Integrative Biological Science, Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

IL-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Targeting the effector cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF secreted by autoimmune Th17 cells has been shown to be effective for the treatment of the diseases. Understanding a molecular basis of Th17 differentiation and effector functions is therefore critical for the regulation of the pathogenicity of tissue Th17 cells in chronic inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00733-8DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Subclinical inflammation and depressive symptoms in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), München-Neuherberg, Germany.

Depression is a frequent comorbidity of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Depression and diabetes are linked by a bidirectional relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Experimental, observational and intervention studies showed that inflammatory processes contribute to the development of depression in animal models and humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-019-00730-xDOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Sex differences in immunity.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 11;41(2):133-135. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Institute for Immunology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-00728-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-00728-xDOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Correction to: Potential importance of B cells in aging and aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar;41(2):277

Brudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes. Two references were given incorrectly (under number 40 and 41). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-00729-wDOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Sex differences in vaccine-induced humoral immunity.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 13;41(2):239-249. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0726-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373179PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Sexual dimorphism in hepatitis B and C and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 29;41(2):203-211. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Medicine II (Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Endocrinology and Infectious Diseases), Medical Center University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Str. 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.

The incidence of viral hepatitis B or C (HBV/HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma is higher in male compared to female populations, showing a faster disease progression and results in a worse overall survival. Indeed, women are in general better protected from viral infections and show a lower risk of death from malignant cancer in comparison to men. Females mount stronger innate and adaptive immune responses than males, and therefore, most of the autoimmune diseases occur predominantly in females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0727-4DOI Listing
March 2019
20 Reads

Homage to Mechnikov - the phagocytic system: past and present.

Authors:
Toru Miyazaki

Semin Immunopathol 2018 11 31;40(6):519-521. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0719-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0719-4DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Developing combination strategies using PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors to treat cancer.

Authors:
Emmett V Schmidt

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 29;41(1):21-30. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

More than 3000 clinical trials are evaluating the clinical activity of the PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors as monotherapies and in combinations with other cancer therapies [1]. The PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors are remarkable for their clinical activities in shrinking tumors across a wide range of tumor types, in causing durable responses, and in their tolerability. These attributes position them as favorable agents in clinical combinations. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0714-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0714-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323091PMC
January 2019
23 Reads

Sex differences in tuberculosis.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 25;41(2):225-237. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Coinfection Unit, Priority Research Area Infections, Research Center Borstel, Parkallee 1-40, 23847, Borstel, Germany.

Tuberculosis is the most prevalent bacterial infectious disease in humans and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is carried by an estimated two billion people globally and claims more than 1.5 million lives each year. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0725-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0725-6DOI Listing
March 2019
16 Reads

Sexual dimorphism in solid and hematological malignancies.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 25;41(2):251-263. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Oncology, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation with Section Pneumology, Hubertus Wald Tumorzentrum, Hubertus Wald Comprehensive Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Cancer represents a leading cause of death with continuously increasing incidence worldwide. Many solid cancer types in non-reproductive organs are significantly more frequent and deadly in males compared to females. This sex-biased difference is also present in hematologic malignancies. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0724-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0724-7DOI Listing
March 2019
15 Reads

Off-the-shelf cell therapy with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived natural killer cells.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 25;41(1):59-68. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

The KG Jebsen Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Cell therapy is emerging as a very promising therapeutic modality against cancer, spearheaded by the clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells for B cell malignancies. Currently, FDA-approved CAR-T cell products are based on engineering of autologous T cells harvested from the patient, typically using a central manufacturing facility for gene editing before the product can be delivered to the clinic and infused to the patients. For a broader implementation of advanced cell therapy and to reduce costs, it would be advantageous to use allogeneic "universal" cell therapy products that can be stored in cell banks and provided upon request, in a manner analogous to biopharmaceutical drug products. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0721-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0721-xDOI Listing
January 2019
18 Reads

Sex differences in autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 25;41(2):177-188. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Institute of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis (INIMS), Center for Molecular Neurobiology Hamburg (ZMNH), University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Stronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most common autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and discuss recent advances in the understanding of possible underlying immunological and CNS intrinsic mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0723-8DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Putting EV into context: contextual factors influencing immune-related functions of extracellular vesicles (EV).

