2,144 results match your criteria Seminars in Dialysis[Journal]


The role of exercise in improving patient-reported outcomes in individuals on dialysis: A scoping review.

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Exercise improves objective measures of physical function in individuals on hemodialysis, but its effect on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is largely unknown. We performed a scoping review to characterize the existing knowledge base on exercise and PROs in dialysis patients to make recommendations for future research. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and SPORT Discus from inception to November 28, 2018 and then screened results for randomized controlled trials comparing aerobic/resistance exercise, or both, with no exercise in individuals on dialysis that reported results of any PRO. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12806DOI Listing

Are dialysis patients too frail to exercise?

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Division of Nephrology, Hennepin Healthcare, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Clinical manifestations of functional and morphological muscular abnormalities in dialysis patients are muscle weakness and low exercise capacity, possibly leading to a sedentary life style with low physical activity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle atrophy and weakness contribute to the development of frailty and affect patients' ability to physically navigate their environment. While many dialysis patients may appear too frail to participate in moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise training, those who can complete such programs appear to derive substantial benefit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12786DOI Listing

The effects of intradialytic exercise on hemodialysis adequacy: A systematic review.

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

School of Sport Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, Wales, UK.

Dialysis adequacy is an independent predictor of high mortality rates in hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic exercise is a potential strategy to increase uremic solute removal by increasing blood flow to low perfusion tissue beds. The purpose of this review is to establish the efficacy of intradialytic exercise for hemodialysis adequacy. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/sdi.12785
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12785DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Unexplained inflammation in end-stage kidney disease: Is the combination of enhanced gastrointestinal permeability and reticuloendothelial dysfunction its cause?

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Renal Medicine, East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust, Stevenage, UK.

Unexplained chronic inflammation is prevalent in end-stage kidney disease, and contributes toward accelerated cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The source of inflammation is unclear, although increased gastrointestinal permeability is a likely contributory factor. Whether a "leaky" gut leads to penetration of the systemic circulation by gut-derived pathogens is at least partly dependent on Kupffer cell function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12810DOI Listing

Achieving a person-centered approach to dialysis discontinuation: An historical perspective.

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

In this essay, we describe the evolution of attitudes toward dialysis discontinuation in historical context, beginning with the birth of outpatient dialysis in the 1960s and continuing through the present. From the start, attitudes toward dialysis discontinuation have reflected the clinical context in which dialysis is initiated. In the 1960s and 1970s, dialysis was only available to select patients and concerns about distributive justice weighed heavily. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12808DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Common errors in temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion.

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Non-tunneled hemodialysis catheter (NTHC) insertion is an essential skill for nephrology practice and remains a requirement of training. However, improper insertion technique can increase the risk of potentially fatal infectious and mechanical complications. Evidence-based strategies can reduce the rates of such complications and should be integrated into practice and training. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/sdi.12809
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12809DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Antibiotic locks for the treatment of catheter-related blood stream infection: Still more hope than data.

Authors:
Laura Labriola

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Nephrology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT), in conjunction with systemic antibiotics, is recommended by scientific societies as a treatment of uncomplicated catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in hemodynamically stable hemodialysis patients for whom catheter salvage is the goal. The rationale for this strategy is the eradication of intraluminal biofilms by the highly concentrated antibiotic used in the lock. However, the available evidence supporting this recommendation is scanty, and only includes small, short-term, observational studies (most of them single-arm), with different definitions of CRBSI cure and variable follow-up periods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12807DOI Listing

Changing dialysate composition to optimize acid-base therapy.

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont.

In response to rapid alkali delivery during hemodialysis, hydrogen ions (H ) are mobilized from body buffers and from stimulation of organic acid production in amounts sufficient to convert most of the delivered bicarbonate to CO and water. Release of H from nonbicarbonate buffers serves to back-titrate them to a more alkaline state, readying them to buffer acids that accumulate in the interval between treatments. By contrast, stimulation of organic acid production only serves to remove added bicarbonate (HCO ) from the body; the organic anions produced by this process are lost into the dialysate, irreversibly acidifying the patient as well as diverting metabolic activity from normal homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12779DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Obesity as a barrier to kidney transplantation: Time to eliminate the body weight bias?

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Allied Health Services, Metro North Hospital and Health Services, Herston, QLD, Australia.

