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    Immunity against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adult asylum seekers in the Netherlands, 2016.
    Vaccine 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Read More

    Constrained minimization problems for the reproduction number in meta-population models.
    J Math Biol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    The basic reproduction number ([Formula: see text]) can be considerably higher in an SIR model with heterogeneous mixing compared to that from a corresponding model with homogeneous mixing. For example, in the case of measles, mumps and rubella in San Diego, CA, Glasser et al. (Lancet Infect Dis 16(5):599-605, 2016. Read More

    Methods for addressing "innocent bystanders" when evaluating safety of concomitant vaccines.
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Purpose: The need to develop methods for studying the safety of childhood immunization schedules has been recognized by the Institute of Medicine and Department of Health and Human Services. The recommended childhood immunization schedule includes multiple vaccines in a visit. A key concern is safety of concomitant (same day) versus separate day vaccination. Read More

    [The economic value of vaccinations: a systematic review of Italian economic evaluations and HTA reports].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 Sep-Oct;73(5):453-471
    Istituto di Sanità Pubblica, Sezione di Igiene, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italia.
    Introduction: Decision-making in healthcare should rely on evidence-based approaches able to make possible a transparent and robust assessment of all the aspects related to health technologies. One of the assessment elements is represented by the efficiency that is the specific objective of economic evaluations and also of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The collection and synthesis of evidence is the first indispensable step in order to foster a proper convey of scientific knowledge to the decision-makers. Read More

    [The elimination of measles and rubella in Italy].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 Sep-Oct;73(5):429-442
    Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Sapienza Università di Roma, Italia.
    Despite the WHO target for measles and rubella elimination in 2015, outbreaks still occur in all WHO Regions. After a description of the epidemiological situation of measles and rubella worldwide and especially in Europe, this paper aims to provide a detailed analysis of the current epidemiological context of Italy. The surge in the number of measles cases since the beginning of 2017, together with vaccination coverage still far from the 95% target, requires priority actions to be taken to achieve the elimination goals. Read More

    [The new National Immunization Program 2017-2019 and the Essential Care Levels: what is going to change?]
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 Sep-Oct;73(5):405-418
    Istituto di Sanità Pubblica, Sezione di Igiene, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italia.
    Italy is witnessing relevant challenges in the field of prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases. The worrying and growing phenomenon of "vaccine-hesitancy" has contributed to the reduction of vaccination coverage, undermining goals reached thanks to vaccines introduction. The new Italian National Immunization Plan (NIP) 2017-2019 and the update of the list of Essential Care Levels (LEA), approved in the current year, extend the vaccination offer based on the latest scientific evidence with the introduction of new vaccines and the enlargement of target population. Read More

    Long-term Seroprotection Rates Following One-dose Measles (9-month) and One-dose MMR Vaccination (15 months) in Indian Children.
    Indian Pediatr 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatric Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Objective: To find out seropositivity rates at 4-6 and 9-12 years of age; among those who received one-dose measles at 9 months and one-dose MMR at 15 months of age.

    Methods: 80 healthy children (53 males) at 4-6 or 9-12 years of age, attending outpatient department for vaccination were enrolled. Antibody titers were estimated using commercially available quantitative-IgG ELISA kits. Read More

    The impact of immunization programs on 10 vaccine preventable diseases in Italy: 1900-2015.
    Vaccine 2018 Mar 7;36(11):1435-1443. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian National Institute of Health), Rome, Italy.
    Background: Vaccination has determined a dramatic decline in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases over the last century. However, low perceived risk of the infectious threat and increased concern about vaccines' safety led to a reduction in vaccine coverage, with increased risk of disease outbreaks.

    Methods: Annual surveillance data of nationally communicable infectious diseases in Italy between 1900 and 2015 were used to derive trends in morbidity and mortality rates before and after vaccine introduction, focusing particularly on the effect of vaccination programs. Read More

    Safety of live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella and herpes zoster vaccination in multiple myeloma patients on maintenance lenalidomide or bortezomib after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.
    Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
    Attenuated live virus vaccinations are generally recommended 24 months following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. To date, there are no data regarding the safety of live-attenuated herpes zoster or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations in multiple myeloma patients on maintenance lenalidomide or bortezomib following autologous HCT. One hundred thirty-seven multiple myeloma patients on maintenance lenalidomide or bortezomib post-auto-HCT who received either MMR or herpes zoster vaccine were analyzed and any adverse events documented in the medical record in the 42 days following vaccination were recorded. Read More

