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    Novel Mutations Causing Warburg Micro Syndrome in Two Italian Sisters.
    J Pediatr Neurosci 2017 Oct-Dec;12(4):360-362
    Ophthalmology Unit, Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    This report details two novel mutations causing Warburg Micro syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple organ abnormalities involving the ocular, nervous, and endocrine systems. Two Italian sisters were referred to our department for the assessment of congenital bilateral cataracts. They also presented with microphthalmia, postnatal microcephaly, severe developmental delay, and hypotony. Read More

    Adherence and immune response to revaccination following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at a pediatric onco-hematology reference center.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Apr 18:e12903. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Pediatrics, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Revaccination after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is necessary to compensate for the loss of immunological memory. The aims of this study were to evaluate the adherence to revaccination schedule and the humoral immune response to different vaccine antigens in HSCT pediatric and young adult patients.

    Methods: Patients submitted to HSCT for over 3 years were recruited. Read More

    Zika Virus IgG in Infants with Microcephaly, Guinea-Bissau, 2016.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 May;24(5):948-950
    We analyzed blood samples from infants born with microcephaly and their mothers in Guinea-Bissau in 2016 for pathogens associated with birth defects. No Zika virus RNA was detected, but Zika virus IgG was highly prevalent. We recommend implementing pathogen screening of infants with congenital defects in Guinea-Bissau. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Zika Virus and Rubella Virus IgG among blood donors in Rwanda and in Sweden.
    J Med Virol 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Statement of the problem Seroprevalence studies provide information on the susceptibility to infection of certain populations, including women of childbearing age. Such data from Central Africa are scarce regarding two viruses that cause congenital infections: Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging mosquito-borne infection, and rubella virus (RuV), a vaccine-preventable infection. We report on the seroprevalence of both ZIKV and RuV from Rwanda, a country without any known cases of ZIKV, but bordering Uganda where this virus was isolated in 1947. Read More

    Australian rubella serosurvey 2012-2013: On track for elimination?
    Vaccine 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia; University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: The World Health Organization has targeted rubella virus for elimination regionally. Australia was one of the first countries to implement a nationally funded rubella immunisation program, in 1971, and conducts regular national rubella serosurveillance studies. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in the Australian population by age and sex in 2012-2013, to compare the results with three previous serosurveys conducted in 1996-1999, 2002 and 2007 and to estimate the effective reproduction numbers (R). Read More

    Adverse effects of maternal enterovirus infection on the pregnancy outcome: a prospective and retrospective pilot study.
    Virol J 2018 04 16;15(1):70. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Service de gynécologie et obstétrique and Risk in pregnancy university department, Hôpital Louis-Mourier, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 178, rue des Renouillers, 92700, Colombes, France.
    Background: Enteroviruses account for about one billion infections worldwide each year, the majority remain asymptomatic. Data on enterovirus infections during pregnancy appear to be very rare. Several cases have been reported in the literature of fetal and neonatal complications attributed to these viruses, but prospective data on these infections during pregnancy are not available. Read More

    Vaccination status and needs of asylum-seeking children in Denmark: a retrospective data analysis.
    Public Health 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Danish Research Center for Migration, Ethnicity and Health, Section for Health Services Research, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, 1353, Copenhagen K, Denmark; Section of Immigrant Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Objectives: Asylum seekers to Europe may come from war-torn countries where health systems have broken down, and there is evidence that asylum-seeking children have low coverage of childhood vaccinations, as well as uptake of immunisations in host countries. Such gaps in immunisation have important implications for effective national vaccination programmes. How we approach vaccination in children and adults entering Western Europe, where as a group they face barriers to health services and screening, is a growing debate; however, there are limited data on the vaccination status of these hard-to-reach communities, and robust evidence is needed to inform immunisation strategies. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Zika Virus and Rubella Virus IgG among blood donors in Rwanda and in Sweden.
    J Med Virol 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Statement of the problem Seroprevalence studies provide information on the susceptibility to infection of certain populations, including women of childbearing age. Such data from Central Africa are scarce regarding two viruses that cause congenital infections: Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging mosquito-borne infection, and rubella virus (RuV), a vaccine-preventable infection. We report on the seroprevalence of both ZIKV and RuV from Rwanda, a country without any known cases of ZIKV, but bordering Uganda where this virus was isolated in 1947. Read More

    Identifying risk factors associated with acquiring measles in an outbreak among age-appropriately vaccinated school children: a cohort analysis.
    Ir J Med Sci 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Public Health, Health Service Executive South East, Lacken, Dublin Road, Kilkenny, R95 P231, Ireland.
    Background: A measles outbreak occurred in age-appropriately vaccinated children in a school in a town in the South East of Ireland in September-November 2013.