There is clear evidence that survival rates following transplantation far exceed those for remaining on dialysis, regardless of body size measured by body mass index (BMI). Studies over the past 15 years also suggest little to no difference in long-term outcomes, including graft survival and mortality, irrespective of BMI, in contrast to earlier evidence. However, weight bias still exists, as access to kidney transplantation remains inequitable in centers using arbitrary BMI limits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12783DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Alkali delivery in chronic hemodialysis: Would more acetate be helpful?

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, SUNY at Brooklyn, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.

The dialysate alkali used in hemodialysis to replace low body alkali levels in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients has changed over time from bicarbonate to acetate and finally back to bicarbonate with a small addition of acetate. The ideal way to replace alkali in dialysis patients remains uncertain. Elsewhere in this issue of the journal, Sargent and Gennari, who have contributed greatly to our understanding of dialysis and acid-base kinetics, suggest that decreasing the currently used concentration of bicarbonate while increasing concentration of acetate in the dialysate may be a much more physiological approach to alkali delivery during hemodialysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12791DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Barriers and facilitators for engagement and implementation of exercise in end-stage kidney disease: Future theory-based interventions using the Behavior Change Wheel.

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Satellite Healthcare, San Jose, California.

Theory-driven interventions are required to increase the adoption and implementation of physical activity and exercise programs among patients with ESKD. The Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) represents a synthesis of behavior change theories and can be used to aid the systematic development of theory-driven interventions designed to change exercise behavior. The goal of this review was to synthesize barriers and facilitators to engagement and implementation of exercise and develop theory-based recommendations for exercise behavior change interventions in patients with ESKD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12787DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Hepato-splanchnic circulatory stress: An important effect of hemodialysis.

Semin Dial 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

The Lilibeth Caberto Kidney Clinical Research Unit, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

The gastro-intestinal tract is being increasingly recognized as the site of key pathophysiological processes in the hemodialysis patient. Intestinal dysbiosis, increased intraluminal toxin production, and increased intestinal permeability are commonly observed processes which contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and thus elevated mortality. The acute circulatory effects of dialysis itself may contribute significantly to the development of gastrointestinal dysfunction as a result of both local and distant effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12782DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The promise of bioimpedance for volume management in American dialysis patients: An unfulfilled opportunity.

Authors:
Peter Kotanko

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Renal Research Institute, New York, New York.

Evidence from both observational and randomized controlled studies indicates that the use of bioimpedance in the care of chronic hemodialysis patients is associated with improved outcomes, in particular better volume and blood pressure control. Bioimpedance as a means to assess fluid status in dialysis patients has been approved by numerous regulatory agencies and is being used in dozens of countries around the globe. The most notable exception to the worldwide acceptance of this technique is the US where no BIA device has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in dialysis patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12790DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Intradialytic virtual reality exercise: Increasing physical activity through technology.

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Nephrology Department, Hospital de Manises, Valencia, Spain.

Intradialytic exercise can improve physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in hemodialysis (HD) patients, but is not implemented in routine clinical practice. Virtual reality (VR) exercise has resulted in benefits in non-dialysis contexts, but implementation in HD patients has been limited. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of VR, present the results of a 12-week intradialytic VR exercise intervention, and compare VR to conventional exercise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12788DOI Listing

Cardiovascular adaptations associated with exercise in patients on hemodialysis.

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 24. Epub 2019 Mar 24.

John Walls Renal Unit, University Hospitals Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK.

Patients on hemodialysis are physically inactive. Less than 50% of hemodialysis patients undertake exercise once a week and such patients have increased mortality compared to patients who undertake regular exercise. The reasons for physical inactivity and reduced functional capacity are complex and inter-related, with skeletal muscle catabolism, chronic inflammation, anemia, malnutrition, uremia, the burden of co-morbid diseases, and "enforced" sedentary time during hemodialysis all contributing. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/sdi.12789
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12789DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Exercise and physical activity for people receiving peritoneal dialysis: Why not?

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 24. Epub 2019 Mar 24.

Department of Medical & Clinical Affairs, Satellite Healthcare, San Jose, California.

People with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) are physically inactive leading to low physical function and poor health outcomes. Guidelines recommend that nephrologists encourage PD patients to increase their activity levels; however, PD patients are often discouraged from participating in exercise programs because of perceived barriers and a lack of precision about the appropriate exercise regimen. This review suggests ways forward to assist nephrology professionals to encourage PD patients to exercise, instead of creating barriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12784DOI Listing

Exercising to offset muscle mass loss in hemodialysis patients: The disconnect between intention and intervention.