Semin Immunopathol 2018 09 23;40(5):421-424. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0720-yDOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Androgen-dependent immune modulation in parasitic infection.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 23;41(2):213-224. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Molecular Infection Immunology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht-Straße 74, 20359, Hamburg, Germany.

Parasitic infections modulate the immune system of the host, resulting in either immune tolerance or the induction of pro-inflammatory defense mechanisms against the pathogen. In both cases, sex hormones are involved in the regulation of the immune response, as they are present in the systemic circulation and can act on a wide variety of cell types, including immune cells. Men and women have a different milieu of sex hormones, and these hormones play a role in determining immune responses to parasitic infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0722-9DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

A scavenging system against internal pathogens promoted by the circulating protein apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM).

Semin Immunopathol 2018 11 11;40(6):567-575. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

An internal system designed to ward off and remove unnecessary or hazardous materials is intrinsic to animals. In addition to exogenous pathogens, a number of self-molecules, such as apoptotic or necrotic dead cells, their debris, and the oxides or peroxides of their cellular components, are recognized as extraneous substances. It is essential to eliminate these internal pathogens as quickly as possible because their accumulation can cause chronic inflammation as well as autoimmune responses, possibly leading to onset or progression of certain diseases. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0717-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0717-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6223838PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

Macrophage-microbe interaction: lessons learned from the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Semin Immunopathol 2018 11 10;40(6):577-591. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Biozentrum, University of Basel, 50-70 Klingelbergstrasse, 4056, Basel, Switzerland.

Macrophages, being the cornerstone of the immune system, have adapted the ancient nutrient acquisition mechanism of phagocytosis to engulf various infectious organisms thereby helping to orchestrate an appropriate host response. Phagocytosis refers to the process of internalization and degradation of particulate material, damaged and senescent cells and microorganisms by specialized cells, after which the vesicle containing the ingested particle, the phagosome, matures into acidic phagolysosomes upon fusion with hydrolytic enzyme-containing lysosomes. The destructive power of the macrophage is further exacerbated through the induction of macrophage activation upon a variety of inflammatory stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0710-0DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

The microgenderome revealed: sex differences in bidirectional interactions between the microbiota, hormones, immunity and disease susceptibility.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 8;41(2):265-275. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

Sex differences in immunity are well described in the literature and thought to be mainly driven by sex hormones and sex-linked immune response genes. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the largest immune organs in the body and contains multiple immune cells in the GIT-associated lymphoid tissue, Peyer's patches and elsewhere, which together have profound effects on local and systemic inflammation. The GIT is colonised with microbial communities composed of bacteria, fungi and viruses, collectively known as the GIT microbiota. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0716-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0716-7DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Developmental origin and sex-specific risk for infections and immune diseases later in life.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 8;41(2):137-151. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, Laboratory for Experimental Feto-Maternal Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The intrauterine environment is an important determinant of immunity later in life of the offspring. An altered prenatal immune development can result in a high postnatal risk for infections, chronic immune diseases, and autoimmunity. Many of these immune diseases show a strong sex bias, such as a high incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergies in adult females or a high risk for infections in males. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0713-xDOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Sex and sex steroids impact influenza pathogenesis across the life course.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 8;41(2):189-194. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Males and females differ in the outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) infections, which depends significantly on age. During a typical seasonal influenza epidemic, young children (< 10 years of age) and aged adults (65+ years of age) are at greatest risk for severe disease, and among these age groups, males tend to suffer a worse outcome from IAV infection than females. Following infection with either pandemic or outbreak strains of IAVs, females of reproductive ages (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0718-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370518PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Sex-related factors in autoimmune liver diseases.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 1;41(2):165-175. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

I. Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Autoimmune diseases are a broad range of diseases in which the immune system produces an inappropriate response to self-antigens. This results in inflammation, damage, or dysfunction of tissues and/or organs. Many autoimmune diseases are more common in women and differences between female and male immune and autoimmune responses have been well documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0715-8DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Sexual dimorphism in HIV-1 infection.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 1;41(2):195-202. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

German Center for Infection Research, partner site Hamburg-Lübeck-Borstel, Hamburg, Germany.

