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    Seroepidemiology Study of Cytomegalovirus and Rubella among Pregnant Women at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Ethiop J Health Sci 2016 Sep;26(5):427-438
    Ethiopian Public Health Institute Polio and Measles Laboratory, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Background: Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) and rubella infections have adverse neonatal outcomes. Both CMV and rubella are more widespread in developing countries and in communities with lower socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to investigate sero-prevalence of CMV and rubella infection and associated possible risk factors. Read More

    Childhood vaccinations and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children.
    Int J Epidemiol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, 3Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5Unit of Virus, Lifestyle and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark and 6Department of Haematology, University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: It has been proposed that childhood vaccinations protect against acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children by modulation of future responses to common infections in childhood. However, the available studies provide inconsistent findings, and population-based cohort studies with longitudinal information on vaccinations are lacking.

    Methods: In a register-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008, followed up until age 15 years or 31 December 2009 ( n  = 1 225 404), we evaluated exposure to childhood vaccination and risk of childhood ALL, including information on ALL subtypes. Read More

    Echocardiographic findings in infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome: Retrospective case series study.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(4):e0175065. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Objective: To report the echocardiographic evaluation of 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome.

    Methods: An observational retrospective study was performed at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Brazil. Read More

    [Fuchs uveitis].
    Ophthalmologe 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Universitäts-Augenklinik, Charité, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Deutschland.
    Fuchs uveitis (FU) is a frequent, chronic course of intraocular inflammation, which is associated with a gradual onset of decreased visual acuity. The clinical manifestation of the triad of heterochromia, cataract and glaucoma varies considerably. This explains the often delayed diagnosis. Read More

    [Measles after MMR-vaccination].
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2017 ;161(0):D1177
    Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum, afd. Medische Microbiologie, Leiden.
    Background: The Dutch national vaccination program provides vaccination for mumps, measles and rubella (MMR vaccine) for all children. After vaccination with live attenuated viruses, the virus replicates on a limited scale. Replication may lead to mild symptoms occurring 5-14 days after MMR-vaccination, including fever, conjunctivitis and rash. Read More

    Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Syndrome in Colombia and Venezuela.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland8Johns Hopkins Zika Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Importance: The ocular manifestations and sequelae of Zika virus infection are not well known. Recently, the World Health Organization changed the declaration of Zika as a public health emergency and designated the viral outbreak and related microcephaly clusters as a long-term program of work. This change indicates the urgent need to evaluate and document ophthalmic manifestations in patients for timely management of this disease. Read More

    Global importation and population risk factors for measles in New Zealand: a case study for highly immunized populations.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Apr 17:1-11. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Ministry of Health,PO Box 5013,Wellington 6140,New Zealand.
    As endemic measles is eliminated through immunization, countries must determine the risk factors for the importation of measles into highly immunized populations to target control measures. Despite eliminating endemic measles, New Zealand suffers from outbreaks after introductions from abroad, enabling us to use it as a model for measles introduction risk. We used a generalized linear model to analyze risk factors for 1137 measles cases from 2007 to June 2014, provide estimates of national immunity levels, and model measles importation risk. Read More

    Viral exanthems: An update on laboratory testing of the adult patient.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Mar 26;76(3):538-550. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:
    Although classic viral exanthems of childhood are well described, they are rarely differentiated in adults. Laboratory techniques for viral identification have advanced without substantial literature to suggest how a dermatologist ought to conduct a cost-effective and diagnostic viral panel. Certain clinical features such as petechiae, vesicles, and dusky macular or morbilliform exanthems point strongly toward a viral exanthem. Read More

    Challenges of measles and rubella laboratory diagnostic in the era of elimination.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    WHO European Regional Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Esch-Sur-Alzette, Luxembourg; Laboratoire National de Santé, Dudelange, Luxembourg. Electronic address:
    Background: The Member States of the WHO European Region adopted the goal of measles and rubella elimination more than 10 years ago, but so far only 21 of 53 countries have reached this target. Laboratory investigation of suspected cases is essential to support disease elimination efforts. Therefore WHO maintains a network of accredited laboratories providing high quality testing AIMS. Read More

