85,372 results match your criteria Scientific reports[Journal]


Ex vivo real-time monitoring of volatile metabolites resulting from nasal odorant metabolism.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2492. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, UMR 6265 CNRS/1324 INRA/Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 boulevard Jeanne d'Arc, F-21000, Dijon, France.

Odorant-metabolizing enzymes are critically involved in the clearance of odorant molecules from the environment of the nasal neuro-olfactory tissue to maintain the sensitivity of olfactory detection. Odorant metabolism may also generate metabolites in situ, the characterization and function of which in olfaction remain largely unknown. Here, we engineered and validated an ex vivo method to measure odorant metabolism in real-time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39404-xDOI Listing
February 2019

BRAF V600E and SRC mutations as molecular markers for predicting prognosis and conversion surgery in Stage IV colorectal cancer.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2466. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Division of Digestive and General Surgery, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

Comprehensive genomic sequencing (CGS) enables us to detect numerous genetic alterations in a single assay. We aimed to identify molecular markers for predicting prognosis and conversion surgery in Stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) using CGS. One-hundred eleven patients with Stage IV CRC who underwent primary tumor resection were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39328-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Deciphering Z-scheme Charge Transfer Dynamics in Heterostructure NiFe-LDH/N-rGO/g-CN Nanocomposite for Photocatalytic Pollutant Removal and Water Splitting Reactions.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2458. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Centre for Nano Science and Nano Technology, Siksha 'O' Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, 751030, Odisha, India.

A series of heterostructure NiFe LDH/N-rGO/g-CN nanocomposite were fabricated by combining calcinations-electrostatic self-assembly and hydrothermal steps. In this method, negatively charged N-rGO was electrostaticaly bonded to the self-assembled interface of n-n type g-CN/NiFe LDH hybrid. XRD and AFM results revealed successful formation of heterostructure nanocomposite due to the coupling effect of exfoliated NiFe LDH nanosheets with N-rGO and g-CN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39009-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Cardiac molecular pathways influenced by doxorubicin treatment in mice.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2514. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and New Technology in Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapeutic with distinct cardiotoxic properties. Understanding the underlying cardiotoxic mechanisms on a molecular level would enable the early detection of cardiotoxicity and implementation of prophylactic treatment. Our goal was to map the patterns of different radiopharmaceuticals as surrogate markers of specific metabolic pathways induced by chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38986-wDOI Listing
February 2019

Higher CXCL16 exodomain is associated with aggressive ovarian cancer and promotes the disease by CXCR6 activation and MMP modulation.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2527. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. Five-year survival rate of OvCa ranges from 30-92%, depending on the spread of disease at diagnosis. Role of chemokines is well appreciated in cancer, including OvCa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38766-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Anti-inflammatory effect of afatinib (an EGFR-TKI) on OGD-induced neuroinflammation.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2516. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been proposed in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect of afatinib, an EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKIs) was investigated using CTX-TNA2 cells and primary cultured astrocytes subjected to oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). We found that OGD induced EGFR phosphorylation and activated subsequent signaling pathways, including phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38676-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Lower limb amputees undergo long-distance plasticity in sensorimotor functional connectivity.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2518. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

D'Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR), Rio de Janeiro, 22281-100, Brazil.

Amputation in adults is associated with an extensive remapping of cortical topography in primary and secondary sensorimotor areas. Here, we used tactile residual limb stimulation and 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to investigate functional connectivity changes in the sensorimotor network of patients with long-term lower limb traumatic amputations with phantom sensation, but without pain. We found a pronounced reduction of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between homologous sensorimotor cortical regions in amputees, including the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory areas, and primary (M1) and secondary (M2) motor areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39696-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Endlessly mono-radial annular core photonic crystal fiber for the broadband transmission and supercontinuum generation of vortex beams.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2488. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

École de technologie supérieure, Department of Electrical Engineering, Montreal, H3C 1K3, Canada.

We demonstrate a new guiding regime termed endlessly mono-radial, in the proposed annular core photonic crystal fiber (AC-PCF), whereby only modes of the fundamental radial order are supported by the fiber at all input wavelengths. This attribute is of high interest for applications that require the stable and broadband guiding of mono-radial (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39527-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Transcriptomic studies and assessment of Yersinia pestis reference genes in various conditions.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2501. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées (IRBA), Brétigny-sur-Orge, France.

Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a very sensitive widespread technique considered as the gold standard to explore transcriptional variations. While a particular methodology has to be followed to provide accurate results many published studies are likely to misinterpret results due to lack of minimal quality requirements. Yersinia pestis is a highly pathogenic bacterium responsible for plague. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39072-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Removing the no-analogue bias in modern accelerated tree growth leads to stronger medieval drought.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2509. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Institute of Botany and Landcape Ecology, University of Greifswald, 17487, Greifswald, Germany.

In many parts of the world, especially in the temperate regions of Europe and North-America, accelerated tree growth rates have been observed over the last decades. This widespread phenomenon is presumably caused by a combination of factors like atmospheric fertilization or changes in forest structure and/or management. If not properly acknowledged in the calibration of tree-ring based climate reconstructions, considerable bias concerning amplitudes and trends of reconstructed climatic parameters might emerge or low frequency information is lost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39040-5DOI Listing
February 2019

The glial sodium-potassium-2-chloride cotransporter is required for synaptic transmission in the Drosophila visual system.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2475. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.

The Drosophila Ncc69 gene encodes a Na-K-2Cl-cotransporter (NKCC) that is critical for regulating intra- and extracellular ionic conditions in different tissues. Here, we show that the Ncc69 transporter is necessary for fly vision and that its expression is required non-autonomously in glia to maintain visual synaptic transmission. Flies mutant for Ncc69 exhibit normal photoreceptor depolarization in response to a light pulse but lack the ON and OFF-transients characteristic of postsynaptic responses of lamina neurons, indicating a failure in synaptic transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38850-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Similarities between action potentials and acoustic pulses in a van der Waals fluid.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2467. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Physics, Technical University of Dortmund, 44227, Dortmund, Germany.

An action potential is typically described as a purely electrical change that propagates along the membrane of excitable cells. However, recent experiments have demonstrated that non-linear acoustic pulses that propagate along lipid interfaces and traverse the melting transition, share many similar properties with action potentials. Despite the striking experimental similarities, a comprehensive theoretical study of acoustic pulses in lipid systems is still lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38826-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of dominance and prestige based social status on competition for attentional resources.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2473. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

School of Psychological Science, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

Social status can be attained through either dominance (coercion and intimidation) or prestige (skill and respect). Individuals high in either of these status pathways are known to more readily attract gaze and covert spatial attention compared to their low-status counterparts. However it is not known if social status biases allocation of attentional resources to competing stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39223-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Octa-repeat domain of the mammalian prion protein mRNA forms stable A-helical hairpin structure rather than G-quadruplexes.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2465. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Misfolding and aggregation of prion protein (PrP) causes neurodegenerative diseases like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and scrapie. Besides the consensus that spontaneous conversion of normal cellular PrP into misfolded and aggregating PrP is the central event in prion disease, an alternative hypothesis suggests the generation of pathological PrP by rare translational frameshifting events in the octa-repeat domain of the PrP mRNA. Ribosomal frameshifting most commonly relies on a slippery site and an adjacent stable RNA structure to stall translating ribosome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39213-2DOI Listing
February 2019

A systematic study on the influence of thermodynamic asymmetry of 5'-ends of siRNA duplexes in relation to their silencing potency.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2477. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Nucleic Acids Bioengineering, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12/14, 61-704, Poznan, Poland.

siRNA molecules possess high potential as molecular tools and can be used as effective therapeutics in humans. One of the key steps in the action of these molecules is the choice of antisense strand by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). To explain this process, we verified the theory which states that antisense strand selection is based on the thermodynamically less stable 5' end of siRNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36620-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Exploration of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP) regulated dynamics of N-terminal domain of IP receptor reveals early phase molecular events during receptor activation.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2454. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, CB2 1PD, Cambridge, UK.

Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP) binding at the N-terminus (NT) of IP receptor (IPR) allosterically triggers the opening of a Ca-conducting pore located ~100 Å away from the IP-binding core (IBC). However, the precise mechanism of IP binding and correlated domain dynamics in the NT that are central to the IPR activation, remains unknown. Our all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations recapitulate the characteristic twist motion of the suppressor domain (SD) and reveal correlated 'clam closure' dynamics of IBC with IP-binding, complementing existing suggestions on IPR activation mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39301-3DOI Listing
February 2019

The cascading effects of human food on hibernation and cellular aging in free-ranging black bears.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2197. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Human foods have become a pervasive subsidy in many landscapes, and can dramatically alter wildlife behavior, physiology, and demography. While such subsidies can enhance wildlife condition, they can also result in unintended negative consequences on individuals and populations. Seasonal hibernators possess a remarkable suite of adaptations that increase survival and longevity in the face of resource and energetic limitations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38937-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a novel technique for detecting bacterial infection in insects.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2449. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL, USA.