Sex-specific differences affecting various aspects of HIV-1 infection have been reported, including differences in susceptibility to infection, course of HIV-1 disease, and establishment of viral reservoirs. Once infected, initial plasma levels of HIV-1 viremia in women are lower compared to men while the rates of progression to AIDS are similar. Factors contributing to these sex differences are poorly understood, and range from anatomical differences and differential expression of sex hormones to differences in immune responses, the microbiome and socio-economic discrepancies, all of which may impact HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0704-yDOI Listing
March 2019
18 Reads

Female predisposition to TLR7-driven autoimmunity: gene dosage and the escape from X chromosome inactivation.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 Mar 1;41(2):153-164. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan (CPTP), Université de Toulouse, INSERM, CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, 31300, Toulouse, France.

Women develop stronger immune responses than men, with positive effects on the resistance to viral or bacterial infections but magnifying also the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE, the dosage of the endosomal Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is crucial. Murine models have shown that TLR7 overexpression suffices to induce spontaneous lupus-like disease. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0712-y
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March 2019
11 Reads

Anti-cancer immunotherapy: breakthroughs and future strategies.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 21;41(1):1-3. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Center for Cancer Immune Therapy (CCIT), Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, DK-2730, Herlev, Denmark.

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0711-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0711-zDOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Correction to: Complement in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

Authors:
B Paul Morgan

Semin Immunopathol 2018 09;40(5):517

Systems Immunity Research Institute and Dementia Research Institute Cardiff, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK.

The presentation of Fig. 2 was incorrect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0709-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208653PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

IgA nephropathy: clearance kinetics of IgA-containing immune complexes.

Semin Immunopathol 2018 Nov 14;40(6):539-543. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is associated predominantly IgA deposition in the affected glomeruli and has been shown to be the most common glomerular disorder among young people in the world. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism underlying IgAN remains largely unknown, circulating IgA-containing immune complexes (IgA ICs) is considered to play a major role in initiating the development and evolution of the renal disorder. In this review article, we discuss the fundamental mechanisms of clearance kinetics of IgA ICs and related issues, covering the following: (1) role of circulating IgA ICs in the pathogenesis of IgAN and (2) elimination of IgA ICs from the body, with emphasis of the role of the liver and Fc receptors in immune cells. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0708-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0708-7DOI Listing
November 2018
22 Reads

Extracellular vesicles in cancer immune responses: roles of purinergic receptors.

Authors:
Michael W Graner

Semin Immunopathol 2018 09 12;40(5):465-475. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, RC2, 12700 E 19th Ave, Room 5125, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano- to micro-scale membrane-enclosed vesicles that are released from presumably all cell types. Tumor cells and immune cells are prodigious generators of EVs often with competing phenotypes in terms of immune suppression versus immune stimulation. Purinergic receptors, proteins that bind diverse purine nucleotides and nucleosides (ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine), are widely expressed across tissues and cell types, and are prominent players in immune and tumor cell nucleotide metabolism. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0706-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0706-9DOI Listing
September 2018
24 Reads

Picket-fences in the plasma membrane: functions in immune cells and phagocytosis.

Semin Immunopathol 2018 Nov 12;40(6):605-615. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Program in Cell Biology, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Recent studies of molecular mobility in the plasma membrane have revealed that diffusion is restricted by cytoskeletal networks or fences. Transmembrane protein "pickets" that reversibly associate with the membrane-associated skeleton and with the pericellular coat impede the movement of unattached bystander molecules. While membrane picket-fences were originally described as barriers to free diffusion in more passive cell types such as fibroblasts, they have particularly important functions in the more dynamic immune cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0705-xDOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Pivotal role of innate myeloid cells in cerebral post-ischemic sterile inflammation.

Semin Immunopathol 2018 Nov 11;40(6):523-538. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Stroke Renaissance Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 156-8506, Japan.

Inflammatory responses play a multifaceted role in regulating both disability and recovery after ischemic brain injury. In the acute phase of ischemic stroke, resident microglia elicit rapid inflammatory responses by the ischemic milieu. After disruption of the blood-brain barrier, peripheral-derived neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes infiltrate into the ischemic brain. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0707-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0707-8DOI Listing
November 2018
29 Reads

Inhibiting IDO pathways to treat cancer: lessons from the ECHO-301 trial and beyond.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 10;41(1):41-48. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Lankenau Institute for Medical Research (LIMR), 100 East Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA, 19096, USA.

