137,078 results match your criteria Schizophrenia


EEG changes in patients on antipsychotic therapy: A systematic review.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 Apr 15;95:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neuroscience, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: The objective of the study was to characterize the electroencephalogram (EEG) changes associated with different antipsychotic medications based on the evidence from the literature.

Methods: A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed was conducted. The Preferred Items Reporting for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed in the construction of this systematic review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.02.005DOI Listing

Post-traumatic stress following military deployment: Genetic associations and cross-disorder genetic correlations.

J Affect Disord 2019 Apr 9;252:350-357. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Research and Knowledge Center, The Danish Veteran Center, Garnisonen 1, 4100 Ringsted, Denmark.

Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric disorder that occurs with relatively high frequency after deployment to warzones (∼10%). While twin studies have estimated the heritability to be up to 40%, thus indicating a considerable genetic component in the etiology, the biological mechanisms underlying risk and development of PTSD remain unknown.

Methods: Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS; N = 2,481) to identify genome regions that associate with PTSD in a highly homogenous, trauma-exposed sample of Danish soldiers deployed to war and conflict zones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.070DOI Listing

Blonanserin ameliorates social deficit through dopamine-D receptor antagonism in mice administered phencyclidine as an animal model of schizophrenia.

Neurochem Int 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, 468-8503, Japan; Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, 468-8503, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 466-8560, Japan. Electronic address:

Blonanserin differs from other antipsychotic drugs, such as risperidone and olanzapine and exhibits a higher affinity for dopamine-D receptors than for serotonin 5-HT receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D receptors in the effect of blonanserin on the social deficit observed in an animal model of schizophrenia and sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying its action. Mice received phencyclidine (PCP: 10 mg/kg/day, s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Concomitant use of alcohol and benzodiazepine hypnotics in psychiatric outpatients: a cross-sectional survey.

Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and alcohol appears prevalent in a clinical setting. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to investigate the prevalence of concomitant use of benzodiazepine hypnotics and alcohol in psychiatric outpatients, (2) to examine the clinical characteristics and factors associated with the concomitant use, and (3) to investigate the awareness of the psychiatrists-in-charge about the concomitant use. Outpatients with schizophrenia, depression, and insomnia who were receiving benzodiazepine hypnotics were asked to fill in a sleeping diary for seven consecutive days in which use of hypnotics and alcohol was also recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YIC.0000000000000264DOI Listing
April 2019
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The benefit of contact for prejudice-prone individuals: The type of stigmatized outgroup matters.

J Soc Psychol 2019 Apr 17:1-13. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

a University of Sydney.

Intergroup contact reduces prejudice against a variety of social outgroups and seems to be particularly effective at reducing prejudice in individuals most prone to it-those high in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO). The present study examines the moderating roles of RWA and SDO in the contact-prejudice relationship, targeting dissident, dangerous, and derogated outgroups: lesbians and gay men, people with schizophrenia, and Indigenous Australians, respectively. In total, 234 participants self-reported contact and prejudice against these outgroups and completed RWA and SDO scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2019.1601608DOI Listing

A simple formula for enumerating comparisons in trials and network meta-analysis.

F1000Res 2019 9;8:38. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Cochrane Schizophrenia Group, Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, Institute of Mental Health, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2TU, UK.

We present use of a simple formula to calculate the number of pairwise comparisons of interventions within a single trial or network meta-analyses. We used the data from our previous network meta-analysis to build a study-based register and enumerated the direct pairwise comparisons from the trials therein. We then compared this with the number of comparisons predicted by use of the formula and finally with the reported number of comparisons (indirect or direct) within the network meta-analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.17352.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402080.2PMC
January 2019
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Update on ERbeta.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, United States.