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with catching measles during the outbreak.

    Methods: Ninety-five children (4-5 years) in three classes, in the first year of primary school, were included in the study. Read More

    Unintended consequences and the paradox of control: Management of emerging pathogens with age-specific virulence.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Apr 9;12(4):e0005997. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
    We project forward total Zika virus disease (ZVD) under varying hazards of infection and consider how the age distribution of disease burden varies between these scenarios. Pathogens with age structured disease outcomes, such as rubella and Zika virus, require that management decisions consider their impact not only on total disease incidence but also on distribution of disease burden within a population. Some situations exhibit a "paradox of control" in which reductions of overall transmission decrease the total incidence but increase the incidence of severe disease. Read More

    Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome associated with cefotaxime and clindamycin use in a 6 year-old boy: a case report.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 9;28:218. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Healthy Sciences University, Umraniye Training and Research Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially life-threatening idiosyncratic drug reaction. It presents with extensive rash, fever, lymphadenopathy, hematologic abnormalities (eosinophilia and/or atypical lymphocytosis) and internal organ involvement. It has been described in association with more than 50 drugs. Read More

    Suppression of Melatonin Secretion in Totally Visually Blind People by Ocular Exposure to White Light: Clinical Characteristics.
    Ophthalmology 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Although most totally visually blind individuals exhibit nonentrained circadian rhythms due to an inability of light to entrain the circadian pacemaker, a small proportion retain photic circadian entrainment, melatonin suppression, and other nonimage-forming responses to light. It is thought that these responses to light persist because of the survival of melanospin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which project primarily to the circadian pacemaker and are functionally distinct from the rod and cone photoreceptors that mediate vision. We aimed to assess the integrity of nonimage-forming photoreception in totally visually blind patients with a range of ocular disorders. Read More

    The immunization status of children with chronic neurological disease and serological assessment of vaccine-preventable diseases.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Apr 6:1-17. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    d Pediatric Intensive Care Unit , Eskisehir , Turkey.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the age-appropriate immunization coverage in 366 children with chronic neurological disease (CND), to evaluate the use of vaccines not included in routine program, to evaluate serological tests for vaccine-preventable diseases and to describe the related factors in unvaccinated children. 95.6% of all children with had received age-appropriate vaccinations according to the actual National Immunization Program (NIP) during childhood. Read More

    How often do children receive their vaccinations late, and why?
    Saudi Med J 2018 Apr;39(4):347-353
    Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail.
    Objectives: To assess vaccination timeliness, risk factors associated with delays and the reasons for delayed vaccinations among children below the age of 3 years in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during the period of May 2016 to August 2017. Data were obtained from parents of children under the age of 3 years using a structured questionnaire comprised of questions about sociodemographics, physical well-being of the child and the reasons that are used to justify delayed vaccinations. Read More

    Peptide Sharing Between Viruses and DLX Proteins: A Potential Cross-Reactivity Pathway to Neuropsychiatric Disorders.
    Front Neurosci 2018 21;12:150. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Neurology, Universitätsmedizin Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    The present study seeks to determine potential associations between viral infections and neuropsychiatric diseases. To address this issue, we investigated the peptide commonalities between viruses that have been related to psychiatric and neurological disorders-such as rubella, human immunodeficiency virus, and herpesviruses-and human distal-less homeobox (DLX) proteins expressed in developing brain-namely, DLX1, DLX2, DLX5, and DLX6. Peptide matching analyses revealed a high degree of pentapeptide sharing. Read More