    National immunization strategies targeting migrants in six European countries.
    Vaccine 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:
    Over the last three years an unprecedented flow of migrants arrived in Europe. There is evidence that vaccine preventable diseases have caused outbreaks in migrant holding centres. These outbreaks can be favored by a combination of factors including low immunization coverage, bad conditions that migrants face during their exhausting journey and overcrowding within holding facilities. Read More

    Safety and Immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine in 4-6 Year-Old Girls: Results to Month 12 from a Randomized Trial.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    GSK, Wavre, Belgium.
    Background: The burden of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in Latin America. The suboptimal HPV vaccination coverage in adolescents could be improved by pediatric immunization. HPV vaccination has not yet been reported in girls aged <9 years. Read More

    Seroprevalence of antibodies to measles and rubella eight months after a vaccination campaign in the southeast of Iran.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    c National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella , School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
    Eight months after the mass immunization campaign of November 2015 against measles and rubella in the southeast of Iran, in order to evaluate the sero-immunity level of the people living in the mentioned region, a serosurvey study was performed. Using a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling, the sera of 1,056 participants, ranging from 15 months to 20 years old, were tested for measles and rubella IgG antibodies in the National Reference Laboratory at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The seroprevalence rates of antibodies against measles and rubella in the age groups below 16 years were respectively 98. Read More

    What mother know about vaccine preventable diseases?
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(4):595-602
    Chair of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow
    Introduction And Objective: The improving epidemiological situation of the most of communicable diseases causes, that the real and potential risks attributable to them have been forgotten. The aim of study was to determine the mothers knowledge about vaccine preventable diseases

    Materials And Methods: A survey was conducted among 177 randomly selected mothers. The interviews with mothers hospitalized after childbearing in two hospitals in Krakow and Myslenice were conducted at the end of 2014 and in 2015

    Results: The assessment of risk to develop an infectious diseases in unvaccinated children significantly varied among mothers. Read More

    Case 4-2018: A Newborn with Thrombocytopenia, Cataracts, and Hepatosplenomegaly.
    N Engl J Med 2018 Feb;378(6):564-572
    From the Departments of Pediatrics and Infection Prevention, Yale New Haven Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, Yale School of Medicine and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (R.S.B.); the Departments of Radiology (K.N.), Pediatrics (K.A.S., V.M.P.), and Pathology (V.M.P.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Departments of Radiology (K.N.), Pediatrics (K.A.S.), and Pathology (V.M.P.), Harvard Medical School - both in Boston; and the Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.A.P.).

    Use of electronic immunization registry in the surveillance of adverse events following immunization.
    Rev Saude Publica 2018 Feb 5;52. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública. Departamento de Epidemiologia. São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Objective: To describe adverse events following vaccination (AEFV) of children under two years old and analyze trend of this events from 2000 to 2013, in the city of Araraquara (SP), Brazil.

    Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted with data of the passive surveillance system of AEFV that is available in the electronic immunization registry (EIR) of the computerized medical record of the municipal health service (Juarez System). The study variables were: age, gender, vaccine, dose, clinical manifestations and hospitalization. Read More

    Microcephaly in Piauí, Brazil: descriptive study during the Zika virus epidemic, 2015-2016.
    Epidemiol Serv Saude 2018 Feb 1;27(1):e20163692. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Brasília, DF, Brasil.
    Objective: to describe the occurrence and characteristics of microcephaly cases in Piauí, Brazil, during an epidemic of Zika virus infection in 2015-2016.

    Methods: descriptive study using data of live births from January/2015 to January/2016, obtained from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc), the Public Health Events Registry (RESP) and the active search for medical records; mothers and live births were tested for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, besides syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes (STORCH).

    Results: of the 75 microcephaly cases, 34 were related to congenital infectious process; microcephaly prevalence was of 13. Read More

    Intravitreal aflibercept for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization associated with rubella retinopathy.
    Int Ophthalmol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Retinal Diseases, Ulucanlar Eye Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Purpose: To report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with rubella retinopathy (RR) treated with intravitreal aflibercept.