To prevent the spread of diseases in humans, animals or plants, determining whether potential vectors are infected is crucial. For example, early detection of the citrus disease Huanglongbing, which has been a scourge on the citrus industries around the world, is a critical need. This vector-borne disease is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid, which carries the putative bacterial phytopathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39164-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Thermogenesis-independent metabolic benefits conferred by isocaloric intermittent fasting in ob/ob mice.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2479. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Translational Medicine Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Intermittent fasting (IF) is an effective dietary intervention to counteract obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities. Previously, we and others have highlighted white adipose tissue (WAT) browning as the main underlying mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefits. However, whether IF retains its efficacy in different models, such as genetically obese/diabetic animals, is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39380-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Single Cell Profiling Reveals PTEN Overexpression in Influenza-Specific B cells in Aging HIV-infected individuals on Anti-retroviral Therapy.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2482. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Miami, Florida, USA.

Memory B cells (MBC) respond to secondary antigen challenge to protect against infection and to boost immunity following vaccinations. Despite effective treatment, chronic HIV infection disturbs MBCs by reducing numbers and altering functionality due to hyper-activation and increased apoptosis leading to suboptimal antibody responses against common infectious agents. We used single cell gene expression analysis to evaluate antigen-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood of virally-suppressed HIV-infected individuals and healthy controls stratified by serum H1N1 antibody response 3 weeks post-administration of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38906-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Molecular origin of AuNPs-induced cytotoxicity and mechanistic study.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2494. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering (BK21 plus), Dongguk University, Pildong 3-ga, Seoul, 04620, Korea.

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with diverse physicochemical properties are reported to affect biological systems differently, but the relationship between the physicochemical properties of AuNPs and their biological effects is not clearly understood. Here, we aimed to elucidate the molecular origins of AuNP-induced cytotoxicity and their mechanisms, focusing on the surface charge and structural properties of modified AuNPs. We prepared a library of well-tailored AuNPs exhibiting various functional groups and surface charges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39579-3DOI Listing
February 2019

High concentrations of flavor chemicals are present in electronic cigarette refill fluids.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2468. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, United States.

We characterized the flavor chemicals in a broad sample of commercially available electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids that were purchased in four different countries. Flavor chemicals in 277 refill fluids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and two commonly used flavor chemicals were tested for cytotoxicity with the MTT assay using human lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells. About 85% of the refill fluids had total flavor concentrations >1 mg/ml, and 37% were >10 mg/ml (1% by weight). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39550-2DOI Listing
February 2019

The impact of estimated tumour purity on gene expression-based drug repositioning of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma samples.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2495. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

To find new potentially therapeutic drugs against clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), within drugs currently prescribed for other diseases (drug repositioning), we previously searched for drugs which are expected to bring the gene expression of 500 + ccRCC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas closer to that of healthy kidney tissue samples. An inherent limitation of this bulk RNA-seq data is that tumour samples consist of a varying mixture of cancerous and non-cancerous cells, which influences differential gene expression analyses. Here, we investigate whether the drug repositioning candidates are expected to target the genes dysregulated in ccRCC cells by studying the association with tumour purity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39891-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics alanine-scanning of IAPP octapeptides provides insights into the molecular determinants of amyloidogenicity.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2530. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Nakamachi, Koganei, Tokyo, 184-8588, Japan.

In order to investigate the early phase of the amyloid formation by the short amyloidogenic octapeptide sequence ('NFGAILSS') derived from IAPP, we carried out a 100ns all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of systems that contain 27 peptides and over 30,000 water molecules. The large-scale calculations were performed for the wild type sequence and seven alanine-scanned sequences using AMBER 8.0 on RIKEN's special purpose MD-GRAPE3 supercomputer, using the all-atom point charge force field ff99, which do not favor β-structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-38401-wDOI Listing
February 2019

Inferring microRNA-disease association by hybrid recommendation algorithm and unbalanced bi-random walk on heterogeneous network.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2474. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Information Processing of Ministry of Education and Hunan Key Laboratory for Computation and Simulation in Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105, P.R. China.