    Case-based surveillance of measles in Sicily during 2012-2017: The changing molecular epidemiology and implications for vaccine strategies.
    PLoS One 2018 4;13(4):e0195256. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Department of Health Promotion Sciences and Mother-Child Care "G. D'Alessandro" - Hygiene section, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Following the indication of the World Health Organization, a national plan for the elimination of measles was approved in Italy and this included the improvement of the molecular surveillance of measles viruses and the interruption of indigenous transmission of the disease. Nevertheless, large outbreaks continue to occur in almost all regions of the country, including Sicily. Here we describe the epidemiology and molecular dynamics of measles viruses as a result of the measles surveillance activity carried out by the "Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella" in Sicily over a 5-year period. Read More

    Humoral immune response of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors against the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination.
    Hematology 2018 Apr 3:1-6. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    d Oncology Center Jeddah , King Abdullah Medical City , Makkah , Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Background: There is a great risk of infection with viral-vaccine-preventable diseases like measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) infections after the end of chemotherapy treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which could have been prevented with MMR vaccination. Previous studies reported widely variable rates of seropositivity (seroprotection) for MMR after ALL treatment ends. Also, few studies evaluated the response to MMR booster vaccinations after the end of ALL treatment and reported unclear and difficult to interpret results. Read More

    Higher Rates of Protein Evolution in the Self-Fertilizing Plant Arabidopsis thaliana than in the Out-Crossers Arabidopsis lyrata and Arabidopsis halleri.
    Genome Biol Evol 2018 Mar;10(3):895-900
    Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno.
    The common transition from out-crossing to self-fertilization in plants decreases effective population size. This is expected to result in a reduced efficacy of natural selection and in increased rates of protein evolution in selfing plants compared with their outcrossing congeners. Prior analyses, based on a very limited number of genes, detected no differences between the rates of protein evolution in the selfing Arabidopsis thaliana compared with the out-crosser Arabidopsis lyrata. Read More

    Evaluation of nationwide supplementary immunization in Lao People's Democratic Republic: Population-based seroprevalence survey of anti-measles and anti-rubella IgG in children and adults, mathematical modelling and a stability testing of the vaccine.
    PLoS One 2018 29;13(3):e0194931. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Measles outbreaks have occurred in some countries despite supplementary immunization activities (SIA) using measles-containing vaccine with high vaccination coverage. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence survey to estimate population immunity in Lao People's Democratic Republic where repeated mass immunization has failed to eliminate measles.

    Methods And Findings: In this nationwide multistage cluster sampling survey conducted in 2014 based on probability proportionate to size sampling, blood samples were collected from 2,135 children and adults living in 52 randomly selected villages. Read More

    A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in 3 and 4-year-old healthy children in the UK.
    Vaccine 2018 04 22;36(17):2300-2306. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Bristol Children's Vaccine Centre, University of Bristol, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol BS2 8AE, UK.
    Aim: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus (dTap-IPV) vaccine (Boostrix-IPV, GSK) as a pre-school booster in 3-4 year old children as compared to dTap-IPV (Repevax, Sanofi Pasteur), when co-administered with mumps-measles-rubella vaccine (MMRV).

    Methods: This phase III, open label, randomised study was conducted in the UK between April 2011 and April 2012. Children due their pre-school dTap-IPV booster vaccination were randomised 2:1 to receive one of two different dTap-IPV vaccines (dTap-IPV or dTap-IPV) with blood sample for immunogenicity assessment just prior and one month after vaccination. Read More

    Prevalence and risk factors of measles seronegativity in a cohort of HIV-positive subjects: a retrospective study.
    HIV Med 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    Infectious Diseases Department, CHU Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Objectives: Measles infection is a vaccine-preventable disease currently resurging in Europe. HIV-infected subjects are at higher risk of complications following measles infection. We investigated the risk factors associated with being seronegative in a cohort of HIV-infected subjects. Read More

    [Incidence of biological accidents at work and immune status for vaccine-preventable diseases among resident physicians in specialist training at Ferrara University Hospital].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 Nov-Dec;73(6):633-648
    Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Italia.
    The hospital as a work environment is particularly characterized by various risks for healthcare workers (HCWs). The main risk is represented by biological accidents, associated with the parenteral transmission of pathogens. Biological injuries can occur during the care service and the manipulation of biological fluids. Read More