    Case Presentation: A 15-year-old girl presented a complaint of visual decrease in her left eye. She had a history of hearing decrease since she was 1 year old in addition to patent ductus arteriosus. Read More

    Zika virus: a public health perspective.
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Zika virus' impact on pregnancy became widely known in 2015 with a dramatic increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly in Recife, Brazil. A mosquito-borne virus resulting in congenital anomalies is unique, and Zika's ability to cause neurological defects on a large scale was a grim reminder of the Rubella epidemic in the 1950s. Over the past 2 years, studies have provided insight on how Zika virus (ZIKV) infects cells and causes disease, but much remains unknown about the long-term risks of Zika exposure on infant growth and development. Read More

    Aetiological study of viruses causing acute encephalitis syndrome in North West India.
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2017 Oct-Dec;35(4):529-534
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Advanced Basic Sciences and Clinical Research Laboratory, ICMR Grade 1/ DHR State, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
    Context: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a serious public health problem, caused mainly by viruses. However, the profile of viruses causing AES in Rajasthan is not well characterised.

    Aims: The present study was undertaken to identify the viruses causing AES and develop diagnostic algorithm so as to help in improved diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. Read More

    Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered by disposable-syringe jet injector in India: A randomized, parallel group, non-inferiority trial.
    Vaccine 2018 Feb 1;36(9):1220-1226. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India. Electronic address:
    Background: We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority, clinical study of MMR vaccine by a disposable-syringe jet injector (DSJI) in toddlers in India in comparison with the conventional administration.

    Methods: MMR vaccine was administered subcutaneously by DSJI or needle-syringe (N-S) to toddlers (15-18 months) who had received a measles vaccine at 9 months. Seropositivity to measles, mumps, and rubella serum IgG antibodies was assessed 35 days after vaccination. Read More

    Safety of live vaccines on immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapy-a retrospective study in three Swiss Travel Clinics.
    J Travel Med 2018 Jan;25(1)
    Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 6, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Patients increasingly benefit from immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory medications for a range of conditions allowing them a lifestyle similar to healthy individuals, including travel. However, the administration of live vaccines to immunodeficient patients bears the risk of replication of the attenuated vaccine microorganism. Therefore, live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppression. Read More

    Immunisation rates among children in Nuuk.
    Int J Circumpolar Health 2018 Dec;77(1):1426948
    b Queen Ingrid Health Care Centre , Nuuk , Greenland.
    The children immunisation programme in Greenland correlates to the one in Denmark with the addition of the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccine and the immunisation against Hepatitis B (HBV). The immunisation rate among children in Greenland has been and is currently unknown and this study aims to estimate the immunisation rates among children in Nuuk from 1 July 2015 until 30 June 2016. We did an observational cross-sectional study based on a statistical extraction identifying all children in Nuuk eligible for an immunization in the children immunisation programme from 1 July 2015 until 30 June 2016 and a review of their medical records. Read More

    The MRZ reaction helps to distinguish rheumatologic disorders with central nervous involvement from multiple sclerosis.
    BMC Neurol 2018 Jan 31;18(1):14. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, D-79106, Freiburg, Germany.
    Background: Some rheumatologic disorders may initially manifest with central nervous system (CNS) affection, mimicking the clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid findings of multiple sclerosis (MS). The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three respective antibody indices (AIs) against measles, rubella, and varicella zoster virus, has been found positive frequently in MS patients. However, it is unclear whether the MRZR is helpful to distinguish rheumatologic disorders with CNS involvement (RDwCNS) from MS. Read More

    Assessment of mumps-containing vaccine effectiveness during an outbreak: Importance to introduce the 2-dose schedule for China.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Jan 29:1-6. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    a Department of National Immunization Program , Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing , China.
    Introduction: China has used 3 different mumps-containing vaccines (MuCV) since 1990: monovalent mumps vaccine, measles-mumps (MM) vaccine, and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, and one dose MuCV (using MMR at 18 months) has been included in the EPI since 2007. MuCV effectiveness has been of concern following large-scale mumps outbreaks. In 2015, an outbreak of mumps occurred in a primary school, which allow us assess vaccine effectiveness of different MuCVs. Read More

    An Intraocular Inflammatory Profile of Rubella Associated Uveitis.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Jan 25:1-6. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    b Department of Immunology, Laboratory Medical Immunology, Erasmus MC , University Medical Center , Rotterdam , The Netherlands.
    Purpose: To analyze intraocular cytokine levels and cell profiles in patients with rubella virus-associated uveitis (RVU).