ERbeta (ERβ) celebrated its 20th birthday in 2016 and although the overwhelming data in the literature indicate a role for this receptor in the control of epithelial proliferation, neurodegeneration and immune function, no ERβ agonists have yet made it to the clinics. This is the situation, despite the fact that very good safe ERβ agonists have been synthesized and at least one has been donated to the NIH for distribution to researchers, who want to study its possible clinical use. Clinical trials are ongoing for the use of ERβ agonists in prostate cancer and schizophrenia but even today reviewers of our grants still make comments like "The grant is excellent except that the focus of the grant is ERβ". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.02.007DOI Listing

Association of Rare Copy Number Variants With Risk of Depression.

JAMA Psychiatry 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.

Importance: The role of large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) in neuropsychiatric disorders is well established, but their association with common psychiatric disorders, such as depression, remains unclear.

Objective: To examine the association of a group of 53 CNVs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and burden of rare CNVs with risk of depression.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case-control study used data from the UK Biobank study sample, which comprised 502 534 individuals living in the United Kingdom. Read More

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http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jam
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0566DOI Listing
April 2019
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Efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate 3-month formulation in Latin American patients with schizophrenia: A subgroup analysis of data from two large phase 3 randomized, double-blind studies.

Braz J Psychiatry 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Janssen-Cilag UK, Buckinghamshire, UK.

Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate 3-monthly (PP3M) in Latin American patients with schizophrenia vs. rest-of-world (ROW).

Methods: We analyzed data from two multinational, double-blind (DB), randomized, controlled phase 3 studies including patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR) previously stabilized on PP1M/PP3M (open-label [OL] phase). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2018-0153DOI Listing

Emotional intelligence and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a critical review.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2019 Jan-Mar;41(1):94-102. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: Emotional intelligence (EI) is a theoretical construct postulated by Mayer and Salovey to designate the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. The study of EI in schizophrenia offers new insights into the disorder's cognitive and functional impacts.

Objectives: To comprehensively review studies analyzing EI impairment in schizophrenia spectrum disorders using standardized instruments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2237-6089-2018-0001DOI Listing
April 2019
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Shared and dissociable features of apathy and reward system dysfunction in bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia.

Psychol Med 2019 Apr 17:1-12. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Adult Psychiatry,Department of Psychiatry,Geneva University Hospitals,Chemin du Petit-Bel-Air,1225 Chêne-Bourg,Switzerland.

Background: Bipolar disorder I (BD-I) is defined by episodes of mania, depression and euthymic states. These episodes are among other symptoms characterized by altered reward processing and negative symptoms (NS), in particular apathy. However, the neural correlates of these deficits are not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719000801DOI Listing

Position and size of massa intermedia in Serbian brains.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Bul. Zorana Djindjica 81, 18000 Nis, Serbia and Montenegro.

Background: Massa intermedia, a midline bar-shaped structure, connects two thalami across the third ventricle in 70-80% of healthy humans. It has become clinically important since its absence was comprehended as a midline malformation of the brain and brought in connection with schizophrenia indicating that some symptoms could be a consequence of disturbed neuron chains underlying the mechanisms of attention and processing of information. The aim of the investigation was to find out the incidence, position, and size of massa intermedia in the brains of the Serbian population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/FM.a2019.0046DOI Listing

The Possible Role of the Angiotensin System in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Pharmacotherapy.

CNS Drugs 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Psychotic Disorders Program, UMASS Memorial Medical Center, Biotech One, Suite 100, 365 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA, 01605, USA.

A growing body of literature has elucidated the involvement of the central renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in various neuropsychiatric diseases. While consensus on the exact mechanism of the central RAS in schizophrenia pathophysiology does not currently exist, increasing evidence reveals promise in harnessing the therapeutic potential of RAS modulation in the treatment of schizophrenia. In this review, we examine how the central RAS affects inflammation, glutamate, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, all of which are associated with schizophrenia etiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-019-00632-4DOI Listing

Inflammation, Antipsychotic Drugs, and Evidence for Effectiveness of Anti-inflammatory Agents in Schizophrenia.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

In recent years, there is a new optimism in schizophrenia therapeutics with the emergence of immunomodulation as a potential treatment approach. Current evidence points to various immunological abnormalities in schizophrenia, including cell-mediated processes, acute phase proteins, cytokines, and intracellular mediators. Trait- and state-related immune dysfunction appears to exist, and a strong case can therefore be made for immunomodulation therapies in the prevention, treatment, and/or moderating the course of schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/7854_2019_91DOI Listing

Development and evaluation of Intensive Case Management Screening Sheet in the Japanese population.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2019 5;13:22. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

1Department of Community Mental Health and Law, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), 4-1-1, Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo Japan.

