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    [An rare complication of scarlet fever : invasive group A streptococcal infection with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome].
    Rev Med Liege 2017 Mar;72(3):132-137
    Service de Pédiatrie, CHU de Liège, Site NDB, Liège, Belgique.
    Invasive Group A Streptococcus infections and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are rare complications of common diseases in children such as scarlet fever or impetigo. These invasive diseases are particulary challenging because of their rapid progression and the lack of predisposing factors in most cases. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are mandatory to reduce the mortality associated with these severe diseases. Read More

    Immunization with a streptococcal multiple-epitope recombinant protein protects mice against invasive group A streptococcal infection.
    PLoS One 2017 29;12(3):e0174464. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) causes clinical diseases, including pharyngitis, scarlet fever, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. A number of group A streptococcus vaccine candidates have been developed, but only one 26-valent recombinant M protein vaccine has entered clinical trials. Differing from the design of a 26-valent recombinant M protein vaccine, we provide here a vaccination using the polyvalence epitope recombinant FSBM protein (rFSBM), which contains four different epitopes, including the fibronectin-binding repeats domain of streptococcal fibronectin binding protein Sfb1, the C-terminal immunogenic segment of streptolysin S, the C3-binding motif of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B, and the C-terminal conserved segment of M protein. Read More

    Incidence and Characteristics of Scarlet Fever, South Korea, 2008-2015.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Apr;23(4):658-661
    The incidence rate for scarlet fever in South Korea is rising. During 2008-2015, we collected group A Streptococcus isolates and performed emm and exotoxin genotyping and disk-diffusion antimicrobial tests. Scarlet fever in South Korea was most closely associated with emm types emm4, emm28, emm1, and emm3. Read More

    Evaluation of the Potency, Neutralizing Antibody Response, and Stability of a Recombinant Fusion Protein Vaccine for Streptococcus pyogenes.
    AAPS J 2017 Mar 10. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    VaxForm, LLC, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause a wide range of diseases, including pharyngitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, necrotizing fasciitis, rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Despite the increasing burden on global health caused by GAS, there is currently no licensed vaccine available. In this study, we evaluated immunogenicity, induction of neutralizing antibodies, and stability of a new recombinant fusion protein vaccine that targets infections from GAS. Read More

    Genome analysis following a national increase in Scarlet Fever in England 2014.
    BMC Genomics 2017 Mar 10;18(1):224. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    National Infection Service, Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5HT, UK.
    Background: During a substantial elevation in scarlet fever (SF) notifications in 2014 a national genomic study was undertaken of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococci, GAS) isolates from patients with SF with comparison to isolates from patients with invasive disease (iGAS) to test the hypotheses that the increase in SF was due to either the introduction of one or more new/emerging strains in the population in England or the transmission of a known genetic element through the population of GAS by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) resulting in infections with an increased likelihood of causing SF. Isolates were collected to provide geographical representation, for approximately 5% SF isolates from each region from 1(st) April 2014 to 18(th) June 2014. Contemporaneous iGAS isolates for which genomic data were available were included for comparison. Read More

    Effects of meteorological factors on incidence of scarlet fever during different periods in different districts of China.
    Sci Total Environ 2017 Mar 7;581-582:19-24. Epub 2017 Jan 7.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: To reveal the difference of meteorological effect on scarlet fever in Beijing and Hong Kong, China, during different periods among 2004-2014.

    Methods: The data of monthly incidence of scarlet fever and meteorological variables from 2004 to 2014 in Beijing and Hong Kong were collected from Chinese science data center of public health, meteorological data website and Hong Kong observatory website. The whole study period was separated into two periods by the outbreak year 2011 (Jan 2004-Dec 2010 and Jan 2011-Dec 2014). Read More

    Mechanisms of Yersinia YopO kinase substrate specificity.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jan 4;7:39998. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore.
    Yersinia bacteria cause a range of human diseases, including yersiniosis, Far East scarlet-like fever and the plague. Yersiniae modulate and evade host immune defences through injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into phagocytic cells. One of the Yops, YopO (also known as YpkA) obstructs phagocytosis through disrupting actin filament regulation processes - inhibiting polymerization-promoting signaling through sequestration of Rac/Rho family GTPases and by using monomeric actin as bait to recruit and phosphorylate host actin-regulating proteins. Read More

