14,541 results match your criteria Scottish Medical Journal [Journal]


Examining associations between physical activity and cardiovascular mortality using negative control outcomes.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Background: The purpose of a negative control is to reproduce a condition that cannot involve the hypothesized causal mechanism, but does involve the same sources of bias and confounding that may distort the primary association of interest. Observational studies suggest physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), although potential sources of bias, including reverse causation and residual confounding, make it difficult to infer causality. The aim was to employ a negative control outcome to explore the extent to which the association between physical activity and CVD mortality is explained by confounding. Read More

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December 2018

Prey of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Iceland.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207287. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Skúlagata, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Killer whales have a cosmopolitan distribution and as a species are generalists, feeding on a variety of prey. However, local populations tend to specialise on specific prey types. In Icelandic waters, killer whales are generally associated with herring and, thus, have been presumed to be herring specialists. Read More

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December 2018

Mortality in people with dementia, delirium, and unspecified cognitive impairment in the general hospital: prospective cohort study of 6,724 patients with 2 years follow-up.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 23;10:1743-1753. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Population Health and Genomics, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee DD2 4BF, UK,

Purpose: Cognitive impairment is common in older people admitted to hospital, but the outcomes are generally poorly understood, and previous research has shown inconsistent associations with mortality depending on the type of cognitive impairment examined and duration of follow-up. This study examines mortality in older people with any cognitive impairment during acute hospital admission.

Patients And Methods: Prospective cohort of 6,724 people aged ≥65 years with a structured cognitive assessment on acute admission were included in this study. Read More

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November 2018

Linking organochlorine contaminants with demographic parameters in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins from the northern Adriatic Sea.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 4;657:200-212. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Morigenos - Slovenian Marine Mammal Society, Kidričevo nabrežje 4, 6330 Piran, Slovenia.

Marine top predators, including marine mammals, are known to bio-accumulate persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a serious conservation concern for these species. Although PCBs declined in European seas since the 1970s-1980s ban, considerable levels still persist in European and Mediterranean waters. In cetaceans, stranded animals are a valuable source of samples for pollutant studies, but may introduce both known and unknown biases. Read More

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December 2018
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Optimizing ex situ genetic resource collections for European livestock conservation.

J Anim Breed Genet 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Global Academy of Agriculture and Food Security, The University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, Edinburgh, UK.

Ex situ collections offer the potential to reduce extinction risks, affording option to society in maintaining future breeding opportunities for productivity and heritage traits. However, how much should we be seeking to collect and conserve in gene banks, and where? We developed a mathematical model to optimize logistical decisions of breed conservation choices and to evaluate alternative scenarios for efficiently re-allocating genetic materials currently stored in different European gene banks, allowing for cross-country collections, cost and cryogenic capacity differentials. We show how alternative allocations for the breeds that are currently stored in 11 European gene banks could reduce overall conservation costs by around 20% by selecting cryogenic banks that have relatively lower combination of fixed and collection costs, and are geographically closer to collection regions. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Health-related behaviours of nurses and other healthcare professionals: a cross-sectional study using the scottish health survey.

J Adv Nurs 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Health & Social Care, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, EH11 4BN, Scotland, UK.

Aims: To estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of health-related behaviours among nurses in Scotland relative to other healthcare workers and those in non-healthcare occupations.

Design: Secondary analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional data, reported following STROBE guidelines.

Methods: Five rounds (2008-2012) of the Scottish Health Survey were aggregated to estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of health-related behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake). Read More

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December 2018

Global emergency care clinical practice guidelines: A landscape analysis.

Afr J Emerg Med 2018 Dec 24;8(4):158-163. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Centre for Evidence-based Health Care, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.

Introduction: An adaptive guideline development method, as opposed to a guideline development, is dependent on access to existing high-quality up-to-date clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). We described the characteristics and quality of CPGs relevant to prehospital care worldwide, in order to strengthen guideline development in low-resource settings for emergency care.

Methods: We conducted a descriptive study of a database of international CPGs relevant to emergency care produced by the African Federation for Emergency Medicine (AFEM) CPG project in 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Minimally Displaced Humeral Lateral Condyle Fractures: Immobilize or Operate When Stability is Unclear?

J Pediatr Orthop 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, TX.

