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    Immunogenicity and safety of a second dose of a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine administered to healthy participants 7 years of age or older: a phase III, randomized study.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Jun 14:1-32. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    f GSK , 14200 Shady Grove Rd, Rockville , MD 20850 , USA.
    The introduction of vaccination programs against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) led to significant global reduction in morbidity and mortality from these diseases. The currently recommended MMR vaccination schedule in the United States of America comprises 2 vaccine doses typically administered at 12-15 months and 4-6 years, respectively. Considering recent outbreaks in the USA, catch-up vaccination with an additional dose of MMR vaccine could contribute to outbreak control and community protection. Read More

    Mandatory vaccinations in European countries, undocumented information, false news and the impact on vaccination uptake: the position of the Italian pediatric society.
    Ital J Pediatr 2018 Jun 14;44(1):67. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, Pediatric and Infectious Diseases Unit, Rome, Italy.
    Background: High rates of vaccination coverage are important in preventing infectious diseases. Enforcing mandatory vaccinations is one of the strategies that some Countries adopted to protect the community when vaccination coverage is not satisfactory. In Italy, in 2017 vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, measles, mumps, rubella and varicella became compulsory in childhood. Read More

    Diagnosis and outcomes of pregnant women with Zika virus infection in two municipalities of Risaralda, Colombia: Second report of the ZIKERNCOL study.
    Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Jun 9. Epub 2018 Jun 9.
    Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia; Colombian Collaborative Network of Zika, Chikungunya and Other Arboviruses (RECOLZIKA), Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia.
    Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has emerged as a significant threat for pregnant women and newborns in populations living in or visiting Latin America. We previously reported a preliminary analysis in Sucre, Colombia, as the first group of pregnant women with RT-PCR-confirmed ZIKV (ZIKa enEmbarazadas yReciénNacidos enCOLombia, ZIKERNCOL).

    Methods: In this second report, findings of the first 86 pregnant women from La Virginia and Dosquebradas (municipalities), Risaralda, Colombia, with RT-PCR-confirmed ZIKV infection are reported. Read More

    Post-immunisation fever and the antibody response to measles-containing vaccines.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Jun 11:1-9. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
    Department of Social and Preventive Medicine,Laval University,Quebec,Canada.
    Fever is a common adverse event following measles vaccination, more frequent among older children and those receiving Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella vaccine vs. Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine, two factors associated with a better antibody response. However, the role of fever in the immunogenicity of measles-containing vaccines (MCV) is unclear. Read More

    Vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccines and Guillain-Barre' syndrome.
    Vaccine 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Pediatric Clinic, Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:
    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy. Infections and vaccines have been hypothesized to play a role in triggering GBS development. These beliefs can play a role in reducing vaccination coverage. Read More

    Introduction of new and reinforcement of existing compulsory vaccinations in Italy: first evaluation of the impact on vaccination coverage in 2017.
    Euro Surveill 2018 May;23(22)
    Ministry of Health, Rome, Italy.
    In June 2017, a decree-law to increase the number of mandatory vaccinations from 4 to 10 for minors up to 16-years-old was issued in Italy. The vaccination coverage for 2017 showed a positive impact for all the vaccines, particularly for the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine at 91.6% for the year 2017, showing a 4. Read More

    Differential Diagnosis of Viral-Induced Anterior Uveitis.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Jun 5:1-6. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    a Department of Ophthalmology, CHU St-Pierre and Brugmann , Université Libre de Bruxelles , Bruxelles , Belgium.
    Diagnosis of uveitis is often challenging, but can be easy in typical viral-induced anterior uveitis (VIAU). Associated symptoms and signs are an important source of information. Certain classical clinical features such as keratic precipitates (KPs) distribution, iris atrophy, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and unilaterality are commonly used to support the diagnosis of VIAU. Read More

    Sociodemographic predictors are associated with compliance to a vaccination-reminder in 9692 girls age 14, Denmark 2014-2015.
    Prev Med Rep 2018 Jun 23;10:93-99. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    We aimed to identify sociodemographic predictors of compliance after receiving a personalised reminder on lacking vaccinations against MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) and/or HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) among parents of Danish adolescent girls. A nationwide register-based study, including all 14-year-old girls (15 May 2014-14 May 2015) lacking either MMR, HPV-vaccination or both. Vaccination-compliance following a postal reminder was modelled using multivariable logistic regression and included the following socio-demographic predictors: maternal age, education, employment and ethnicity. Read More

    The optimal dose of disease-specific antibodies for post-exposure prophylaxis of measles and rubella in Australia: new guidelines recommended.
    Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    a School of Medicine and Menzies Health Institute , Queensland, Griffith University , Southport , Queensland , Australia.
    Background: It is unclear whether recommended doses of intramuscular polyvalent immune globulin are optimal for both effectiveness and efficiency of disease prevention when administered post-exposure to measles and rubella.