    Multivariate time series analysis on the dynamic relationship between Class B notifiable diseases and gross domestic product (GDP) in China.
    Sci Rep 2016 12 23;6:29. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
    The surveillance of infectious diseases is of great importance for disease control and prevention, and more attention should be paid to the Class B notifiable diseases in China. Meanwhile, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the annual growth of Chinese gross domestic product (GDP) would decelerate below 7% after many years of soaring. Under such circumstances, this study aimed to answer what will happen to the incidence rates of infectious diseases in China if Chinese GDP growth remained below 7% in the next five years. Read More

    RCGP Research and Surveillance Centre Annual Report 2014-2015: disparities in presentations to primary care.
    Br J Gen Pract 2017 Jan 19;67(654):e29-e40. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Clinical Innovation and Research Centre, RCGP, London.
    Background: The Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Research and Surveillance Centre (RSC) comprises over 100 general practices in England, with a population of around 1 million, providing a public health surveillance system for England and data for research.

    Aim: To demonstrate the scope of data with the RCGP Annual Report 2014-2015 (May 2014 to April 2015) by describing disparities in the presentation of six common conditions included in the report.

    Design And Setting: This is a report of respiratory and communicable disease incidence from a primary care sentinel network in England. Read More

    [Renal decapsulation for the treatment of anuria : A "forgotten" treatment from the early 20th century].
    Urologe A 2017 Jan;56(1):54-59
    Klinik und Poliklinik für Urologie, Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 6, 18057, Rostock, Deutschland.
    In the early 20th century, Harrison first performed renal decapsulation in anuric children with scarlet fever and observed improvement in renal function postoperatively. The pathophysiological explanation was seen in intraparenchymal renal pressure due to edema which was improved by surgical decapsulation. The technique of decapsulation was simple excision after incision and blunt dissection of the renal parenchyma. Read More

    Effect of administration of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on the occurrence of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media in 3 years old children.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016 Nov;20(21):4601-4606
    Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, Italy.
    Objective: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12) is a probiotic strain strongly antagonistic to the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. Shown to colonize the oral cavity and to be safe for human use, BLIS K12 has previously been reported to reduce pharyngo-tonsillitis episodes in children or adults known to have experienced recurrent streptococcal infection. The present study was focussed upon evaluating the role of BLIS K12 in the control of streptococcal disease and acute otitis media in children attending the first year of kindergarten. Read More

    Comparative dynamics, seasonality in transmission, and predictability of childhood infections in Mexico.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Feb 22;145(3):607-625. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology,Princeton University,Princeton,NJ,USA.
    The seasonality and periodicity of infections, and the mechanisms underlying observed dynamics, can have implications for control efforts. This is particularly true for acute childhood infections. Among these, the dynamics of measles is the best understood and has been extensively studied, most notably in the UK prior to the start of vaccination. Read More

    The Association between Environmental Factors and Scarlet Fever Incidence in Beijing Region: Using GIS and Spatial Regression Models.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 Nov 4;13(11). Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.
    (1) Background: Evidence regarding scarlet fever and its relationship with meteorological, including air pollution factors, is not very available. This study aimed to examine the relationship between ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors with scarlet fever occurrence in Beijing, China. (2) Methods: A retrospective ecological study was carried out to distinguish the epidemic characteristics of scarlet fever incidence in Beijing districts from 2013 to 2014. Read More

    Effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Preventing Laboratory-Confirmed Cases in Children in Seoul, Korea.
    J Korean Med Sci 2016 Dec;31(12):1897-1901
    Seoul Center for Infectious Disease Control, Seoul, Korea.
    A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. Read More

    Scarlet fever in Poland in 2014
    Przegl Epidemiol 2016;70(2):195-202
    National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology
    Objective: Assessment of the epidemiological situation of scarlet fever in Poland in 2014.