With immunotherapy enjoying a rapid resurgence based on the achievement of durable remissions in some patients with agents that derepress immune function, commonly referred to as "checkpoint inhibitors," enormous attention developed around the IDO1 enzyme as a metabolic mediator of immune escape in cancer. In particular, outcomes of multiple phase 1/2 trials encouraged the idea that small molecule inhibitors of IDO1 may improve patient responses to anti-PD1 immune checkpoint therapy. However, recent results from ECHO-301, the first large phase 3 trial to evaluate an IDO1-selective enzyme inhibitor (epacadostat) in combination with an anti-PD1 antibody (pembrolizumab) in advanced melanoma, showed no indication that epacadostat provided an increased benefit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0702-0DOI Listing
January 2019
34 Reads

Perspectives on interferon-alpha in the treatment of polycythemia vera and related myeloproliferative neoplasms: minimal residual disease and cure?

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 10;41(1):5-19. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, Sygehusvej 10, 4000, Roskilde, Denmark.

The first clinical trials of the safety and efficacy of interferon-alpha2 (IFN-alpha2) were performed about 30 years ago. Since then, several single-arm studies have convincingly demonstrated that IFN-alpha2 is a highly potent anti-cancer agent in several cancer types but unfortunately not being explored sufficiently due to a high toxicity profile when using non-pegylated IFN-alpha2 or high dosages or due to competitive drugs, that for clinicians at first glance might look more attractive. Within the hematological malignancies, IFN-alpha2 has only recently been revived in patients with the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms-essential thrombocytosis, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis (MPNs)-and in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00281-018-0700-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0700-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323070PMC
January 2019
13 Reads

Principles of adoptive T cell therapy in cancer.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 5;41(1):49-58. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Center for Cancer Immune Therapy, Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Entrance 81, Floor 05, 2730, Herlev, Denmark.

Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) utilizing either tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-derived T cells or T cells genetically engineered to express tumor recognizing receptors has emerged as a powerful and potentially curative therapy for several cancers. Many ACT-based therapies have recently entered late-phase clinical testing, with several T cell therapies already achieving regulatory approval for the treatment of patients with B cell malignancies. In this review, we briefly outline the principles of adoptively transferred T cells for the treatment of cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0703-zDOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Efferocytosis in the tumor microenvironment.

Semin Immunopathol 2018 11 5;40(6):545-554. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 759 Preston Research Building, 2220 Pierce Ave, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.

Within the course of a single minute, millions of cells in the human body will undergo programmed cell death in response to physiological or pathological cues. The diminished energetic capacity of an apoptotic cell renders the cell incapable of sustaining plasma membrane integrity. Under these circumstances, intracellular contents that might leak into the surrounding tissue microenvironment, a process referred to as secondary necrosis, could induce inflammation and tissue damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0698-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6223858PMC
November 2018
25 Reads

The first line of defence: insights into mechanisms and relevance of phagocytosis in epithelial cells.

Semin Immunopathol 2018 11 4;40(6):555-565. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Institute for Genome Biology, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, 18196, Dummerstorf, Germany.

Epithelial tissues cover most of the external and internal surfaces of the body and its organs. Inevitably, these tissues serve as first line of defence against inorganic, organic, and microbial intruders. Epithelial cells are the main cell type of these tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0701-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6223882PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

Acute and chronic phagocyte determinants of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

Semin Immunopathol 2018 11 23;40(6):593-603. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Pathology, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 300 East Superior St, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Post-transplant immunosuppression has reduced the incidence of T cell-mediated acute rejection, yet long-term cardiac graft survival rates remain a challenge. An important determinant of chronic solid organ allograft complication is accelerated vascular disease of the transplanted graft. In the case of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), the precise cellular etiology remains inadequately understood; however, histologic evidence hints at the accumulation and activation of innate phagocytes as a causal contributing factor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0699-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6247110PMC
November 2018
20 Reads

Cancer immune therapy for lymphoid malignancies: recent advances.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 13;41(1):111-124. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Department of hematology, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Immunotherapy has played an important part in improving the life of patients with lymphoproliferative diseases especially since the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy in the CD20-positive neoplasms in the 1990s. While this field of passive immunotherapy is continuously evolving, several breakthroughs will expand the treatment modalities to include more active immunotherapy. With the approval of immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies for Hodgkin lymphoma and bispecific antibodies for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), activation of endogenous T cells already plays a role in several lymphoid malignancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0696-7DOI Listing
January 2019
31 Reads

Does patient age influence anti-cancer immunity?

