47 results match your criteria Seizures and Epilepsy Overview and Classification

2022 Overview of Metabolic Epilepsies.

Genes (Basel) 2022 03 12;13(3). Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Departments of Pediatrics and Human Genetics, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, 1012 WX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Understanding the genetic architecture of metabolic epilepsies is of paramount importance, both to current clinical practice and for the identification of further research directions. The main goals of our study were to identify the scope of metabolic epilepsies and to investigate their clinical presentation, diagnostic approaches and treatments. The International Classification of Inherited Metabolic Disorders and IEMbase were used as a basis for the identification and classification of metabolic epilepsies. Read More

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Epileptic Seizures Detection Using Deep Learning Techniques: A Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 27;18(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, Singapore University of Social Sciences, Singapore 599494, Singapore.

A variety of screening approaches have been proposed to diagnose epileptic seizures, using electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities. Artificial intelligence encompasses a variety of areas, and one of its branches is deep learning (DL). Before the rise of DL, conventional machine learning algorithms involving feature extraction were performed. Read More

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Epileptic aphasia - A critical appraisal.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 08 27;121(Pt A):108064. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Introduction: Aphasic and other language disturbances occur in patients with epilepsy during and after epileptic seizures. Moreover, the interictal language profile in these patients is heterogeneous, varying from normal language profile to impairment in different language functions. The aim of this paper was to critically review the terms and concepts of ictal language alterations. Read More

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Handb Clin Neurol 2020 ;174:137-158

University College London National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is considered a disease characterized by an underlying predisposition to seizures as well as neurobiologic, cognitive, psychologic, and social consequences. It is the most frequent chronic neurologic condition of childhood, affecting 0.5%-1% of children worldwide. Read More

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A review of epileptic seizure detection using machine learning classifiers.

Brain Inform 2020 May 25;7(1). Epub 2020 May 25.

College of Applied Studies and Community Service, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Epilepsy is a serious chronic neurological disorder, can be detected by analyzing the brain signals produced by brain neurons. Neurons are connected to each other in a complex way to communicate with human organs and generate signals. The monitoring of these brain signals is commonly done using Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocorticography (ECoG) media. Read More

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What is status epilepticus and what do we know about its epidemiology?

Seizure 2020 Feb 9;75:131-136. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Oxford Epilepsy Research Group, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.

Epidemiological studies across medical conditions share many similar difficulties relating, for instance, to selection bias, defining a population frame, statistical power and adequate documentation. However, in the case of status epilepticus there are, in addition to these, a variety of specific issues that pose significant hurdles to accurate investigation - not least defining status epilepticus itself and determining whether it is simply a severe manifestation of epilepsy or should be considered a distinct entity in its own right. In this paper, we present a historical overview of how opinions about status epilepticus have changed with time, outline some of the issues unique to the study of status epilepticus and provide personal perspectives on certain controversies within this important area of epileptology. Read More

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February 2020

Epilepsy-related and other causes of mortality in people with epilepsy: A systematic review of systematic reviews.

Epilepsy Res 2019 11 27;157:106192. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Muir Maxwell Epilepsy Centre, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:

Background: This systematic review of epilepsy mortality systematic reviews evaluates comparative risks, causes, and risk factors for all-cause mortality in people with epilepsy (PWE) to specifically establish the burden of epilepsy-related deaths.

Methods: MEDLINE and Embase were searched from conception to 26/12/2018 for systematic reviews evaluating all-cause mortality in PWE of any age. Independent study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were performed. Read More

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November 2019

Electroencephalography in Epilepsy Evaluation.

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2019 04;25(2):431-453

Purpose Of Review: Epilepsy is a heterogeneous disorder that is often associated with abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) findings. This article provides an overview of common EEG findings in epileptic disorders. The physiologic basis of EEG and intracranial EEG studies is also discussed. Read More

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Epilepsy Overview and Revised Classification of Seizures and Epilepsies.

Alison M Pack

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2019 04;25(2):306-321

Purpose Of Review: The classification of seizures, epilepsies, and epilepsy syndromes creates a framework for clinicians, researchers, and patients and their families. This classification has evolved over the years, and in 2017 the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) published an operational classification of seizures and epilepsies. Understanding this classification is important in the diagnosis, treatment, and understanding of seizures and epilepsies, including epilepsy incidence. Read More

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The new classification of seizures: an overview for the general physician.

J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2017 Dec;47(4):336-338

RM Bracewell, Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool L9 7LJ, UK. Email:

The International League Against Epilepsy Classification of the Epilepsies, first presented in 1981, has been widely adopted across the globe. In 2017 it was revised to allow for more robust, specific, flexible and logical classification of seizures. A number of new seizure types are recognised. Read More

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December 2017

[Psychiatry of the future: an overview of foreign scientists opinions of the position of psychiatry in the modern world].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2017 ;117(7):107-111

Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology, Moscow, Russia.

First part of this review (Chapter 1) demonstrates an ambiguous attitude toward psychiatry among professionals and in society in recent decades. The articles of supporters and opponents of psychiatry are also quoted. The authors describe the dynamics of the reflection of psychopathology in the main widely accepted classifications and manuals. Read More

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February 2018

Comprehensive overview: efficacy, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness of clobazam in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2015 8;11:905-14. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Creighton University School of Pharmacy, Omaha, NE, USA ; Department of Neurology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.

