Emerg Med Clin North Am 2017 May 15;35(2):321-337. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Alway Building M121, MC 5119, Stanford, CA 94305-2200, USA.
Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. Read More
Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Read More
An Acad Bras Cienc 2015 Mar 10;87(1):431-6. Epub 2015 Feb 10.
Centro de Ciências Tecnológicas da Terra e do Mar, Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, SC, Brasil.
Seabather's eruption is a papulo-pruritic dermatitis caused by the nematocysts of the larvae of the jellyfish Linuche unguiculata retained in the clothing fibers. Previously reported in Brazil, this work describes fourteen cases that occurred in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil. The new cases observed over a short period of time (the first half of January, 2012), at the height of the summer season, should alert health teams to possible epidemics on the coast of the state of Santa Catarina. Read More
University of Vale do Itajaí, Univali, SC, Brazil.
Seabather's eruption is characterized by the occurrence of intensely itchy erythematous papules observed mainly in the region covered by swimwear. The dermatitis occurs due to the contact of planula larvae of scyphomedusae Linuche unguiculata with the skin. The swimsuit pressure triggers the action of the poisonous stinging structures carried by the larvae. Read More
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2009 May-Jun;51(3):169-75
School of Medicine, Vale do Itajaí University, Itajaí, SC, Brazil.
Seabather's eruption (SBE) is an intensely itchy, papule-erythematous dermatitis that occurs predominantly in regions of the body covered by bathing costumes, after exposure to marine water. The planulae larvae of Linuche unguiculata scyphomedusae (thimble jellyfish) are the etiologic agent of the dermatitis, which is frequent in waters of Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida. The authors report 38 cases of SBE in the State of Santa Catarina (Southern region of Brazil), with emphasis on their clinical and epidemiological aspects, such as profile of victim, topography of the papules and conditions predisposing to the accident. Read More
Surfing is an exciting sport enjoyed in many coastal communities around the globe. Participants are prone to various conditions ranging from acute injuries to conditions borne from chronic environmental exposure. Lacerations, contusions, sprains, and fractures are the common types of acute traumatic injury. Read More
Division of Infectious Disease and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455, USA.
Background: Jellyfish stings are a common occurrence among ocean goers worldwide with an estimated 150 million envenomations annually. Fatalities and hospitalizations occur annually, particularly in the Indo-Pacific regions. A new topical jellyfish sting inhibitor based on the mucous coating of the clown fish prevents 85% of jellyfish stings in laboratory settings. Read More
Surfers are prone to acute injuries as well as conditions resulting from chronic environmental exposure. Sprains, lacerations, strains, and fractures are the most common types of trauma. Injury from the rider's own surfboard may be the prevailing mechanism. Read More
The most common injuries afflicting the athlete affect the skin. The list of sports-related dermatoses is vast and includes infections, inflammatory conditions, traumatic entities, environmental encounters, and neoplasms. It is critical that the sports physician recognises common and uncommon skin disorders of the athlete. Read More
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2001 May-Jun;43(3):171-2
Departamento de Dermatologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.
The authors report five cases of seabather's eruption, a typical dermatitis associated predominantly to the jellyfish Linuche unguiculata (Cnidaria), that causes erythematous and pruriginous papules on areas of the skin of bathers covered by swimsuits. The rash is characteristic and the eruption is commom in the Caribbean, Florida, Mexico and Gulf States of USA. The cases are the first reported in Brazil and larvae of the jellyfish are present in the waters where the accidents happened. Read More
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Neurobiologia Campus-Juriquilla, Queretaro and Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Cancun, Q. Roo, Mexico.
Background: Seabather's eruption (SBE) is a highly pruritic dermatosis affecting swimmers and divers in marine waters off Florida, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. Its cause has been attributed to various organisms but recently to the larvae of the schyphomedusa, Linuche unguiculata.
Objective: We attempted to determine whether immature and adult Linuche cause SBE. Read More
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cancun, Q. Roo, Mexico.
Adult Linuche unguiculata medusae cause seabather's eruption just like that animal's larval form. This observation explains the wide seasonal incidence and the fact that lesions can appear on exposed skin. Read More
Division of Epidemiology and Disease Control, Palm Beach County Public Health Department, Riviera Beach, FL 33404, USA.
Objective: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for seabather's eruption.
Methods: Study participants were recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. Read More
Seabather's eruption is an unusual rash that develops in individuals who have been swimming in the ocean. We report the case of a 25-year-old woman who had the rash in a typical bathing suit distribution. Several species of cnidarian larvae have been implicated in causing the disease. Read More
Department of Dermatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA.
Thirty-six of 44 patients with seabather's eruption had specific IgG antibodies against Linuche unguilata (thimble jelly) medusae antigen. ELISA detected antibodies in serum stored for 10 years. The extent of the cutaneous eruption or sting severity was correlated with antibody titer. Read More
Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, FL 33101.
Background: Seabather's eruption (SE) is a highly pruritic eruption under swimwear that occurs after bathing in the ocean. Its cause has been unknown. Few data have been collected since the classic description by Sams in 1949. Read More
Background: Seabather's eruption is an annoying pruritic dermatitis that appears on the areas covered by the bathing suit as an erythematous macular or papular dermatitis, with or without urticaria. It occurs sporadically in Florida, the Caribbean, and as far north as Bermuda. The cause is not known. Read More
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami, School of Medicine, FL 33101.
Seabather's eruption is usually a benign clinical syndrome that resolves spontaneously, although severe symptoms and long-term sequelae have been identified. Recent research has implicated the larvae of a jellyfish, Linuche unguiculata, as the cause of this syndrome; confirmation by serological and experimental studies is pending. Clinical signs and symptoms are consistent with this etiology. Read More
Memorial Medical Center of Long Beach, California.
Jellyfish stings are usually mild except those caused by species in the South Pacific. The box jellyfish can produce a severe cardiorespiratory insult. The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war is more potent than that of the common jellyfish. Read More
Swimmer's itch and seabather's eruption, while similar in morphology, differ in important aspects. Seabather's eruption occurs chiefly in salt water and involves covered parts of the body. Swimmer's itch occurs chiefly in fresh water and involves uncovered parts. Read More