8,147 results match your criteria Sedative Hypnotic Anxiolytic Use Disorders

Medicinal Plants for Insomnia Related to Anxiety: An Updated Review.

Planta Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Spain.

Sleep disorders are common among the general population and can generate health problems such as insomnia and anxiety. In addition to standard drugs and psychological interventions, there are different complementary plant-based therapies used to treat insomnia and anxiety. This review aimed to find and examine the most recent research on the use of herbal medicines for treating anxiety and insomnia as compiled from clinical trials, as well as to assess the safety and efficacy of these medicines and to elucidate their possible mechanisms of action. Read More

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Neuroprotection by delayed triple therapy following sarin nerve agent insult in the rat.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 05 3;419:115519. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Ness-Ziona 74100, Israel. Electronic address:

The development of refractory status epilepticus (SE) induced by sarin intoxication presents a therapeutic challenge. In our current research we evaluate the efficacy of a delayed combined triple treatment in ending the abnormal epileptiform seizure activity (ESA) and the ensuing of long-term neuronal insult. SE was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by exposure to 1. Read More

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The Future of Ketamine in the Treatment of Teen Depression.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 04;178(4):288-289

Pritzker Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago; and Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

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Time-trends in cocaine, hallucinogen, amphetamine, and sedative/anxiolytic/hypnotic use disorder hospitalizations in rheumatic diseases: a national time-trends study.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Jul 30;40(7):3007-3014. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Medicine Service, VA Medical Center, 700 19th St S, Birmingham, Alabama, 35233, United States.

Musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) are common in the general population, frequently associated with pain, functional limitation, and reduction in quality of life. Similarly, drug/substance use disorders are common in the general population. Recently, opioid drug use disorder has gained a lot of attention as a public health problem. Read More

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Brief psychotic disorder with delusion content related to the COVID-19 outbreak.

Psychiatriki 2021 Apr 8;32(1):79-82. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

First Department of Psychiatry, Eginition Hospital, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

The COVID-19 outbreak has affected millions of people globally and it also has a huge psychological impact. The objective of this case report is to outline the possible effect of the COVID-19 pandemic to the content of delusions in patients with psychosis. Α 34-year-old male with no history of mental disorder, involuntarily hospitalized due to agitation and aggression towards others, experienced grandiose delusions, referential delusions and delusions of passivity. Read More

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Trends in Use of Low-Value Care in Traditional Fee-for-Service Medicare and Medicare Advantage.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 03 1;4(3):e211762. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle.

Importance: Decreasing use of low-value care is a major goal for Medicare given the potential to decrease costs and harms. Compared with traditional fee-for-service Medicare (TM), Medicare Advantage (MA) is more strongly financially incentivized to decrease use of low-value care.

Objectives: To compare use of low-value care among individuals enrolled in TM and those enrolled in MA overall and to examine trends in use of low-value care in both programs from 2006 to 2015. Read More

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Novel Genetically Modified Mouse Model to Assess Soman-Induced Toxicity and Medical Countermeasure Efficacy: Human Acetylcholinesterase Knock-in Serum Carboxylesterase Knockout Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 14;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Medical Toxicology Research Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010, USA.

The identification of improved medical countermeasures against exposure to chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs), a class of organophosphorus compounds, is dependent on the choice of animal model used in preclinical studies. CWNAs bind to acetylcholinesterase and prevent the catalysis of acetylcholine, causing a plethora of peripheral and central physiologic manifestations, including seizure. Rodents are widely used to elucidate the effects of CWNA-induced seizure, albeit with a caveat: they express carboxylesterase activity in plasma. Read More

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February 2021

Efficacy of Intravenous Ketamine in Adolescent Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized Midazolam-Controlled Trial.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 04 3;178(4):352-362. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Yale Child Study Center (Dwyer, Landeros-Weisenberger, Johnson, Londono Tobon, Flores, Nasir, Bloch), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (Dwyer), and Department of Psychiatry (Londono Tobon, Flores, Sanacora, Bloch), Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.; Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. (Couloures).

Objective: Adolescent depression is prevalent and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although intravenous ketamine has shown efficacy in adult treatment-resistant depression, its efficacy in pediatric populations is unknown. The authors conducted an active-placebo-controlled study of ketamine's safety and efficacy in adolescents. Read More

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A Case Report of Sedation Strategy for a Patient With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Supported by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation After Cesarean Section.

Heart Surg Forum 2021 01 14;24(1):E019-E021. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongshan City People's Hospital, Zhongshan, China.

Pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease. Unfortunately, research on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) assisted treatments for patients with COVID-19 infection is limited. In this case study, a patient who was in late pregnancy (35+2 weeks of pregnancy) and suffering from severe COVID-19 was extremely irritable during ECMO-assisted treatment after she underwent a cesarean section. Read More

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January 2021

Synthesis of 4,6-diphenylpyrimidin-2-ol derivatives as new benzodiazepine receptor ligands.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 14;109:104737. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have been widely used in neurological disorders such as insomnia, anxiety, and epilepsy. The use of classical BZDs, e.g. Read More

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Herbal Remedies and Their Possible Effect on the GABAergic System and Sleep.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 6;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Medical Affairs, Sanofi Consumer HealthCare, 20158 Milan, Italy.