Clobazam is the newest medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients at least 2 years of age, although the medication has been available in countries around the world to treat epilepsy and anxiety disorders for many years. Though classified as a benzodiazepine, the drug differs structurally from other drugs in the class as it possesses nitrogen atoms at the 1 and 5 positions within the heterocyclic ring rather than at the 1 and 4 positions. This difference and the classification of clobazam as a partial agonist are believed to be responsible for the decreased incidence of sedative effects compared to other benzodiazepines. Read More

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Seizures and epilepsy: an overview for neuroscientists.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2015 Jun 1;5(6). Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Sainte-Justine Hospital, Universite Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1C5, Canada.

Epilepsy is one of the most common and disabling neurologic conditions, yet we have an incomplete understanding of the detailed pathophysiology and, thus, treatment rationale for much of epilepsy. This article reviews the clinical aspects of seizures and epilepsy with the goal of providing neuroscientists an introduction to aspects that might be amenable to scientific investigation. Seizures and epilepsy are defined, diagnostic methods are reviewed, various clinical syndromes are discussed, and aspects of differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis are considered to enable neuroscientists to formulate basic and translational research questions. Read More

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Syndromes at risk of status epilepticus in children: genetic and pathophysiological issues.

Epileptic Disord 2014 Oct;16 Spec No 1:S89-95

Department of Child Neurology, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. Recent research has identified a variety of new genes implicated in disorders with severe epilepsies as a prominent feature. Autoimmune mechanisms have also been recently recognised as a cause of epilepsies with SE as a characteristic symptom. Read More

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October 2014

Seizure detection, seizure prediction, and closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2014 Aug 29;37:291-307. Epub 2014 Aug 29.

Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal medication management. Systems employed to detect seizures may have the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by allowing more tailored therapies and might, additionally, have a role in accident and SUDEP prevention. Automated seizure detection and prediction require algorithms which employ feature computation and subsequent classification. Read More

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[How do antiepileptic drugs work?].

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2014 Jan;134(1):42-6

Background: There are currently around 25 antiepileptic drugs in use in Norway, of which 15 have entered the market in the last 20 years. All have somewhat different effect- and adverse effect profiles and mechanisms of action. Here we present a brief overview of current knowledge regarding the basic mechanisms of action of these drugs. Read More

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January 2014

Recent Research on Febrile Seizures: A Review.

J Neurol Neurophysiol 2013 Sep;4(165)

Department of Neurology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.

Febrile seizures are common and mostly benign. They are the most common cause of seizures in children less than five years of age. There are two categories of febrile seizures, simple and complex. Read More

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September 2013

[Epilepsy-related psychoses].

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2013 Jun;133(11):1205-9

Avdeling for kompleks epilepsi, Klinikk for kirurgi og nevrofag, Oslo universitetssykehus, Norway.

Background: Epilepsy-related psychoses lie in the border zone between neurology and psychiatry. The aim of this article is to give a brief overview of current knowledge of these psychoses, and to offer recommendations for their treatment.

Method: The article is based on a discretionary selection of articles found through a search in PubMed, as well as the authors' own experience with this patient group. Read More

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[An overview of epilepsy: its history, classification, pathophysiology and management].

Genjiro Hirose

Brain Nerve 2013 May;65(5):509-20

Asanogawa General Hospital Cranial Nerve Center, Ishikawa, Japan.

Epilepsy, a common chronic set of neurological disorders characterized by seizures, affects more than 50 million people worldwide. In fact, it is estimated that the annual incidence of new onset epilepsy in the general population is more than 80 per 100,000, occurring mostly in children and the elderly. Epilepsy is not a single specific disease, or even a single syndrome, but rather a broad category of symptom complexes arising from any number of disordered brain functions. Read More

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Epileptic encephalopathies: an overview.

Epilepsy Res Treat 2012 20;2012:403592. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, P.O. Box 7897, Riyadh 11159, Saudi Arabia.

Epileptic encephalopathies are an epileptic condition characterized by epileptiform abnormalities associated with progressive cerebral dysfunction. In the classification of the International League Against Epilepsy eight age-related epileptic encephalopathy syndromes are recognized. These syndromes include early myoclonic encephalopathy and Ohtahara syndrome in the neonatal period, West syndrome and Dravet syndrome in infancy, myoclonic status in nonprogressive encephalopathies, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, and epilepsy with continuous spike waves during slow wave sleep in childhood and adolescences. Read More

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December 2012

Provoked and reflex seizures: surprising or common?

Epilepsia 2012 Sep;53 Suppl 4:105-13

University Hospital Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Most patients with epilepsy report that seizures are sometimes, or exclusively, provoked by general internal precipitants (such as stress, fatigue, fever, sleep, and menstrual cycle) and by external precipitants (such as excess alcohol, heat, bathing, eating, reading, and flashing lights). Some patients describe very exotic and precise triggers, like tooth brushing or listening to a particular melody. Nevertheless, the most commonly noticed seizure increasers by far are stress, lack of sleep, and fatigue. Read More

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September 2012

Management of cortical dysplasia in epilepsy.