    Methods: We collected intraocular fluid samples from patients with RVU (n = 10), uveitis of other causes (n = 27), and cataract (n = 22). Levels of 15 cytokines (IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-6, IL-6rα, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-23, TARC, MCP-1, TNF-α, PlGF, and VEGF) were measured using multiplex assay, and intraocular cell populations were determined by multiparameter flowcytometry. Read More

    Disease burden of psittacosis in the Netherlands.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Feb 24;146(3):303-305. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Centre for Epidemiology and Surveillance of Infectious Diseases,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM),P.O. Box 1,3720 BA Bilthoven,The Netherlands.
    Psittacosis (infection with Chlamydia psittaci) can have diverse presentations in humans, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe systemic disease. Awareness of psittacosis and its presentations are low among clinicians and the general public. Therefore, underdiagnosis and thereby underestimation of the incidence and public health importance of psittacosis is very likely. Read More

    Health risks and precautions for visitors to the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games.
    Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia. Electronic address:
    Background: In 2020, Japan will host the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2020 (Tokyo 2020) which will involve a large population influx from various countries to Tokyo, the most populated city in Japan. We summarize the potential health risks for visitors to Tokyo 2020, related to communicable disease risks and other health threats, based on recent national and local surveillance reports.

    Methods: We reviewed up-to-date surveillance reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Tokyo Metropolitan Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. Read More

    Coverage and outcomes of antenatal tests for infections: a population based survey in the Province of Trento, Italy.
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018 Jan 17:1-7. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    c Clinical and Evaluative Epidemiology Department , Trento Health Service , Trento , Italy.
    Background: Rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV), HIV, and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections may have very severe outcomes during pregnancy, and for this reason, monitoring of infections in pregnant women is a requirement of prenatal assistance.

    Aims: To describe coverage and outcome of the screening for rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, CMV, HBV, HCV, HIV, and Group B Streptococcus in pregnancy in the Autonomous Province of Trento, Northern Italy (538,600 inhabitants).

    Methods: We analysed the coverage and outcome of the above-mentioned screenings among women who delivered in the hospitals of the Province of Trento between 2007 and 2014 (N = 38,712). Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of a meningococcal B recombinant vaccine when administered with routine vaccines to healthy infants in Taiwan: A phase 3, open-label, randomized study.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Jan 16:1-9. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    f Research and Development Center, GSK , Siena , Italy.
    Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high mortality and morbidity in infants and children worldwide. This phase 3 study (NCT02173704) evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a 4-component serogroup B recombinant meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) co-administered with routine vaccines in Taiwanese infants. In total, 225 healthy infants were randomized (2 : 1 ) to receive 4CMenB and routine vaccines (4CMenB+Routine) or routine vaccines only (Routine group) at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Read More

    Immunization in end stage renal disease: The perception of waiting list patients.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Background: The number of patients with chronic kidney disease is increasing worldwide, as well as the number of patients in kidney transplant waiting lists. In order to prevent infections related to immunosuppressive therapy, immunization guidelines for CKD patients before transplantation have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate adherence to immunization in a cohort of CKD patients in transplant waiting list and their renal replacement therapy clinics. Read More

    Effect of early natal supplementation of paracetamol on attenuation of exotoxin/endotoxin induced pyrexia and precipitation of autistic like features in albino rats.
    Inflammopharmacology 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, UP, 226 025, India.
    The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that paracetamol (PCM) can precipitate autistic like features when used to counteract vaccine-induced fever using experimental rat pups. The pups were treated with measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine, diphtheria tetanus and pertussis (DPT) vaccines and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with subsequent PCM treatment. The pups were evaluated for postnatal growth (weight gain, eye opening) and behavior alterations (swimming performance, olfactory discrimination, negative geotaxis, nociception, and locomotor activity) by performing battery of neurobehavioral test. Read More

    Characterization of Vaccination Policies for Attendance and Employment at Day/Summer Camps in New York State.
    J Pharm Pract 2018 Jan 1:897190017751947. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Pharmacy Practice, University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USA.
    Introduction: New York state requires day/summer camps to keep immunization records for all enrolled campers and strongly recommends requiring vaccination for all campers and staff. The objective of this study was to characterize immunization requirements/recommendations for children/adolescents enrolled in and staff employed at day/summer camps in New York state.

