Interpersonal sensitivity defines feelings of inner-fragility in the presence of others due to the expectation of criticism or rejection. Interpersonal sensitivity was found to be related to attenuated positive psychotic symptom during the prodromal phase of psychosis. The aims of this study were to examine if high level of interpersonal sensitivity at baseline are associated with the persistence of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology at 18-month follow-up. Read More
Preliminary psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) are reported in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants included 29 CHR youth who met criteria for a prodromal syndrome on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). The adapted BNSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, suggesting that the BNSS has utility for assessing negative symptoms in a CHR population. Read More
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental syndrome that has been studied intensively in order to understand relationships between the genetic microdeletion, brain development, cognitive function, and the emergence of psychiatric symptoms. Read More
Aim: The effects of a negative interpersonal experience, such as bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence, can be strong and long lasting. Bullying victimization is associated with paranoid ideation and suspiciousness. Few studies have focused on personality traits of victims of bullying. Read More
Background: Current early screeners for psychosis-risk states have still to prove ability in identifying at-risk individuals. Among screeners, the 92-item Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-92) is often used. We aimed to assess the validity of its Italian translation in a large Italian adolescent and young adult help-seeking sample. Read More
Background: DSM-5 proposes an Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) for further investigation, based upon the Attenuated Positive Symptom Syndrome (APSS) in the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). SIPS Unusual Thought Content, Disorganized Communication and Total Disorganization scores predicted progression to psychosis in a 2015 NAPLS-2 Consortium report. We sought to independently replicate this in a large single-site high-risk cohort, and identify baseline demographic and clinical predictors beyond current APS/APSS criteria. Read More
The aim of this study was to test the validity of the CHR state by focusing on the course of psychosis spectrum symptoms, depression and global functioning in converters and non-converters. A total of 188 CHR-positive subjects (60.2% men) aged between 13 and 35years (mean=20. Read More
The Behavioral Neurogenetics Center, The Edmond and Lily Safra Children's Hospital, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:
The schizophrenia prodrome has not been extensively studied in Africa. Identification of prodromal behavioral symptoms holds promise for early intervention and prevention of disorder onset. Our goal was to investigate schizophrenia risk traits in Kenyan adolescents and identify predictors of psychosis progression. Read More
Objective: Schizophrenia and other psychoses have devastating personal and social impacts and many efforts have been devoted to study prodromal syndromes for psychosis in order to achieve earlier detection and interventions. However, only few studies have been performed in developing countries on this subject, and there is a dearth of evidence in the Iranian population. In this study, we focused on conversion rate to psychosis and changes in prodromal symptoms in a group of first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and to compare the conversion rate in those with and without prodromal symptoms as assessed by the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) and Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS). Read More
Background: Patients with psychosis display the so-called 'Jumping to Conclusions' bias (JTC) - a tendency for hasty decision-making in probabilistic reasoning tasks. So far, only a few studies have evaluated the JTC bias in 'at-risk mental state' (ARMS) patients, specifically in ARMS samples fulfilling 'ultra-high risk' (UHR) criteria, thus not allowing for comparisons between different ARMS subgroups.
Method: In the framework of the PREVENT (secondary prevention of schizophrenia) study, a JTC task was applied to 188 patients either fulfilling UHR criteria or presenting with cognitive basic symptoms (BS). Read More
Background: Chinese psychiatrists have gradually started to focus on those who are deemed to be at 'clinical high-risk (CHR)' for psychosis; however, it is still unknown how often those individuals identified as CHR from a different country background than previously studied would transition to psychosis. The objectives of this study are to examine baseline characteristics and the timing of symptom onset, help-seeking, or transition to psychosis over a 2-year period in China.
Method: The presence of CHR was determined with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) at the participants' first visit to the mental health services. Read More
Schizophr Bull 2016 Sep 18;42(5):1216-24. Epub 2016 Mar 18.
Psychiatric Center, Glostrup-Hvidovre, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Brøndby, Denmark; Center for Subjectivity Research, Faculty of Humanities, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Background And Goal: Recent findings have provided preliminary support for the notion that basic self-disturbances (SD) are related to prodromal symptoms among nonpsychotic help-seeking adolescents. As a sizable proportion of adolescents who are at risk do not seek help, this study attempts to assess the extent to which these findings can be generalized to the entire population of adolescents who are at risk for psychosis.
