134,976 results match your criteria Schizophrenia


Disturbances in Self-Experience in Schizophrenia: Metacognition and the Development of an Integrative Recovery-Oriented Individual Psychotherapy.

Psychopathology 2018 Dec 11:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Philosophy, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background/aims: Disturbances in first person experience is a broadly noted feature of schizophrenia, which cannot be reduced to the expression of psychopathology. Yet, though categorically linked with profound suffering, these disturbances are often ignored by most contemporary treatment models.

Methods: In this paper, we present a model, which suggests that deficits in metacognition and their later resolution parsimoniously explain the development of self-disturbance and clarify how persons can later recover. Read More

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December 2018

First-episode schizophrenia is associated with a reduction of HERV-K methylation in peripheral blood.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:459-463. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Genetics, Wroclaw Medical University, Marcinkowskiego 1 Street, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) have been widely associated with schizophrenia etiology. Aberrant epigenetic processes may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we tested whether schizophrenia patients at different stages of illness might present alterations in the levels of HERV-K methylation. Read More

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December 2018

From cognitive and clinical substrates to functional profiles: Disentangling heterogeneity in schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 6;271:446-453. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Stamira d'Ancona 20, 20127 Milan, Italy; School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

The relationship between neurocognition and functioning among patients with schizophrenia is well documented. However, integrating neuropsychological, clinical and psychopathological data to better investigate functional outcome still constitutes a challenge. Artificial neural network-based modeling might help to better capture clinical heterogeneity by analyzing the non-linear relationships among multiple variables. Read More

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December 2018

Patterns of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia; a replication study.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:421-427. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht, the Netherlands; KU Leuven, Department of Neuroscience, Research Group Psychiatry, Leuven, Belgium.

Research has found that Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia are associated with either more or less negative symptoms and either better or poorer cognitive functioning. In order to explain these contradictory results, (Lysaker et al., 2004), performed a cluster analysis resulting in 2 OCS positive (OCSpos) clusters, one with higher functioning (HF) and one with poorer functioning (PF) compared to 2 OCS negative (OCSneg) clusters. Read More

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December 2018

Gender differences in correlates of cognition in first-episode psychosis.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:412-420. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Studies of gender cognitive differences in schizophrenia have reported mixed results. This study examined cognitive correlates including demographics, symptoms and functioning in men and women in a large sample of first-episode adult-onset psychosis patients. Detailed demographic, clinical and functioning data were collected from 360 first-episode patients upon admission into an early intervention service for psychotic disorders. Read More

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December 2018
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Microglia in the developing prefrontal cortex of rats show dynamic changes following neonatal disconnection of the ventral hippocampus.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Impaired ventral hippocampal (VH)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) connectivity is implicated in many cognitive and behavioral disorders. Excitotoxic neonatal VH (nVH) lesion in rat pups has been shown to induce synaptic pruning in the PFC as well as behavioral changes of relevance to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. In the current study, we hypothesized that microglia, immune cells required for proper brain development and plasticity, may play a role in the development of abnormal behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals. Read More

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December 2018
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Genotype and phenotype correlations for SHANK3 de novo mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Center for Medical Genetics & Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

SHANK3 has been identified as the causative gene of 22q13.3 microdeletion syndrome phenotype. De novo mutations (DNMs) of SHANK3 were subsequently identified in patients with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia (SCZ), a Rett syndrome-like phenotype, and intellectual disability (ID). Read More

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December 2018
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[Pathophysiology of the glutamate and the glycine transporters: new therapeutic targets].

Rev Neurol 2018 Dec;67(12):491-504

Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa. Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Espana.

Introduction: The amino acids glutamate and glycine, apart from their role in protein synthesis, are two fundamental neurotransmitters in the central nervous system of mammals. The first one is ubiquitous and is involved in excitatory pathways of the neocortex, the retina and the cerebellum, and the second is involved in inhibitory pathways of brain caudal areas. However, both share their way of acting by integrating into the functioning of glutamate receptors of the NMDA type fundamentals in the regulation of motor, sensory and cognitive systems. Read More

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December 2018
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[Acute dystonia in a patient with an elevated clozapine level due to an infection].

Tijdschr Psychiatr 2018 ;60(12):843-847

Acute dystonia is a side-effect associated with the use of antipsychotics. We describe the case of a 75-year-old patient with late-onset schizophrenia who used clozapine. During a hospital admission due to pneumonia, she developed a form of acute dystonia consisting of a rotational torticollis, which disappeared rapidly after treatment with biperiden. Read More

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January 2018
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[The three-monthly paliperidone palmitate depot in the treatment of schizophrenia].

