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    [The active offering of measles, rubella and mumps vaccine in new mothers: the experience of health facilities in one of the Local Health Unit of Rome, Lazio, Italy].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2016 Nov-Dec;72(6):589-597
    Dipartimento di Biomedicina e Prevenzione, Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata", Roma, Italia.
    Rubella is a contagious disease that can be very serious, especially in unvaccinated pregnant women. The best way to be protected is getting vaccinated: MMR vaccine is very effective at protecting people against measles, mumps, and rubella, and preventing the complications caused by these diseases. According to PASSI 2012-2015 (the Italian behavioral risk factor surveillance system) in the territory of ex ASL Roma C only 56% of women between 18 and 49 years were immunized against rubella, thanks to vaccination (34%) or past infection detected by rubeotest (22%); 2% was susceptible and 42% of respondents did not know their immune status against rubella. Read More

    Problem of rubella in Poland after compensatory outbreak in 2013
    Przegl Epidemiol 2016 ;70(4):549-554
    Department of Virology, National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland
    The attempt to estimate the real number of rubella cases in the years 2015-2016 in Poland was presented in this paper. The relations between number of reported cases of measles in 2006-2015y., the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of rubella among cases suspected of measles and the proportion of rubella among patients suspected of measles in the last 10 years as well as the results of serological examination in samples from 74 patients suspected of rubella collected in the first half of 2016 year were analysed. Read More

    Prophylactic antipyretics for prevention of febrile seizures following vaccination.
    Can Fam Physician 2017 Feb;63(2):128-130
    Question Parents of a 12-month-old boy are bringing their son in to my family practice clinic for his well-baby visit. As the infant is due for his 12-month vaccine series, the parents are concerned after hearing about the association between certain vaccinations and an increased risk of febrile seizures, and are wondering if they should administer prophylactic antipyretics to decrease the risk of febrile seizure. What vaccinations are associated with increased risk of febrile seizure, and is there evidence supporting prophylactic administration of antipyretics to prevent febrile seizures? Answer Vaccinations associated with increased risk of febrile seizure include the following: the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine; the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; the whole-cell pertussis vaccine; the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; and concomitant administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with either the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. Read More

    Is Colombia reaching the goals on infant immunization coverage? A quantitative survey from 80 municipalities.
    Vaccine 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 # 45 - 03, Edificio 471, Oficina 150, Bogotá D.C., Colombia; Instituto Nacional de Salud, Avenida Calle 26 # 51 - 20, Centro Administrativo Nacional, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. Electronic address:
    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the coverage of the Colombian Expanded Program on Immunization among children less than 6years old, to evaluate the timeliness of immunization, to assess the coverage of newly introduced vaccines, and to identify factors associated with lack of immunization.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 80 municipalities of Colombia, using a two-stage cluster random sampling. We attempted to contact all children less than 6years old living in the sampled blocks, and asked their caregivers to provide immunization record cards. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Skin Infections.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:26-32
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Read More

    Ethnic variation in medical and lifestyle risk factors for B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study among Israelis and Palestinians.
    PLoS One 2017 14;12(2):e0171709. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    School of Public Health, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Organization, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Background: Risk factors for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) have not been assessed among Palestinian Arabs (PA) and Israeli Jews (IJ).

    Methods: In a case-control study we investigated self-reported medical and lifestyle exposures, reporting odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CIs], by ethnicity, for overall B-NHL and subtypes.

    Results: We recruited 823 cases and 808 healthy controls. Read More

    Safety of measles-containing vaccines in post-marketing surveillance in Anhui, China.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0172108. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.
    The safety of measles vaccination is of great interest and importance to public health practice and the general society. We have analyzed the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) of currently used measles-containing vaccines (including live attenuated measles vaccine, live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine, live attenuated measles and mumps combined vaccine, live attenuated Measles, Mumps and Rubella Combined Vaccine) in Anhui Province, China. From 2009 to 2014, 9. Read More