Background: Either casting or in situ fixation (to prevent displacement) are recommended for minimally displaced pediatric lateral condyle fractures of indeterminate stability with ≤2 mm lateral displacement and narrowed fracture extension to the epiphyseal articular cartilage. This study compares casting only, acute prophylactic in situ pinning, and surgery if casting fails due to displacement.

Methods: In total, 738 fractures at a level 1 trauma center between 2008 and 2014 were reviewed. Read More

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December 2018

Intellectual engagement and cognitive ability in later life (the "use it or lose it" conjecture): longitudinal, prospective study.

BMJ 2018 Dec 10;363:k4925. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, UK.

Objectives: To examine the association between intellectual engagement and cognitive ability in later life, and determine whether the maintenance of intellectual engagement will offset age related cognitive decline.

Design: Longitudinal, prospective, observational study.

Setting: Non-clinical volunteers in late middle age (all born in 1936) living independently in northeast Scotland. Read More

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December 2018

The impact of stress latent class membership and transitions on statutory service and alcohol use in adolescents across 33 months.

J Adolesc 2018 Dec 5;70:53-61. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

University of Liverpool, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Adolescence is a period of intense physical, biological, and psychological change, and this can result in feelings of stress. We examined the development of stress in early adolescence, and further, how that development impacted on both alcohol-use behaviours and utilisation of government-provided services.

Methods: We used a shortened, 24-item version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) to account for stress, and applied latent transition analysis to examine longitudinal change. Read More

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December 2018

New Insights Into the Epidemiology of Bronchiectasis.

Authors:
James D Chalmers

Chest 2018 Dec;154(6):1272-1273

Scottish Centre for Respiratory Research, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, Scotland. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Living at home after emergency hospital admission: prospective cohort study in older adults with and without cognitive spectrum disorder.

BMC Med 2018 Dec 11;16(1):231. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Dementia and Ageing Research Group, Faculty of Social Science, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland.

Background: Cognitive spectrum disorders (CSDs) are common in hospitalised older adults and associated with adverse outcomes. Their association with the maintenance of independent living has not been established. The aim was to establish the role of CSDs on the likelihood of living at home 30 days after discharge or being newly admitted to a care home. Read More

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December 2018
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Insights into the evolution of the suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) gene family in vertebrates.

Mol Biol Evol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

The SOCS family are key negative regulators of cytokine and growth factor signalling. Typically 8-17 SOCS genes are present in vertebrate species and eight known in mammals, classified as type I (SOCS4-7) and type II (CISH and SOCS1-3) SOCS. It was believed that the type II SOCS were expanded through the two rounds of whole genome duplication (1R and 2R WGDs) from a single CISH/SOCS1-3 precursor. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Temporarily quadrupling the dose of inhaled steroid to prevent asthma exacerbations: FAST.

Health Technol Assess 2018 Dec;22(70):1-82

Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Background: Asthma exacerbations affect the quality of life of patients with asthma and have a major effect on the overall costs of asthma care. An asthma self-management plan that advises the temporary quadrupling of inhaled corticosteroid dose may prevent asthma exacerbations, but this needs to be confirmed before being adopted widely.

Objectives: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an asthma self-management plan that advises patients to temporarily quadruple the dose of inhaled corticosteroid when asthma control starts to deteriorate with a standard self-management plan. Read More

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December 2018

Peer-led intervention to prevent and reduce STI transmission and improve sexual health in secondary schools (STASH): protocol for a feasibility study.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2018 29;4:180. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

1MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Top Floor, 200 Renfield St, Glasgow, G2 3AX UK.

Background: Young people in the UK are at highest risk of sexually transmitted infections and report higher levels of unsafe sex than any other age group. Involving peer supporters in intervention delivery is acceptable to students and effective in reducing risk behaviours via 'diffusion of innovation', particularly where peer supporters are influential in their networks. Informal peer-led interventions offer a useful alternative to peer-led didactic teaching, which has shown limited effects. Read More

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November 2018

Comparison of sterol and fatty acid profiles of chytrids and their hosts reveals trophic upgrading of nutritionally inadequate phytoplankton by fungal parasites.

Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Germany.