Tijdschr Psychiatr 2018 ;60(12):827-833

Background: A three-monthly formulation of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate has been available on the Dutch and Belgian markets since 2016.
AIM: To provide an overview of the indication, effectiveness and side-effects of this injectable three-monthly formulation of paliperidone and to offer considerations for clinical practice.
METHOD: A clinically-oriented literature study. Read More

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January 2018

An experimental medicine study of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, roflumilast, on working memory-related brain activity and episodic memory in schizophrenia patients.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

Rationale: Schizophrenia is associated with impairments in cognitive functioning yet there are no approved drugs to treat these deficits.

Objectives: Based on animal models, we investigated the potential for roflumilast, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), to improve cognition, which may act by increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate in brain regions underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

Methods: This study consisted of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design involving 15 schizophrenia patients. Read More

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December 2018

Selective adrenergic alpha2C receptor antagonist ameliorates acute phencyclidine-induced schizophrenia-like social interaction deficits in rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Rationale: Social withdrawal is a core feature of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Currently available pharmacotherapies have only limited efficacy towards the negative symptoms, i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Maturation of a Human Oligodendrocyte Cell Line.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:113-121

Laboratory of Neuroproteomics, Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil.

Techniques such as the maturation and differentiation of cell lines and progenitor cells are important for the improvement and development of representative and relevant in vitro models. In this context, the following chapter proposes a maturation model of the MO3.13 cell line, aiming to contribute to a more robust and credible in vitro model of human oligodendrocytes. Read More

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January 2019

The Nest Building Test in Mice for Assessment of General Well-Being.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:87-91

Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroscience, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

This chapter presents a method for assessing general behavior, well-being, and sensorimotor gating. A detailed protocol is given for assessment of nest building performance in female mice using a strict scoring system. The test can be used for assessing moods and behaviors associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Read More

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January 2019
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Mitochondrial Involvement in Mental Disorders; Energy Metabolism, Genetic, and Environmental Factors.

Authors:
Keiko Iwata

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:41-48

Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padua, Italy.

Mental disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) are generally characterized by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behavior, and relationships with others. Multiple risk factors incorporating genetic and environmental susceptibility are associated with development of these disorders. Mitochondria have a central role in the energy metabolism, and the literature suggests energy metabolism abnormalities are widespread in the brains of subjects with MDD, BD, and SZ. Read More

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January 2019

Factor Analysis of Negative Symptom Items in the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes.

Schizophr Bull 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Department of Medical Social Sciences, Institute for Policy Research, Institute for Innovations in Developmental Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Background: Negative symptoms occur early in the clinical high risk (CHR) state and indicate increased risk of conversion to psychotic disorder and poor functional outcome. However, while the negative symptom domain has shown to be parsimoniously explained by a 2-factor construct in schizophrenia, there has yet to be an established factor structure of negative symptoms in CHR.

Methods: 214 individuals meeting the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS) criteria for CHR were recruited through 3 active research programs in the United States. Read More

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December 2018

Genome-wide association analyses identify 139 loci associated with macular thickness in the UK Biobank cohort.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

The macula, located near the center of the retina in the human eye, is responsible for providing critical functions, such as central, sharp vision. Structural changes in the macula are associated with many ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma. Although macular thickness is a highly heritable trait, there are no prior reported genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of it. Read More

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December 2018

Polygenic risk score increases schizophrenia liability through cognition-relevant pathways.

Brain 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Johns Hopkins University, USA.

Cognitive deficit is thought to represent, at least in part, genetic mechanisms of risk for schizophrenia, with recent evidence from statistical modelling of twin data suggesting direct causality from the former to the latter. However, earlier evidence was based on inferences from twin not molecular genetic data and it is unclear how much genetic influence 'passes through' cognition on the way to diagnosis. Thus, we included direct measurements of genetic risk (e. Read More

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December 2018

From "under" to "over" social cognition in schizophrenia: Is there distinct profiles of impairments according to negative and positive symptoms?

Schizophr Res Cogn 2019 Mar 8;15:21-29. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

University Department of Rehabilitation (SUR-CL3R), Le Vinatier hospital, 4 rue Jean Sarrazin, 69008 Lyon, France.