Method: The concurrent relationship between SD and prodromal symptoms was explored in a sample of 100 non-help-seeking adolescents (age 13-15) from the community. Read More
While attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and basic symptoms (BS) are the main current predictors of psychosis in adults, studies in adolescents are scarce. Thus, we (1) described the prevalence and severity of positive, negative, disorganization, general, and basic symptoms in adolescent patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), with other non-psychotic psychiatric disorders (PC) and with early-onset psychosis (EOP); and (2) investigated BS criteria in relation to UHR criteria. Sixty-nine 12-18-year-old adolescents (15. Read More
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ) and Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) have been used as a two-stage process for identifying subjects at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. The Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief version (PQ-B) contains 21 items derived from the PQ. The present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of PQ-B in a Chinese help-seeking outpatient sample and to explore which items can better predict CHR diagnosis by SIPS and future transition to psychosis. Read More
Anomalous subjective experiences involving an alteration of the basic sense of self (ie, Self-disorder [SD]) are emerging as a core marker of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with potential impact on current early detection strategies as well. In this study, we wished to field-test the prevalence of SD in a clinical sample of adolescent/young adult help-seekers at putative risk for psychosis attending standard community mental health facilities in Italy. Participants (n = 47), aged between 14 and 25, underwent extensive psychopathological evaluations with current semi-structured tools to assess Clinical High Risk (CHR) state (ie, Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes/Scale of Prodromal Symptoms [SIPS/SOPS], Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument-Adult/Child and Youth [SPI-A/CY]). Read More
Background: The attenuated positive symptoms syndrome (APSS) is considered an at-risk indicator for psychosis. However, the characteristics and developmental aspects of the combined or enriched risk criteria of APSS and basic symptom (BS) criteria, including self-experienced cognitive disturbances (COGDIS) remain under-researched.
Method: Based on the Structured Interview of Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS), the prevalence of APSS in 13- to 35-year-old individuals seeking help in an early recognition program for schizophrenia and bipolar-spectrum disorders was examined. Read More
Objectives: DSM-5 conceptualized attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) as self-contained rather than as a risk syndrome, including it under "Conditions for Further Study," but also as a codable/billable condition in the main section. Since many major mental disorders emerge during adolescence, we assessed the frequency and characteristics of APS in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.
Methods: Consecutively recruited adolescents hospitalized for nonpsychotic disorders (September 2009-May 2013) were divided into APS youth versus non-APS youth, based on the Structured Interview of Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) and according to DSM-5 criteria, and compared across multiple characteristics. Read More
Cognitive control, a set of functions that develop throughout adolescence, is important in the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders. Whether cognitive control has a role in conferring vulnerability for the development of psychotic illness is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural systems supporting cognitive control in individuals deemed to be potentially prodromal for psychotic illness. Read More
It is not well established whether the incident outcomes of the clinical high-risk (CHR) syndrome for psychosis are diagnostically specific for psychosis or whether CHR patients also are at elevated risk for a variety of nonpsychotic disorders. We collected 2 samples (NAPLS-1, PREDICT) that contained CHR patients and a control group who responded to CHR recruitment efforts but did not meet CHR criteria on interview (help-seeking comparison patients [HSC]). Incident diagnostic outcomes were defined as the occurrence of a SIPS-defined psychosis or a structured interview diagnosis from 1 of 3 nonpsychotic Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) groups (anxiety, bipolar, or nonbipolar mood disorder), when no diagnosis in that group was present at baseline. Read More
J Neurodev Disord 2015 1;7(1):23. Epub 2015 Aug 1.
Office Médico-Pédagogique, Department of Psychiatry, University of Geneva, Rue David-Dufour 1, Case Postale 50, 1211 Genève 8, Switzerland ; Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
Background: The neural endophenotype associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) includes deviant cortical development and alterations in brain connectivity. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings also reported disconnectivity within the default mode network (DMN). Read More
Background: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are related to impaired functioning. The presence of negative symptoms in early phases of psychosis in individuals at clinical risk is receiving increased attention.
Methods: We evaluated comprehensively a sample of 92 young people (age range 15-25) applying the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), adapted for youth. Read More
Objective: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) confers 25% risk for psychosis and is an invaluable window for understanding the neurobiological substrate of psychosis risk. The Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) is well validated in nondeleted populations for detecting clinical risk but has only recently been applied to 22q11DS. Read More
Background: Identification of individuals in the prodromal phase of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia facilitates early intervention and promises an improved prognosis. There are no current assessment tools for clinical risk symptoms of bipolar disorder, and psychosis-risk assessment generally involves semi-structured interviews, which are time consuming and rater dependent. We present psychometric data on two novel quantitative questionnaires: the Washington Early Recognition Center Affectivity and Psychosis (WERCAP) Screen for assessing bipolar and psychotic disorder risk traits, and the accompanying WERC Stress Screen for assessing individual and total psychosocial stressor severities. Read More
Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity of the Chinese version of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (CPQ-16) for identifying attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) in a college population.