    Vaccine adverse events in a safety net healthcare system and a managed care organization.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 6;35(9):1335-1340. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, United States; Ambulatory Care Services, Denver Health, United States; Pediatrics and Epidemiology, University of Colorado, United States.
    Background: The Institute of Medicine, in a 2013 report, recommended that the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) expand collaborations to include more diversity in the study population. Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO), an established VSD site, partnered with Denver Health (DH), an integrated safety net healthcare system, to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating DH data within the VSD. Prior to incorporating the data, we examined the identification of specific vaccine associated adverse events (VAEs) in these two distinct healthcare systems. Read More

    External Quality Assessment for Rubella Virus RNA Detection Using Armored RNA in China.
    Clin Lab 2017 Feb;63(2):399-405
    Background: Although tremendous efforts have been made to reduce rubella incidence, there are still 300 new cases of congenital rubella syndrome daily; thus, rubella infections remain one of the leading causes of preventable congenital birth defects. An effective surveillance system, which could be achieved and maintained by using an external quality assessment program, is critical for prevention and control of this disease.

    Methods: Armored RNAs, which are noninfectious and RNase-resistant, were used for encapsulation of the E1 gene of rubella virus and for preparation of a 10-specimen panel for external quality assessment. Read More

    A particular case of cytomegalovirus infection in infancy.
    Rom J Morphol Embryol 2016 ;57(4):1371-1374
    Department of Pediatrics, "Louis Turcanu" Emergency Hospital for Children, Timisoara, Romania;
    The clinical spectrum of perinatal infection varies from asymptomatic infection or mild disease to severe systemic involvement. The aim of this paper is to present a severe intrauterine infection, which led to difficulties in diagnosis and unfavorable evolution.

    Case Presentation: M. Read More

    Parents' and informal caregivers' views and experiences of communication about routine childhood vaccination: a synthesis of qualitative evidence.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Feb 7;2:CD011787. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Oslo, Norway, 0403.
    Background: Childhood vaccination is an effective way to prevent serious childhood illnesses, but many children do not receive all the recommended vaccines. There are various reasons for this; some parents lack access because of poor quality health services, long distances or lack of money. Other parents may not trust vaccines or the healthcare workers who provide them, or they may not see the need for vaccination due to a lack of information or misinformation about how vaccinations work and the diseases they can prevent. Read More

    The Need to Optimize Adolescent Immunization.
    Pediatrics 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana.
    The adolescent period heralds the pediatric patient's transition into adulthood. It is a time of dynamic development during which effective preventive care measures can promote safe behaviors and the development of lifelong health habits. One of the foundations of preventive adolescent health care is timely vaccination, and every visit can be viewed as an opportunity to update and complete an adolescent's immunizations. Read More

    The MRZ reaction in primary progressive multiple sclerosis.
    Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Feb 7;14(1). Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Breisacher Strasse 64, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.
    Background: The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three antibody indices (AI) against measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus and found positive in the majority of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, is absent in other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND). So far, it has been uncertain whether its differential diagnostic promise extends to patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS).

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of MRZR in PPMS compared to RRMS and OIND patients. Read More

    Vaccinations in migrants and refugees: a challenge for European health systems. A systematic review of current scientific evidence.
    Pathog Glob Health 2017 Feb 6:1-10. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    b Department of Infectious Diseases , Istituto Superiore di Sanità , Rome , Italy.
    The decline of immunization rates in countries of origin of migrants and refugees, along with risky conditions during the journey to Europe, may threaten migrants' health. We performed a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to assess the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases, and vaccination coverage among migrants and refugees in Europe. To this end, Medline and Cochrane databases were considered. Read More

    Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation - A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 3;35(9):1216-1226. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases/Travel Clinic, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Hirschengraben 84, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice.

    Objectives: To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT). Read More

    Danish MMR vaccination coverage is considerably higher than reported.
    Dan Med J 2017 Feb;64(2)
    Introduction: The Danish childhood vaccination programme offers protection against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR). Nevertheless, many children appear to be unvaccinated according to the national registers. The aim of this study was to estimate the MMR1 vaccination coverage based on a medical record review of children whose vaccination status is negative according to the register-based data. Read More

    Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case-Control Study.
    Front Psychiatry 2017 19;8. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine , New Haven, CT , USA.
    Background: Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children.