Background: In Japan, the mental health system has been shifting from hospitalization-based to community-based care; some organizations have gradually begun providing intensive case management (ICM) services. We developed an Intensive Case Management Screening Sheet (ICMSS) to screen for the need for ICM in people with mental illness.

Methods: The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and discriminative ability of ICMSS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-019-0278-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449981PMC

Schizophrenia-like psychosis as the presenting feature of neurosyphilis in a non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian man: A reminder of a forgotten complication!

Indian J Psychiatry 2019 Mar-Apr;61(2):213-216

Department of Neurology, N.R.S. Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Syphilis is a great masquerader of several diseases. About 4%-10% of patients with untreated syphilis may develop neurosyphilis (NS). Psychiatric manifestations may rarely be the presenting feature of NS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_330_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425800PMC

Roles of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in early- and late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Indian J Psychiatry 2019 Mar-Apr;61(2):161-166

Department of Psychiatry, Aydın Government Hospital, Aydin, Turkey.

Background: The C677T and A1298C mutations of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been linked with conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, but there are not clear the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Aim: The current study was planned to investigate the link between the MTHFR polymorphisms and OCD in patients to reveal any potential correlations that may be used as a novel marker in diagnosis of people who are in high-risk group of developing OCD.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples from 64 highly characterized symptomatic cases and 64 gender- and age-matched control participants were analyzed for MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_370_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425796PMC

Abnormal development of early auditory processing in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

Transl Psychiatry 2019 Apr 16;9(1):138. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Functional Brain Mapping Laboratory, Department of Basic Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2 DS) is one of the highest genetic risk factors for the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-019-0473-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0473-yDOI Listing
April 2019
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Real-life assessment of aripiprazole monthly (Abilify Maintena) in schizophrenia: a Canadian naturalistic non-interventional prospective cohort study.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 Apr 16;19(1):114. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: With previously established efficacy of aripiprazole once-monthly injectable formulation (AOM) in pre-registration randomized controlled trials, the current study was designed to evaluate its effectiveness in patients treated for schizophrenia in regular clinical settings in Canada.

Methods: Following their clinicians' decision to prescribe AOM, 193 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, were recruited from 17 Canadian community or hospital-based settings. The primary outcome of global functioning was assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) at 3-month intervals for 1 year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2103-xDOI Listing

Comparing executive functioning and clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of people with schizophrenia who hold a driver's license to those who do not.

Can J Occup Ther 2019 Feb;86(1):70-80

Background.: Community engagement requires driving. However, there is paucity of research focusing on the potential to drive for people with schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0008417419831399DOI Listing
February 2019
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Default mode network connectivity is associated with long-term clinical outcome in patients with schizophrenia.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Apr 1;22:101805. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Mental Health Research, National Center for Mental Health, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study investigated whether resting-state functional connectivity is associated with long-term clinical outcomes of patients with schizophrenia. Resting-state brain images were obtained from 79 outpatients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls (HC), using a 3 T-MRI scanner. All patients were 20-50 years old with >3 years' duration of illness and appeared clinically stable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101805DOI Listing

Altered frontal white matter asymmetry and its implications for cognition in schizophrenia: A tractography study.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Mar 15;22:101781. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Methods and Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Deusto, Avenida de las Universidades, 24, 48007 Bilbao, Biscay, Spain.