Interactions between social cognition and symptoms of schizophrenia have been investigated, but mostly component by component. Here we tested the assumption that two categories of deficits exist depending on clinical profiles, one corresponding to a defect in social cognition - "under-social cognition" - and one corresponding to excessive attributions leading to social cognitive impairments - "over-social cognition". To conduct the investigation, we performed a Hierarchical Clustering Analysis using positive and negative symptoms in seventy patients with schizophrenia and we compared the clusters obtained to a group of healthy controls on social cognitive measures. Read More

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Use of electroconvulsive therapy in adolescents with schizophrenia in China.

Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2018 5;12:49. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

1Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Ankang Road 5, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.

Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder. However, few studies have addressed the use of ECT in adolescents with schizophrenia. The aims of our study were to investigate the frequency of ECT, and its relationship with clinical and demographic correlates among adolescents with schizophrenia in China. Read More

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December 2018

Anti- IgG Antibodies in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2018 26;9:627. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, and The Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (M.I.N.D.) Institute, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

The gut microbiota are known to have a profound influence on both mucosal and systemic immunity and are important for gastrointestinal (GI) function. In addition, new evidence shows that the microbiota significantly influence neurodevelopment and behavior. Immune dysfunction and GI distress are extremely common in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Read More

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November 2018

An Indian, Comic-based, Online-EEG Paradigm for Theory of Mind: An Exploratory, Pilot Study on Schizophrenia Patients.

Indian J Psychol Med 2018 Nov-Dec;40(6):568-573

Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India.

Background: False-belief (FB) tasks are used to assess the theory of mind (ToM) functioning, which has been found to be impaired in schizophrenia. FB task stimuli used so far in neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia have been sentence-based ones. We aimed to validate an Indian, colour-comic based FB task by using an online-electroencephalogram (EEG) paradigm discriminating schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Read More

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December 2018

ECT in the Postpartum Period: A Retrospective Case Series from a Tertiary Health Care Center in India.

Indian J Psychol Med 2018 Nov-Dec;40(6):562-567

Department of Psychiatry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical profile and effectiveness of ECT in females with postpartum onset psychiatric syndromes or worsening of psychiatric disorder during the postpartum period.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective chart review was carried out to identify females who had received ECT during their postpartum period from January2004 to April 2017.

Results: During the study period, 13 females in their postpartum period received ECT, which accounted for 2. Read More

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December 2018

Inappropriate Laughter and Behaviours: How, What, and Why? Case of an Adult with Undiagnosed Gelastic Seizure with Hypothalamic Hamartoma.

Hawaii J Med Public Health 2018 Dec;77(12):319-324

John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI (NLB,JCK,AS).

Gelastic seizures (GS) are a rare form of epilepsy characterized by inappropriate, uncontrolled laughter. They are highly associated with abnormal cognitive development and behavioral problems in patients. Research has shown that GS can originate from hypothalamic hamartomas (HH), non- neoplastic masses consisting of gray matter with large and small neurons interspersed with glial nuclei. Read More

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December 2018

Schizophrenia-associated mt-DNA SNPs exhibit highly variable haplogroup affiliation and nuclear ancestry: Bi-genomic dependence raises major concerns for link to disease.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208828. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Mitochondria play a significant role in human diseases. However, disease associations with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) SNPs have proven difficult to replicate. An analysis of eight schizophrenia-associated mtDNA SNPs, in 23,743 Danes without a psychiatric diagnosis and 2,538 schizophrenia patients, revealed marked inter-allelic differences in mitochondrial haplogroup affiliation and nuclear ancestry. Read More

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December 2018

Polygenic disruption of retinoid signalling in schizophrenia and a severe cognitive deficit subtype.

Mol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Retinoid metabolites of vitamin A are intrinsically linked to neural development, connectivity and plasticity, and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We hypothesised that a greater burden of common and rare genomic variation in genes involved with retinoid biogenesis and signalling could be associated with schizophrenia and its cognitive symptoms. Common variants associated with schizophrenia in the largest genome-wide association study were aggregated in retinoid genes and used to formulate a polygenic risk score (PRS) for each participant in the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank. Read More

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December 2018

NDUFV2 pseudogene (NDUFV2P1) contributes to mitochondrial complex I deficits in schizophrenia.

