16,991 results match your criteria Rubella


Effectiveness of immunization activities on measles and rubella immunity among individuals in East Sepik, Papua New Guinea: A cross-sectional study.

IJID Reg 2022 Jun 3;3:84-88. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Bureau of International Health Cooperation, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess measles and rubella immunity by measuring virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) prevalence among individuals and evaluate the effectiveness of recent supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) by comparing the antibody positivity rates of the SIA target age groups in 2015 with those in 2019 as measles and rubella are endemic in Papua New Guinea.

Methods: A cross-sectional study. The measles- and rubella-specific IgG levels of patients aged ≥1 year at two clinics in East Sepik province, Papua New Guinea were assessed with commercially available virus-specific IgG EIA kits. Read More

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Beware of α-lactalbumin as a hidden allergen in measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in the patients with cow's milk allergy.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2022 06;33(6)

Division of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine administered concomitantly with the measles-rubella vaccine in infants aged 8 months in China: A noninferiority randomized controlled trial.

Vaccine 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Guangdong Provincial Institute of Biological Products and Materia Medica, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510440, China; NMPA Key Laboratory for Technology Research and Evaluation of Pharmacovigilance, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510315, China. Electronic address:

Background: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of simultaneous administration of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine with the measles and rubella (MR) combined vaccine.

Methods: In this phase 4, randomized, open-label and noninferiority study, a total of 680 infants aged 8 months were enrolled and assigned to the simultaneous administration group (infants received the first dose of EV71 vaccine and MR vaccine on Day 0, and the second dose of EV71 vaccine on Day 28), or the separate administration groups (EV71 group: infants received two doses of EV71 vaccine on Day 0 and Day 28, respectively; MR group: infants received MR vaccine on Day 0). Blood sample was obtained on Day 0 and Day 56 to measure antibody responses to each of the antigens in terms of antibody titer or concentration, respectively. Read More

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Low Susceptibility of Rubella Virus in First-Trimester Trophoblast Cell Lines.

Viruses 2022 May 27;14(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Division of Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

We recently published an article about myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-independent rubella infection of keratinocytes in vitro, in which first-trimester trophoblast cells were shown as rubella virus (RuV)-resistant. Given an incident rate as high as 90% of congenital rubella syndrome in the first eight weeks of pregnancy, the RuV infection of first-trimester trophoblasts is considered key to opening the gate to transplacental transmission mechanisms. Therefore, with this study, we aimed to verify the susceptibility/resistance of first-trimester trophoblast cell lines, HTR-8/SVneo and Swan. Read More

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Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Administered Simultaneously with Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine, Group A Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine, Measles-Rubella Combined Vaccine and Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial in China.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 2;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of the enterovirus 71 vaccine (EV71 vaccine) administered alone or simultaneously.

Methods: A multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial was performed involving 1080 healthy infants aged 6 months or 8 months from Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Hunan provinces. These infants were divided into four simultaneous administration groups and EV71 vaccine separate administration group. Read More

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Exogenous Rubella Virus Capsid Proteins Enhance Virus Genome Replication.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 14;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Enhanced replication of rubella virus (RuV) and replicons by de novo synthesized viral structural proteins has been previously described. Such enhancement can occur by viral capsid proteins (CP) alone in trans. It is not clear whether the CP in the virus particles, i. Read More

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Impact of vaccine effectiveness and coverage on preventing large mumps outbreaks on college campuses: Implications for vaccination strategy.

Epidemics 2022 Jun 17;40:100594. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Recent mumps outbreaks among highly vaccinated populations, including college students, have called into question the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of routine two-dose measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR2) immunization. We aimed to estimate the VE required for a novel vaccination strategy (e.g. Read More

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Early childhood education staff are falling through a vaccination policy gap in New Zealand.

N Z Med J 2022 Jan 21;135(1548):96-102. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Office of Early Childhood Education.

