16,576 results match your criteria Rubella

Burden of Rubella virus infection among females attending tertiary care hospitals of Odisha, India: a need for adult women vaccination.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 23:1-4. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Division of Virology, ICMR-Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, India.

Rubella is a contagious disease caused by rubella virus leading to adverse outcomes among pregnant women including abortions, low birth weight, stillbirths and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the baby. If not pregnant, the clinical manifestations are mild and self-limiting. In this hospital based cross-sectional study, 1985 blood samples were collected from females attending outpatient services of various hospitals to serologically detect Rubella infection. Read More

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Measles outbreak in Western Uganda: a case-control study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 22;21(1):596. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science & Technology, P.O. BOX 1410, Mbarara, Uganda.

Background: Measles outbreaks are prevalent throughout sub-Saharan Africa despite the preventive measures like vaccination that target under five-year-old children and health systems strengthening efforts like prioritizing the supply chain for supplies. Measles immunization coverage for Kasese district and Bugoye HC III in 2018 was 72 and 69%, respectively. This coverage has been very low and always marked red in the Red categorization (below the national target/poor performing) on the national league table indicators. Read More

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Temporal Trends in Undervaccination: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Am J Prev Med 2021 07 30;61(1):64-72. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Aurora, Colorado; Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado.

Introduction: Monitoring the trends in undervaccination, including that because of parental vaccine refusal or delay, can inform public health responses directed at improving vaccine confidence and vaccination coverage.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. The cohort included all children born in 2004-2017 with ≥3 well-child visits between ages 2 and 23 months. Read More

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Neonatal and maternal risk factors for hearing loss in children based on population-based data of Korea.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jun 12;147:110800. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: We identified the neonatal and maternal risk factors for hearing loss (HL) in children using National Health Insurance Service data of Korea.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from the National Health Insurance Service. Infants born from 2007 to 2013 were tracked to 2015. Read More

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Live Virus Vaccination of Pediatric Solid-Organ Transplant Candidates Within One Month Prior to Transplantation: A Multi-Center Experience.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 Jun 18:e13667. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at increased risk of vaccine preventable illness due to the high degree of immunosuppression required following transplantation. The current recommendation is to vaccinate with live attenuated vaccines, including Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) and Varicella (VAR) vaccines, at least 4 weeks prior to transplant. However, data to support the time interval between vaccine and transplant is limited. Read More

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Measles, mumps, rubella, varicella and influenza vaccination in children with acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome triggered by egg.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Allergy Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy characterized by the onset of delayed repetitive and projectile vomiting accompanied by other clinical manifestations such as pallor, hypotonia, lethargy, hypothermia and/or diarrhea (1). Acute FPIES can be classified as classic or atypical based on the absence or presence of sensitization to the trigger food (2). Read More

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The negative impact of most relevant infections on fertility and Assisted Reproduction Technology.

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Science and Odontostomatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Infections may act with variable impact on the physiopathology of the reproductive organs, determining infertility or reducing the outcomes of assisted reproduction technology. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the existing evidence regarding the pathogens with a supposed or recognized role in reproductive medicine. Viral hepatitis, as HIV, can reduce sperm quality. Read More

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Vaccine completion and infectious diseases screening in a cohort of adult refugees following resettlement in the U.S.: 2013-2015.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 16;21(1):582. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Refugees are frequently not immune to vaccine-preventable infections. Adherence to consensus guidelines on vaccination and infectious diseases screening among refugees resettling in the U.S. Read More

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Review of the measles epidemic in children from Central Eastern Europe in the third millennium.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 2;22(2):816. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Paediatrics, 'Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

Measles is an extremely contagious viral disease. Even though a safe vaccine exists for this disease, it remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in infants and young children. We aimed to create a retrospective descriptive study in which to analyze the evolution of the measles epidemic at the European level. Read More

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Use of M-M-R II outside of the routinely recommended age range - a systematic literature review.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Former Employee of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

M-M-R® (M-M-R II) is routinely used in many countries at 12-15 months with a second dose at 4 to 6 years of age. However, the vaccine may need to be administered at other ages due to delays in the immunization schedule or in certain situations such as outbreaks or international travel. A systematic literature review was conducted to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of M-M-R II among 6- to 11-month-olds and persons ≥7 years of age. Read More

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[Genotype and genetic characteristics of human respiratory syncytial virus circulating in Quanzhou, 2018-2019].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;101(22):1695-1699

WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China.