Mol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Laboratory of Psychobiology, Department of Psychiatry, Rambam Health Care Campus, B. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Rappaport Family Institute for Research in Medical Sciences, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Mitochondria together with other cellular components maintain a constant crosstalk, modulating transcriptional and posttranslational processes. We and others demonstrated mitochondrial multifaceted dysfunction in schizophrenia, with aberrant complex I (CoI) as a major cause. Here we show deficits in CoI activity and homeostasis in schizophrenia-derived cell lines. Read More

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December 2018

Three diagnostic psychiatric subgroups in comparison to self-stigma, quality of life, disorder severity and coping management cross-sectional outpatient study.

Authors:

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2018 Oct 10;39(4). Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Background: Much attention has been paid to psychological factors influencing characteristics, severity, and course of mental disorders. The objective of our investigation was to examine the interrelations among quality of life (QoL), self-stigma, and coping strategies, demographics and severity of the disorder in neurotic spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and depressive spectrum disorders.

Methods: A total of 343 clinically stable Czech outpatients with different mental disorders (153 with neurotic spectrum disorders; 81 with depression, and 109 with schizophrenia spectrum disorders) were included. Read More

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October 2018

Schizophrenia in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II syndrome: supporting evidence for an association between the PCNT gene and schizophrenia.

Psychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Departments of Psychiatry.

Schizophrenia is a genetically complex disease that is related to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Several genetic polymorphisms and genetic syndromes associated with neurodevelopmental processes have been linked to schizophrenia. In this case report, we present a case with an association between microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II and schizophrenia. Read More

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December 2018

Rapid Amelioration of Clozapine-Resistant Thought Broadcast in Schizophrenia With High-Dose Right Unilateral Ultrabrief Electroconvulsive therapy-A Single Case Report.

J ECT 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Mood Disorders UnitCumberland Hospital Riverview and Department of Psychiatry Westmead Clinical School University of Sydney Westmead, New South Wales Australia Department of PsychiatryWestmead Clinical SchoolUniversity of SydneyWestmead, New South WalesAustralia.

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December 2018

[Homeostatic regulation of basal ganglia circuit for flexible behavior].

Authors:
Takatoshi Hikida

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2018 ;152(6):295-298

Laboratory for Advanced Brain Functions, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University.

Behavioral inflexibility has been reported in various psychiatric disorders including drug addiction and schizophrenia. Considerable evidence has demonstrated a critical role for the basal ganglia in the flexibility of behavioral strategies. These processes are guided by the activity of two discrete neuron types, dopamine D1- or D2-receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) in the basal ganglia circuit. Read More

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January 2018

PET neuroimaging reveals histone deacetylase dysregulation in schizophrenia.

J Clin Invest 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) experience chronic cognitive deficits. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that regulate cognitive circuitry; however, the role of HDACs in cognitive disorders, including SCZ, remains unknown in humans. We previously determined that HDAC2 mRNA levels were lower in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) tissue from donors with SCZ compared with controls. Read More

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December 2018

The Adaption of the Client Sociodemographic and Service Receipt Inventory for Costing Mental Health Services in Brazil.

J Ment Health Policy Econ 2018 Sep;21(3):131-142

Centro de Economia em Saude Mental (CESM) Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) Rua Borges Lagoa 570, 1 andar, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo, 04038-000, Brazil,

Background: There is a scarcity of tested instruments for measuring mental health services and costs. The Client Sociodemographic Service Receipt Inventory (CSSRI) is the most used tool in economic evaluation in mental health in Europe; it was translated into five languages, and it was mainly used to evaluate deinstitutionalisation process in mental health system reform.

Aims Of The Study: To translate and adapt to the Brazilian healthcare system, and to test its inter-rater reliability, validity and its feasibility in a deinstitutionalized sample of psychiatric hospital living in residential facilities. Read More

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September 2018

An Economic Evaluation of Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) Services for First-Episode Psychosis in the U.S. Public Sector.

J Ment Health Policy Econ 2018 Sep;21(3):123-130

Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, 425 East 61st Street, Suite 301, New York, NY 10065, USA,

Background: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders exert a large and disproportionate economic impact. Early intervention services may be able to alleviate the burden of schizophrenia spectrum disorders on diagnosed individuals, caregivers, and society at large. Economic analyses of observational studies have supported investments in specialized team-based care for early psychosis; however, questions remain regarding the economic viability of first-episode services in the fragmented U. Read More

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September 2018

Does improvement in symptoms and quality of life in chronic schizophrenia reduce family caregiver Burden?