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.

Skeletal muscle loss is the most important hallmark of protein energy wasting syndrome as it contributes to declines in physical independence, poor quality of life, and higher mortality risk in individuals with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). As such, exercise and nutritional interventions have been investigated with the goal to preserve skeletal muscle mass and overall quality of life. Unfortunately, current efforts are unable to confirm the capacity of exercise to mitigate ESRD-associated muscle wasting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12805DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Exercise and cognitive function in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

In this review we summarize the research pertaining to the role of exercise in preventing cognitive decline in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Impairment in cognitive function, especially in executive function, is common in patients with ESKD, and may worsen with maintenance dialysis as a result of retention of uremic toxins, recurrent cerebral ischemia, and high burden of inactivity. Cognitive impairment may lead to long-term adverse consequences, including dementia and death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12804DOI Listing

Decision making for the initiation and termination of dialysis in patients with advanced cancer.

Authors:
Sheron Latcha

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Age is a risk factor for both cancer and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Newer cancer treatments are allowing patients to live longer with their cancer, the renal toxicity from the cancer itself or from the therapies that was used to treat the malignancy. Consequently, nephrologists will increasingly be asked to evaluate and counsel patients with ESRD and advanced cancer regarding the initiation of dialysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12780DOI Listing
March 2019
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Intradialytic hypotension and splanchnic shifting: Integrating an overlooked mechanism with the detection of ischemia-related signals during hemodialysis.

Authors:
John T Daugirdas

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

In the most simple analysis, a patient's hematocrit during hemodialysis will rise when the rate of ultrafiltration exceeds the rate at which the fluid is mobilized from extravascular spaces; the greater the rise in hematocrit, the lower blood volume is and the more likely intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is to occur. A secondary mechanism of IDH may be due to sudden shift of blood volume away from the heart under conditions of borderline cardiac filling. A substantial portion of blood volume resides in the splanchnic venous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12781DOI Listing

Achieving dialysis safety: The critical role of higher-functioning teams.

Authors:
Leslie P Wong

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

The potential for harm from errors and adverse events in dialysis is significant. Achieving a culture of safety in dialysis to reduce the potential harm to patients has been challenging. Recently, improving dialysis safety has been highlighted by Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety (NTDS), a national initiative to eliminate dialysis infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12778DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
2.070 Impact Factor

Timing of blood pressure medications and intradialytic hypotension.

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Medicine, Stanford Division of Nephrology, Palo Alto, California.

Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a prevalent yet serious complication of hemodialysis, associated with decreased quality of life, inadequate dialysis, vascular access thrombosis, global hypoperfusion, and increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Current guidelines recommend antihypertensive medications be given at night and held the morning of dialysis for affected patients. Despite little evidence to support this recommendation, more than half of patients on dialysis may employ some form of this method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12777DOI Listing
March 2019
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Introduction to hepatitis C virus infection in patients with kidney disease: A roadmap for nephrologists.

Semin Dial 2019 03;32(2):91-92

Katz Family Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12775DOI Listing

Is surgical PD catheter insertion safe for urgent-start peritoneal dialysis?

Semin Dial 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Division of Nephrology, National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (USPD) is increasingly seen as a viable alternative to hemodialysis through a central venous catheter for late-presenting end-stage renal disease patients. However, concerns remain about starting dialysis early following the surgical implantation of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter; urgent PD is often thought to be a safe option only after minimally invasive percutaneous catheter insertions. Analysis of the cumulative data from published literature presented in this review appears to negate this general perception and shows that compared to the percutaneous catheter insertions, starting PD urgently following surgically placed catheter is not associated with more catheter leaks, dysfunctions, or other complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12774DOI Listing
February 2019

When to stop renal replacement therapy in anticipation of renal recovery in AKI: The need for consensus guidelines.

Semin Dial 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Division of Renal Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

There is wide variation in clinical practice regarding timing of discontinuation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Prolonged, unnecessary RRT treatment can contribute to length of stay, overall hospital costs, and risk of complications associated with RRT. In addition, prolonged RRT can paradoxically lengthen the time for which the patient remains dialysis-dependent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12773DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Parathyroidectomy in dialysis patients: Indications, methods, and consequences.