Methods: The participants were recruited from a university. Five hundred seventy-nine students completed the CPQ-16 and the Symptom Checklist-90. Read More
Schizophr Res 2014 Sep 9;158(1-3):1-6. Epub 2014 Jul 9.
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, PO Box 30, FIN-00271 Helsinki, Finland; Institute of Behavioural Sciences (Discipline of Psychology), University of Helsinki, PO Box 9, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
Introduction: Current psychosis risk criteria have often been studied on a pre-selected population at specialized clinics. We investigated whether the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) is a useful tool for psychosis risk screening among adolescents in general psychiatric care.
Methods: 161 adolescents aged 15-18 with first admission to adolescent psychiatric services in Helsinki were interviewed with the SIPS to ascertain Clinical High-Risk (CHR) state. Read More
Schizophr Res 2014 Sep 10;158(1-3):45-51. Epub 2014 Jun 10.
Massachusetts Mental Health Center Public Psychiatry Division of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
Background: Psychosis prevention and early intervention efforts in schizophrenia have focused increasingly on sub-threshold psychotic symptoms in adolescents and young adults. Although many youth report symptom onset prior to adolescence, the childhood incidence of prodromal-level symptoms in those with schizophrenia or related psychoses is largely unknown.
Methods: This study reports on the retrospective recall of prodromal-level symptoms from 40 participants in a first-episode of schizophrenia (FES) and 40 participants at "clinical high risk" (CHR) for psychosis. Read More
Objective: To explore the notion that difficulties in metacognitive functioning are a core pre-psychotic feature of emerging schizophrenia and its spectrum.
Method: Seventy-eight help-seeking, non-psychotic adolescents (age 13-18) were assessed with the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ), the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS), two scales of social and role functioning, and a metacognitive version of two non-social (verbal memory and executive functioning) and two social (facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind) cognition tasks. In addition to the standard administration of the tasks, subjects were also asked to rate their level of confidence in the correctness of each answer, and to choose whether they wanted it to be "counted" toward their overall performance score on the task. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2014 May 8;216(3):346-50. Epub 2014 Feb 8.
Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Faculty of Humanities and Behavior Medicine, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
Most studies on psychotic-like experiences in the non-clinical population were based on self-reported surveys, without any attempt to validate the clinical interview. The present study aimed to test whether the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) could be detected in a college population by checking self-report results against an additional interview. A two-stage screening process was used in a sample of 579 college students (16-22 years old): a 16-item Chinese version of the Prodromal Questionnaire (CPQ-16) followed by the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). Read More
Neuroimage Clin 2014 31;4:392-402. Epub 2014 Jan 31.
Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, 760 Westwood Plaza, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA ; Department of Psychology, 1285 Franz Hall, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA ; Brain Research Institute, 695 Charles E Young Drive S, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a recurrent genetic mutation that is highly penetrant for psychosis. Behavioral research suggests that 22q11DS patients exhibit a characteristic neurocognitive phenotype that includes differential impairment in spatial working memory (WM). Read More
Although 'psychosis-like experiences' (PLEs) may reflect elevated risk for onset of serious mental illness, many individuals reporting PLEs are not truly at risk for developing clinical psychosis. Interview-based instruments that define and diagnose "clinical high risk" status attempt to distinguish between normative PLEs and attenuated symptoms indicating progression toward psychosis by probing whether such experiences create clinically relevant concerns. Two recently developed self-report measures, the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief and the Prodromal Questionnaire-16, contain a 'distress scale' that helps assessors to gauge distress within a screening format. Read More
Background: To investigate through a two-stage clinic-based screening, the frequency and clinical features of risk for psychosis syndromes in a Chinese help-seeking sample.
Method: 2101 consecutive new patients ages 15-45 were recruited at their first visit to the Shanghai Mental Health Center (SMHC) and screened with the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief version (PQ-B) and questions about genetic risk. The Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) was administered to a sub-sample to estimate rates of psychosis and clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis syndromes. Read More
Purpose: In patients with schizophrenia, premorbid psychosocial adjustment is an important predictor of functional outcome. We studied functional outcome in young clinical high-risk (CHR) patients and how this was predicted by their childhood to adolescence premorbid adjustment.