    Methods: An electronic hyperlink to a 9-question survey instrument was distributed via e-mail to 178 day/summer camps located in New York state cities with a population size greater than 100 000 people. Read More

    Recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of a Third Dose of Mumps Virus-Containing Vaccine in Persons at Increased Risk for Mumps During an Outbreak.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jan 12;67(1):33-38. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    A substantial increase in the number of mumps outbreaks and outbreak-associated cases has occurred in the United States since late 2015 (1,2). To address this public health problem, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed the available evidence and determined that a third dose of measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine is safe and effective at preventing mumps. During its October 2017 meeting, ACIP recommended a third dose of a mumps virus-containing vaccine* for persons previously vaccinated with 2 doses who are identified by public health authorities as being part of a group or population at increased risk for acquiring mumps because of an outbreak. Read More

    Vaccination titres pre- and post-transplant in paediatric renal transplant recipients and the impact of immunosuppressive therapy.
    Pediatr Nephrol 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Paediatrics I, University Children's Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Avoidance of vaccine-preventable infections in paediatric renal allograft recipients is of utmost importance. However, the development and maintenance of protective vaccination titres may be impaired in this patient population owing to their need for immunosuppressive medication.

    Methods: In the framework of the Cooperative European Paediatric Renal Transplant Initiative (CERTAIN), we therefore performed a multi-centre, multi-national study and analysed vaccination titres pre- and post-transplant in 155 patients with serial titre measurements in comparison with published data in healthy children. Read More

    Vaccination Policies: Requirements and Exemptions for Entering School.
    NCSL Legisbrief 2017 Dec;25(48):1-2
    National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, Colorado.
    (1) According to the World Health Organization, immunization prevents between 2 million to 3 million deaths every year across the world. (2) When immunization rates are high, herd immunity develops and limits the spread of the disease, which helps protect those who cannot be vaccinated. (3) Vaccination rates for measles, mumps and rubella vary across the United States, ranging from 85. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Rubella and Cytomegalia in Young Women from Biała Podlaska District.
    Pol J Microbiol 2017 Dec;66(4):543-545
    Innovation Research Center, Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education, Biała Podlaska, Poland.
    The aim of this study was to analyze the seroprevalence of rubella and cytomegalia among young women. The study included 175 healthy women from the Biała Podlaska District, aged 16 to 35 years. Anti-rubella and anti-CMV IgG were determined by ELISA. Read More

    A New Combined Vaccine Against Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella in India.
    Indian Pediatr 2017 Dec;54(12):1041-1046
    PD Hinduja National Hospital, and #GSK; Mumbai, India; and $GSK, Wavre, Belgium. Correspondence to: Dr Raunak Parikh,GSK, Dr Annie Besant Rd, 400030 Mumbai, India.
    A quadrivalent MMRV (measles-mumps-rubella-varicella) combination vaccine has recently been launched in India. This vaccine is highly immunogenic, with seroconversion rates against all antigens reaching 96.6-100% at 42 to 56 days after the second vaccine dose in unvaccinated children or in those previously vaccinated with MMR+/-V. Read More

    Measles, mumps, and rubella antibody patterns of persistence and rate of decline following the second dose of the MMR vaccine.
    Vaccine 2018 Jan 6. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    Center for Clinical Epidemiology & Population Health, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, 1000 North Oak Ave, Marshfield, WI 54449, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella decline 3% per year on average, and have a high degree of individual variation. Yet, individual variations and differences across antigens are not well understood. To better understand potential implications on individual and population susceptibility, we reanalyzed longitudinal data to identify patterns of seropositivity and persistence. Read More

    Epstein-Barr Virus, but Not Cytomegalovirus, Latency Accelerates the Decay of Childhood Measles and Rubella Vaccine Responses-A 10-Year Follow-up of a Swedish Birth Cohort.
    Front Immunol 2017 21;8:1865. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are ubiquitous and persistent herpesviruses commonly acquired during childhood. Both viruses have a significant impact on the immune system, especially through mediating the establishment of cellular immunity, which keeps these viruses under control for life. Far less is known about how these viruses influence B-cell responses. Read More

    Assessment of Humoral Immunity to Hepatitis B, Measles, Rubella, and Mumps in Children After Chemotherapy.
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey.
    Background: Cancer survival rates and longevity of patients after therapy have significantly improved during the last few decades. Therefore, lasting protection against infections should be provided.