    Survey of contraindications in children's routine vaccination in Hangzhou, China.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Apr 13:1-5. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    a Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Hangzhou , China.
    Objective To describe the epidemiological characteristics of contraindications in children routine vaccination, to evaluate vaccination doctors' ability to determine contraindications. Method Using cross-section study, 34 urban and 15 suburb units were selected from 206 Community Health Center (CHC) in Hangzhou, China. Subjects were all children coming to CHCs for routine vaccination. Read More

    Sensory defects and developmental delay among children with congenital rubella syndrome.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 13;7:46483. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Pediatrics, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan.
    This study investigated the features of developmental difficulties combined with sensory defects in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Following a large rubella outbreak in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, in 2011, we enrolled 41 children with CRS from September 2011 through May 2013. Fourteen participants died and six became untraceable by October 2013; the remaining 21 children were followed up from 2013 to 2015. Read More

    Major Birth Defects after Vaccination Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990 to 2014.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Apr 11. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: Major birth defects are important infant outcomes that have not been well studied in the postmarketing surveillance of vaccines given to pregnant women. We assessed the presence of major birth defects following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system used to monitor the safety of vaccines in the United States.

    Methods: We searched VAERS for reports of major birth defects during January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2014. Read More

    Assessment of the implementation of the infectious diseases screening programmes among pregnant women in the Lesser Poland region and comparison with similar programmes conducted in other European Union countries.
    Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(3):151-155
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jagiellonian University Medical College in Krakow, Poland.
    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the level of implementation of recommendations of the Ministry of Health regarding infectious disease screening during pregnancy.

    Material And Methods: The study included 477 patients who were admitted to the delivery room between December 2015 and February 2016. Data on screening test results were collected based on medical records covering the period before the admission. Read More

    [Antibody persistence following on different vaccination strategies of domestic measles, mumps and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine: a 3-year follow-up study].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;51(4):336-340
    Expanded Program Immunization Department of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China.
    Objective: To assess the 3-year antibody persistence after vaccination of domestic measles, mumps and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine (MMR) with different program. Methods: Children from three different vaccination strategies (Group 8 m MR: 8 months and 18 months vaccinated with measles-rubella combined attenuated live vaccine and domestic MMR,respectively; Group 8 m MMR: 8 months and 18 months both vaccinated with domestic MMR; Group 12 m MMR: 12 months and 22 months both vaccinated with domestic MMR ) were followed up in Zhejiang province in July 2015. There were 170 participants in Group 8 m MR, 171 participants in Group 8 m MMR and 173 participants in Group 12 m MMR selected by simple random sampling method . Read More

    Cytokines and Chemokines Involved in Acute Retinal Necrosis.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 Apr;58(4):2139-2151
    Department of Ophthalmology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands 2Department of Medical Microbiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Purpose: To investigate which cytokines and chemokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute retinal necrosis (ARN), and whether cytokine profiles are associated with clinical manifestations, such as visual outcome.

    Methods: Serum and aqueous humor (AH) samples of 19 patients with ARN were analyzed by multiplex immunoassay. Infectious controls consisted of 18 patients with rubella virus-associated Fuchs' uveitis and 20 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis all confirmed by intraocular fluid analyses. Read More

    Active safety monitoring of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme of Sri Lanka
    Ceylon Med J 2017 03 31;62(1):12-19. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.
    Objectives: This study was designed to report incidence and characteristics of selected adverse events following immunisation which have consistent causal association (AEFIc) with Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination given at the age of one year in the National Immunisation Programme of Sri Lanka.