Authors:
Graham Pawelec

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 13;41(1):125-131. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Geriatric oncology, important for the ever-increasing numbers of elderly cancer patients, has thus far focused primarily on tolerance to chemotherapy. With the advent of breakthrough immunomodulatory antibody treatments relying on the patient's own immune system to control the tumor, the issue of immunosenescence becomes extremely important. There is increasingly a valid concern that anti-cancer immunity may be compromised in the elderly due to (i) their low amounts of naïve T cells (potentially leading to holes in the repertoire for neoantigens), (ii) "exhaustion" of potentially tumor-specific memory T cells, and (iii) higher amounts of suppressive cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0697-6DOI Listing
January 2019
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Cancer immune therapy for myeloid malignancies: present and future.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 9;41(1):97-109. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, Sygehusvej 10, 4000, Roskilde, Denmark.

The myelodysplastic syndromes, the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, and the acute myeloid leukemia are malignancies of the myeloid hematopoietic stem cells of the bone marrow. The diseases are characterized by a dysregulation of the immune system as both the cytokine milieu, immune phenotype, immune regulation, and expression of genes related to immune cell functions are deregulated. Several treatment strategies try to circumvent this deregulation, and several clinical and preclinical trials have shown promising results, albeit not in the same scale as chimeric antigen receptor T cells have had in the treatment of refractory lymphoid malignancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0693-xDOI Listing
January 2019
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Therapeutic cancer vaccine: building the future from lessons of the past.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 5;41(1):69-85. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

INSERM U970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center (PARCC), Paris, France.

Anti-cancer vaccines have raised many hopes from the start of immunotherapy but have not yet been clinically successful. The few positive results of anti-cancer vaccines have been observed in clinical situations of low tumor burden or preneoplastic lesions. Several new concepts and new results reposition this therapeutic approach in the field of immunotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0691-zDOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

The T-win® technology: immune-modulating vaccines.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 2;41(1):87-95. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Center for Cancer Immune Therapy (CCIT), Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, DK-2730, Herlev, Denmark.

The T-win® technology is an innovative investigational approach designed to activate the body's endogenous anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs) to target regulatory as well as malignant cells. Anti-Tregs are naturally occurring T cells that can directly react against regulatory immune cells because they recognize proteins that these targets express, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), tryptophan 2,6-dioxygenase, arginase, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). The T-win® technology is characterized by therapeutic vaccination with long peptide epitopes derived from these antigens and therefore offers a novel way to target genetically stable cells with regular human leukocyte antigen expression in the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0695-8DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Acquired resistance to cancer immunotherapy.

Semin Immunopathol 2019 01 2;41(1):31-40. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Center for Cancer Immune Therapy (CCIT), Department of Hematology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730, Herlev, Denmark.

In recent times, advances in cancer immunotherapy have yielded impressive, durable clinical responses in patients with varied subtypes of cancer. However, a significant proportion of patients who initially demonstrate encouraging tumor regression develop resistance and progress over time. The identification of novel therapeutic approaches to overcome resistance may result in significantly improved clinical outcomes and remains an area of high scientific priority. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0692-yDOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

AHR signaling in the development and function of intestinal immune cells and beyond.

Semin Immunopathol 2018 07 27;40(4):371-377. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

The intestinal immune system is challenged daily with the task of recognizing and eliminating pathogens while simultaneously tolerating dietary and commensal antigens. All components must effectively coordinate to differentiate a continual barrage of environmental cues and mount appropriate responses dependent on the nature of the stimuli encountered. Playing a pivotal role, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a chemical sensor that detects both dietary and microbial cues and is important for development, maintenance, and function of several types of intestinal immune cells, particularly innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0694-9DOI Listing
July 2018
13 Reads