Sleep is an essential component of physical and emotional well-being, and lack, or disruption, of sleep due to insomnia is a highly prevalent problem. The interest in complementary and alternative medicines for treating or preventing insomnia has increased recently. Centuries-old herbal treatments, popular for their safety and effectiveness, include valerian, passionflower, lemon balm, lavender, and Californian poppy. Read More

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February 2021

How does αHistidine102 affect the binding of modulators to αβγ GABA receptors? molecular insights from experiments.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Feb;23(6):3993-4006

Instituto de Física del Sur (IFISUR), Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), CONICET, Av. L. N. Alem 1253, B8000CPB - Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The activation of GABAA receptors by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid mediates the rapid inhibition response in the central nervous system of mammals. Many neurological and mental health disorders arise from alterations in the structure or function of these pentameric ion channels. GABAA receptors are targets for numerous drugs, including benzodiazepines, which bind to α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors with high affinity to a site in the extracellular domain, between subunits α1 and γ2. Read More

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February 2021

The Role of Diazepam in Epigenetics: From the Molecular Level to Clinical Implications.

Adv Mind Body Med 2021 Winter;35(1):25-33

There is growing evidence linking epigenetic mutations to neurologic disorders such as epilepsy. The effect of the medications primarily used to treat neurologic disorders has recently been studied, including research on epilepsy and the epigenetic process. The impact of the widely used medication diazepam on epigenomics, microRNA levels, the ensuing genetic exposure and potential clinical effects was reviewed. Read More

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February 2021

Acute lead poisoning: a diagnostic challenge in the emergency department.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jan 20;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Emergency Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India

Acute abdominal pain is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED). Ruling out life-threatening causes and giving pain relief are the most important tasks in ED. We describe a 32-year-old man who presented to ED with abdominal pain and vomiting which was unrelieved by usual doses of analgesic. Read More

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January 2021

Validation of a HPLC method for quantification of midazolam in rat plasma: Application during a Maytenus ilicifolia-drug interaction study.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Mar 27;35(3):e4999. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Federal University of São João del-Rei, Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Midazolam (MDZ) is routinely employed as a marker compound of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Despite the many HPLC-UV methods described to quantify MDZ in plasma, all of them use acetonitrile (ACN) or a mixture of methanol-isopropanol as organic solvent of the mobile phase. Since the ACN shortage in 2008, efforts have been made to replace this solvent during HPLC analysis. Read More

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Effect of dexmedetomidine on perioperative hemodynamics and organ protection in children with congenital heart disease: A randomized controlled trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(1):e23998

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on hemodynamics and organ protection in congenital heart disease (CHD) children who underwent open-heart surgery under cryogenic cardiopulmonary bypass.

Methods: Ninety children were randomly allocated to group C (0.9% saline 0. Read More

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January 2021

Severe Benzodiazepine Use Disorder in a 16-Year-Old Adolescent: A Rapid and Safe Inpatient Taper.

Pediatrics 2021 01;147(1)

Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Sainte-Justine University Hospital Centre, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; and

We describe the case of a 16-year-old boy with a 1-year history of severe benzodiazepine misuse. After being denied access to several treatment programs and hospital centers that felt unprepared to manage benzodiazepine use disorder and withdrawal in an adolescent, the patient was admitted to a tertiary pediatric unit for rapid inpatient tapering and detoxification. The patient was hospitalized for 13 days and received decreasing doses of diazepam under close monitoring of withdrawal symptoms. Read More

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January 2021

Brief psychotic disorder associated with quarantine and mild COVID-19.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Dec 16;13(12). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Clinical Department, College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

A 30-year-old man with no significant previous or family psychiatric history became severely anxious about his health after a positive COVID-19 test. Physical symptoms of COVID-19 were mild, with no evidence of hypoxia or pneumonia, throughout his illness. He was admitted to a quarantine facility. Read More

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December 2020

Rehospitalization Risk of Receptor-Affinity Profile in Antipsychotic Drug Treatment: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis Using a Japanese Employment-Based Health Insurance Database.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 30;16:2871-2879. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether there is a difference in the risk of rehospitalization when antipsychotics are classified into two groups treated using drugs with a higher or lower affinity to H1 or α1 receptors than to D2 receptors (histamine H1 receptors, adrenaline α1 receptors [HA] high- and HA low-affinity drug group, respectively) based on affinity to receptors related to sedation using a nationwide insurance claims database in Japan.

Patients And Methods: We identified eligible patients by the following two criteria: (i) hospitalization due to schizophrenia (International Classification of Disease [ICD]-10 code: F20 or F25) in psychiatric wards between January 1st, 2005 and August 31st, 2017, and (ii) administration of HA high- or HA low-affinity drugs in the next month after discharge from the earliest hospitalization due to schizophrenia (index month). The primary endpoint was rehospitalization due to schizophrenia. Read More

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November 2020

Severe cortical damage associated with COVID-19 case report.