Background: White matter (WM) alterations are well documented in schizophrenia. Abnormalities in interhemispheric fibers appear to account for altered WM asymmetry in the illness. However, the regional specificity (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101781DOI Listing

Control of neural development and function by glial neuroligins.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 13;57:163-170. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Duke Institute for Brain Sciences (DIBS), Durham, NC 27710, United States; Regeneration Next Initiative, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, United States. Electronic address:

Neuroligins are a family of cell adhesion molecules, which are best known for their functions as postsynaptic components of the trans-synaptic neurexin-neuroligin complexes. Neuroligins are highly conserved across evolution with important roles in the formation, maturation and function of synaptic structures. Mutations in the genes that encode for neuroligins have been linked to a number of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, which stem from synaptic pathologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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Yoga as part of a package of care versus non-standard care for schizophrenia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Apr 16;4:CD012807. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Discipline of Physiotherapy, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Yoga is an ancient body-mind practice which originated in India and is popular in the Western world as a form of relaxation and exercise. It has been of interest for people with schizophrenia to determine the efficacy of yoga delivered as a package of care versus non-standard care.

Objectives: To examine the effects of yoga as part of a package of care versus non-standard care for schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012807.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466669PMC

The validity, reliability and clinical utility of a performance-based executive function assessment in people with mild to moderate dementia.

Aging Ment Health 2019 Apr 16:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

f Occupational Therapy Department , TWGHs Jockey Club Rehabilitation Complex , Aberdeen , Hong Kong.

Objective: Performance-based evaluation of executive function by using real-world daily living activities is an important area of study. This approach has been used extensively in evaluating patients after stroke or traumatic brain injury and patients with schizophrenia. Most important is the fact that until now, there has been no validated performance-based evaluation of executive function in people with dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2019.1599818DOI Listing

A Bayesian framework that integrates multi-omics data and gene networks predicts risk genes from schizophrenia GWAS data.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 schizophrenia (SCZ)-associated loci, but using these findings to illuminate disease biology remains a challenge. Here we present integrative risk gene selector (iRIGS), a Bayesian framework that integrates multi-omics data and gene networks to infer risk genes in GWAS loci. By applying iRIGS to SCZ GWAS data, we predicted a set of high-confidence risk genes, most of which are not the nearest genes to the GWAS index variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0382-7DOI Listing

Immunoneuropsychiatry - novel perspectives on brain disorders.

Nat Rev Neurol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Immune processes have a vital role in CNS homeostasis, resilience and brain reserve. Our cognitive and social abilities rely on a highly sensitive and fine-tuned equilibrium of immune responses that involve both innate and adaptive immunity. Autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, infection and psychosocial stress can tip the scales towards disruption of higher-order networks. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41582-019-0174-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41582-019-0174-4DOI Listing
April 2019
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Different effects of prenatal MAM vs. perinatal THC exposure on regional cerebral blood perfusion detected by Arterial Spin Labelling MRI in rats.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 15;9(1):6062. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Clinical studies consistently report structural impairments (i.e.: ventricular enlargement, decreased volume of anterior cingulate cortex or hippocampus) and functional abnormalities including changes in regional cerebral blood flow in individuals suffering from schizophrenia, which can be evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42532-zDOI Listing

Functional connectomics of affective and psychotic pathology.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center for Depression, Anxiety and Stress Research, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478;

Converging evidence indicates that groups of patients with nominally distinct psychiatric diagnoses are not separated by sharp or discontinuous neurobiological boundaries. In healthy populations, individual differences in behavior are reflected in variability across the collective set of functional brain connections (functional connectome). These data suggest that the spectra of transdiagnostic symptom profiles observed in psychiatric patients may map onto detectable patterns of network function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1820780116DOI Listing

Validation of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale and its association with functioning.

Schizophr Res 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore; North Region & Department of Psychosis, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore; Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Electronic address:

Introduction: The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) includes five domains of negative symptoms suggested by the NIMH Consensus Development Conference (anhedonia, asociality, avolition, blunted affect, and alogia), which could be clustered into two factors - Motivation-Pleasure (MAP) and Emotional Expressivity (EE). Our study aims to examine the psychometric properties of BNSS, and its association with functioning.