Chytrids are ubiquitous fungal parasites in aquatic ecosystems, infecting representatives of all major phytoplankton groups. They repack carbon from inedible phytoplankton hosts into easily ingested chytrid propagules (zoospores), rendering this carbon accessible to zooplankton. Grazing on zoospores may circumvent bottlenecks in carbon transfer imposed by the dominance of inedible or poorly nutritious phytoplankton (mycoloop). Read More

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December 2018

DNA Polymerase Epsilon Deficiency Causes IMAGe Syndrome with Variable Immunodeficiency.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 Dec 29;103(6):1038-1044. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. Electronic address:

During genome replication, polymerase epsilon (Pol ε) acts as the major leading-strand DNA polymerase. Here we report the identification of biallelic mutations in POLE, encoding the Pol ε catalytic subunit POLE1, in 15 individuals from 12 families. Phenotypically, these individuals had clinical features closely resembling IMAGe syndrome (intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genitourinary anomalies in males), a disorder previously associated with gain-of-function mutations in CDKN1C. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Diversity, distribution, and azaspiracids of Amphidomataceae (Dinophyceae) along the Norwegian coast.

Harmful Algae 2018 Dec 20;80:15-34. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Institut für Chemie und Biologie des Meeres (ICBM), Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Schleusenstraße 1, D-26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

Azaspiracids (AZA) are a group of lipophilic polyether compounds which have been implicated in shellfish poisoning incidents around Europe. They are produced by a few species of the dinophycean genera Azadinium and Amphidoma (Amphidomataceae). The presence of AZA toxins in Norway is well documented, but knowledge of the distribution and diversity of Azadinium and other Amphidomataceae along the Norwegian coast is rather limited and poorly documented. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A Fatal Case of Louping-ill in a Dog: Immunolocalization and Full Genome Sequencing of the Virus.

J Comp Pathol 2018 Nov 19;165:23-32. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Scotland, UK.

Louping-ill (LI), caused by louping-ill virus (LIV), results in a frequently fatal encephalitis primarily affecting sheep and red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica), but it does occur in other species. An adult male Border collie dog was definitively diagnosed with fatal LI and the lesion profile, LIV antigen distribution and full genome sequence of the LIV responsible were investigated to determine if this differed significantly from sheep-derived LIV. No gross lesions were present. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Brazilian Analytical Decision Model for Cardiovascular Disease: An Adaptation of the Scottish Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model.

Value Health Reg Issues 2018 Nov 28;17:210-216. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Health Economics and Health Technology Assessment, Institute of Health and Technology Assessment, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Introduction: Despite the significant impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there is not yet an analytical decision tool for assessing efficiency of interventions to prevent primary CVD events in Brazil. Therefore, we sought to adapt a Scottish CVD Policy Model to be used in the proposed population.

Methods: Calibration consisted of identifying multiplicative factors for linear predictors of existing survival analysis models to produce predictions that closely match observed data (Life-table and Brazilian cohort study). Read More

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November 2018

The bastard verdict and its influence on jurors.

Med Sci Law 2018 Dec 1:25802418811740. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

3 Currently not affiliated with any universities.

The Scottish legal system is a unique jurisdiction, as jurors are able to give not proven verdicts in addition to the well-known Anglo-American verdicts (guilty and not guilty). The not proven verdict has never been legally defined, meaning that currently legal practitioners can only estimate why a not proven verdict has been given. The main aim of this study was to investigate if jurors violate the regularity principle, which is commonly incorporated in many rational choice models, by testing if the introduction of the not proven verdict has an impact on the outcomes given by jurors. Read More

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December 2018

Functional Outcomes Following Treatment for Clubfoot: Ten-Year Follow-up.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2018 Dec;100(23):2015-2023

Movement Science Lab (K.A.J., A.L.E., and W.R.S.) and Department of Orthopaedics (L.A.K.), Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, Texas.

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess function, at the age of 10 years, of children initially treated nonoperatively for clubfoot with either the Ponseti or French physiotherapy program and to compare outcomes in feet that had undergone only nonoperative treatment with those that required subsequent surgery.

Methods: Gait analysis, isokinetic ankle strength, parent-reported outcomes, and daily step activity data were collected when patients who had been treated for idiopathic clubfoot reached the age of 10 years. Patients who had undergone only nonoperative treatment were compared with those who subsequently underwent extra-articular surgery or intra-articular surgery (posterior release or posteromedial release). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Phosphorus-zinc interactions in cotton: consequences for biomass production and nutrient-use efficiency in photosynthesis.