    Procedure: A total of 162 children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled in the study. Read More

    Mumps Virus Nucleoprotein and Hemagglutinin-Specific Antibody Response Following a Third Dose of Measles Mumps Rubella Vaccine.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 8;4(4):ofx263. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: Recent mumps outbreaks among 2-dose measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine recipients have raised questions regarding the potential benefits of a third dose of vaccine (MMR3). If MMR3 provides a sustained elevation in mumps antibody, it may be beneficial for certain at-risk groups or as an outbreak control measure.

    Methods: Sera were collected immediately prior to MMR3 and at 1 month and 1 year post-MMR3 from 656 healthy adults aged 18-28 years in a nonoutbreak setting. Read More

    Measles and Rubella Global Strategic Plan 2012-2020 midterm review report: Background and summary.
    Vaccine 2018 Jan;36 Suppl 1:A35-A42
    101 Haviland Hall, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address:
    Measles, a vaccine-preventable illness, is one of the most infectious diseases known to man. In 2015, an estimated 134,200 measles deaths occurred globally. Rubella, also vaccine-preventable, is a concern because infection during pregnancy can result in congenital defects in the baby. Read More

    Measles and Rubella Global Strategic Plan 2012-2020 midterm review.
    Vaccine 2018 Jan;36 Suppl 1:A1-A34
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, United States.
    Key Highlights: 1. Measles eradication is the ultimate goal but it is premature to set a date for its accomplishment. Existing regional elimination goals should be vigorously pursued to enable setting a global target by 2020. Read More

    IgG antibody prevalence suggests high immunization needs in newcomers to Luxembourg, 2012.
    Vaccine 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    WHO European Regional Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health, 29 rue Henri Koch, L-4354 Esch-sur-Alzette and Laboratoire National de Santé, 1 rue Louis Rech, L-3555 Dudelange, Luxembourg. Electronic address:
    Vaccine coverage of the general population in Luxembourg is high, but refugees or asylum seekers may be incompletely vaccinated and susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. In order to assess protection rates, serum and oral fluid samples were collected from 406 newcomers aged between 13 and 70 years arriving between May and September 2012. Sera were screened for IgG antibodies against measles, rubella, mumps, hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis. Read More

    Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein-Independent Rubella Infection of Keratinocytes and Resistance of First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells to Rubella Virus In Vitro.
    Viruses 2018 Jan 4;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.
    Rubella virus (RuV), which belongs to the familyand genus, causes systemic infection in children and young adults and congenital rubella syndrome in developing fetuses if the infection occurs during pregnancy. The mechanisms of fetal infection by RuV are not completely understood. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is reported to be a cellular receptor for RuV; however, it is mainly expressed in the central nervous system. Read More

    Rubella natural immunity among adolescent girls in Tanzania: the need to vaccinate child bearing aged women.
    BMC Womens Health 2018 Jan 3;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre Göttingen, Kreuzbergring 57, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.
    Background: Rubella primary infection during early stages of pregnancy is associated with high risk of congenital Rubella syndrome (CRS). Prevention of CRS in the resource-limited countries requires multiple strategies. Here, we document the data on the magnitude of Rubella natural immunity among adolescent girls which is a crucial group in devising effective control strategies to prevent CRS. Read More

    Micro-planning in a wide age range measles rubella (MR) campaign using mobile phone app, a case of Kenya, 2016.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 22;27(Suppl 3):16. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    American Red Cross, US.
    Introduction: A Measles rubella campaign that targeted 9 months to 14 year old children was conducted in all the 47 counties in Kenya between 16th and 24th of May 2016. Micro-planning using an android phone-based app was undertaken to map out the target population and logistics in all the counties 4 weeks to the campaign implementation instead of 6 months as per the WHO recommendation. The outcomes of the micro-planning exercise were a detailed micro-plan that served as a guide in ensuring that every eligible individual in the population was vaccinated with potent vaccine. Read More

    A review of measles control in Kenya, with focus on recent innovations.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 21;27(Suppl 3):15. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    American Red Cross, Washington D.C, USA.
    Despite the existence of a highly effective measles vaccine and the decrease in worldwide deaths from measles by more than 79% from the 2000 baseline levels, measles today remains one of the leading causes of vaccine-preventable deaths in the world. The African region is a key player in the global fight against measles. Africa has made tremendous progress in its effort to immunize children and to control the disease, increasing its regional measles vaccination coverage from 56% in 2001 to 85% in 2010. Read More

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