Methods: 274 individuals with schizophrenia were assessed on the BNSS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Side Effects Scale (SAS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.04.005DOI Listing

Evidence of brain network aberration in healthy subjects with urban upbringing - A multimodal DTI and VBM study.

Schizophr Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Marburg University, Germany.

City living represents not only the allegory of modern life, but also - due to attractive living conditions, employment and infrastructure - a crucial reality for a growing portion of the global society. Regarding the remarkable increase of the schizophrenia incidence in individuals exposed to an urban environment during upbringing the understanding of responsible pathogenetic mechanisms is important. Schizophrenia has been conceptualized as a disorder of brain dysconnectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.03.027DOI Listing

Relationship between neuropsychological behavior and brain white matter in first-episode psychosis.

Schizophr Res 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department Psychiatry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Mental Health, The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

We addressed the relationship between white matter architecture, represented by MRI fractional anisotropy (FA), and cognition in individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP) by applying for a new methodology that allows whole brain parcellation of core and peripheral white matter in a biologically meaningful fashion. Regionally specific correlations were found in FEP between three specific domains of cognition (processing speed, attention/working memory, and executive functioning) and FA at the deep (cerebral peduncles, sagittal striatum, uncinate, internal/external capsule, cingulum) and peripheral white matter (adjacent to inferior temporal, angular, supramarginal, insula, occipital, rectus gyrus). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.04.010DOI Listing

The abiding relevance of mouse models of rare mutations to psychiatric neuroscience and therapeutics.

Schizophr Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain and Behavior Institute Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Studies using powerful family-based designs aided by large scale case-control studies, have been instrumental in cracking the genetic complexity of the disease, identifying rare and highly penetrant risk mutations and providing a handle on experimentally tractable model systems. Mouse models of rare mutations, paired with analysis of homologous cognitive and sensory processing deficits and state-of-the-art neuroscience methods to manipulate and record neuronal activity have started providing unprecedented insights into pathogenic mechanisms and building the foundation of a new biological framework for understanding mental illness. A number of important principles are emerging, namely that degradation of the computational mechanisms underlying the ordered activity and plasticity of both local and long-range neuronal assemblies, the building blocks necessary for stable cognition and perception, might be the inevitable consequence and the common point of convergence of the vastly heterogeneous genetic liability, manifesting as defective internally- or stimulus-driven neuronal activation patterns and triggering the constellation of schizophrenia symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.03.018DOI Listing

Altered expression of the CSMD1 gene in the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 Apr 15;19(1):113. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Wuxi Mental Health Center, Nanjing Medical University, 156 Qianrong Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 214151, China.

Background: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a heritable, refractory, and devastating psychiatric disorder. Previous studies have shown that the variants of CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) demonstrate significant genome-wide association with SCZ. However, few studies have been conducted on the effect of antipsychotics on the expression levels of CSMD1. Read More

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https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2089-4DOI Listing
April 2019
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Distinct Dopamine D₂ Receptor Antagonists Differentially Impact D₂ Receptor Oligomerization.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 4;20(7). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Dopamine D₂ receptors (D₂R) are known to form transient homodimer complexes, of which the increased formation has already been associated with development of schizophrenia. Pharmacological targeting and modulation of the equilibrium of these receptor homodimers might lead to a better understanding of the critical role played by these complexes in physiological and pathological conditions. Whereas agonist addition has shown to prolong the D₂R dimer lifetime and increase the level of dimer formation, the possible influence of D₂R antagonists on dimerization has remained rather unexplored. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/7/1686
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071686DOI Listing
April 2019
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Schizophrenia-like reduced sensorimotor gating in intact inbred and outbred rats is associated with decreased medial prefrontal cortex activity and volume.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Psychiatry & Forensic Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193, Barcelona, Spain.