Physiol Plant 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, 13416-000, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

The fragmentary information on phosphorus (P) × zinc (Zn) interactions in plants warrants further study, particularly in plants known for their high P and Zn requirements, such as cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of P × Zn interactions in a modern cultivar of cotton grown hydroponically. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Using the Model for Improvement to implement the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool in an adult intensive care unit.

BMJ Open Qual 2018 9;7(4):e000304. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Anaesthesia and Pain, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK.

Managing pain is challenging in the intensive care unit (ICU) as often patients are unable to self-report due to the effects of sedation required for mechanical ventilation. Minimal sedative use and the utilisation of analgesia-first approaches are advocated as best practice to reduce unwanted effects of oversedation and poorly managed pain. Despite evidence-based recommendations, behavioural pain assessment tools are not readily implemented in many critical care units. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Itinerant ferromagnetism of the Pd-terminated polar surface of PdCoO.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS, United Kingdom;

The ability to modulate the collective properties of correlated electron systems at their interfaces and surfaces underpins the burgeoning field of "designer" quantum materials. Here, we show how an electronic reconstruction driven by surface polarity mediates a Stoner-like magnetic instability to itinerant ferromagnetism at the Pd-terminated surface of the nonmagnetic delafossite oxide metal PdCoO Combining angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density-functional theory calculations, we show how this leads to a rich multiband surface electronic structure. We find similar surface state dispersions in PdCrO, suggesting surface ferromagnetism persists in this sister compound despite its bulk antiferromagnetic order. Read More

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December 2018

Combination peptide immunotherapy suppresses antibody and helper T cell responses to the major human platelet autoantigen GPIIb/IIIa in HLA-transgenic mice.

Haematologica 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Medical Sciences, Ashgrove Road West, University of Aberdeen, UK

Platelet destruction in immune thrombocytopenia is caused by autoreactive antibody and T cell responses, most commonly directed against platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Loss of self-tolerance in the disease is also associated with deficient activity of regulatory T cells. Having previously mapped seven major epitopes on platelet glycoprotein IIIa that are recognised by helper T cells from patients with immune thrombocytopenia, the aim was to test whether peptide therapy with any of these sequences, alone or in combination, could inhibit responses to the antigen in humanized mice expressing HLA-DR15. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The evolution of ependymin-related proteins.

BMC Evol Biol 2018 Dec 4;18(1):182. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Centre for Marine Science, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

Background: Ependymins were originally defined as fish-specific secreted glycoproteins involved in central nervous system plasticity and memory formation. Subsequent research revealed that these proteins represent a fish-specific lineage of a larger ependymin-related protein family (EPDRs). EPDRs have now been identified in a number of bilaterian animals and have been implicated in diverse non-neural functions. Read More

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December 2018

Implementing an Oral Health Intervention for People Experiencing Homelessness in Scotland: A Participant Observation Study.

Dent J (Basel) 2018 Dec 1;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Dental Health Services Research Unit, School of Dentistry, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK.

Smile4life is an intervention aimed at improving the oral health of people experiencing homelessness in Scotland. The purpose of this research was to determine how this intervention was being translated from guidance into action. Data concerning Smile4life working practices were collected in three NHS Boards using participant observation. Read More

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December 2018

Homeless in Scotland: An Oral Health and Psychosocial Needs Assessment.

Dent J (Basel) 2018 Dec 1;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Dental Health Services Research Unit, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK.

The aim of this research was to conduct an oral health and psychosocial needs assessment of a homeless population in Scotland to determine the levels of unmet need and provide recommendations for oral health improvement. A non-probability convenience sample of homeless people residing in seven Scottish Health Boards was collected. All consenting participants were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their health and psychosocial needs, dental anxiety, and oral health-related quality of life. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Fate of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes in a grassland soil amended with different organic fertilizers.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 1;170:39-46. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland, UK. Electronic address:

This study provided an assessment of the environmental fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a Scottish grassland field repeatedly treated with different organic fertilizers. The impacts of manure, biosolids and municipal food-derived compost on the relative abundances of tetracycline ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetW), sulfonamide ARGs (sul1 and sul2) and class 1 integron-integrase gene (IntI1) in soils were investigated, with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) as a comparison. The background soil with a history of low intensity farming showed a higher total relative abundance of tet ARGs over sul ARGs, with tetracycline efflux genes occurring in a higher frequency. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Bariatric surgery, lifestyle interventions and orlistat for severe obesity: the REBALANCE mixed-methods systematic review and economic evaluation.

