8,300 results match your criteria Sedative Hypnotic Anxiolytic Use Disorders


The Association between General Anesthesia and New Postoperative Uses of Sedative-Hypnotics: A Nationwide Matched Cohort Study.

J Clin Med 2022 Jun 11;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City 23561, Taiwan.

Sedative-hypnotic misuse is associated with psychiatric diseases and overdose deaths. It remains uncertain whether types of anesthesia affect the occurrence of new postoperative uses of sedative-hypnotics (NPUSH). We used reimbursement claims data of Taiwan's National Health Insurance and conducted propensity score matching to compare the risk of NPUSH between general and neuraxial anesthesia among surgical patients who had no prescription of oral sedative-hypnotics or diagnosis of sleep disorders within the 12 months before surgery. Read More

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The perioperative effect of anesthetic drugs on the immune response in total intravenous anesthesia in patients undergoing minimally invasive gynecological surgery.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2021 Oct-Dec;62(4):961-969

Department of Immunology, Department of Medical Informatics and Biostatistics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania;

Background: The specific mechanism of action of each anesthetic drug on the immune system is still incompletely known. It is important to know how the various anesthetics used in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) act on the inflammatory response because the choice of the anesthetic agent can influence the patient's immune system.

Aim: Evaluation of the effect of anesthetic drugs used for total intravenous anesthesia (Propofol and Midazolam) on the inflammatory response after minimally invasive gynecological surgery. Read More

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Falls, healthcare resources and costs in older adults with insomnia treated with zolpidem, trazodone, or benzodiazepines.

BMC Geriatr 2022 06 4;22(1):484. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

University of Maryland Sleep Disorders Center, 100 N. Greene St, 2nd Floor, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Background: Falls are the leading cause of injury-related death among older Americans. While some research has found that insomnia heightens falls, health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs, the impact of insomnia treatments on fall risk, mortality, HCRU and costs in the elderly population, which could be of substantial interest to payers, has not been fully elucidated. This study evaluated the risk of falls and related consequences among adults ≥ 65 years of age treated with common prescription medications for insomnia compared with non-sleep disordered controls. Read More

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Psychopharmacology of agitation in acute psychotic and manic episodes.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2022 05 11;35(3):171-176. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

US Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Boston Healthcare System, Brockton Division, Brockton, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To provide updated guidance for the medication treatment of acute agitation in the setting of psychosis or mania on inpatient psychiatric units.

Recent Findings: This topic presented challenges: studies are sparse, tend to be under-powered, and are difficult to compare. Though there have been few recent studies, there have been several recent meta-analyses, Cochrane reviews, and published guidelines that sift through the primarily older evidence as well as more recent trials. Read More

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Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Intestinal Barrier in Patients Undergoing Gastrointestinal Surgery-A Single-Center Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Surg Res 2022 Sep 29;277:181-188. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Yijishan Hospital), Wuhu, Anhui, China; Anhui Provincial Clinical Research Center for Critical Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Yijishan Hospital), Wuhu, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Gastrointestinal failure results in death in critically ill patients. This study aimed to explore the effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on intestinal barrier function and its mechanism in critically ill patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

Methods: Patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery were randomized into the DEX group (n = 21) or midazolam (MID) group (n = 21). Read More

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September 2022

Chlorine disinfection byproduct of diazepam affects nervous system function and possesses gender-related difference in zebrafish.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jun 28;238:113568. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, No.2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Traceability Technologies for Food Poisoning, Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100013, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Chlorinated disinfection byproducts in water posed potential health threat to humans. Nowadays, chlorinated derivatives of diazepam were ubiquitously detected in drinking water. Among these derivatives, 2-methylamino-5-chlorobenzophenone (MACB) was capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and induced microglial phagocytosis of neurons in zebrafish. Read More

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Analysis of Drug and Health Resource Use Before and After COVID-19 Lockdown in a Population Undergoing Treatment for Depression or Anxiety.

Front Psychol 2022 5;13:861643. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Institute for Health Research Aragón (IIS Aragón), Zaragoza, Spain.