    Maternal virus infections in pregnancy and type 1 diabetes in their offspring: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
    Rev Med Virol 2018 Mar 22:e1974. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales Medicine, Sydney, Australia.
    Virus infections are implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes based on epidemiological, clinical, in vitro cell-based and molecular studies, and animal models. We reviewed the association between virus infections in pregnant women and development of islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes in their offspring. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, analysed using random effects models, of human studies from Medline and EMBASE without language restriction. Read More

    Seroprevalence of antibodies against varicella zoster virus and rubella virus among newly recruited expatriate healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study.
    BMJ Open 2018 03 22;8(3):e019339. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Community Medicine and Public Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
    Objectives: To assess the state of immunity to varicella zoster virus (VZV) and rubella virus (RV) among newly recruited healthcare workers (HCWs) in Kuwait before they begin work, and to determine whether there are differences in the prevalence of seronegativity according to nationality, gender, age group and occupation group.

    Setting: This cross-sectional study involved analysis of blood samples from workers newly recruited to the Kuwaiti healthcare system.

    Participants: All new non- national HCWs recruited during the study period (n=1540). Read More

    Assessing the Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit of Test-and-Vaccinate Policy for Supplementary Vaccination against Rubella with Limited Doses.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Mar 22;15(4). Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan.
    Elevating herd immunity level against rubella is essential to prevent congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Insufficient vaccination coverage left susceptible pockets among adults in Japan, and the outbreak of rubella from 2012 to 2013 resulted in 45 observed CRS cases. Given a limited stock of rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) available, the Japanese government recommended healthcare providers to prioritize vaccination to those confirmed with low level of immunity, or to those likely to transmit to pregnant women. Read More

    Imported case of measles in a university setting leading to an outbreak of measles in Edinburgh, Scotland from September to December 2016.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Apr 22;146(6):741-746. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    National Health Service,Lothian,Directorate of Public Health and Health Policy,Edinburgh,UK.
    In September 2016, an imported case of measles in Edinburgh in a university student resulted in a further 17 confirmed cases during October and November 2016. All cases were genotype D8 and were associated with a virus strain most commonly seen in South East Asia. Twelve of the 18 cases were staff or students at a university in Edinburgh and 17 cases had incomplete or unknown measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccination status. Read More

    Sleep EEG of Microcephaly in Zika Outbreak.
    Neurodiagn J 2018 ;58(1):11-29
    j School of Medicine , State University of São Paulo Julio de Mesquita Filho , Botucatu , São Paulo , Brazil.
    Microcephaly (MC), previously considered rare, is now a health emergency of international concern because of the devastating Zika virus pandemic outbreak of 2015. The authors describe the electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in sleep EEG of epileptic children who were born with microcephaly in areas of Brazil with active Zika virus transmission between 2014 and 2017. The authors reviewed EEGs from 23 children. Read More

    Benefits and challenges in using sero-prevalence data to inform models for measles and rubella elimination.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 19. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, USA.
    Control efforts for measles and rubella are intensifying globally. It becomes increasingly important to identify and reach remaining susceptible populations as elimination is approached. Serological surveys for measles and rubella can potentially measure susceptibility directly, but their use remains rare. Read More

    [Measles are eliminated in Denmark].
    Ugeskr Laeger 2018 Mar;180(12)
    Measles vaccination has led to a significant fall in the number of measles cases and measles-related deaths worldwide. However, many countries still struggle to eliminate the disease. To obtain elimination, a minimum of 95% vaccination coverage for both of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines is necessary as well as an efficient surveillance system and timely public health response. Read More

    Isolation of infectious Zika virus from a urine sample cultured in SIRC cells from a patient suspected of having rubella virus.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2018 8;60:e15. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Núcleo de Doenças de Vinculação Sexual e Sanguínea, Centro de Virologia, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    A great variety of viruses which cause exanthema share other clinical manifestations, making the etiologic identification a very difficult task, relying exclusively on the clinical examination. Rubella virus (RV) infection during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In the present report, we described the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) particles in urine samples and also ZIKV isolation in SIRC cells from the urine of a patient in acute phase of suspected rubella disease. Read More