    Methods: Using claims data, we compared the prior year's occurrence of vaccinations in children and adolescents aged 6-15 years with the above neuropsychiatric disorders that were newly diagnosed between January 2002 and December 2007, as well as two control conditions, broken bones and open wounds. Read More

    Rubella in Sub-Saharan Africa and sensorineural hearing loss: a case control study.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Feb 1;17(1):146. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Otolaryngology Department, NOVA Medical School/Faculty of Medical Sciences, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo dos Mártires da Pátria, 130, 1169-056, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Background: Rubella infection can affect several organs and cause birth defects that are responsible for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Congenital hearing loss is the most common symptom of this syndrome, occurring in approximately 60% of CRS cases. Worldwide, over 100 000 babies are born with CRS every year. Read More

    The fate of retrotransposed processed genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Gene 2017 Apr 26;609:1-8. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Département de biologie et Centre de recherche avancée en génomique environnementale, Université d'Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address:
    Processed genes are functional genes that have arisen as a result of the retrotransposition of mRNA molecules. We found 6 genes that generated processed genes in the common ancestor of five Brassicaceae species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, Capsella rubella, Brassica rapa and Thellungiella parvula). These processed genes have therefore been kept for at least 30millionyears. Read More

    Large measles epidemic in the Netherlands, May 2013 to March 2014: changing epidemiology.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Jan;22(3)
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
    Since the early 1990s, the Netherlands has experienced several large measles epidemics, in 1992-94, 1999-2000 and in 2013-14. These outbreaks mainly affected orthodox Protestants, a geographically clustered population with overall lower measles-mumps-rubella first dose (MMR-1) vaccination coverage (60%) than the rest of the country (> 95%). In the 2013-14 epidemic described here, which occurred between 27 May 2013 and 12 March 2014, 2,700 cases were reported. Read More

    [Serological diagnosis of mumps: Value of the titration of specific IgG].
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Parotiditis, Centro Nacional de Microbiología (CNM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, España; Programa de Prevención, Vigilancia y control de las Enfermedades Transmisibles (PREVICET), Consorcio de Investigación Biomédica de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, España.
    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate a cut-off point of the titration of IgG by ELISA in the diagnosis of mumps.

    Methods: A study was made of serum samples from 85 mumps cases (confirmed by PCR in saliva) and 2,351 controls of the general population of the Region of Madrid.

    Results: The IgM detection was positive in 21 cases (sensitivity of 24. Read More

    Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome in the Philippines: A Systematic Review.
    Int J Pediatr 2016 28;2016:8158712. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    University of the Philippines Manila, Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines.
    Background. As part of regional elimination efforts, rubella-containing vaccines (RCV) have recently been introduced in the Philippines, yet the true burden of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the country is largely unknown. Objective. Read More

    Large T antigen variants of human polyomaviruses 9 and 12 and seroreactivity against their N-terminus.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jan 22. Epub 2017 Jan 22.
    5Robert Koch-Institut.
    The tumor antigens (TAgs) of mammalian polyomaviruses (PyVs) are key proteins responsible for modulating the host cell cycle and involved in virus replication as well as cell transformation and tumor formation. Here we aimed at identifying mRNA sequences of known and novel TAgs encoded by the recently discovered human polyomaviruses 9 and 12 (HPyV9 and HPyV12) in cell culture. Synthetic viral genomes were transfected into human and animal cell lines. Read More

    Measles and rubella elimination in the WHO Region for Europe: progress and challenges.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Jan 19. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Vaccine-preventable Diseases and Immunization.
    Globally measles remains one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. The World Health Organization (WHO) European Region has seen a decline in measles and rubella cases in recent years. The recent outbreaks have primarily affected adolescents and young adults with no vaccination or an incomplete vaccination history. Read More

    Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies.
    Viruses 2017 Jan 19;9(1). Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Herpesvirus Laboratory Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
    Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Read More