    Methods: The data presented here were obtained from a cohort event monitoring study. It was carried out in the Jaffna Regional Directorate of Health Services area from November 2012 to December 2014. Read More

    Epidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon: a 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008-2014.
    BMJ Open 2017 Apr 7;7(4):e012959. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of rubella disease in a measles case-based surveillance in Cameroon prior to rubella vaccine introduction into the national immunisation programme.

    Design: This was a cross-sectional study for rubella infection in Cameroon for the period 2008 to 2014.

    Setting: Patients suspected with measles from the 10 regions of Cameroon were recruited according to the WHO measles case definition and were tested for rubella IgM antibodies accompanied with the case report/investigation forms. Read More

    Rubella Seroprevalence and real-time PCR detection of RUBV among Congolese pregnant women.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Apr 5;17(1):250. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, PoBox: 834, Kinshasa 11, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Background: Rubella is an acute infectious disease caused by Rubella virus (RUBV). RUBV remains an important pathogen worldwide, causing approximately 100 000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) every year; and the most severe consequence of rubella is teratogenicity. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of RUBV IgG antibodies and determine RUBV genotypes in Congolese pregnant women in Kongo central province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Read More

    Voluntarily Reported Immunization Registry Data: Reliability and Feasibility to Predict Immunization Rates, San Diego, California, 2013.
    Public Health Rep 2017 May/Jun;132(3):357-365. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    1 Public Health Services, County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Objectives: Accurate data on immunization coverage levels are essential to public health program planning. Reliability of coverage estimates derived from immunization information systems (IISs) in states where immunization reporting by medical providers is not mandated by the state may be compromised by low rates of participation. To overcome this problem, data on coverage rates are often acquired through random-digit-dial telephone surveys, which require substantial time and resources. Read More

    [Enterovirus infection during pregnancy: Underestimated cause of fetal and neonatal complications?]
    Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2017 Apr 31;45(4):231-237. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of obstetrics and gynecology, hôpital Foch, 92120 Suresnes, France; EA2493, UFR des sciences de la santé Simone-Veil, université Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 78180 Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.
    Enteroviruses are responsible for about one billion infections every year in the world. The clinical expression is in the vast majority asymptomatic cases (90%). Its consequences during pregnancy are rarely described. Read More

    Maternal rubella immunity status and pre-eclampsia.
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Mar 30. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong and Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong.
    Problem: To determine if maternal immune maladaptation associated with pre-eclampsia is reflected in the rubella immunity status.

    Method Of Study: Incidence of pre-eclampsia was compared between rubella non-immune and immune gravidae carrying a singleton pregnancy beyond 24 weeks, taking into account maternal characteristics and reported risk factors for pre-eclampsia.

    Results: The 9870 (10. Read More

    Screening for potential susceptibility to rubella in an antenatal population: A multivariate analysis.
    J Med Virol 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Virology, Royal Free Hospital, Pond St, London.
    Rubella causes disease in the fetus. Immunity to rubella is therefore routinely screened in pregnant women. In this retrospective observational study, we assessed the levels of potential susceptibility to rubella in the population of a north London antenatal clinic. Read More

    Effectiveness of Early Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination Among 6-14-Month-Old Infants During an Epidemic in the Netherlands: An Observational Cohort Study.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit and.
    Background.: Routinely, the first measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine dose is given at 14 months of age in the Netherlands. However, during a measles epidemic in 2013-2014, MMR vaccination was also offered to 6-14-month-olds in municipalities with <90% MMR vaccination coverage. Read More

    Measles outbreaks in the UK, is it when and where, rather than if? A database cohort study of childhood population susceptibility in Liverpool, UK.
    BMJ Open 2017 Mar 30;7(3):e014106. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Public Health and Policy, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Objectives: There was a large outbreak of measles in Liverpool, UK, in 2012-2013, despite measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisation uptake rates that were higher than the national average. We estimated measles susceptibility of a cohort of children born in Liverpool between 1995 and 2012 to understand whether there was a change in susceptibility before and after the outbreak and to inform vaccination strategy.