    Materials And Methods: The evaluation was performed by reviewing surveillance data published in the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” as well as in previous bulletins, and unpublished data collected under Statistical survey program of official statistics. These data relate to cases of scarlet fever registered by health sanitary inspection on the basis of statutory notification of scarlet fever reported by physicians. Read More

    Estimated burden of group a streptococcal pharyngitis among children in Beijing, China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Aug 26;16(1):452. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Institute for Infectious Disease and Endemic Disease Control, Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, No. 16 Hepingli Middle Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100013, China.
    Background: Burden of Group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is scarce in developing countries, still unknown in China. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of clinical cases of pharyngitis and GAS culture-positive pharyngitis, and their outpatient visits among children aged 0-14 years in Beijing, the capital of China.

    Methods: Multiplier model was used to estimate the numbers of pharyngitis cases, based on reported numbers of clinical cases and GAS culture-positive rates from GAS surveillances in Beijing, consultation rate, population coverage of GAS surveillances, sampling success rate, and test sensitivity of GAS culture from previous studies, surveys and surveillances. Read More

    The association between varicella (chickenpox) and group A streptococcus infections in historical perspective.
    SAGE Open Med 2016 18;4:2050312116658909. Epub 2016 Jul 18.
    Metropolitan State University (Retired), Minneapolis, MN, USA.
    Objectives: The aim of the research is to investigate the historical relationship between varicella and Streptococcus pyogenes infections. In the past few decades, varicella has been identified as a risk factor for invasive group A streptococcus infections. The question is whether this relationship also existed between varicella and scarlet fever in the historical era. Read More

    [The Cause of Death of Taira no Kiyomori: A Possible Connection with the Death of Fujiwara no Kunitsuna].
    Nihon Ishigaku Zasshi 2016 Mar;62(1):3-15
    Taira no Kiyomori was struck by an unimaginable fever and died in the spring of Jishō Year 5 (1181). In the coup d'état of Jishō Year 3 (1179), Kiyomori ended the Go-shirakawa cloistered government through military force and established the Takakura cloistered government as a puppet regime in the following year. The regime lasted only a short while, however, as the retired Takakura Emperor passed away within less than a year. Read More

    Group A Streptococcal Infections Are Associated With Increased Risk of Pediatric Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Taiwanese Population-Based Cohort Study.
    J Clin Psychiatry 2016 Jul;77(7):e848-54
    Professor, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Science, College of Medicine, China Medical University, No. 2, Yuh-Der Rd, Taichung 40447, Taiwan.
    Objective: This study evaluated the association between group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and the risks of developing tic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Methods: We conducted a follow-up cohort study in 2014 using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort consisted of patients younger than 18 years with newly diagnosed GAS infection (ICD-9-CM codes 034 [streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever] and 482. Read More

    The Role of Childhood Infections and Immunizations on Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 Sep 19;63(9):1557-62. Epub 2016 May 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children's Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
    Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare, highly malignant tumor arising from primitive mesenchymal cells that differentiate into skeletal muscle. Relatively little is known about RMS susceptibility. Based on growing evidence regarding the role of early immunologic challenges on RMS development, we evaluated the role of infections and immunizations on this clinically significant pediatric malignancy. Read More

    Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Jun;22(6):1075-8
    Scarlet fever notifications surged across the United Kingdom in spring 2014. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of Streptococcus pyogenes infections in North-West London highlighted increased emm4 and emm3 infections coincident with the upsurge. Unlike outbreaks in other countries, antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, highlighting an urgent need to better understand the drivers of scarlet fever activity. Read More

    Scarlet fever.
    • Authors:
    Nurs Stand 2016 Apr;30(35):17
    Essential facts Scarlet fever is characterised by a rash that usually accompanies a sore throat and flushed cheeks. It is mainly a childhood illness. While this contagious disease rarely poses a danger to life today, outbreaks in the past led to many deaths. Read More