Introduction: The arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic modified the functions of Primary Care (PC) teams, which were forced to focus their resources on the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The disrupted healthcare of individuals with pre-existing mental disorders (depression or anxiety), as well as the psychological decompensation resulting from the lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, may have modified the use of drugs and health resources by these patients. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in these parameters, between the 6 months prior to the lockdown (09/14/2019 to 03/15/2020) and the 6 months following its end (05/03/2020 to 11/04/2020), in a population undergoing active treatment for depression or anxiety, according to the electronic clinical record. Read More

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Mapping the selection, availability, price and affordability of essential medicines for mental health conditions at a global level.

Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2022 Apr 19;31:e22. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health and Service Evaluation; Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences; Section of Psychiatry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Aims: To provide a cross-country analysis of selection, availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines for mental health conditions, aiming to identify areas for improvement.

Methods: We used the World Health Organization (WHO) online repository of national essential medicines lists (EMLs) to extract information on the inclusion of essential psychotropic medicines within each country's EML. Data on psychotropic medicine availability, price and affordability were obtained from the Health Action International global database. Read More

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GABA - and GABA -receptor-mediated regulation of Up and Down states across development.

J Physiol 2022 May 22;600(10):2401-2427. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Center for Basic Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of Academy of Athens (BRFAA), Athens, Greece.

Slow oscillations, the hallmark of non-REM sleep, and their cellular counterpart, Up and Down states (UDSs), are considered a signature of cortical dynamics that reflect the intrinsic network organization. Although previous studies have explored the role of inhibition in regulating UDSs, little is known about whether this role changes with maturation. This is surprising since both slow oscillations and UDSs exhibit significant age-dependent alterations. Read More

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Etizolam Use Disorder and Withdrawal in a Patient in Sustained Remission From Opioid, Cocaine, and Methamphetamine Use Disorders.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2022 03 31;24(2). Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska.

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Stimulating peristalsis improves esophagogastric junction observation during sedated esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children and adolescents.

Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2022 Jan-Mar;85(1):15-19

Department of Pediatrics, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Tsukuba, Japan.

Background And Study Aims: Sedation impairs full visualization of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and Z line (the squamocolumnar junction) during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of esophageal peristalsis could improve the ability to evaluate the Z line in children and adolescents.

Patients And Methods: Study 1: Consecutive patients (10-15 years) undergoing EGD with propofol or midazolam sedation were enrolled. Read More

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Incremental health care resource use and costs among adult patients with depression and treated for insomnia with zolpidem, trazodone, or benzodiazepines.

Curr Med Res Opin 2022 May 15;38(5):711-720. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Eisai Inc. Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USA.

Objective: To quantify health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs associated with insomnia treated with commonly prescribed insomnia medications among patients with depression.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using IBM MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental Databases to identify adults with: (1) ≥1 ICD-9/ICD-10 code for depression; (2) ≥1 commonly prescribed medication for insomnia (zolpidem immediate release [IR], zolpidem extended release [ER], trazodone, or benzodiazepines); and (3) ≥12 months of eligibility before and after initiating insomnia medication. A 1:1 age- and sex-matched control cohort with depression but without sleep-related disorders was identified. Read More

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Variations in COVID-19 vaccination uptake among people in receipt of psychotropic drugs: cross-sectional analysis of a national population-based prospective cohort.

Br J Psychiatry 2022 Jul;221(1):417-424

Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, UK and Public Health Agency, UK.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected people with mental health conditions.

Aims: We investigated the association between receiving psychotropic drugs, as an indicator of mental health conditions, and COVID-19 vaccine uptake.

Method: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of the Northern Ireland adult population using national linked primary care registration, vaccination, secondary care and pharmacy dispensing data. Read More

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Suvorexant and mirtazapine improve chronic pain-related changes in parameters of sleep and voluntary physical performance in mice with sciatic nerve ligation.

PLoS One 2022 25;17(2):e0264386. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Both chronic pain and sleep disorders are associated with a reduction in the quality of life. They can be both a cause and a consequence of each other, and should therefore be simultaneously treated. However, optimal treatments for chronic pain-related sleep disorders are not well established. Read More

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Discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine use in primary care: a nonrandomized intervention.

Fam Pract 2022 03;39(2):241-248

Instituto de Medicina Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina-Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, Lisboa 1649-028, Portugal.