The recent COVID-19 vaccine mandate among early childhood education (ECE) staff highlights the important role ECE staff have in the transmission of infectious diseases. However, there are no data on general vaccine uptake for this group in New Zealand. Additionally, the importance of ECE staff vaccination as a strategy to prevent illness has been rarely promoted in the past, and recommendations for other vaccinations in this group are lacking. Read More

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January 2022

Comparison of a chemiluminescence immunoassay and an enzyme immunoassay for detection of IgM antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV), and human herpes virus (HHV) -1 and -2 infections.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Purpose: Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable viral diseases have been increasingly reported globally over the past few years. The burden of congenital viral infections, their impact on physical and mental development and the resulting economic loss to the family and the community are also well known. IgM antibody detection has been convenient in the diagnosis of acute viral infections, particularly in settings with limited resources where molecular tests are not feasible. Read More

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EULAR/PRES recommendations for vaccination of paediatric patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases: update 2021.

Ann Rheum Dis 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

RITA, European Reference Networks, Brussels, Belgium.

Objectives: Recent insights supporting the safety of live-attenuated vaccines and novel studies on the immunogenicity of vaccinations in the era of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in paediatric patients with autoimmune/inflammatory rheumatic diseases (pedAIIRD) necessitated updating the EULAR recommendations.

Methods: Recommendations were developed using the EULAR standard operating procedures. Two international expert committees were formed to update the vaccination recommendations for both paediatric and adult patients with AIIRD. Read More

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Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded BILF1 Orthologues From Porcine Lymphotropic Herpesviruses Display Common Molecular Functionality.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 26;13:862940. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Infection of immunosuppressed transplant patients with the human γ-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), an often fatal complication. Immunosuppressed miniature pigs infected with γ-herpesvirus porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus 1 (PLHV1) develop a similar disease, identifying pigs as a potential preclinical model for PTLD in humans. BILF1 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) encoded by EBV with constitutive activity linked to tumorigenesis and immunoevasive function downregulating MHC-I. Read More

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Case Report: Rubella Virus-Induced Cutaneous Granulomas in Two Pediatric Patients With DNA Double Strand Breakage Repair Disorders - Outcome After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2022 2;13:886540. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, Immunology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin, Germany.

We report two patients with DNA repair disorders (Artemis deficiency, Ataxia telangiectasia) with destructive skin granulomas, presumably triggered by live-attenuated rubella vaccinations. Both patients showed reduced naïve T cells. Rapid resolution of skin lesions was observed following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Read More

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Vaccination policies for healthcare personnel: Current challenges and future perspectives.

Vaccine X 2022 Aug 31;11:100172. Epub 2022 May 31.

Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at occupational risk for acquisition of several vaccine-preventable diseases and transmission to patients. Vaccinations of HCP are justified to confer them immunity but also to protect susceptible patients and healthcare services from outbreaks, HCP absenteeism and presenteeism. Mandatory vaccination policies for HCP are increasingly adopted and achieve high and sustainable vaccination rates in short term. Read More

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Rubella antibodies in vertically and horizontally HIV-infected young adults vaccinated early in life and response to a booster dose in those with seronegative results.

Vaccine 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Very limited data are available on the persistence of rubella antibodies in vertically HIV-infected individuals who were vaccinated early in life.

Methods: Prospective, cohort study on 4 groups of patients: 96 vertically HIV-1-infected individuals (v-HIV), 69 horizontally HIV-1-infected individuals (h-HIV), 93 healthy controls previously vaccinated for rubella (vac-CON) and 20 healthy controls with history of rubella disease (dis-CON). A blood sample was collected and rubella antibodies were analyzed by ELISA. Read More

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Current status of human adenovirus infection in China.

World J Pediatr 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, WHO WPRO Regional Reference Laboratory of Measles and Rubella, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Measles Laboratory in National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, 155# Changbai Road, Changping District, Beijing, 102206, China.

Background: Outbreaks of severe, acute hepatitis among children have recently attracted global attention. The pathogen causing the outbreak remains unknown, but there is growing evidence that it may be associated with human adenovirus (HAdV).

Data Sources: A review of adenovirus-related clinical studies, epidemiological studies, etiological studies, and case reports was conducted by reviewers independently. Read More

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Leveraging a national biorepository in Zambia to assess measles and rubella immunity gaps across age and space.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 17;12(1):10217. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

International Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 415 N Washington Street, 5th floor, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA.