Health Technol Assess 2018 Nov;22(68):1-246

Health Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Background: Adults with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 35 kg/m] have an increased risk of comorbidities and psychological, social and economic consequences.

Objectives: Systematically review bariatric surgery, weight-management programmes (WMPs) and orlistat pharmacotherapy for adults with severe obesity, and evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatment.

Data Sources: Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database were searched (last searched in May 2017). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The neighbourhood social environment and alcohol use among urban and rural Scottish adolescents.

Int J Public Health 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit, School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9TF, UK.

Objectives: This research examined the relationship between neighbourhood social environmental characteristics and drinking outcomes among a sample of urban and rural adolescents.

Methods: From a sample of 1558 Scottish secondary schoolchildren, surveyed as part of the 2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, we modelled three drinking outcomes on a variety of neighbourhood conditions, including social cohesion, disorder, alcohol outlet density, deprivation, and urban/rurality. Nested and cross-classified multilevel logistic regressions were specified. Read More

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December 2018

Rapid niche expansion by selection on functional genomic variation after ecosystem recovery.

Nat Ecol Evol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

It is well recognized that environmental degradation caused by human activities can result in dramatic losses of species and diversity. However, comparatively little is known about the ability of biodiversity to re-emerge following ecosystem recovery. Here, we show that a European whitefish subspecies, the gangfisch Coregonus lavaretus macrophthalmus, rapidly increased its ecologically functional diversity following the restoration of Lake Constance after anthropogenic eutrophication. Read More

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December 2018

Empirical measures of harbor seal behavior and avoidance of an operational tidal turbine.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Nov 10;136:92-106. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB, Scotland.

There is global interest in marine renewable energy from underwater tidal turbines. Due to overlap in animal habitat with locations for tidal turbines, the potential for collisions has led to concern around strike risk. Using data from tagged harbor seals collected before construction and after operation of the SeaGen tidal turbine in Northern Ireland, this study quantifies risks of an operational turbine to harbor seals by taking into account turbine characteristics, tidal state, and seal behavior. Read More

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November 2018

A comprehensive approach to lung function in bronchiectasis.

Respir Med 2018 Dec 2;145:120-129. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory Unit and Cystic Fibrosis Adult Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122, Milan, Italy; School of Medicine, University of Milan Bicocca, Respiratory Unit, AO San Gerardo, Monza, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: International guidelines recommend simple spirometry for bronchiectasis patients. However, pulmonary pathophysiology of bronchiectasis is very complex and still poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize lung function in bronchiectasis and identify specific functional sub-groups. Read More

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December 2018

Uniaxial pressure control of competing orders in a high-temperature superconductor.

Science 2018 11;362(6418):1040-1044

Institute for Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 176344 Karlsruhe, Germany.

Cuprates exhibit antiferromagnetic, charge density wave (CDW), and high-temperature superconducting ground states that can be tuned by means of doping and external magnetic fields. However, disorder generated by these tuning methods complicates the interpretation of such experiments. Here, we report a high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering study of the high-temperature superconductor YBaCuO under uniaxial stress, and we show that a three-dimensional long-range-ordered CDW state can be induced through pressure along the axis, in the absence of magnetic fields. Read More

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November 2018

The European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration (EMBARC) ERS Clinical Research Collaboration.

Eur Respir J 2018 Nov 29;52(5). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Respiratory Unit and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center, Dept of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

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November 2018
1 Read

Group B streptococcal disease in UK and Irish infants younger than 90 days, 2014-15: a prospective surveillance study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group & Vaccine Institute, St George's University of London and St George's University Hospitals NHS Trust, London, UK.

Background: Group B streptococcus is a leading cause of serious infection in young infants in many countries worldwide. We aimed to define the burden and clinical features of invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants younger than 90 days in the UK and Ireland, together with the characteristics of disease-causing isolates.

Methods: Prospective, active national surveillance of invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants younger than 90 days was done from April 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, microbiology reference laboratories, and national public health agencies in the UK and Ireland. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Commentary on "An Officer of the 10th Battalion, Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) Leads the Way out of a Sap and Is Being Followed by the Party".