To study the prevalence and genetic characteristics of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in Quanzhou city, from 2018 to 2019. A total of 141 throat swabs were collected from children patients of lower respiratory tract infection in Quanzhou children Hospital, Fujian Province from November 2018 to May 2019. RT-PCR was used to amplify the 3 'end of G gene HRSV. Read More

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Mandatory Infant Vaccinations in France During the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020.

Front Pediatr 2021 28;9:666848. Epub 2021 May 28.

EPI-PHARE (French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety, ANSM; and French National Health Insurance, CNAM), Saint-Denis, France.

To describe changes in the dispensation of 11 mandatory vaccines to infants in France during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, considering the priming doses and boosters separately. With data from the French national health database, all dispensations of priming doses and boosters of 11 mandatory vaccines [penta/hexavalent, measles mumps rubella (MMR), meningococcal conjugate type-C (Men-C-C), 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13)] for infants ≤24 months old were aggregated by 4-week periods in 2020. Expected counts in 2020 were estimated according to counts in 2019 weighted by a ratio considering the level of vaccine dispensation before the pandemic onset in 2020. Read More

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Attenuation of antibody titer of measles and rubella virus among university students of department of healthcare providers during 2015-2018 in Japan.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Center for Medical Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: In Japan, measles elimination was confirmed in March 2015. Nevertheless, some outbreaks with cases imported from abroad were reported even after certification. A large rubella outbreak has been occurring since 2017. Read More

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Seroprevalence of measles and rubella antibodies in vaccinated and unvaccinated infants in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Lao-Lux Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Laos, Vientiane, Lao Democratic People's Republic. Electronic address:

Introduction: Even though measles vaccination was introduced in the Lao PDR in 1984, coverage rates remain consistently low and outbreaks continue to occur frequently. We investigated the seroprevalence of measles and rubella antibodies in vaccinated and unvaccinated children from Central Lao PDR.

Methods: Antibody titers of 1090 children aged 8-29 months who were vaccinated at different levels of the health care system were assessed by ELISA. Read More

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Epidemic preparedness: Prenatal Zika virus screening during the next epidemic.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 06;6(6)

Health Equity Action Lab, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a vectorborne infectious agent of global public health significance due to its potential to cause severe teratogenic outcomes. The question of whether health systems should consider adopting screening programmes for ZIKV infections during pregnancy warrants consideration. In this analysis, we apply the Wilson-Jungner framework to appraise the potential utility of a prenatal ZIKV screening programme, outline potential screening strategies within the case-finding pathway, and consider other epidemiological factors that may influence the planning of such a screening programme. Read More

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Progress Toward Rubella Elimination - World Health Organization European Region, 2005-2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 06 11;70(23):833-839. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

In 2005, the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region (EUR) passed a resolution calling for the regional elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) (1). In 2010, all 53 countries in EUR* reaffirmed their commitment to eliminating measles, rubella, and CRS (2); this goal was included in the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020 (3,4). Rubella, which typically manifests as a mild febrile rash illness, is the leading vaccine-preventable cause of birth defects. Read More

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Safety of measles, rubella and mumps vaccines in adults: a prospective cohort study.

J Travel Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Center for Geographic Medicine and Tropical Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, 52621, Israel.

Background: In recent years, multiple outbreaks of measles associated with vaccine hesitancy occurred in high-income countries, where measles incidence had previously been low. Most safety data about the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine are derived from studies conducted among children, whereas evidence regarding the safety profile of the vaccine in adults is scarce.