    Design: Retrospective cohort study. Read More

    Immunogenicity and safety of a novel MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) containing the Edmonston-Zagreb measles strain, the Hoshino mumps strain, and the RA 27/3 rubella strain: Results of a randomized, comparative, active controlled phase III clinical trial.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Mar 31:1-8. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    k Vaccine Technology Centre, Cadila Healthcare Limited , India.
    This phase III clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the single-dose and multi-dose formulations of a novel MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) developed by M/s Cadila Healthcare Limited, India (Cadila MMR vaccine), containing the Hoshino mumps strain, compared to that of an existing MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) developed by M/s Serum Institute of India Limited, India (Serum MMR vaccine). These two vaccines have similar measles and rubella strains, but different mumps strains (Hoshino in Cadila MMR vaccine, and L-Zagreb in Serum MMR vaccine). Three hundred and twenty-eight subjects of either sex, aged 15-18 months, were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either the Cadila or Serum MMR vaccine. Read More

    Vaccination campaign at a temporary camp for victims of the earthquake in Lorca (Spain).
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Mar 31:1-8. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    a Health Department , Vaccinations Programme , Region of Murcia , Spain.
    Outbreaks in temporary camps are an important risk for the health of the displaced population. The town of Lorca (Murcia, Spain) suffered 2 earthquakes on May 2011 that required the re-housing of 1,424 victims in a temporary camp. Following 4 cases of chickenpox control measures were adopted among the displaced population. Read More

    Antibody Response to Paramyxoviruses in Paget's Disease of Bone.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    The Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.
    Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a common skeletal disorder characterised by focal abnormalities of increased and disorganised bone turnover. Genetic factors play a central role in the pathogenesis of PDB but environmental factors also contribute. Measles virus (MV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) have all been implicated as potential disease triggers but the data are conflicting. Read More

    Acute Bilateral Photoreceptor Degeneration in an Infant After Vaccination Against Measles and Rubella.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2017 Mar 30. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama City, Osaka, Japan.
    Importance: Ocular inflammation is occasionally observed after vaccinations, and most of them resolve without permanent visual disturbances. However, there are some rare cases of severe ocular complications following vaccinations.

    Objective: To report the findings in an infant boy who developed an acute loss of vision bilaterally after Haemophilus influenzae type b, Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination, and measles and rubella vaccination. Read More

    Use of pre-travel vaccine-preventable disease serology as a screening tool to identify patients in need of pre-travel vaccination: a retrospective audit.
    J Travel Med 2017 May;24(3)
    School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University and Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
    Background: Vaccination is a safe and effective public health intervention that not only protects individual travellers from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), but prevents them from becoming a source of disease in their destination and on their return. Obtaining an accurate vaccination history from travellers during a pre-travel review can be difficult; serology may be used to identify patients who are non-immune to specific diseases in order to guide vaccination requirements. Clinically relevant data about the usefulness of serology in this setting are lacking. Read More

    Antibody Response to Live Attenuated Vaccines in Adults in Japan.
    Open Med (Wars) 2016 26;11(1):482-488. Epub 2016 Nov 26.
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Nara Medical University, Nara Japan.
    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy rendered with a single dose of live attenuated measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella containing vaccine. We inoculated healthcare workers (HCWs) with a single dose of vaccine to a disease lacking in antibody titer for those not meeting the criteria of our hospital (measles: <16.0 (IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA)), rubella: ≤1:32 (hemagglutination-inhibition), mumps: <4. Read More

    Improving transcriptome de novo assembly by using a reference genome of a related species: Translational genomics from oil palm to coconut.
    PLoS One 2017 23;12(3):e0173300. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Montpellier SupAgro, UMR AGAP, Montpellier, France.
    The palms are a family of tropical origin and one of the main constituents of the ecosystems of these regions around the world. The two main species of palm represent different challenges: coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a source of multiple goods and services in tropical communities, while oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is the main protagonist of the oil market. Read More

    Evaluation of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination Among Newly Arrived Refugees.
    Am J Public Health 2017 May 21;107(5):684-686. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    All of the authors are with the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Objectives: To assess US availability and use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination documentation for refugees vaccinated overseas.