    Blueberry muffin rash secondary to hereditary spherocytosis.
    Cutis 2018 Feb;101(2):111-114
    Department of Dermatology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
    The term blueberry muffin rash is used to describe the clinical presentation of dermal extramedullary hematopoiesis. The common culprits of this rash include a TORCH (toxoplasmosis, other agents, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes) infection or hematologic dyscrasia. Association of this rash with hereditary spherocytosis is extremely rare. Read More

    Imported Congenital Rubella Syndrome, United States, 2017.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Apr;24(4):800-801
    Although transmission of rubella virus within the United States is rare, the risk for imported cases persists. We describe a rubella case in a newborn, conceived in Saudi Arabia, in Texas during 2017, highlighting the importance of active surveillance and early diagnosis of this disease. Read More

    Epidemiological profile and progress toward rubella elimination in China. 10 years after nationwide introduction of rubella vaccine.
    Vaccine 2018 04 14;36(16):2079-2085. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Department of the National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) became available in China in 1993 and was introduced nationwide into the Expanded Immunization Program (EPI) in 2008. We evaluated implementation and impact of RCV from 2 years prior to nationwide introduction through the 10 years after nationwide introduction.

    Methods: We analyzed RCV lot-release (doses distributed) data, 1- and 2-dose RCV coverage, and rubella data from China's nationwide disease surveillance system to describe the current status and changes in rubella epidemiology between 2005 and 2017. Read More

    Public health significance of immunization and epidemic occurrence of measles.
    Med Glas (Zenica) 2018 Feb;15(1):46-51
    Cantonal Hospital Zenica, Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Aim To investigate epidemiological characteristics of the measles epidemic (risk factors and reasons for its emergence) in order to establish better control and prevention of future epidemics as well as to determine an influence of poor collective immunization of children against measles on appearance of epidemic disease. Methods An open retrospective epidemiological study of measles infection was conducted during the epidemic in Zenica-Doboj Canton (ZDC) in the period 2014-2015. Disease reports, Disease Reporting Forms for measles and rubella cases and the Bulletin of the Institute for Health and Food Safety Zenica were used for data collection. Read More

    The Role of the WI-38 Cell Strain in Saving Lives and Reducing Morbidity.
    AIMS Public Health 2017 2;4(2):127-138. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    University of California at San Francisco, USA.
    The modern success story of vaccinations involves a historical chain of events that transformed the discovery that vaccines worked, to administering them to the population. We estimate the number of lives saved and morbidity reduction associated with the discovery of the first human cell strain used for the production of licensed human virus vaccines, known as WI-38. The diseases studied include poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (chicken pox), herpes zoster, adenovirus, rabies and Hepatitis A. Read More

    Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Beijing, China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 03 15;18(1):130. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.
    Background: Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China.

    Methods: This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. Read More

    Immunopathology of Virus-Induced Anterior Uveitis.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 15;26(3):338-346. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    g Department of Viroscience , Erasmus MC , Rotterdam , The Netherlands.
    Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. Read More

    [Anaphylaxis related to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, 2014 and 2015].
    Cad Saude Publica 2018 Mar 12;34(3):e00043617. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Ministério da Saúde, Brasília, Brasil.
    The study aimed to describe cases and verify the frequency of anaphylaxis related to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine produced by manufacturer A and to assess associated risk factors. This was a case-control study (1:4) in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from July 14, 2014, to January 12, 2015, in children from one year to less than five years of age, vaccinated with MMR and reported with anaphylaxis, while the controls were without anaphylaxis. The measure of association was odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI), using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Read More

    Incomplete childhood immunization with new and old vaccines and associated factors: BRISA birth cohort, São Luís, Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.
    Cad Saude Publica 2018 Mar 12;34(3):e00041717. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Departamento de Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, Brasil.
    This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. Read More

    Quantifying the impact of mass vaccination programmes on notified cases in the Netherlands.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Apr 14;146(6):716-722. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment,Bilthoven,The Netherlands.
    Vaccination programmes are considered a main contributor to the decline of infectious diseases over the 20th century. In recent years, the national vaccination coverage in the Netherlands has been declining, highlighting the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation of vaccination programmes. Our aim was to quantify the impact of long-standing vaccination programmes on notified cases in the Netherlands. Read More