More and more research works have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play indispensable roles in exploring the pathogenesis of diseases. Detecting miRNA-disease associations by experimental techniques in biology is expensive and time-consuming. Hence, it is important to propose reliable and accurate computational methods to exploring potential miRNAs related diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39226-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Dynamic Effects of CYP2D6 Genetic Variants in a Set of Poor Metaboliser Patients with Infiltrating Ductal Cancer Under Treatment with Tamoxifen.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2521. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Universidad Simón Bolivar, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas y Biomédicas, Laboratorio de Simulación Molecular y Bioinformática, Barranquilla, 080002, Colombia.

Breast cancer is a group of multigenic diseases. It is the most common cancer diagnosed among women worldwide and is often treated with tamoxifen. Tamoxifen is catalysed by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), and inter-individual variations in the enzyme due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could alter enzyme activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-38340-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Decoupling a novel Trichormus variabilis-Synechocystis sp. interaction to boost phycoremediation.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2511. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Biosciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK.

To conserve freshwater resources, domestic and industrial wastewater is recycled. Algal systems have emerged as an efficient, low-cost option for treatment (phycoremediation) of nutrient-rich wastewater and environmental protection. However, industrial wastewater may contain growth inhibitory compounds precluding algal use in phycoremediation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38997-7DOI Listing
February 2019

The Limits of Earthquake Early Warning Accuracy and Best Alerting Strategy.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2478. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125, USA.

We explore how accurate earthquake early warning (EEW) can be, given our limited ability to forecast expected shaking even if the earthquake source is known. Because of the strong variability of ground motion metrics, such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV), we find that correct alerts (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39384-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Predictions of children's emotionality from evolutionary and epigenetic hypotheses.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2519. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Psychological Science, Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GB, UK.

Sex-dependent effects of mismatched prenatal-postnatal maternal conditions are predicted by combining two evolutionary hypotheses: that foetal conditions provide a forecast of likely postnatal environments (Predictive Adaptive Response), and that the female foetus is better adapted than the male to maternal adversity (Trivers-Willard hypothesis). Animal studies have implicated glucocorticoid mechanisms modifiable by effects of postnatal tactile stimulation on glucocorticoid receptor gene expression. In this study we examined behavioural predictions in humans based on these evolutionary and epigenetic models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39513-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Ecological analysis of Kashin-Beck osteoarthropathy risk factors in Tibet's Qamdo City, China.

Authors:
Xinjie Zha Xing Gao

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2471. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

We studied Tibet's Qamdo City, which currently hosts the most serious prevalence of Kashin-Beck osteoarthropathy (KB) in China. This study utilizes the geographical detector (GeoDetector) algorithm to measure the individual and interactive influences of risk factors on KB and to quantify the highest potential risk subzones of each principal factor. With a comprehensive consideration of 13 possible related factors, namely, the tectonic division, stratum, moisture index, gross domestic product, mean annual precipitation, soil type, groundwater type, elevation, mean annual temperature, vegetation type, geomorphic type, slope degree and slope aspect, our results indicate that the main exposure factors for KB in Qamdo City are geological factors (tectonic division and stratum), wetting factors (moisture index and mean annual precipitation), and an economic factor (gross domestic product). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39792-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison between chronic hepatitis B patients with untreated immune-tolerant phase vs. those with virological response by antivirals.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2508. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Internal medicine, Yonsei University College of medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Routine nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs) have not yet been recommended for patients with immune-tolerant (IT) phase in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We aimed to evaluate prognosis of patients in untreated IT-phase (UIT group), compared to those in immune-active phase who achieved virological response by NUCs according to guidelines (VR group). Between 2006 and 2012, patients in UIT or VR groups were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39043-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Megastigmus seed wasp damage on native Schinus terebinthifolia drupes in ecological restoration area in Brazil.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2438. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Departamento de Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 18052-780, Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil.

Megastigmus transvaalensis Hussey (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) parasitizes drupes of Rhus genus plants in Africa and Schinus (Anacardiaceae) in South America. This exotic wasp damages Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi drupes in native forests and ecological restoration areas in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to investigate the precipitation, temperature and relative humidity effects on M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39129-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Point contact Andreev reflection studies of a non-centro symmetric superconductor ReZr.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2498. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

School of Physical Sciences, UM-DAE Center for Excellence in Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz (East), Mumbai, 400098, India.