Methods: In all, 245 young help-seeking CHR patients were assessed with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale, the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument (SPI-A). Read More
Neuroimage Clin 2013 14;3:405-15. Epub 2013 Oct 14.
Department of Psychology, University of California, 1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563, USA ; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Introduction: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) represents one of the largest known genetic risk factors for psychosis, yet the neurobiological mechanisms underlying symptom development are not well understood. Here we conducted a cross-sectional study of 22q11DS to decompose cortical volume into its constituent parts, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), which are believed to have distinct neurodevelopmental origins. Read More
Background: The PRIME screen is a self-administered questionnaire designed to quickly assess individuals at risk for developing a psychotic disorder. It is shorter in both length and administration time compared to the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS)-a standard instrument for psychosis prodromal risk assessment. Validation of the PRIME against the SIPS has not been reported in large non-clinical populations. Read More
Identification of youth at risk for or with early psychosis has become the focus of many research and clinical initiatives, as early intervention may be linked to better long-term outcomes. Efforts to facilitate identification have led to the development of several self-report instruments that intend to quickly assess "attenuated" psychosis, potentially screening people for further evaluation. The widely used Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) includes the atypicality scale, a scale that may be useful for risk screening as it is designed to recognize emerging symptoms of psychosis. Read More
Early identification of individuals who will go on to develop schizophrenia is a difficult endeavor. The variety of symptoms experienced by clinical high-risk youth make it difficult to identify who will eventually develop schizophrenia in the future. Efforts are being made, therefore, to more accurately identify at-risk individuals and factors that predict conversion to psychosis. Read More
Background: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common genetic disorder with high rates of psychosis and other psychopathologies, but few studies discuss treatment. Our aim was to characterize the prevalence and treatment of major psychiatric illnesses in a well-characterized sample of individuals with 22q11DS. Read More
Patients at Ultra-High Risk (UHR) for developing a first psychosis vary widely in their symptom presentation and illness course. An important aim in UHR research concerns the characterization of the clinical heterogeneity in this population. We aimed to identify qualitatively and quantitatively different clinical symptom profiles at baseline and at 2-year follow-up in a group of UHR subjects and healthy controls. Read More
Objective: Impulsivity is one of the most commonly reported behavioral characteristics of patients with schizophrenia. Although there is accumulating evidence regarding behavioral problems in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, as yet, no study has reported on impulsivity in this population. The aim of the present study was to assess impulsivity in UHR subjects and to investigate the associated gray matter correlates. Read More
Aim: Adolescents with severe disruptive behaviour have an elevated risk for adult psychosis. We investigated whether the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) is a useful psychosis risk-screening tool for adolescents with disruptive behaviour.
Method: Fifty-three adolescents residing in a reform school due to severe behavioural problems were interviewed with SIPS to ascertain clinical high-risk (CHR) state. Read More
Summary: Research diagnostic instruments such as the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) are now able to reliably identify individuals with different types of psychosis risk syndromes (PRS). About one-third of individuals with PRS convert to a diagnosable psychotic disorder within three years of the initial assessment. Currently available randomized controlled trials of interventions aimed at reducing the rate of psychotic conversion of PRS are promising, but they are too small and too short in duration to provide definitive conclusions about effectiveness. Read More
Encephale 2013 May 23;39 Suppl 1:S1-7. Epub 2013 Jan 23.
Service de psychiatrie, département de génétique, laboratoire de psychopathologie et psychologie clinique (IFR 100), université de Bourgogne, CHU de Dijon, 2, Angélique-Ducoudray, BP 37013, 21070 Dijon cedex, France.
Literature Findings: Prospective studies of subjects at high genetic risk of psychosis (at least one first relative with schizophrenia) and retrospective studies of patients at the end of the first episode of delusion or hallucination have identified various subjective and objective symptoms which emerged months or years before the diagnostic of schizophrenia. The objective symptoms presently designed as prodromes are either transient or of infradiagnostic intensity. The objective signs have been used to define an ultrahigh risk (UHR) state, and have been operationalized by psychometric instruments, which also include criteria for genetic risk (schizotypal dimensions) and alteration of social functioning. Read More
The notion that stress plays a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders, especially schizophrenia, is longstanding. However, it is only in recent years that the potential neural mechanisms mediating this effect have come into sharper focus. The introduction of more sophisticated models of the interplay between psychosocial factors and brain function has expanded our opportunities for conceptualizing more detailed psychobiological models of stress in psychosis. Read More
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) represents one of the largest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Approximately 30% of individuals with 22qDS develop psychotic illness in adolescence or young adulthood. Read More