Semin Dial 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Maimónides Institute for Biomedical Research (IMIBIC), Córdoba, Spain.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism, characterized by increased PTH synthesis and secretion, is often seen in advanced stages of chronic kidney disease. Excessive proliferation of parathyroid cells leads to the development of diffuse hyperplasia that subsequently progresses to nodular histology. Refractory hyperparathyroidism occurs when parathyroid glands fail to respond to medical therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12772DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Evaluating CKD/ESRD patient with hepatitis C infection: How to interpret diagnostic testing and assess liver injury.

Semin Dial 2019 03 1;32(2):119-126. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.

Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is the most common cause of infection related deaths in USA according to Central Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report in 2016. Hepatitis C is a blood borne virus and is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in hemodialysis (HD) dependent patients. A majority of patients with CHC could remain asymptomatic and are still undiagnosed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12760DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Health-related quality of life in peritoneal dialysis patients: A narrative review.

Semin Dial 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Division of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Campus Flemingsberg, Stockholm, Sweden.

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important aspect of patients´ health that should be an integral part of the evaluation of patient-centered outcomes, not least because HRQOL associates with patients´ morbidity and mortality. This applies also to chronic kidney disease patients, including those dependent on renal replacement therapies, the type of which may influence patients´ perception of HRQOL. Several studies have addressed HRQOL in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing renal replacement therapies, especially transplanted patients and hemodialysis patients, while publications concerning peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are scarcer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12770DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Transmission of hepatitis C virus in the dialysis setting and strategies for its prevention.

Semin Dial 2019 03 19;32(2):127-134. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is more common among hemodialysis patients than the general population and transmission of HCV in dialysis clinics has been reported. In the context of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with HCV infection in the end stage renal disease population, it is important that dialysis clinics have processes in place for ensuring recommended infection control practices, including Standard Precautions, through regular audits and training of the staff. This review will summarize the epidemiology of HCV infection and risk factors for HCV transmission among hemodialysis patients. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sdi.12761
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6411055PMC
March 2019
12 Reads

Pharmacokinetics and important drug-drug interactions to remember when treating advanced chronic kidney disease patients with hepatitis C direct acting anti-viral therapy.

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 17;32(2):141-151. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Departments of Medicine and Surgery, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Hepatitis C direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has evolved so that infected patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) can now anticipate the opportunity for sustained virologic response equivalent to that of the broader population of patients with hepatitis C. This has revolutionized the field of transplantation as it relates to renal transplant candidates with hepatitis C and the use of grafts from hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremic donors. In treating this population of patients, special consideration must be given to the timing of anti-viral therapy and drug-drug interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12763DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Considering hepatitis C virus infection as a systemic disease.

Semin Dial 2019 03 13;32(2):99-107. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been demonstrated to result in several adverse hepatic outcomes and has been associated with a number of important extrahepatic manifestations. The scope of extrahepatic clinical possibilities includes systemic diseases such as vasculitis and lymphoproliferative disorders, cardiovascular disease, myalgia, arthritis, and sicca syndrome. These end-organ effects of HCV may dominate the clinical course beyond the hepatic complications and significantly worsen the long-term prognosis of infected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12758DOI Listing
March 2019
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Management and treatment of the HCV-infected kidney transplant patient.

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 9;32(2):169-178. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection is increased in patients with end stage kidney disease compared to the general population and is an adverse outcome determinant. Direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus is changing the management paradigm of infected kidney transplant candidates and recipients, with potential to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. This review describes the hepatic and nonhepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus in kidney transplant patients as well as management and treatment strategies to optimize transplant outcomes, highlighting the importance of direct-acting antivirals in this population. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/sdi.12766
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12766DOI Listing
March 2019
15 Reads
2.070 Impact Factor

The epidemiology of HCV infection in patients with advanced CKD/ESRD: A global perspective.

Semin Dial 2019 03 9;32(2):93-98. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Nephrology, Maggiore Hospital and IRCCS Foundation, Milan, Italy.

Liver disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is most commonly due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and contributes to increased rates of mortality. Among the pre-dialysis population, the estimated prevalence of anti-HCV positivity is based on few, limited-size studies. In hemodialysis patients however, HCV remains very prevalent despite large declines in seropositivity rates in dialysis facilities in developed countries after preventive measures were adopted in the 1990s. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/sdi.12757
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12757DOI Listing
March 2019
16 Reads

What lies downstream: Cellular oxygen delivery during hemodialysis.

Semin Dial 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Oxford Kidney Unit, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, UK.