    Impact of meteorological changes on the incidence of scarlet fever in Hefei City, China.
    Int J Biometeorol 2016 Oct 1;60(10):1543-1550. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, No. 81, Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China.
    Studies on scarlet fever with meteorological factors included were few. We aimed to illustrate meteorological factors' effects on monthly incidence of scarlet fever. Cases of scarlet fever were collected from the report of legal infectious disease in Hefei City from 1985 to 2006; the meteorological data were obtained from the weather bureau of Hefei City. Read More

    Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Mar;22(3):503-6
    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates from patients in Russia during 1973-2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype's dominance. Read More

    The use of public health e-learning resources by pharmacists in Wales: a quantitative evaluation.
    Int J Pharm Pract 2016 Aug 12;24(4):294-7. Epub 2016 Feb 12.
    Wales Centre for Pharmacy Professional Education, Cardiff School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how communicable disease e-learning resources were utilised by pharmacy professionals and to identify whether uptake of the resources was influenced by disease outbreaks.

    Method: Retrospective analysis of routine data regarding the number of individuals completing e-learning resources and statutory notifications of communicable disease.

    Results: A high proportion of pharmacy professionals in Wales (38. Read More

    [emm types of mutation in scarlet-fever-related group A streptococcal, among children in Beijing, 2011-2014].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2015 Dec;36(12):1397-400
    Institute for Infectious Disease and Endemic Disease Control, Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100013, China; Email :
    Objective: To understand the distribution of emm gene types related to group A streptococcus-caused scarlet fever among children in Beijing and to analyze the relationship between the mutation of the emm types and scarlet fever.

    Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from the scarlet fever cases diagnosed in 36 hospitals in Beijing to isolate the GAS strains from May to July, betgween 2011 and 2014. Genotyping of emm gene was performed with PCR and N-terminal gene fragments of M protein were sequenced. Read More

    [Study on the superantigen gene profiles of group A Streptococcus isolated from children in Beijing, 2014].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2015 Nov;49(11):988-92
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Endemic Disease Control, Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100013, China; Email:
    Objective: To investigate superantigen gene profiles of group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolated in Beijing pediatric patients in 2014, and to explore the the relationship between superantigen gene profiles with emm types, and GAS infections with diseases.

    Methods: A total of 259 GAS strains were isolated from pediatric patients clinically who diagnosed with scarlet fever and pharyngitis from 36 hospitals in Beijing from May to July, 2014.The Superantigens genes of strains were performed by Real-time PCR (speA, speB, speC, speF, speG, speH, speI, speJ, speK, speL, speM, smeZ, ssa). Read More

    Far East Scarlet-Like Fever: A Review of the Epidemiology, Symptomatology, and Role of Superantigenic Toxin: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-Derived Mitogen A.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2016 Jan 17;3(1):ofv202. Epub 2015 Dec 17.
    Department of Microbiology , Derriford Hospital , Plymouth , United Kingdom.
    Far East scarlet-like fever (FESLF) is a severe inflammatory disease that occurs sporadically and in outbreaks in Russia and Japan. Far East scarlet-like fever is caused by Yersinia pseudotubuclosis infection, an organism that typically causes self-limiting gastroenteritis in Europe. Studies suggest the ability of Far Eastern strains to produce superantigen toxin Y pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen A is integral to FESLF pathogenesis. Read More

    [To Discern the Medical Thoughts of Heo Joon, the Best Physician in Korean History--An Analysis of Disease Experiences and Treatment Cases in the Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine].
    Uisahak 2015 Dec;24(3):581-619
    College of Korean Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon, KOREA.
    Heo Joon is one of the best-known physicians of the Chosun Dynasty, the last imperial dynasty (1392~1910) of Korea. He had served King Seonjo () during his practice, and has produced many publications on medicine. Then, how did he actually treat the patients? So far, other than the case when he treated Gwanghaegun's smallpox, it is not clearly known how and when he attended and treated the ill. Read More

    Spatiotemporal Pattern Analysis of Scarlet Fever Incidence in Beijing, China, 2005-2014.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 Jan 15;13(1). Epub 2016 Jan 15.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.
    Objective: To probe the spatiotemporal patterns of the incidence of scarlet fever in Beijing, China, from 2005 to 2014.