Background: Chronic benzodiazepine use is a challenge in primary care practice. Protocols to support safe discontinuation are still needed, especially in countries with high utilization rates.

Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of a benzodiazepine discontinuation protocol in primary care setting. Read More

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Midazolam exhibits antitumour and anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Br J Anaesth 2022 Apr 2;128(4):679-690. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Anaesthesia and perioperative management contribute to long-term outcomes of patients with cancer, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We assessed the antitumour, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of midazolam on LSL-Kras;Trp53;Pdx-1 transgenic mice with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Methods: Six-week-old transgenic mice were administered midazolam 30 mg kg day p. Read More

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Fall Risk, Healthcare Resource Use, and Costs Among Adult Patients in the United States Treated for Insomnia with Zolpidem, Trazodone, or Benzodiazepines: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Adv Ther 2022 03 24;39(3):1324-1340. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 W. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Introduction: Falls are a common cause for morbidity and mortality among patients taking prescription insomnia medication. The objective of this study is to compare the risk of falls, all-cause healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), and costs among patients treated with commonly used, older generation insomnia medications and non-sleep-disordered controls.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study used the IBM MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental Databases to identify patients aged at least 18 years treated with commonly prescribed medications for insomnia (zolpidem, trazodone, benzodiazepines) between 1 January 2012 and 30 September 2017. Read More

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Midazolam Ameliorates Hyperglycemia-Induced Glomerular Endothelial Dysfunction by Inhibiting Transglutaminase 2 in Diabetes.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jan 11;23(2). Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Kangwon-do, Korea.

Midazolam is an anesthetic widely used for anxiolysis and sedation; however, to date, a possible role for midazolam in diabetic kidney disease remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of midazolam on hyperglycemia-induced glomerular endothelial dysfunction and elucidated its mechanism of action in kidneys of diabetic mice and human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (HGECs). We found that, in diabetic mice, subcutaneous midazolam treatment for 6 weeks attenuated hyperglycemia-induced elevation in urine albumin/creatinine ratios. Read More

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January 2022

Effects of antipsychotics on intravenous sedation with midazolam and propofol during dental treatment for patients with intellectual disabilities.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2022 04 17;66(4):323-331. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Special Care Dentistry, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan.

Background: Some patients with intellectual disabilities (ID) are prescribed antipsychotic drugs for symptomatic treatment of behavioural disorders. Nevertheless, it can still prove difficult to perform dental treatments safely for some patients with ID. In such cases, treatment under intravenous sedation (IVS) is one option. Read More

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The quality of palliative sedation in end-stage disease: audit from a department of oncology and haematology.

Support Care Cancer 2022 May 17;30(5):3849-3855. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Oncological Medicine Unit and Medical Oncology Unit, Department of Oncology and Haematology, University Hospital of Modena, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 41122, Modena, Italy.

Purpose: Palliative sedation (PS) plays a critical role to give suffering relief from refractory symptoms at the end of life. Our audit aimed to assess and improve quality of PS at the Department of Oncology and Hematology of University Hospital of Modena, to verify the adherence to international guidelines, the cooperation among members of care team, focusing with attention on family's perception of this delicate situation.

Methods: From December 2016 to June 2019, data of patients undergoing PS in the Department were collected by an electronic folder tool, "Sedation Tool" (ST), that recorded clinical and PS informations, D-PaP, Rudkin score, and family's perception. Read More

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Treatment of insomnia - effect of trazodone and hypnotics on sleep.

Psychiatr Pol 2021 Aug 31;55(4):743-755. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, III Klinika Psychiatryczna.

Sedative antidepressants are commonly used drugs in the treatment of insomnia. However, some recommendations claim that only hypnotics have been proven effective in the treatment of sleep initiation and maintenance disorders. The aim of this article is to compare the effect of hypnotics and trazodone on sleep, and to analyse the evidence for the use of trazodone in the treatment of insomnia. Read More

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Spontaneous recurrent seizures in an intra-amygdala kainate microinjection model of temporal lobe epilepsy are differentially sensitive to antiseizure drugs.

Exp Neurol 2022 03 17;349:113954. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA; Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP) Contract Site, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA; Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA.