    Lakartidningen 2017 Jan 16;114. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Astrid Lindgrens Barnsjukhus - Stockholm, Sweden Karolinska Institut - Pediatrics Stockholm, Sweden.
    The national Swedish immunisation programme includes vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Pneumococcus as well as measles, mumps and rubella. Data were collected on hospital admissions for children 0- 17 years of age of vaccine-preventable diseases during 2008-2013 at Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Stockholm. Patients were identified by discharge diagnosis codes as well as from the clinical microbiology laboratory. Read More

    Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions About Routine Childhood Vaccinations Among Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mothers Residing in Communities with Low Vaccination Coverage in the Jerusalem District.
    Matern Child Health J 2017 Jan 16. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Faculty of medicine, the Hebrew University and Hadassah Braun School of Public and Community Medicine, Department of Health Policy and Management, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Background and aims Childhood vaccinations are an important component of primary prevention. Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics in Israel provide routine vaccinations without charge. Several vaccine-preventable-diseases outbreaks (measles, mumps) emerged in Jerusalem in the past decade. Read More

    Hearing-Loss-Associated Gene detection in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Jan 17:1-12. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    a Department of Neonatology , Guang Zhou Medical University, Maternal and Children Hospital of Guangdong Province , Guangzhou , Guangdong 510010 , China.
    Objective: To investigate the frequency and mutation spectrum of hearing loss associated gene mutation in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    Methods: Neonates (n = 2305) admitted to NICU were enrolled in this study. Nine prominent hearing loss associated genes, GJB2 (35 del G, 176 del 16,235 del C, 299 del AT), GJB3 (538 C > T), SLC26A4 (IVS7-2A > G, 2168 A > G) and mtDNA 12S rRNA(1555 A > G, 1494 C > T), were detected. Read More

    Hospital-based surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome in Indonesia.
    Eur J Pediatr 2017 Jan 13. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Global Immunization Division, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and severe birth defects in infants, resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. However, rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in Indonesia. This study aimed (1) to estimate the incidence of CRS in Indonesia, (2) describe the clinical features of CRS at our referral hospital, and (3) pilot a CRS surveillance system to be extended to other hospitals. Read More

    Association between perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and asthma and allergic disease in children as modified by MMR vaccination.
    J Immunotoxicol 2017 Dec 16;14(1):39-49. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    a Department of Environmental Medicine , University of Southern Denmark , Odense , Denmark.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. Read More

    Mumps Epidemiology and Mumps Virus Genotypes Circulating in Mainland China during 2013-2015.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(1):e0169561. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Medical Virology Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    With the implementation of mumps virus (MuV) vaccination in the expanded program on immunization (EPI) in mainland China since 2008, the incidence of mumps has decreased, and the natural epidemic pattern of mumps has slightly changed during 2013-2015. The two epidemic peaks (April-July and November-December) became less obvious than those observed from 2004 to 2012. Children and adolescents younger than 15, particularly in the five-to-nine-year-old age group, remain the target group and should be the focus of high-quality immunization activities in mainland China. Read More

    Infectious, atopic and inflammatory diseases, childhood adversities and familial aggregation are independently associated with the risk for mental disorders: Results from a large Swiss epidemiological study.
    World J Psychiatry 2016 Dec 22;6(4):419-430. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Aleksandra Aleksandrowicz, Stephanie Rodgers, Anja Tesic, Mario Müller, Wolfram Kawohl, Wulf Rössler, Erich Seifritz, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zurich, 8021 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Aim: To examine the associations between mental disorders and infectious, atopic, inflammatory diseases while adjusting for other risk factors.