Acad Med 2018 Dec;93(12):1802-1803

C. Bedos is associate professor, Oral Health & Society Division, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0141-0928; e-mail: N. Apelian is assistant professor, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0414-5824. J.-N. Vergnes is senior lecturer, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Dental Faculty, Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France, and adjunct professor, Oral Health & Society Division, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7322-6551.

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December 2018

Hospital doctors' experiences of caring for dying patients.

J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2018 Dec;48(4):299-303

Highland Hospice, Inverness, UK.

Background: The aim of this study was to examine, by means of a postal questionnaire, the experience of all grades of doctors caring for patients dying in an acute hospital in Scotland.

Method: A postal questionnaire was sent to 306 doctors working in inpatient medical and surgical specialties, emergency medicine, anaesthetics and intensive care medicine in an acute hospital.

Results: There was an overall 41% response rate (127/306). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The prevalence and general health status of people with intellectual disabilities and autism co-occurring together: a total population study.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Mental Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Little is known about the population prevalence of co-occurring intellectual disabilities and autism, and its impact on general health status. The study aimed to investigate this, in comparison with the general population.

Method: Whole country data from Scotland's Census, 2011, were analysed. Read More

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November 2018

Further description of bovine tuberculosis trends in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, 2003-2015.

Vet Rec 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Epidemiological Sciences, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, England.

Extending on earlier work, trends in bovine tuberculosis (bTB) from 2003 to 2015 are described for the countries of the UK and the Republic of Ireland using standardised definitions and measures. Based on measures of animal and herd incidence, there remains a stable situation of extremely low prevalence in Scotland and the Low Risk Area of England, and a higher but ongoing reduction in prevalence in the Republic of Ireland. In Northern Ireland, there has been a rising bTB trend during 2010-2015, although not to levels experienced during 2002-2004. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The development of a whole-body potassium counter for the measurement of body cell mass in adult humans.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(6):1190-1197

Division of Nutrition, St. John's Research Institute, St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India.

Background And Objectives: Total body potassium (TBK), has a natural radioactive isotope, which can be measured to derive body cell mass (BCM), making it useful in clinical conditions, early growth and pregnancy. The objective was to build a whole-body potassium counter (WBKC), to accurately measure TBK in the body.

Methods And Study Design: A WBKC was designed and constructed using a shadow shield. Read More

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January 2018

Renewed assessment of the risk of emergent advanced cell therapies to transmit neuroproteinopathies.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Chancellors Building, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SB, UK.

The inadvertent transmission of long incubating, untreatable and fatal neurodegenerative prionopathies, notably iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, following transplantation of cadaver-derived corneas, pituitary growth, hormones and dura mater, constitutes a historical precedent which has underpinned the application of precautionary principles to modern day advanced cell therapies. To date these have been reflected by geographic or medical history risk-based deferral of tissue donors. Emergent understanding of other prion-like proteinopathies, their potential independence from prions as a transmissible agent and the variable capability of scalably manufacturable stem cells and derivatives to take up and clear or to propagate prions, substantiate further commitment to qualifying neurodegenerative proteinopathy transmission risks. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Diagnostic routes and time intervals for patients with colorectal cancer in 10 international jurisdictions; findings from a cross-sectional study from the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP).

BMJ Open 2018 Nov 27;8(11):e023870. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Research Unit for General Practice, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objective: International differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) survival and stage at diagnosis have been reported previously. They may be linked to differences in time intervals and routes to diagnosis. The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Module 4 (ICBP M4) reports the first international comparison of routes to diagnosis for patients with CRC and the time intervals from symptom onset until the start of treatment. Read More

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November 2018
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The growth of assisted reproductive treatment-conceived children from birth to 5 years: a national cohort study.

BMC Med 2018 Nov 28;16(1):224. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Background: Birth weight and early child growth are important predictors of long-term cardiometabolic disease risk, in line with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. As human assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) occur during the sensitive periconceptional window of development, it has recently become a matter of urgency to investigate risk in ART-conceived children.

Methods: We have conducted the first large-scale, national cohort study of early growth in ART children from birth to school age, linking the register of ART, held by the UK's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, to Scottish maternity and child health databases. Read More

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November 2018