The discovery and development of novel antiseizure drugs (ASDs) that are effective in controlling pharmacoresistant spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) continues to represent a significant unmet clinical need. The Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP) has undertaken efforts to address this need by adopting animal models that represent the salient features of human pharmacoresistant epilepsy and employing these models for preclinical testing of investigational ASDs. One such model that has garnered increased interest in recent years is the mouse variant of the Intra-Amygdala Kainate (IAK) microinjection model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Read More

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Comparing the impact on the prognosis of acute myocardial infarction critical patients of using midazolam, propofol, and dexmedetomidine for sedation.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 12 7;21(1):584. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Internal Medicine Department, Changsha Medical University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: There are less studies focusing on the sedative therapy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) critical patients. This study aim to compare the impact on the prognosis of AMI critical patients of using midazolam, propofol and dexmedetomidine.

Methods: We collected clinical data from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. Read More

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December 2021

Diazepam Monotherapy or Diazepam-Ketamine Dual Therapy at Different Time Points Terminates Seizures and Reduces Mortality in a Status Epilepticus Animal Model.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Dec 6;27:e934043. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Being refractory to drugs remains an urgent treatment problem in status epilepticus (SE). The fact that γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (GABAARs) become internalized and inactive, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) become externalized and active during SE may explain the refractoriness to benzodiazepine. However, the real-time dynamic efficacy of antiepileptic drugs remains unclear. Read More

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December 2021

Lack of direct involvement of a diazepam long-term treatment in the occurrence of irreversible cognitive impairment: a pre-clinical approach.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 12 3;11(1):612. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Univ. Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience and Cognition, Degenerative and Vascular Cognitive Disorders, UMR-S1172, 59000, Lille, France.

Several observational studies have found a link between the long-term use of benzodiazepines and dementia, which remains controversial. Our study was designed to assess (i) whether the long-term use of benzodiazepines, at two different doses, has an irreversible effect on cognition, (ii) and whether there is an age-dependent effect. One hundred and five C57Bl/6 male mice were randomly assigned to the 15 mg/kg/day, the 30 mg/kg/day diazepam-supplemented pellets, or the control group. Read More

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December 2021

Neurochemical and behavioral effects of fluoxetine on midazolam induce dependence in an animal model of addiction.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Sep;34(5):1749-1757

Neurochemistry and Biochemical Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan/Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, ICCBS, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

In the present study we have monitored effects of repeated coadministration of fluoxetine with midazolam; a benzodiazepine (CNS depressant). It is the primary drug of choice for procedural sedation, preoperative sedation, and in emergency departments. Repeated administration of this drug is reported to have abuse potential and may cause this by increasing dopaminergic neurotransmission. Read More

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September 2021

Neuroprotective role of a monoterpene (thymol) on diazepam induced withdrawal symptoms in rats.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Jul;34(4(Supplementary)):1615-1620

Neurochemistry and Biochemical Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Benzodiazepine administration is known to be related to tolerance and a withdrawal syndrome on sudden cessation. Thymol possesses multiple biological properties especially in the pathogenesis of different brain disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no study that relates the use of thymol to benzodiazepine induced withdrawal symptoms. Read More

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The anxiolytic effect of salicylic acid is mediated via the GABAergic system in the fear potentiated plus maze behavior in rats.

Mol Biol Rep 2022 Feb 19;49(2):1133-1139. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Salicylic acid (SA) is a natural phenolic compound in plants with many beneficial effects for humans. The anxiolytic effect of this compound has been reported in animal models, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, by using the fear potentiated plus maze test, we evaluated the effect of salicylic acid on the gene expression of the main form of GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) synthesizing enzyme i. Read More

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February 2022

Association between insomnia patients' pre-treatment characteristics and their responses to distinctive treatment sequences.

Sleep 2022 01;45(1)

École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.

Study Objectives: It is common to provide insomnia patients a second treatment when the initial treatment fails, but little is known about optimal treatment sequences for different patient types. This study examined whether pre-treatment characteristics/traits predict optimal treatment sequences for insomnia patients.

Methods: A community sample of 211 adults (132 women; Mage = 45. Read More

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January 2022