    Methods: We selected 1500 refugee records from 14 states from March 2013 through July 2015 to determine whether overseas vaccination records were available at the US postarrival health assessment and integrated into the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices schedule. We assessed number of doses, dosing interval, and contraindications. Read More

    Successful administration of measles-rubella-mumps vaccine by graded challenge in a case with anaphylaxis after prior vaccination.
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2017 Apr;115(2):e89-e91
    Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Department of Pediatrics. Izmir, Turkey.
    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies during childhood along with cow's milk allergy. The measles-mumpsrubella (MMR) vaccine is included in the pediatric immunization schedule and contains egg protein. The currently accepted opinion is that the MMR vaccination should be done in a single dose under medical observation in patients with egg allergy. Read More

    Oral Viral Infections: Diagnosis and Management.
    Dent Clin North Am 2017 Apr;61(2):351-363
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Woodhull Medical Center, 760 Broadway, Room 2C-320, Brooklyn, NY 11206, USA.
    This article focuses on common viral infections in the oral cavity with associated systemic manifestations. Discussed are the clinical features, histopathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of viral infections in oral cavity. This will be a useful aid for general practitioners and other dental personnel wanting to expand their pathologic knowledge. Read More

    Trend of measles, mumps, and rubella incidence following the measles-rubella catch up vaccination in the Republic of Korea, 2001.
    J Med Virol 2017 Mar 17. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Department of Epidemiology, Seoul National University School of Public Health, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Following the introduction of measles-rubella (MR) catch-up vaccination in 2001 and two dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR2) keep-up program in 2002, the incidence of measles, mumps and rubella was not evaluated systematically. To describe the recent changes in epidemiology, a population based incidence study from 2001 to 2015 using national notifiable disease surveillance data was conducted. Between 2001 and 2015, there was decrease in the incidence of measles and rubella, whereas a steady increase in mump incidence was noted. Read More

    Effects on the anti-ABO titers of military blood donors from a predeployment vaccination program.
    J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2017 Mar 15. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    From the Department for Transfusion Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Background: The use of blood group O as "universal blood" for emergency whole blood transfusions carries the risk for a hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by incompatible A-/B-antibodies. This risk can be minimized by assuring that the donor has a low titer of anti-A and anti-B. The level of these naturally occurring antibodies have been shown to be increased by vaccination with most biologically derived vaccines. Read More

    Using mustard genomes to explore the genetic basis of evolutionary change.
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 2017 Mar 8;36:119-128. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Department of Comparative Development and Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne 50829, Germany. Electronic address:
    Recent advances in sequencing technologies and gene manipulation tools have driven mustard species into the spotlight of comparative research and have offered powerful insight how phenotypic space is explored during evolution. Evidence emerged for genome-wide signal of transcription factors and gene duplication contributing to trait divergence, e.g. Read More

    Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance inaugural annual report, 2014.
    Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 2016 Sep 30;40(3):E391-E400. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Deputy Director, National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Kids Research Institute, The Children's Hospital at Westmead; New South Wales.
    Introduction: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment of selected uncommon vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS enhances other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective detailed clinical and laboratory data for the same child.