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating that is impaired in schizophrenia and in many other clinical conditions. Rat models using pharmacological or surgical strategies reveal that PPI is modulated by the cortico-striatal-pallido-thalamic (CSPT) circuit. Here, we explore whether spontaneous variation in PPI in intact inbred and outbred rats is associated with functional and structural differences in the CSPT circuit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0392-xDOI Listing

Cerebrospinal fluid BDNF pro-peptide levels in major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2019 Mar 26;113:190-198. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Biomedical Research Institute (BMD), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Osaka 563-8577, Japan; Graduate School of Frontier Bioscience, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address:

The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its related molecules has been extensively studied in the context of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we focused on the newly identified BDNF pro-peptide, which is generated together with mature BDNF by proteolytic processing of their precursor, proBDNF. Here, we report, for the first time, that BDNF pro-peptide is present in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and quantifiable by western blotting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.03.024DOI Listing

Sex differences in gene expression related to antipsychotic induced weight gain.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(4):e0215477. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.

Antipsychotics are crucial for the treatment of schizophrenia and contribute to weight gain in psychosis, particularly during early phases. Antipsychotic Induced Weight Gain (AIWG) might contribute to reduce the quality of life, drug compliance and to increase mortality. To characterize sex differences of gene expression related to AIWG, we sequenced total mRNA from blood samples of schizophrenia patients, before and after 3 months of antipsychotic-treatment. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215477PLOS
April 2019
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Paliperidone extended-release in the short- and long-term treatment of schizophrenia.

Riv Psichiatr 2019 Mar-Apr;54(2):43-58

Department of Psychiatry, Brescia University School of Medicine, Brescia, Italy - University Psychiatric Unit, Brescia University School of Medicine and Brescia Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy - Department of Mental Health, Brescia Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy.

Paliperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic drug belonging to the class of benzisoxasole derivatives. Paliperidone is the major active metabolite of risperidone (9-OH-risperidone) and, as such, is comparable to the latter in terms of pharmacodynamic properties. However, due to its peculiar characteristics, paliperidone may be particularly useful in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1708/3142.31245DOI Listing

"Formal Thought Disorder" in a General-Community Sample With Elevated Schizotypal Traits.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2019 May;207(5):410-416

ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and Its Disorders, Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Different dimensions of formal thought disorder (FTD) are distinguished by different patterns of cognitive dysfunction and cortical variability in patients with schizophrenia; however, inconsistent findings may relate to patient-related confounds. Investigating FTD in nonpatient samples with elevated levels of schizotypal traits avoids these confounds, but its utility to FTD research is unknown. Thus, we performed principal components analysis (PCA) of FTD ratings using the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) and the Thought and Language Index (TLI) in a general-community sample with elevated schizotypal traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000991DOI Listing
May 2019
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"Formal Thought Disorder" in a General-Community Sample With Elevated Schizotypal Traits.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and Its Disorders, Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Different dimensions of formal thought disorder (FTD) are distinguished by different patterns of cognitive dysfunction and cortical variability in patients with schizophrenia; however, inconsistent findings may relate to patient-related confounds. Investigating FTD in nonpatient samples with elevated levels of schizotypal traits avoids these confounds, but its utility to FTD research is unknown. Thus, we performed principal components analysis (PCA) of FTD ratings using the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) and the Thought and Language Index (TLI) in a general-community sample with elevated schizotypal traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000991DOI Listing
April 2019
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Mania- and anxiety-like behavior and impaired maternal care in female diacylglycerol kinase eta and iota double knockout mice.

Genes Brain Behav 2019 Apr 15:e12570. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Genome-wide association studies linked diacylglycerol kinase eta (DGKH) and iota (DGKI) to mood disorders, including bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and both genes are expressed throughout the brain. Here, we generated and behaviorally characterized female mice lacking Dgkh alone, Dgki alone, and double Dgkh/Dgki knockout (dKO) mice. We found that fewer than 30% of newborn pups raised by dKO females survived to weaning, while over 85% of pups survive to weaning when raised by wild type (WT) females. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gbb.12570
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12570DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Vessels Shaping Mental Health or Illness.