Methods: In 2017, during an outbreak of measles in Europe, Israeli travellers to high-risk locations who were incompletely vaccinated, were urged to complete the two MMR vaccination schedule before their travel. Read More

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Measles, mumps, rubella prevention: how can we do better?

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Jun 7:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

GSK, Avenue Fleming 20, 1300 Wavre, Belgium.

: Measles, mumps, and rubella incidence decreased drastically following vaccination programs' implementation. However, measles and mumps' resurgence was recently reported, outbreaks still occur, and challenges remain to control these diseases.: This qualitative narrative review provides an objective appraisal of the literature regarding current challenges in controlling measles, mumps, rubella infections, and interventions to address them. Read More

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Human Papillomavirus Infection at the Time of Delivery.

Cureus 2021 Jun 1;13(6):e15364. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Biophysics Laboratory, Stefan S Nicolau Institute of Virology, Bucharest, ROU.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most encountered viral etiologies of genital infections that are transmitted through the sexual route in sexually active females. In the genital area, condylomata acuminate warts and the Buschke-Loewenstein tumor (giant condyloma acuminatum) are described. These lesions are associated with benign HPV6 and HPV 11 types. Read More

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Safety and immunogenicity of Vi-typhoid conjugate vaccine co-administration with routine 9-month vaccination in Burkina Faso: A randomised controlled phase 2 trial.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: In 2017, the World Health Organisation (WHO) pre-qualified a single-dose typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) and identified TCV co-administration studies as a research priority. We tested co-administration of Typbar TCV® (Bharat Biotech International) with measles-rubella (MR) and yellow fever (YF) vaccines.

Methods: We conducted a randomised, double-blind, and controlled, phase 2 trial in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Read More

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Rubella seroprevalence among mothers and incidence of congenital rubella three years after rubella vaccine introduction in Vietnam.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 3:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Following a rubella outbreak in 2011, Vietnam implemented a mass measles-rubella vaccination campaign for children aged 1-14 years in 2014-2015, further expanding the target age to 16-17 years in 2016; routine vaccination was introduced in 2014. However, there was concern that a substantial proportion of women of child-bearing age were still susceptible to rubella, with the fear of congenital rubella emergence. Thus, we conducted a prospective cohort study in Nha Trang, Vietnam, from 2017-2018 to investigate pregnant women's susceptibility to rubella infection, the incidence of congenital rubella infection, and factors associated with susceptibility. Read More

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Population (Antibody) Testing for COVID-19-Technical Challenges, Application and Relevance, an English Perspective.

Peter A C Maple

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 24;9(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

Clinical Neurology Research Group, Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham School of Medicine, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK.

In the UK, population virus or antibody testing using virus swabs, serum samples, blood spots or oral fluids has been performed to a limited extent for several diseases including measles, mumps, rubella and hepatitis and HIV. The collection of population-based infection and immunity data is key to the monitoring of disease prevalence and assessing the effectiveness of interventions such as behavioural modifications and vaccination. In particular, the biological properties of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its interaction with the human host have presented several challenges towards the development of population-based immunity testing. Read More

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Response to Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) Vaccine in Transfusion-Dependent Patients.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 27;9(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Women, Child and General and Specialized Surgery, University "Luigi Vanvitelli", 80138 Naples, Italy.

Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) still determine significant morbidity and mortality, although a highly effective vaccine is available. Postponing the MMR vaccination until 6 months after the last red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is recommended, but this delay is incompatible with chronic transfusions. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of blood transfusions on the immunogenicity of the MMR vaccine. Read More

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Development of a Vaccine against Human Cytomegalovirus: Advances, Barriers, and Implications for the Clinical Practice.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 25;9(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Pediatric Emergency Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is one of the most common causes of congenital infection in the post-rubella era, representing a major public health concern. Although most cases are asymptomatic in the neonatal period, congenital CMV (cCMV) disease can result in permanent impairment of cognitive development and represents the leading cause of non-genetic sensorineural hearing loss. Moreover, even if hCMV mostly causes asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infections in immunocompetent hosts, it may lead to severe and life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. Read More