Hemodialysis has been linked to structural and functional damage to vital organs such as the brain and heart, possibly via repetitive intradialytic organ ischemia. There is increasing recognition that tissue ischemia can occur without changes in standard hemodynamic parameters such as blood pressure, leading to interest in more direct assessment of the adequacy of oxygen delivery to tissues. In this article, we discuss our current understanding of what happens to cellular oxygen delivery during hemodialysis: we review the underlying physiology, potential measurement techniques, and the clinical literature to date. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sdi.12769
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12769DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

The association of hepatitis C infection with the onset of CKD and progression into ESRD.

Semin Dial 2019 03 29;32(2):108-118. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not only an important cause of chronic liver disease, but extrahepatic manifestations are common and include chronic kidney disease (CKD). HCV is classically associated with cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis in the context of mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome, but other glomerular diseases also occur and may be significantly under-recognized. HCV may cause glomerular disease by immune complex deposition; however, other potential mechanisms by which HCV promotes CKD include a direct cytopathic effect of the virus on renal tissue, and by its association with accelerated atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sdi.12759
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410728PMC
March 2019
33 Reads

Summary of the 2018 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Guideline on hepatitis C in chronic kidney disease.

Semin Dial 2019 03 29;32(2):187-195. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Renal Section, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

KDIGO recently updated its clinical practice guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The management of HCV in patients with CKD has dramatically shifted over the past 10 years with the development of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents and subsequent demonstration of their efficacy in CKD populations. The opportunity to cure HCV with DAA treatment has impacted all aspects of the KDIGO guideline on HCV in CKD including: (a) HCV diagnosis in CKD populations; (b) HCV treatment in CKD populations; (c) preventing HCV transmission in HD units; (d) management of HCV before and after kidney transplantation; and (e) management of HCV-associated glomerular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12768DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

ESRD patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis C: Outcomes and management challenges.

Authors:
Deirdre Sawinski

Semin Dial 2019 03 26;32(2):159-168. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Renal, Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

HIV infection is a major public health problem worldwide. Due to shared modes of acquisition, many HIV+ patients are coinfected with Hepatitis C. HIV/HCV coinfected patients have an increased burden of chronic kidney disease and are more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397779PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Direct acting anti-viral medications for hepatitis C: Clinical trials in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

Semin Dial 2019 03 26;32(2):135-140. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Hepatitis C is a global health concern, with important implications in chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to its increased prevalence in this population. Patients with advanced CKD have until recently been excluded from the pivotal direct acting anti-viral (DAA) trials, which have demonstrated high virological cure numbers. Sofosbuvir-free DAAs dasabuvir, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir with or without ribavirin, and elbasvir/grazoprevir are well-tolerated in patients with genotype 1 and 4 CHC with CKD 4 or 5 (including HD), with virologic cure rates of above 90%, in both single-arm and placebo-controlled studies. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sdi.12762
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12762DOI Listing
March 2019
11 Reads

Treating hepatitis C virus in dialysis patients: How, when, and why?

Semin Dial 2019 Mar 26;32(2):152-158. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Katz Family Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

The identification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurred in 1989, and soon thereafter, it was recognized that there was a higher prevalence of anti-HCV seropositivity in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) when compared to the general population. Multiple extrahepatic manifestations have been associated with HCV infection in patients with ESRD; these include an increased prevalence and risk of cardiovascular complications, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Infection with HCV has also been associated with an increased relative risk of mortality in the ESRD patient when contrasted to those patients without infection. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sdi.12764
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12764DOI Listing
March 2019
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Risks, benefits, and ethical questions associated with transplanting kidneys from hepatitis C virus-infected donors into hepatitis C virus-negative patients.

Semin Dial 2019 03 26;32(2):179-186. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Utilization of kidneys from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected deceased donors has the potential to increase the number of kidney transplants by 500-1000 (or more) each year. This increase in the number of kidney transplants offers major opportunities to extend survival and improve quality of life for patients infected with HCV, as well as uninfected recipients. However, due to a lack of prospective safety and efficacy data on a sufficient number of HCV-negative recipients who received a kidney from a HCV-infected donor, as well as key logistical barriers, the practice of transplanting HCV-infected organs into uninfected recipients is not yet ready to be considered as standard of care. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sdi.12767
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12767DOI Listing
March 2019
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Sympathetic overactivity in dialysis patients-Underappreciated and clinically consequential.

Semin Dial 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand.

Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remain frustratingly common in dialysis patients. A dearth of established evidence-based treatment calls for alternative therapeutic avenues to be embraced. Sympathetic hyperactivity, predominantly due to afferent nerve signaling from the diseased native kidneys, has been established to be prognostic in the dialysis population for over 15 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12756DOI Listing
November 2018
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Blood pressure target for the dialysis patient.

Semin Dial 2019 01 13;32(1):35-40. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

The appropriate blood pressure (BP) target for dialysis patients remains controversial. Although there have been remarkable advances in this area in the general population, extrapolation of these data to dialysis patients is not possible. Observational studies in dialysis patients suggest that low BP is associated with worse outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12754DOI Listing
January 2019
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Is successful treatment of depression in dialysis patients an achievable goal?

Semin Dial 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Health Psychology Section, Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Depression is undisputedly common among individuals with End-Stage Kidney Failure and associated with adverse outcomes. It is well recognized that effective treatments for depression are needed within routine dialysis care. But, are we any closer to successfully treating depression in dialysis patients? We consider this question here with respect to two common treatments, antidepressant medication and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sdi.12755
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12755DOI Listing
November 2018
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Euvolemia-A critical target in the management of acute kidney injury.

Semin Dial 2019 01 9;32(1):30-34. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas.

It has been clearly established that critically ill patients with sepsis require prompt fluid resuscitation. The optimal amount of fluid and when to taper this resuscitation is less clear. There is a growing evidence that fluid overload leads to acute kidney injury, and increased morbidity and mortality. Read More

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January 2019
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Introduction to treatment considerations in conventional hemodialysis - What we know.

Semin Dial 2018 11;31(6):535-536

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12747DOI Listing
November 2018
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Benefits, challenges, and opportunities using home hemodialysis with a focus on Mississippi, a rural southern state.

Semin Dial 2019 01 23;32(1):80-84. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.

The prevalence of end-stage renal disease continues to increase in the United States with commensurate need for renal replacement therapies. Hemodialysis continues to be the predominant modality, though less than 2% of these patients will receive hemodialysis in their own home. While home modalities utilizing peritoneal dialysis have been growing, home hemodialysis (HHD) remains underutilized despite studies showing regression in left ventricular mass, improved quality of life, reduced depressive symptoms, and decreased postdialysis recovery time. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sdi.12751
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12751DOI Listing
January 2019
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Peritoneal dialysis has optimal intradialytic hemodynamics and preserves residual renal function: Why isn't it better than hemodialysis?

Semin Dial 2019 01 23;32(1):3-8. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Centre for Kidney Research and Innovation, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Rates of cardiovascular mortality are disproportionately high in patients with end stage kidney disease receiving dialysis. However, it is now generally accepted that patient survival is broadly equivalent between the two most frequently used forms of dialysis, in-center hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). This equivalent patient survival is notable when considering how specific aspects of HD have been shown to contribute to morbidity and mortality. Read More

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January 2019
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Dialysate sodium concentration: The forgotten salt shaker.

Semin Dial 2018 11 21;31(6):563-568. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

The concentration of sodium in dialysis fluid, a major determinant of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure, plays a major role in the sodium balance in end-stage renal disease patients. A low dialysate sodium concentration (DNa) reduces interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and blood pressure and might help ameliorate endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. However, low DNa can also increase the incidence of hypotensive episodes and muscle cramps. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sdi.12749
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12749DOI Listing
November 2018
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Eliminating the need for routine monthly postdialysis serum urea nitrogen measurement: A method for monitoring Kt/V and normalized protein catabolic rate using conductivity determined dialyzer clearance.

Authors:
John T Daugirdas

Semin Dial 2018 11 11;31(6):633-636. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Many dialysis machines can compute dialyzer sodium clearances at multiple time points during a dialysis treatment using conductivity. For a given treatment, the average dialyzer sodium clearance (K), when combined with treatment time (t), and the estimated urea distribution volume (V, usually based on either anthropometry or bioimpedance), can be used to estimate Kt/V, an important measure of hemodialysis adequacy. While this conductivity-derived value for Kt/V correlates moderately with Kt/V calculated from predialysis and postdialysis serum urea nitrogen (SUN) values (urea reduction ratio, URR), the ultrafiltration volume, and session length it is, unfortunately, not sufficiently accurate to replace URR-based Kt/V. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sdi.12750
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12750DOI Listing
November 2018
17 Reads