High-quality, representative serological surveys allow direct estimates of immunity profiles to inform vaccination strategies but can be costly and logistically challenging. Leveraging residual serum samples is one way to increase their feasibility. We subsampled 9854 residual sera from a 2016 national HIV survey in Zambia and tested these specimens for anti-measles and anti-rubella virus IgG antibodies using indirect enzyme immunoassays. Read More

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Evaluation of vaccination status of health care workers for recommended vaccines and their acceptance of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2022 Jun 17:1-6. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Introduction: Health care workers (HCWs) are disproportionately exposed to infectious diseases and play a role in nosocomial transmission, making them a key demographic for vaccination. HCW vaccination rates are not optimal in many countries; hence, compulsory vaccination policies have been implemented in some countries. Although these policies are effective and necessary under certain conditions, resolving HCWs' hesitancies and misconceptions about vaccines is crucial. Read More

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Iridian anterior segment OCT in rubella uveitis syndrome and cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis: a comparative study.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, C/Diego de Leon, 62, 28006, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: To compare iris affectation in cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis (CMVAU), rubella virus-associated uveitis (RVU), and healthy contralateral eyes, using swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-AS-OCT).

Materials And Methods: A comparative, transversal, retrospective study examining 60 eyes from 30 patients-18 eyes (17 patients) with CMVAU, 14 eyes (13 patients) with RVU, and 28 healthy eyes-was performed. Six-millimeter cross-sectional SS-AS-OCT B-scans were obtained in each iris quadrant. Read More

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Measles Elimination Successful and Its Relevant Challenges in Iran.

Int J Prev Med 2022 5;13:52. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

National Medical Emergency Organization, Ministry of Health & Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

Measles is an infectious childhood disease with some death annually. The expansion of the coverage of vaccination plan has significantly reduced the mortality rate of this disease. Given that the endemic measles virus is not transmitted in the country and based on Regional Verification Commission (RVC) for Measles and Rubella Elimination has declared that measles and rubella have been eliminated in three countries of Eastern Mediterranean Region including Islamic Republic of Iran, Bahrain, and Oman. Read More

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A Case of Painless Subacute Thyroiditis Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin.

Cureus 2022 May 12;14(5):e24949. Epub 2022 May 12.

Internal Medicine, Rochester Regional Health, Rochester, USA.

Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is characterized by severe pain in the anterior aspect of the neck and tenderness is present during the thyroid gland's palpation. It is commonly caused by viruses including mumps, measles, rubella, coxsackievirus, influenza, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Painless subacute thyroiditis is rare and can present as a fever of unknown origin (FUO). Read More

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Epidemiology of Congenital Rubella Syndrome Related to the 2012-2013 Rubella Epidemic in Japan.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

This study assessed the epidemiological characteristics of 45 congenital rubella syndrome cases in Japan following the 2012-2013 rubella epidemic. Rubella still poses significant health burdens and the uptake of rubella-containing vaccines among women of childbearing age should be improved. Read More

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Does the rubella immunoglobulin G affect the severity of COVID- 19?  : Rubella immunoglobulin G and COVID- 19.

BMC Microbiol 2022 Jun 11;22(1):156. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective & Aim: The coronavirus disease, so far (COVID-19) has brought about millions of infections and fatalities throughout the world. Our aim was to determine the correlation between rubella IGG titers with the severity COVID-19.  MATERIALS & METHODS: This study was conducted among COVID-19 confirmed patients over 18 years of age. Read More

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Nationwide Routine Childhood Vaccination Coverage During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Jordan: Current Situation, Reasons, and Predictors of Vaccination.

Int J Clin Pract 2022 24;2022:7918604. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Vaccination, Communicable Disease Directorate, Ministry of Health, Amman, Jordan.

Background: The healthcare system in Jordan faced substantial burden during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic including disruption of routine childhood vaccination services.

Aims: We sought, for the first time, to describe the impact of the 2020 pandemic on vaccination coverage of Jordanian children in Jordan and to identify the key contributing factors.