S Fauser J Zentner

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;38:137-63

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are increasingly diagnosed as a cause of symptomatic focal epilepsy in paediatric and adult patients. Nowadays, focal cortical dysplasias are identified as the underlying pathology in up to 25% of patients with focal epilepsies. The histological appearance can vary from mild architectural disturbances to severe malformation containing atypical cellular elements like dysmorphic neurons and Balloon cells. Read More

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A diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of early onset genetic-metabolic epileptic encephalopathies.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2012 Mar 21;16(2):179-91. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

Division of Child Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, via dei Sabelli 108, 00185 Roma, Italy.

Early onset epileptic encephalopathies represent a struggling challenge in neurological clinical practice, mostly in infants and very young children, partly due to an unclear and still debated cathegorization. In this scenario genetic and metabolic epileptic encephalopathies play a central role, with new entries still needing an arrangement. In this Paper we present a brief overview on genes, metabolic disorders and syndromes picturing the pathogenesis of genetic and metabolic epileptic encephalopathies with onset under one year of age. Read More

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Peroxisomal disorders with infantile seizures.

Brain Dev 2011 Oct 11;33(9):777-82. Epub 2011 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatrics and Medical Research, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Peroxisomes are organelles responsible for multiple metabolic pathways including the biosynthesis of plasmalogens and the oxidation of branched-chain as well as very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Peroxisomal disorders (PDs) are heterogeneous groups of diseases and affect many organs with varying degrees of involvement. Even pathogenetically distinct PDs share some common symptoms. Read More

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October 2011

Seizure semiology: an overview of the 'inverse problem'.

Eur Neurol 2010 14;63(1):3-10. Epub 2009 Nov 14.

Service de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. andrea.rossetti @ chuv.ch

In clinical practice, a classification of seizures based on clinical signs and symptoms leads to an improved understanding of epilepsy-related issues and therefore strongly contributes to a better patient care. The inverse problem involves inferring the anatomical brain localization of a seizure from the scalp surface EEG, a concept we apply here to correlate seizure origin with seizure semiology. The spheres of sensorium, motor features, consciousness changes and autonomic alterations during ictal and postictal manifestations are reviewed, including several subdivisions used to better categorize particular features. Read More

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Genes associated with idiopathic epilepsies: a current overview.

Neurol Res 2009 Mar;31(2):135-43

The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: This article aimed to review the latest genes associated with idiopathic focal and generalized epilepsies.

Methods: PubMed and Entrez Gene searches pertaining to this work was conducted using specific keyword search terms related to genes and various listed subtopics related to idiopathic epilepsy syndromes.

Results: Mutations in the cholinergic receptor, neuronal nicotinic, alpha2, alpha4 and beta2 subunit genes have been found in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Read More

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Drug treatment of epilepsy: options and limitations.

Dieter Schmidt

Epilepsy Behav 2009 May 21;15(1):56-65. Epub 2009 Feb 21.

Epilepsy Research Group, Goethestrasse 5, D-14163 Berlin, Germany.

The modern antiepileptic drug (AED) era--spanning a period of more than 150 years from the first use of bromide in 1857 to 2008--has seen the introduction into clinical practice of a diverse group of effective and safe drugs. These AEDs have provided considerable benefits for those afflicted with epilepsy of all kinds. In as many as 60-70% of newly treated patients, current AEDs lead to satisfactory control of seizures and a favorable risk-benefit balance for the great majority of patients, albeit with considerable differences in response depending on the type of seizure and epilepsy syndrome and rare serious adverse events. Read More

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Pediatric sleep and epilepsy.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2007 Jul;7(4):342-7

New York Sleep Institute, 724 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Sleep disorders are common in childhood. The prevalence of childhood sleep disorders is higher in chronic neurologic disorders, specifically epilepsy. Sleep needs, requirements, and structure are different in children compared with adults. Read More

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Clinical review of pediatric epilepsy.

Mohammed M Jan

Neurosciences (Riyadh) 2005 Oct;10(4):255-64

Department of Pediatrics (Neurology), King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, PO Box 80215, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tel. +966 (2) 6401000 Ext. 20208. Fax. +966 (2) 6403975. E-mail:

Seizure disorders are very common and represent the most common cause of referrals to pediatric neurology. Epilepsy, defined as recurrent unprovoked seizures, is also common with a frequency of 4-8 cases per 1000 children. In Saudi Arabia, inherited neurological disorders, including epilepsy and genetic epilepsy syndromes, are more common because of the high rate of consanguinity. Read More

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October 2005

The putative neuroprotective role of neuropeptide Y in the central nervous system.

Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 2005 Aug;4(4):331-47

Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant and widely distributed neuropeptides in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). An overview of the distribution of the G-protein coupled NPY receptor family (Y(1), Y(2), Y(4), Y(5) receptors) in the brain is described. The coexistence of NPY with other neurotransmitters and its wide distribution in several brain areas predict the high importance of NPY as a neuromodulator. Read More

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