Open Neurol J 2019 15;13:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA-02215, USA.

The mammalian brain receives the lion's share of the body's blood supply and is a highly vascularized organ. The vascular and nervous systems arise at two distinct time points of embryogenesis; however, their functions tend to overlap or complement each other in the growth promoting milieu of the embryonic Central Nervous System (CNS). The pre-existing idea that mental disorders are a direct result from defects solely in neuronal populations and networks is gradually changing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874205X01913010001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460472PMC
February 2019

Effects of High-Frequency Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Cognitive Deficit in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2019 29;10:135. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Institute of Rehabilitation and Development of Brain Function, The Second Clinical Medical College of North Sichuan Medical College Nanchong Central Hospital, Nanchong, China.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to improve cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia (SZs). The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether a high-frequency rTMS course could enhance cognitive function in SZs. Studies published in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Web of science were searched until April 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450172PMC

Attenuation of Novelty-Induced Hyperactivity of Mice by Cannabidiol and Hippocampal Inhibitory Chemogenetics.

Front Pharmacol 2019 29;10:309. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Gene-targeted mice with deficient AMPA receptor GluA1 subunits ( mice) show robust hyperlocomotion in a novel environment, suggesting them to constitute a model for hyperactivity disorders such as mania, schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This behavioral alteration has been associated with increased neuronal activation in the hippocampus, and it can be attenuated by chronic treatment with antimanic drugs, such as lithium, valproic acid, and lamotrigine. Now we found that systemic cannabidiol strongly blunted the hyperactivity and the hippocampal c-Fos expression of the mice, while not affecting the wild-type littermate controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449460PMC

Childhood Trauma in Schizophrenia: Current Findings and Research Perspectives.

Front Neurosci 2019 21;13:274. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with persistence of symptoms throughout adult life in most of the affected patients. This unfavorable course is associated with multiple episodes and residual symptoms, mainly negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The neural diathesis-stress model proposes that psychosocial stress acts on a pre-existing vulnerability and thus triggers the symptoms of schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448042PMC

Sociodemographic, Legal, and Clinical Profiles of Female Forensic Inpatients in Karnataka: A Retrospective Study.

Indian J Psychol Med 2019 Mar-Apr;41(2):138-143

Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Background: Forensic patients are often admitted to psychiatric hospitals without any details of illness or treatment. They pose a unique challenge for clinical services in the context of diagnosis, management, and particularly legal issues.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review using a structured data-extraction tool. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_152_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436409PMC

A sense of dread: affect and risk perception in people with schizophrenia during an influenza pandemic.

Australas Psychiatry 2019 Apr 15:1039856219839467. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Associate Professor and Acting Head, Academic Unit of Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine, Australian National University Medical School, Woden, ACT, and; Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, and; Director, Research Centre for the Neurosciences of Ageing, Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Objective: To explore the role of affect in risk perception and intention to adopt protective measures against pandemic swine influenza in people with schizophrenia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted exploring the responses of 71 adults with schizophrenia and 238 adults attending general practice settings without schizophrenia. Participants completed a questionnaire that included items relating to: self-predicted affect (affective forecast) were they to contract swine influenza; perceived risk from swine influenza; and willingness to adopt protective measures against swine influenza. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1039856219839467DOI Listing

Neuroprotective effects of the second generation antipsychotics.

Schizophr Res 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1438 South Grand Blvd., Suite 105, Saint Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Background: In contrast to over 30 studies reporting neurotoxicity associated with the first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), several published studies have reported multiple neuroprotective effects associated with the second generation antipsychotics (SGAs). This prompted us to conduct a review of the reported neuroprotective mechanisms of the SGA class of antipsychotics compared to the FGAs.

Methods: A PubMed search was conducted using the keywords antipsychotic, neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, neurotoxicity, toxicity, brain volume, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, myelin, and oligodendrocyte. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.04.009DOI Listing