Seizure 2021 Jan 23;84:66-68. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Paediatric Neurology, Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, Whitechapel Road, Whitechapel, London, E1 1FR United Kingdom.

Symptoms of COVID-19, as reported during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019-2020, are primarily respiratory and gastrointestinal, with sparse reports on neurological manifestations. We describe the case of a 17-year old female with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and well controlled epilepsy, who sustained significant cortical injury during a COVID-19 associated multi-inflammatory syndrome. Read More

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January 2021

The Use of Antidepressants, Anxiolytics, Sedatives and Hypnotics in Europe: Focusing on Mental Health Care in Portugal and Prescribing in Older Patients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 19;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Research Unit for Inland Development, Polytechnic of Guarda (UDI-IPG), 6300 Guarda, Portugal.

(1) Background: Mental disorders are a growing concern in the 21st century. The most prevalent common mental disorders include depression and anxiety. It is predicted that half of the population will at some point in their lives experience one or more mental disorders. Read More

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November 2020

Pharmacotherapies for sleep disturbances in dementia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 11 15;11:CD009178. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Background: Sleep disturbances, including reduced nocturnal sleep time, sleep fragmentation, nocturnal wandering, and daytime sleepiness are common clinical problems in dementia, and are associated with significant carer distress, increased healthcare costs, and institutionalisation. Although non-drug interventions are recommended as the first-line approach to managing these problems, drug treatment is often sought and used. However, there is significant uncertainty about the efficacy and adverse effects of the various hypnotic drugs in this clinically vulnerable population. Read More

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November 2020

Pharmacological basis of the anxiolytic and antidepressant properties of Silexan®, an essential oil from the flowers of lavender.

Neurochem Int 2021 02 9;143:104899. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany.

Silexan®, a proprietary essential oil manufactured by steam distillation from Lavandula angustifolia flowers showed pronounced anxiolytic effects in patients with subthreshold anxiety disorders and was also efficacious in patients with Generalized Anxiety disorder (GAD). Moreover, evidences for antidepressant-like properties of Silexan® have been observed in anxious patients suffering from comorbid depressive symptoms and in patients with mixed anxiety-depression disorder (ICD-10 F41.2). Read More

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February 2021

An update into the medicinal chemistry of translocator protein (TSPO) ligands.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jan 14;209:112924. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, Via Bonanno 6, 56126, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

The Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been discovered in 1977 as an alternative binding site for the benzodiazepine diazepam. It is an evolutionary well-conserved and tryptophan-rich 169-amino acids protein with five alpha helical transmembrane domains stretching the outer mitochondrial membrane, with the carboxyl-terminus in the cytosol and a short amino-terminus in the intermembrane space of mitochondrion. At this level, together with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), it forms the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). Read More

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January 2021

Lorazepam timing for acute convulsive seizure control (LoTASC).

Seizure 2020 Dec 6;83:41-47. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Department of Neurology, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: Guidelines specify early administration of benzodiazepines (BZD) for the management of convulsive status epilepticus. The distinction between acute convulsive seizure and status epilepticus can be misconstrued resulting in BZD administration prior to a patient meeting criteria of status epilepticus. Early BZD administration may theoretically lead to systemic vital instability. Read More

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December 2020

Three Cases of COVID-19-related First Onset Brief Reactive Psychosis.

Isr Med Assoc J 2020 10;22(10):612

Department of Consultation and Liaison Psychiatry, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, affiliated with Hebrew University Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

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October 2020

Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Flower of 'Shanzhizi' ( Ellis) and Involvement of Serotonergic System in Its Anxiolytic Effect.

Molecules 2020 Oct 14;25(20). Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Landscape Architecture, School of Design, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200241, China.

Ellis is a famous fragrant flower in China. Previous pharmacological research mainly focuses on its fruit. In this study, the essential oil of the flower of 'Shanzhizi', which was a major variety for traditional Chinese medicine use, was extracted by hydro distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Read More

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October 2020

Real-World Preventive Effects of Suvorexant in Intensive Care Delirium: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Clin Psychiatry 2020 10 6;81(6). Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Enya-cho 89-1, Izumo City, Shimane 693-8501, Japan.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the effects of suvorexant on delirium prevention in a real-world setting. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of suvorexant for delirium prevention in limited randomized clinical trial settings; however, its effectiveness in everyday clinical settings remains unknown.

Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted in the intensive care unit of an academic hospital. Read More

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October 2020

Assessment of the Risk of Psychiatric Disorders, Use of Psychiatric Hospitals, and Receipt of Psychiatric Medication Among Patients With Lyme Neuroborreliosis in Denmark.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Feb;78(2):177-186

Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Importance: The association of Lyme neuroborreliosis with the development of psychiatric disease is unknown and remains a subject of debate.

Objective: To investigate the risk of psychiatric disease, the percentage of psychiatric hospital inpatient and outpatient contacts, and the receipt of prescribed psychiatric medications among patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis compared with individuals in a matched comparison cohort.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This nationwide population-based matched cohort study included all residents of Denmark who received a positive result on an intrathecal antibody index test for Borrelia burgdorferi (patient cohort) between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2015. Read More

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February 2021