    Methods: Specialist surveillance nurses screen hospital admissions, emergency department records, laboratory and other data, to prospectively identify hospitalised children aged under 15 years in 5 paediatric tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland. Read More

    Immunoglobulin GM and KM genes and measles vaccine-induced humoral immunity.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 6. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:
    Identifying genetic polymorphisms that explain variations in humoral immunity to live measles virus vaccine is of great interest. Immunoglobulin GM (heavy chain) and KM (light chain) allotypes are genetic markers known to be associated with susceptibility to several infectious diseases. We assessed associations between GM and KM genotypes and measles vaccine humoral immunity (neutralizing antibody titers) in a combined cohort (n=1796) of racially diverse healthy individuals (age 18-41years). Read More

    Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviours towards Recommended Vaccinations among Healthcare Workers.
    Healthcare (Basel) 2017 Mar 7;5(1). Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma, Italy.
    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important group of professionals exposed to biological risk during their work activities. So, the aim of this study is to perform a survey on the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of Italian HCWs towards the vaccinations recommended by the Ministry of Health. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period September 2014-August 2015 in the Lazio region. Read More

    Factors influencing uptake of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunization in site-dwelling Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (G&T) communities: a qualitative study of G&T parents' beliefs and experiences.
    Child Care Health Dev 2017 Mar 7. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Psychology, Social Work and Counselling, University of Greenwich, London, UK.
    Background: Increasing immunization in the Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (G&T) community is a key priority for improving health outcomes in this community. This study aimed to explore G&T parents: (1) beliefs about childhood immunization; (2) beliefs about the risks of immunization and non-immunization; (3) perceived obstacles to, and facilitators of, immunization and (4) views on increasing immunization levels.

    Method: A cross-sectional, qualitative study was conducted comprising of five focus groups with 16 site-dwelling G&T women with pre-school aged children. Read More

    Lack of immunity against rubella among Italian young adults.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Mar 7;17(1):199. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.
    Background: To support the evaluation of the 2010-15 National Plan for Measles and Congenital Rubella Elimination, the authors designed and performed a serosurveillance survey to verify the immunity/susceptibility rate against rubella among Apulian young adults.

    Methods: The study was carried out from May 2011 to June 2012 in the Department of Transfusion Medicine/Blood Bank of Policlinico General Hospital in Bari. Subjects were enrolled by a convenience sampling. Read More

    Vaccinations in early life are not associated with development of islet autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes high-risk children: Results from prospective cohort data.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 3;35(14):1735-1741. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany; Forschergruppe Diabetes der Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    Aims/hypothesis: Vaccinations in early childhood potentially stimulate the immune system and may thus be relevant for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). We determined the association of vaccination burden with T1D-associated islet autoimmunity in children with high familial risk followed prospectively from birth.

    Methods: A total of 20,570 certified vaccination records from 1918 children were correlated with time to onset of T1D-associated islet autoimmunity using Cox regression, considering multiple time periods up until age two years and vaccination types, and adjusting for HLA genotype, sex, delivery mode, season of birth, preterm delivery and maternal T1D status. Read More

    30-year trends in admission rates for encephalitis in children in England and effect of improved diagnostics and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: a population-based observational study.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Apr 2;17(4):422-430. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Unit of Health-Care Epidemiology, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Background: Encephalitis is a serious neurological disorder, yet data on admission rates for all-cause childhood encephalitis in England are scarce. We aimed to estimate admission rates for childhood encephalitis in England over 33 years (1979-2011), to describe trends in admission rates, and to observe how these rates have varied with the introduction of vaccines and improved diagnostics.

    Methods: We did a retrospective analysis of hospital admission statistics for encephalitis for individuals aged 0-19 years using national data from the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry (HIPE, 1979-85) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES, 1990-2011). Read More

    Measles epidemic in Brazil in the post-elimination period: Coordinated response and containment strategies.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 27;35(13):1721-1728. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Departamento de Saúde Comunitária da Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The measles virus circulation was halted in Brazil in 2001 and the country has a routine vaccination coverage against measles, mumps and rubella higher than 95%. In Ceará, the last confirmed case was in 1999. This article describes the strategies adopted and the effectiveness of surveillance and control measures implemented during a measles epidemic in the post-elimination period. Read More

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