    Methods: We used data from PsyCoLaus, a large Swiss Population Cohort Study (n = 3720; age range 35-66). Lifetime diagnoses of mental disorders were grouped into the following categories: Neurodevelopmental, anxiety (early and late onset), mood and substance disorders. Read More

    [Investigation on immunization program coverage rate and its safety in children with tuberous sclerosis].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jan;55(1):42-45
    Department of Pediatrics, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.
    Objective: To investigate the status of immunization of National Immunization Program (NIP) and its adverse reaction rate in children with tuberous sclerosis. Method: Questionnaire survey was adopted to identify the vaccination coverage and its adverse events; 72 cases of children with tuberous sclerosis and 78 normal controls (healthy children completing age-appropriate NIP) admitted to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from December 2014 to November 2015 were involved into this study. Result: The age-appropriate NIP coverage rate of tuberous sclerosis was 36%(26/72). Read More

    The end of measles and congenital rubella: an achievable dream?
    Ann Ig 2017 Jan-Feb;29(1):1-26
    Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy - Chairperson of the Italian National Verification Committee for measles and rubella elimination.
    Background: Despite substantial progress towards measles and rubella control, outbreaks continue to threaten elimination goals worldwide.

    Study Design: This paper aims to document progress towards the global eradication of measles and rubella. In particular, it investigates the major challenges faced by Italy in reaching the elimination goals. Read More

    Community-wide measles outbreak in the Region of Madrid, Spain, 10 years after the implementation of the Elimination Plan, 2011-2012.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jan 6. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    f General Directorate of Public Health of the Community of Madrid, Area of Epidemiology . C/ San Martín de Porres, 6; 28035 Madrid.
    We describe a community-wide outbreak of measles due to a D4 genotype virus that took place in the Region of Madrid, Spain, between February 2011 and August 2012, along with the control measures adopted. The following variables were collected: date of birth, sex, symptoms, complications, hospital admission, laboratory test results, link with another cases, home address, places of work or study, travel during the incubation period, ethnic group, and Mumps-Measles-Rubella (MMR) vaccination status. Incidences were calculated by 100,000 inhabitants. Read More

    TORCH seroprevalence among patients attending Obstetric Care Clinic of Haydarpasa Training and Research Hospital affiliated to Association of Istanbul Northern Anatolia Public Hospitals.
    North Clin Istanb 2015 25;2(3):203-209. Epub 2015 Dec 25.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Objective: Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex viruses are microorganisms that cause congenital infections and they are called briefly as TORCH. There is an ongoing argument for the screening of reproductive age women due to the high cost of tests. For a test to be used in screening, prevalence of disease in this population should be known. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus Infection Among a Rural Population of Côte d'Ivoire.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Jan/Feb;30(1):54-57
    5 Division 12 "Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Viruses Affecting Immune-Compromised Patients," Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany .
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus that can be pathogenic to humans. In particular, immunocompromised patients can develop life-threatening symptoms. In the present study, HCMV seroprevalence was investigated in a rural population of Western Côte d'Ivoire. Read More

    The influence of maternal exposure history to virus and medicine during pregnancy on congenital heart defects of fetus.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Dec 30. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Guangzhou Huayin Medical Laboratory Center. CO. Ltd, Guangzhou, 510663, China.
    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect. It is due to dysfunction of the heart and great vessels during embryo development stage, or the channel was not closed after birth. This study focuses on investigating the influence of virus infection and medicine history during pregnancy on the incidence rate of CHD of fetus. Read More

    Attitudes of Swiss Health Care Providers Towards Childhood Immunizations.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016 Dec 27. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    1 University of Basel Children's Hospital, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Basel, Switzerland 2 Clinical Trial Unit, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland 3 Department of Pediatrics, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland 4 Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland 5 Unit of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Department of Pediatrics, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland 6 Unit of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, HUG, Geneva, Switzerland and Pediatrics Center, Clinique des Grangettes, Geneva, Switzerland 7 Children's Hospital of Eastern Switzerland, St. Gallen, Switzerland 8 Center for Vaccinology, University Hospitals of Geneva and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: INFOVAC is a network providing information about immunization issues to health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of INFOVAC subscribers towards the current Swiss immunization schedule, potential modifications, and current and hypothetical immunization practices regarding their own children.