    Methods: A spatiotemporal analysis was conducted at the district/county level in the Beijing region based on the reported cases of scarlet fever during the study period. Moran's autocorrelation coefficient was used to examine the spatial autocorrelation of scarlet fever, whereas the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic was used to determine the hotspot incidence of scarlet fever. Read More

    Leprosy in the Bible.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 Jan-Feb;34(1):3-7. Epub 2015 Nov 17.
    Domestic and Specialized Medicine Centre "Dilmed", ul. Bohaterów Monte Cassino 3, 40-231 Katowice, Poland. Electronic address:
    For many years, the biblical term tzaraat has referred to leprosy. In fact, the disease or diseases described under this name have no relationship to leprosy, as it was known in the Middle Ages or today; moreover, the term referred not only to skin disease, but also to the state of the ritual impurity and punishment for the sins. Although the real nature of tzaraat remains unknown, the differential diagnosis might include the following: Psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, favus, dermatophyte infections, nummular dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, crusted scabies, syphilis, impetigo, sycosis barbae, alopecia areata, furuncles, scabies, neurodermatitis, scarlet fever, lupus erythematosus, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, folliculitis decalvans, morphea, sarcoidosis, and lichen planopilaris. Read More

    Late-onset Rash in Patients with Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis Treated with Amoxicillin.
    Pediatr Rep 2015 Dec 18;7(4):5951. Epub 2015 Dec 18.
    Kimura Children and Family Clinic , Izumo, Japan.
    We observed late-onset rashes in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Of 1028 patients with GAS pharyngitis, which was principally treated with amoxicillin, we evaluated those who developed a late-onset rash and excluded those with scarlet fever alone. Twenty-one patients developed a rash (2. Read More

    Scarlet fever: A not so typical exanthematous pharyngotonsillitis (based on 171 cases).
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2016 Aug-Sep;34(7):422-6. Epub 2015 Nov 14.
    Primary Health Care Centre "José Ramón Muñoz Fernández", Zaragoza, Spain.
    Aim: To describe the age, signs and clinical symptoms of children with scarlet fever at the present time, and to check whether they are equivalent to those with traditional streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis.

    Study Design: An observational, retrospective study was conducted on the clinical records of 5500 children aged from 0 to 15 years attending a primary health care center. A record was made of the percentage of the cases in which signs and symptoms appear and the Centor score was calculated. Read More

    Infectious diseases are associated with carotid intima media thickness in adolescence.
    Atherosclerosis 2015 Dec 23;243(2):609-15. Epub 2015 Oct 23.
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, CH, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, CH, Petersplatz 1, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland.
    Objective: Inflammatory risk factors in childhood, e.g. obesity, impact on carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT), an early indicator of atherosclerosis. Read More

    Unusual staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as a scarlet-like fever.
    New Microbes New Infect 2015 Nov 18;8:10-3. Epub 2015 Aug 18.
    Service of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Specialties, Switzerland ; Bacteriology Laboratory, Department of Laboratories and Genetic Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Diagnosis of nonmenstrual staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is often challenging. A female medical colleague had a rare entity, a staphylococcal pharyngitis complicated by TSS. The diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of tst-positive Staphylococcus aureus in throat culture and by identification of a specific Vβ2 expansion pattern of her T lymphocytes. Read More

    Transfer of scarlet fever-associated elements into the group A Streptococcus M1T1 clone.
    Sci Rep 2015 Nov 2;5:15877. Epub 2015 Nov 2.
    Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.
    The group A Streptococcus (GAS) M1T1 clone emerged in the 1980s as a leading cause of epidemic invasive infections worldwide, including necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements has played a central role in the evolution of the M1T1 clone, with bacteriophage-encoded determinants DNase Sda1 and superantigen SpeA2 contributing to enhanced virulence and colonization respectively. Outbreaks of scarlet fever in Hong Kong and China in 2011, caused primarily by emm12 GAS, led to our investigation of the next most common cause of scarlet fever, emm1 GAS. Read More

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