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:402-404. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Veterans Affairs (VA) New England Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Centers (MIRECC), West Haven, CT, USA; Veterans Affairs (VA) Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA.

The longitudinal association of changes in clinical status among adults with schizophrenia and changes in family caregiver burden has not been demonstrated. Using data from the NIMH-funded CATIE schizophrenia trial (n = 446 family caregivers), we examined the association of changes in patient symptoms and quality of life with changes in measures of family caregiver burden. Clinical changes in patient symptoms and quality of life were not significantly associated with changes in family caregiver burden. Read More

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December 2018

Self-stigma versus stigma resistance in schizophrenia: Associations with resilience, premorbid adjustment, and clinical symptoms.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 6;271:396-401. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Division of Psychiatry I, Innsbruck, Austria.

Self-stigma is regarded as a barrier to recovery from schizophrenia and the identification of factors protecting from its development may help identify vulnerable patients and subsequently, implement effective preventive and therapeutic interventions. Hence, this study aimed to assess whether resilience, premorbid adjustment, and psychopathology might differently impact self-stigma and stigma resistance among 54 regular attendees of a specialized outpatient clinic. There was no significant association between sociodemographic variables and self-stigma/stigma resistance, while resilience was negatively correlated with self-stigma and positively correlated with stigma resistance. Read More

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December 2018

Early recovery and employment outcome 13 years after first episode psychosis.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:374-380. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of medicine, Karolinska institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

175 cases of first episode psychosis were recruited to the Parachute project in 1996-97. The program offered highly available and continuous psychosocial support and a cautious use of antipsychotic medication for 5 years from inclusion. Outcome-data for year 13 after inclusion, were retrieved from Swedish population registries on 161 of the original cases. Read More

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December 2018
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A randomized controlled trial comparing a "bottom-up" and "top-down" approach to cognitive training in schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 1;109:118-125. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The development of effective cognitive training (CT) interventions is critical for improving the daily lives of people with schizophrenia. At this point, it is unclear whether a so-called "bottom-up" or "top-down" CT approach is more beneficial for inducing cognitive gains and generalization in this population. The aims of this randomized controlled trial were to: 1) Compare the effects of these two types of training approaches on performance-based (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, MCCB) and neurophysiological (mismatch negativity, MMN) measures of cognition, and 2) Evaluate MMN as a potential predictor of treatment response. Read More

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December 2018

Polygenic risk for schizophrenia and associated brain structural changes: A systematic review.

Compr Psychiatry 2018 Nov 29;88:77-82. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Psychiatry and MRC Unit on Risk & Resilience, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Genome wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia allow the generation of Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS). PRS can be used to determine the contribution to altered brain structures in this disorder, which have been well described. However, findings from studies using PRS to predict brain structural changes in schizophrenia have been inconsistent. Read More

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November 2018

Calcium signalling: A common target in neurological disorders and neurogenesis.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biochemistry, IQ, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Calcium is the ubiquitous second messenger used by any living cell. The fine-tuning of intracellular free calcium [(Ca)] homeostasis and signalling pathways is crucial for the maintenance of the healthy organism. Many alterations in the homeostasis can be compensated by robust mechanisms; however, cells that already present some debility in those mechanisms, or that are over stimulated cannot compensate the stress and die. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of chronic cannabinoid exposure during adolescence on reward preference and mPFC activation in adulthood.

Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Cannabis is one of the most commonly used drugs among adolescents, with initial use beginning between the ages of 12 to 17. Although often perceived as a 'soft drug', both short- and long-term use have been associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including cognitive impairment, increased risk of substance abuse, and heightened risk of psychosis or schizophrenia in individuals with a predisposition. Further, the severity of these impairments is closely linked to initiation of use, i. Read More

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December 2018
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Schizotypal personality and semantic functioning: Revisiting category fluency effects in a subclinical sample.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 2;271:365-369. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department de Cognició, Desenvolupament i Psicologia de l'Educació, University of Barcelona, Psg de la Vall d'Hebron 171, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Semantic disturbances have been proposed as a possible cause of formal thought disorder in schizophrenia. Fluency tasks, in which volunteers are asked to produce as many exemplars as they can for a given category during one minute, are usually applied to the assessment of semantic processing. However, studies associating fluency and proneness to psychosis have provided conflicting results so it is not clear whether these disturbances can be identified at subclinical stages. Read More