ReZr, a non-centrosymmetric superconductor is an interesting system as recent experimental evidence suggests that the superconducting state breaks time reversal symmetry. This implies a mixing of spin singlet-triplet states leading to a complex order parameter in this system. Here, we report point contact Andreev Reflection (PCAR) measurements on a single crystal of ReZr (superconducting transition temperature (T) = 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39160-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Discovery of Anion Insertion Electrochemistry in Layered Hydroxide Nanomaterials.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2462. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, 60616, USA.

Electrode materials which undergo anion insertion are a void in the materials innovation landscape and a missing link to energy efficient electrochemical desalination. In recent years layered hydroxides (LHs) have been studied for a range of electrochemical applications, but to date have not been considered as electrode materials for anion insertion electrochemistry. Here, we show reversible anion insertion in a LH for the first time using Co and Co-V layer hydroxides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39052-1DOI Listing
February 2019

The role of serotonin 1B in the representation of outcomes.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2497. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Disrupted serotonin neurotransmission has been implicated in the etiology of psychopathic traits. Empirical research has found that people with high levels of psychopathic traits have a deficit in reinforcement learning that is thought to be linked with amygdala dysfunction. Altered serotonin neurotransmission provides a plausible explanation for amygdala dysfunction in psychopathic traits and recent research suggests that this may be associated with serotonin 1B (5-HT) receptor function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38938-4DOI Listing
February 2019

One-Year Outcome Predictors of Strabismus Surgery from Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography with Multiple B-Scan Averaging.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2523. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Strabismologists are eager to identify preoperative or intraoperative strabismus surgery outcome predictors because of the variable effects in each patient. Conjunctival closure position recession after rectus muscle recession is effective for correcting large angle strabismus. The elasticity of the conjunctiva and Tenon's capsule is important for strabismus surgery management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39361-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Identification of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Novel Conformational Epitopes of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea Virus Spike Protein.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2529. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Graduate Institute of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan.

Since 2010, newly identified variants of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) have caused high mortality in neonatal piglets which has devastated the swine industry. The spike (S) glycoprotein of PEDV contains multiple neutralizing epitopes and is a major target for PEDV neutralization and vaccine development. To understand the antigenicity of the new PEDV variant, we characterized the neutralizing epitopes of a new genotype 2b PEDV isolate from Taiwan, PEDV Pintung 52 (PEDV-PT), by the generation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NmAbs). Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39844-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39844-5DOI Listing
February 2019
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Soluble Graphene Nanosheets for the Sunlight-Induced Photodegradation of the Mixture of Dyes and its Environmental Assessment.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2522. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Chemistry, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Jaipur, 302017, India.

Currently, the air and water pollutions are presenting the most serious global concerns. Despite the well known tremendous efforts, it could be a promising sustainability if the black carbon (BC) soot can be utilized for the practical and sustainable applications. For this, the almost complete aqueous phase photodegradation of the three well-known organic pollutant dyes as crystal violet (CV); rhodamine B (RhB); methylene blue (MB) and their mixture (CV + RhB + MB), by using water-soluble graphene nanosheets (wsGNS) isolated from the BC soot under the influence of natural sunlight is described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38717-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Covariance statistics and network analysis of brain PET imaging studies.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2496. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Neuroimaging, IoPPN, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

The analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging data using graph theory has increasingly become a popular approach for visualising and understanding anatomical and functional relationships between different cerebral areas. In this work we applied a network-based approach for brain PET studies using population-based covariance matrices, with the aim to explore topological tracer kinetic differences in cross-sectional investigations. Simulations, test-retest studies and applications to cross-sectional datasets from three different tracers ([F]FDG, [F]FDOPA and [C]SB217045) and more than 400 PET scans were investigated to assess the applicability of the methodology in healthy controls and patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39005-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Origin of ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2461. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India.

It is widely reported during last decade on the observation of room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in doped ZnO and other transition metal oxides. However, the origin of RTFM is not understood and highly debated. While investigating the origin of RTFM, magnetic ion doped oxides should be excluded because it is not yet settled whether RTFM is intrinsic or due to the magnetic ion cluster in ZnO. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39660-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Current channeling along extended defects during electroreduction of SrTiO.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2502. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-7), 52425, Jülich, Germany.