Methods: Nationwide vaccination rates were retrieved from the electronic records at the Ministry of Health (2018-2020) enrolling crude births of 220,057 Jordanian children during 2020. Read More

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Immunogenicity after outbreak response immunization activities among young healthcare workers with secondary vaccine failure during the measles epidemic in Korea, 2019.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Jun 8;22(1):530. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 123 Jeokgeum-ro, Danwon-gu, 15355, Ansan, Republic of Korea.

Background: Despite high vaccination coverage, measles outbreaks have been reported in measles elimination countries, especially among healthcare workers in their 20 and 30 s. This study was designed to identify measles-susceptible individuals and to evaluate whether primary or secondary vaccine failure occurred during measles outbreak response immunization (ORI) activities.

Methods: The study population was divided into three groups as follows: natural immunity group (Group 1), vaccine-induced immunity group (Group 2), and vaccine failure group (Group 3). Read More

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Assessment of mumps-containing vaccine effectiveness by dose during 2006 to 2020 in Quzhou, China.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2022 Jun 8:2086774. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Immunity, Quzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Quzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Mumps cases were reported frequently when a routine dose measles-mumps-rubella(MMR) achieved high coverage in Quzhou. The supplementary immunization activities (SIA) using measles mumps (MM) was conducted to control mumps outbreaks. The effectiveness of one and two doses of mumps-containing vaccine (MuCV) was assessed using surveillance data in this study. Read More

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Accelerating measles elimination in the Western Pacific Region during the calm between the storms.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2022 Jun 31;23:100495. Epub 2022 May 31.

Chief Expert in Epidemiology, Shangdong Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Jinan, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

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Evaluating vaccination coverage and timeliness in American Indian/Alaska Native and non-Hispanic White children using state immunization information system data, 2015-2017.

Prev Med Rep 2022 Jun 5;27:101817. Epub 2022 May 5.

University of Montana, Center for Population Health Research, Missoula, MT, United States.

Comprehensive estimates of vaccination coverage and timeliness of vaccine receipt among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children in the United States are lacking. This study's objectives were to quantify vaccination coverage and timeliness, as well as the proportion of children with specific undervaccination patterns, among AI/AN and non-Hispanic White (NHW) children ages 0-24 months in Montana, a large and primarily rural U.S. Read More

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Improved diagnostic and multiplex RT-qPCR for detecting rubella viral RNA.

J Virol Methods 2022 Aug 30;306:114555. Epub 2022 May 30.

Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

An examination of the nucleic acid sequence alignment of 48 full-length rubella virus genomes revealed that the 5' terminus of the genome is more conserved than the commonly used detection windows for rubella virus RNA located in the E1 protein coding region, suggesting that the 5' terminus could be a target for improving detection of all rubella virus genotypes. Two candidate primer sets were tested and the window between nucleotides (nts) 98 and 251 was found to have the greatest analytical sensitivity for detection of different genotypes. The new method had a limit of detection of four copies of rubella RNA per reaction with high specificity. Read More

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A case of wild-type rubella-associated cutaneous granuloma in ataxia telangiectasia.

Pediatr Dermatol 2022 May 29. Epub 2022 May 29.

Department of Immunology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK.

Granulomatous skin disease is known to be associated with various primary immunodeficiencies, including ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Recent reports of persistence of live vaccine strain rubella within such cutaneous granulomas have raised concern regarding the safety of vaccination. Here we report a case of cutaneous granuloma in association with AT, demonstrating wild type, rather than vaccine strain rubella. Read More

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Immunisation status of UK-bound refugees between January, 2018, and October, 2019: a retrospective, population-based cross-sectional study.

Lancet Public Health 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

Migrant Health Research Group, Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's, University of London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: WHO's new Immunization Agenda 2030 places a focus on ensuring migrants and other marginalised groups are offered catch-up vaccinations across the life-course. Yet, it is not known to what extent specific groups, such as refugees, are immunised according to host country schedules, and the implications for policy and practice. We aimed to assess the immunisation coverage of UK-bound refugees undergoing International Organization for Migration (IOM) health assessments through UK resettlement schemes, and calculate risk factors for under-immunisation. Read More

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