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Pneumococcal and Influenza Vaccination Rates and Pneumococcal Invasive Disease Rates Set Geographical and Ethnic Population Susceptibility to Serious COVID-19 Cases and Deaths.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 8;9(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Physiology, 567 Wilson Road, Room 1104 Biomedical and Physical Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

This study examines the relationship of pneumococcal vaccination rates, influenza, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccinations (DTP), polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (tuberculosis) vaccination rates to COVID-19 case and death rates for 51 nations that have high rates of COVID-19 testing and for which nearly complete childhood, at-risk adult and elderly pneumococcal vaccination data were available. The study is unique in a large number of nations examined, the range of vaccine controls, in testing effects of combinations of vaccinations, and in examining the relationship of COVID-19 and vaccination rates to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Analysis of Italian regions and the states of the United States were also performed. Read More

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Risk of Absence of Measles Antibody in Healthcare Personnel and Efficacy of Booster Vaccination.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 12;9(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Ewha Education and Research Center for Infection, Seoul 07985, Korea.

We aimed to identify the presence of the measles IgG antibody (mIgG-Ab) in healthcare personnel and finding out who needs the measles vaccination. The history of measles vaccination was obtained from the national vaccine registry. A baseline mIgG-Ab test was performed, and the measles vaccine was administered to participants who tested negative or equivocal for mIgG-Abs. Read More

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Ultrasound diagnosis of infections in pregnancy.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 May 14;262:188-197. Epub 2021 May 14.

Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Health Sciences University of Leicester, UK. Electronic address:

Pregnancy is a unique period in which several changes occur in the mother, to ensure that the semiallograft fetus is not rejected. Some of these changes decrease the immunity of the mother to infections. As such, some infections in pregnancy which may not ordinarily cause severe symptoms can be more severe in the mother and importantly some of these infections pose a danger to the fetus either directly or indirectly. Read More

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Safety of vaccines used for routine immunization in the United States: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 25;39(28):3696-3716. Epub 2021 May 25.

RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90401, United States; Southern California Evidence Review Center, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, 2001 N Soto Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033, United States.

Background: Understanding the safety of vaccines is critical to inform decisions about vaccination. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the safety of vaccines recommended for children, adults, and pregnant women in the United States.

Methods: We searched the literature in November 2020 to update a 2014 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality review by integrating newly available data. Read More

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Feasibility assessment of measles and rubella eradication.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 24;39(27):3544-3559. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

This report addresses the epidemiological aspects and feasibility of measles and rubella eradication and the potential resource requirements in response to the request of the Director-General at the Seventieth World Health Assembly held on May 31, 2017. A guiding principle is that the path toward measles and rubella eradication should serve to strengthen primary health care, promote universal health coverage, and be a pathfinder for new vision and strategy for immunization over the next decade as laid out in the Immunization Agenda 2030. Specifically, this report: 1) highlights the importance of measles and rubella as global health priorities; 2) reviews the current global measles and rubella situation; 3) summarizes prior assessments of the feasibility of measles and rubella eradication; 4) assesses the progress and challenges in achieving regional measles and rubella elimination; 5) assesses additional considerations for measles and rubella eradication, including the results of modelling and economic analyses; 6) assesses the implications of establishing a measles and rubella eradication goal and the process for setting an eradication target date; 7) proposes a framework for determining preconditions for setting a target date for measles and rubella eradication and how these preconditions should be understood and used; and 8) concludes with recommendations endorsed by SAGE. Read More

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Myocarditis combined with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Myocarditis can cause ventricular wall thickening due to myocardial edema. If the condition improves, the ventricular wall thickening should gradually decrease; a persistent thickening of the patient's ventricular wall indicates the coexistence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and myocarditis. A 30-year-old man was referred to our hospital with continuous chest pain accompanied by profuse sweating. Read More

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