Electroreduction experiments on metal oxides are well established for investigating the nature of the material change in memresistive devices, whose basic working principle is an electrically-induced reduction. While numerous research studies on this topic have been conducted, the influence of extended defects such as dislocations has not been addressed in detail hitherto. Here, we show by employing thermal microscopy to detect local Joule heating effects in the first stage of electroreduction of SrTiO that the current is channelled along extended defects such as dislocations which were introduced mechanically by scratching or sawing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39372-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Polyacrylamide injection matrix for serial femtosecond crystallography.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2525. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Division of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) provides opportunities to observe the dynamics of macromolecules without causing radiation damage at room temperature. Although SFX provides a biologically more reliable crystal structure than provided by the existing synchrotron sources, there are limitations due to the consumption of many crystal samples. A viscous medium as a carrier matrix reduces the flow rate of the crystal sample from the injector, thereby dramatically reducing sample consumption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39020-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Ground-state structure of semiconducting and superconducting phases in xenon carbides at high pressure.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2459. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-751 20, Uppsala, Sweden.

The 'missing Xe paradox' is one of the phenomena at the Earth's atmosphere. Studying the 'missing Xe paradox' will provide insights into a chemical reaction of Xe with C. We search the ground-state structure candidates of xenon carbides using the Universal Structure Predictor: Evolutionary Xtallography (USPEX) code, which has been successfully applied to a variety of systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39176-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Impact of sarcopenia in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with PD-1 inhibitors: A preliminary retrospective study.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2447. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical impact of sarcopenia on the efficacy of programmed death (PD)-1 inhibitors. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab between January 2016 and September 2018 for previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The cross-sectional area of the psoas muscle at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on baseline computed tomography was assessed to calculate the psoas muscle index (PMI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39120-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Real time observation of binder jetting printing process using high-speed X-ray imaging.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2499. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA.

A high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging technique was used to investigate the binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM) process. A commercial binder jetting printer with droplet-on-demand ink-jet print-head was used to print single lines on powder beds. The printing process was recorded in real time using high-speed X-ray imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38862-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Superplastic Forging for Sialon-based Nanocomposite at Ultralow Temperature in the Electric Field.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2452. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004, China.

The utralow-temperature superplastic forging for sialon-based nanocomposites is reported for the first time. Sialon-based nanocomposites, with an average grain size smaller than 50 nm and 98.5% relative density, were prepared with nano-sized row powders by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique at a record ultralow sintering temperature of 1150 °C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38830-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Standing task difficulty related increase in agonist-agonist and agonist-antagonist common inputs are driven by corticospinal and subcortical inputs respectively.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2439. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Center for Human Movement Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

In standing, coordinated activation of lower extremity muscles can be simplified by common neural inputs to muscles comprising a functional synergy. We examined the effect of task difficulty on common inputs to agonist-agonist (AG-AG) pairs supporting direction specific reciprocal muscle control and agonist-antagonist (AG-ANT) pairs supporting stiffness control. Since excessive stiffness is energetically costly and limits the flexibility of responses to perturbations, compared to AG-ANT, we expected greater AG-AG common inputs and a larger increase with increasing task difficulty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39197-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Quantification of an alpha flux based radiological dose from seasonal exposure to Rn, Rn and their different EEC species.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2515. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India.

This study summarizes the seasonal experimental data on the activity concentrations of indoor Rn (Radon), Rn (Thoron) and their progeny in Mansa and Muktsar districts of Punjab (India) using LR-115 solid state nuclear track detector based time integrated pin-hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors for the assessment of radiological dose. The indoor Rn concentration was observed higher in the rainy and winter seasons while Rn concentration was observed higher in the winter season. However, Equilibrium Equivalent Concentrations (EECs) of Rn and Rn exhibited distinct seasonal behaviour unlike their parent nuclides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38871-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Discovery of ((1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)ureidyl derivatives as selective non-steroidal agonists of the G-protein coupled bile acid receptor-1.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2504. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples "Federico II", via D. Montesano 49, 80131, Naples, Italy.

The G-protein bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1) has emerged in the last decade as prominent target for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory diseases including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. To date numerous bile acid derivatives have been identified as GPBAR1 agonists, however their clinical application is hampered by the lack of selectivity toward the other bile acid receptors. Therefore, non-steroidal GPBAR1 ligands able to selectively activate the receptor are urgently needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38840-zDOI Listing
February 2019

A climate-driven and field data-assimilated population dynamics model of sand flies.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2469. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, 2121, Aglantzia, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Sand flies are responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease claiming more than 50,000 lives annually. Leishmaniasis is an emerging health risk in tropical and Mediterranean countries as well as temperate regions in North America and Europe. There is an increasing demand for predicting population dynamics and spreading of sand flies to support management and control, yet phenotypic diversity and complex environmental dependence hamper model development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38994-wDOI Listing
February 2019