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December 2018

No correlation between HLA-DQ 2.5, DQ 8.1 and DQ 6.2 and circulating levels of antibodies against gliadins in schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 1;271:325-327. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Institute of Health Research & Innovation, University of the Highlands and Islands, Centre for Health Science, Old Perth Road, Inverness IV2 3JH, UK. Electronic address:

It has been suggested that gluten consumption is linked to schizophrenia, with this link strengthened through the presence of circulating anti-native gliadin antibodies (AGAs). The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is crucial for antigen presentation and antibody secretion but no study has examined the relationship between HLA-II variants and circulating antibodies against gliadin peptides. In this study, HLA-II variants were genotyped in patients with schizophrenia and the relationship between these variants and plasma AGA levels was examined. Read More

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December 2018

Revisiting the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ): Assessing sitting time among individuals with schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Nov 27;271:311-318. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, 2148 Health Sciences Mall, Room 4008, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z8, Canada.

While moderate to vigorous physical activity may be one method of addressing common physical morbidities in schizophrenia, reducing sedentary time may be a low intensity adjunct. In order to determine whether sedentary behaviour is associated with health outcomes, valid and reliable tools for assessing sedentary time are necessary. In order to characterize the validity and reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for assessing sitting (sedentary) time, participants completed the IPAQ at baseline and 4 weeks later and wore accelerometers for 7 days before the final assessment. Read More

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November 2018

A fresh look at cortical Dopamine D2 receptor expressing neurons.

Pharmacol Res 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address:

The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) remains the principal target of antipsychotic drugs used for the management of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This receptor is highly expressed within the basal ganglia, more specifically the striatal caudate nucleus and the nucleus accumbens. The general functions, signaling and behavioral contributions of striatal DRD2 are well understood. Read More

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December 2018

Neuro-hemodynamic endophenotypes of emotional interference in OCD: fMRI study using emotion counting stroop task.

Asian J Psychiatr 2018 Nov 24;39:35-41. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India; Translational Psychiatry Laboratory, Neurobiology Research Centre, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India.

Background: We sought to examine the endophenotype pattern of neuro-hemodynamic substrates of emotion counting Stroop (ecStroop) paradigm in patients with OCD, their unaffected siblings [first degree relatives-FDR] and healthy controls (HC).

Methods: OCD patients (medication naïve)[N = 16], their unaffected siblings(FDR)[N = 16] and HC [N = 24] were compared using an established ecStroop paradigm in a 3-Tesla fMRI. The relative BOLD signals corresponding to the three types of conditions (neural words-N, words with negative emotional salience-E and words with salience for OCD-O) were examined in the apriori hypothesized brain regions. Read More

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November 2018

Childhood seizures and risk of psychiatric disorders in adolescence and early adulthood: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

National Center for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Paediatric seizures have been linked to psychiatric disorders in childhood, but there is a paucity of large-scale population-based studies of psychiatric comorbidity in later life. We aimed to examine the relation between childhood seizures and the risk of psychiatric disorders in adolescence and early adulthood.

Methods: We did a register-based cohort study of all individuals born in Denmark in 1978-2002. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy and safety of a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor (PF-04457845) in the treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence in men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 2a single-site randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Psychiatry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Schizophrenia and Neuropharmacology Research Group, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA; Abraham Ribicoff Research Facilities, Connecticut Mental Health Center, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Cannabis is one of the most widely used drugs worldwide. Cannabis use disorder is characterised by recurrent use of cannabis that causes significant clinical and functional impairment. There are no approved pharmacological treatments for cannabis use disorder. Read More

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December 2018
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From "bedside" to "bench" and back: a translational approach to studying dopamine dysfunction in schizophrenia.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Stony Brook School of Medicine, HSC-T10-087H, 101 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8101, United States. Electronic address:

Despite multiple lines of research, a mechanistic understanding of schizophrenia remains elusive. Neuroimaging studies have yielded observations that can be used in translational studies in animals to attempt to uncover their cellular and circuit basis and their significance for the diseased human brain. Enhanced D2 stimulation in the striatum is a well replicated and established observation in patients with schizophrenia. Read More

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December 2018

Cardio-respiratory fitness is associated with a verbal factor across cognitive domains in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway; Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: We investigated whether the relationship between cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) and cognition in schizophrenia is general, or due to selective relationships between CRF and specific aspects of cognitive function.

Method: Eighty outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders participated. Neurocognition was assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale version 4 General Ability Index (WAIS GAI), the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and the Emotion in Biological Motion (EBM) test. Read More

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December 2018