    Sonographic Diagnosis of Meningoencephalitis in Newborns and Infants.
    Ultraschall Med 2018 Apr 13;39(2):132-152. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Pediatric Clinic of the Social Foundation of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    Prenatal, neonatal meningoencephalitis and infections of the brain in older infants are often associated with serious complications which can be diagnosed by sonography through the open fontanelles. Most frequently postmeningitic hydrocephalus and subdural effusions occur. Rarer complications are brain abscesses and ventriculitis which are caused by gram negative bacteria such as E. Read More

    Evaluation of measles and rubella integrated surveillance system in Apulia region, Italy, 3 years after its introduction.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Apr 13;146(5):594-599. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences,University of Foggia,Foggia,Italy.
    This study aimed at evaluating the integrated measles and rubella surveillance system (IMRSS) in Apulia region, Italy, from its introduction in 2013 to 30 June 2016. Measles and rubella case reports were extracted from IMRSS. We estimated system sensitivity at the level of case reporting, using the capture-recapture method for three data sources. Read More

    Sequence and functional characterization of MIRNA164 promoters from Brassica shows copy number dependent regulatory diversification among homeologs.
    Funct Integr Genomics 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Botany, University of Delhi, New Delhi, 110007, India.
    The impact of polyploidy on functional diversification of cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. This is primarily on account of lack of well-defined structure of cis-elements and a universal regulatory code. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of sequence and functional diversification of paralogous and homeologous promoter elements associated with MIR164 from Brassica. Read More

    Copper Supplementation in Premature Infants With Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis.
    Nutr Clin Pract 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intermittent parenteral copper supplementation (IPC) on serum copper status and biochemical and hematological measures of copper toxicity and deficiency in premature infants with parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated cholestasis (PNAC). We performed a prospective nested observational study in premature infants with PNAC who received IPC after the development of PNAC. Infants with chromosomal disorders, TORCH (toxoplasmosis, parvovirus, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, human immunodeficiency virus) infection, metabolic disorder, and/or surgical abnormality of the hepatobiliary system were excluded. Read More

    Monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement in Fuchs' uveitis.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Mar 9;18(1):74. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.
    Background: Fuchs' uveitis (FU) is occasionarlly complicated with heavy vitreous opacity. We have performed vitrectomy procedures to remove vitreous opacity in affected patients as part of differential diagnosis for primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL).

    Case Presentation: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of five patients who first visited the Uveitis Clinic of the University of Tokyo Hospital between 2009 and 2013, were diagnosed with FU and underwent a vitrectomy for removal of dense vitreous opacity. Read More

    Autism Narratives in Media Coverage of the MMR Vaccine-Autism Controversy under a Crip Futurism Framework.
    Health Commun 2018 Mar 9:1-7. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    a Department of Communication , University of Utah.
    While previous studies in health communication have examined online news media regarding autism, there is a lack of research that critically examines how such media representations may stigmatize autism and seeks to eliminate the condition, particularly in the context of the resurging measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine-autism controversy. To address this gap in the literature, this study analyzes 153 articles that engage the MMR vaccine-autism controversy from the top 10 online news sources in the U.S. Read More

    Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Intervention to Increase Parents' Knowledge About the Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination and Their Psychological Empowerment: Mixed-Method Approach.
    JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2018 Mar 7;6(3):e59. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Institute of Communication and Health, University of Lugano, Lugano, Switzerland.
    Background: There is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of vaccination-related interventions. A major limitation of most intervention studies is that they do not apply randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the method that, over the last 2 decades, has increasingly been considered as the only method to provide proof of the effectiveness of an intervention and, consequently, as the most important instrument in deciding whether to adopt an intervention or not. This study, however, holds that methods other than RCTs also can produce meaningful results. Read More

    False-Positive Monospot in a Returning Traveler with Dengue Fever.
    Mil Med 2018 Mar;183(3-4):e235-e236
    Internal Medicine Department, Naval Medical Center, 620 John Paul Jones Circle, Portsmouth, VA 23708.
    The heterophile antibody (Monospot), initial test of choice for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated infectious mononucleosis, is both sensitive (70-92%) and specific (96-100%). False positives have been demonstrated in cases of viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, leukemia, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rubella. We present a case of a 46-yr-old male who developed fever, chills, headaches, myalgia, fatigue, and photophobia 1 d after returning from the Philippines. Read More

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