    Methods: In March 2015, a web-based survey was sent to 4260 physicians and pharmacists subscribed to INFOVAC. Read More

    Viral Posterior Uveitis.
    Surv Ophthalmol 2016 Dec 21. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Moorfields Eye Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Electronic address:
    The causes of posterior uveitis can be divided into infectious, autoimmune, or masquerade syndromes. Viral infections. a significant cause of sight-threatening ocular diseases in the posterior segment,, include human herpesviruses, measles, rubella, and arboviruses such as dengue, West Nile, and chikungunya virus. Read More

    FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN RUBELLA RETINOPATHY: Correlation With Photoreceptor Structure and Function.
    Retina 2017 Jan;37(1):124-134
    *Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Lions Eye Institute, The University of Western Australia, Western Australia;†Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia; and‡Department of Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia.
    Purpose: To illustrate altered fundus autofluorescence in rubella retinopathy and to investigate their relationships with photoreceptor structure and function using multimodal imaging.

    Methods: The authors report four cases of rubella retinopathy aged 8, 33, 42, and 50 years. All patients had dilated clinical fundus examination; wide-field color photography; blue, green, and near-infrared autofluorescence imaging and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Read More

    The MRZ reaction as a highly specific marker of multiple sclerosis: re-evaluation and structured review of the literature.
    J Neurol 2016 Dec 22. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Molecular Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Otto Meyerhof Center, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: It has long been known that the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) display an intrathecal, polyspecific humoral immune response to a broad panel of neurotropic viruses. This response has measles virus, rubella virus and varicella zoster virus as its most frequent constituents and is thus referred to as the MRZ reaction (MRZR).

    Objective: Re-evaluation of the specificity of MRZR as a marker of MS. Read More

    Challenges in Interpretation of Diagnostic Test Results in a Mumps Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated Population.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Feb 6;24(2). Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    In spite of a greatly reduced incidence rate due to vaccination, mumps outbreaks continue to occur in several areas of the world, sometimes in vaccinated populations. This article describes an outbreak in a highly vaccinated population in southwestern Ontario, Canada, and the challenges encountered in interpreting the results of diagnostic tests used in the outbreak. During the outbreak, patients were interviewed and classified according to the outbreak case definition, and specimens were collected for diagnostic testing according to Ontario guidelines. Read More

    Evidence of Mumps Infection Among Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    1Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, University of Kinshasa, School of Medicine, Kinshasa, DRC; 3Polio Program, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA, USA; 4McKing Consulting Corporation, Expanded Programme on Immunization, Kinshasa, DRC; 5Opgen, Inc., Gaithersburg MD, USA; 6Expanded Programme on Immunization, Ministry of Health, Kinshasa, DRC; 7Kinshasa School of Public Health, Kinshasa, DRC; 8Institut National de Recherche Biomedicale, Kinshasa, DRC.
    Background: Mumps is an acute viral infection and while the infection is usually mild, complications can lead to permanent sequelae including brain damage and deafness. The burden of mumps is currently unknown the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we therefore assessed susceptibility to mumps infection among children 6 - 59 months of age.

    Methods: In collaboration with the 2013-2014 DRC Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), we conducted a serosurvey to assess population immunity to vaccine preventable diseases. Read More

    Necrotizing Retinitis Secondary to Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Associated with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency.
    Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2016 23;2016:1495639. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Sanliurfa Children's Hospital, Sanliurfa, Turkey.
    A 20-day-old male infant who was born at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In retinal examination, peripheric retinal white-black color areas that correspond to necrotizing retinitis, moderate vitritis, macular and optic nerve head involvement, vascular leakage, and sheathing indicating perivasculitis were revealed. Despite the fact that CMV specific IgM was undetectable, CMV DNA with high viral load was found in his blood sample by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Read More

    Mumps, measles and rubella vaccination in children with PFAPA syndrome.
    Vaccine 2016 Nov 27;34(48):5903-5906. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Department and Clinic of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Wroc?aw Medical University, 2-2A Cha?ubi?skiego, 50-368 Wroc?aw, Poland. Electronic address:
    There is no published data regarding immunologic response to vaccinations in children with PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis). The aim of this study was to evaluate mumps, measles and rubella immunity in children with PFAPA. 31 children with PFAPA syndrome and 22 healthy children (control group - CG) were recruited to the study. Read More

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