    Methods: The peak concentration and decay of disease-specific antibodies after intramuscular dosing of polyvalent immune globulin in adults was modelled using published pharmacokinetic parameters and product disease-specific antibody concentrations. Models simulated dosing according to current Australian guidelines, then adjusted the dose in clinically relevant increments to estimate the optimal dose of disease-specific immunoglobulins for post-exposure prophylaxis of non-immune individuals against measles and rubella. Read More

    Adverse Events Following Immunization in Brazil: Age of Child and Vaccine-Associated Risk Analysis Using Logistic Regression.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Jun 1;15(6). Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília 70919-970, Brazil.
    : Vaccines are effective in controlling and eradicating infectious diseases. However, adverse events following immunization (AEFI) can occur in susceptible individuals. The objective of this study was to analyze the Brazilian AEFI database and compare eight vaccines in order to profile risks of AEFIs related to the mandated pediatric schedule of immunization, considering the age and sex of the child, type of vaccine, and reported adverse events. Read More

    Immunological Characteristics of Schizophrenia.
    Psychiatr Danub 2018 Jun;30(Suppl 4):180-187
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Centre Rijeka, Krešimirova 42, 51 000 Rijeka, Croatia,
    There are many theories about the etiology of schizophrenia. This paper presents the assumptions and latest findings about many immunological characteristics of schizophrenia. According to the neuroimunological theory, this disorder is due to neuroimunological disbalance, increased microglial activity and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Read More

    Progress Toward Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome Control - South-East Asia Region, 2000-2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jun 1;67(21):602-606. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR)* adopted the goal of elimination of measles and control of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) by 2020 (1). Rubella is the leading vaccine-preventable cause of birth defects. Although rubella typically causes a mild fever and rash in children and adults, rubella virus infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, or a constellation of congenital malformations known as CRS, commonly including visual, auditory, and/or cardiac defects, and developmental delay (2). Read More

    Newborn Glaucoma: Don't Forget Infections.
    J Glaucoma 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Intrauterine infections can affect various structures of the developing fetal eye. Rubella infection results in congenital cataracts, keratopathy, retinopathy and less commonly, glaucoma. Ophthalmic manifestations of Intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have been reported to be chorioretinitis, optic nerve colobomas and corneal opacities, but has not been implicated in congenital cataract or congenital glaucoma. Read More

    Revaccination with Measles-mumps-rubella Vaccine and Infectious Disease Morbidity: A Danish Register-based Cohort Study.
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 May 26. Epub 2018 May 26.
    Research Center for Vitamins and Vaccines (CVIVA), Bandim Health Project, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen S, Denmark.
    Background: It has been hypothesized that revaccination with live vaccines could be associated with reductions in off-target morbidity and mortality. We examined if revaccination with the live measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) is associated with a lower rate of off-target infections.

    Methods: A register-based nationwide cohort study including 295,559 children born in Denmark 1 April 2004 to 31 December 2010. Read More

    Childhood infectious diseases and risk of multiple myeloma: an analysis of the Italian multicentre case-control study.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 May 30:1-3. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit,Imperial College,London,UK.
    Common childhood infectious diseases have been associated with a reduced risk of following haematopoietic malignancies, but investigations on multiple myeloma (MM) are scarce. Information about 213 MM cases and 1128 healthy controls were obtained from a multicentre population-based Italian case-control study. The association between chickenpox, measles, mumps, pertussis and rubella and the MM risk was estimated by unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender and residence area. Read More

    Paternally expressed imprinted genes associate with hybridization barriers in Capsella.
    Nat Plants 2018 Jun 28;4(6):352-357. Epub 2018 May 28.
    Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Linnean Center for Plant Biology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hybrid seed lethality is a widespread type of reproductive barrier among angiosperm taxa that contributes to species divergence by preventing gene flow between natural populations. Besides its ecological importance, it is an important obstacle to plant breeding strategies . Hybrid seed lethality is mostly due to a failure of the nourishing endosperm tissue, resulting in embryo arrest. Read More

    Systematic detection of positive selection in the human-pathogen interactome and lasting effects on infectious disease susceptibility.
    PLoS One 2018 25;13(5):e0196676. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.
    Infectious disease has shaped the natural genetic diversity of humans throughout the world. A new approach to capture positive selection driven by pathogens would provide information regarding pathogen exposure in distinct human populations and the constantly evolving arms race between host and disease-causing agents. We created a human pathogen interaction database and used the integrated haplotype score (iHS) to detect recent positive selection in genes that interact with proteins from 26 different pathogens. Read More

    Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 2 Years - U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands, April-October, 2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 May 25;67(20):579-584. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).* CDC collaborates with USAPI immunization programs to monitor vaccination coverage. In 2016, USAPI immunization programs and CDC piloted a method for estimating up-to-date status among children aged 2 years using medical record abstraction to ascertain regional vaccination coverage. Read More

    Prevalence of Inadequate Immunity to Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella in MLB and NBA Athletes.
    Sports Health 2018 May 1:1941738118777726. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.
    Background: Multiple outbreaks of vaccine-preventable viral diseases have occurred in professional sports in recent years. Currently, there is no established protocol for vaccination or immunity screening for professional athletes.

    Hypothesis: There are significant differences in the prevalence of inadequate immunity dependent on age, sport, country of birth, and participation in collegiate sports. Read More

    Application of a mixture model to assess the effect of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine on the mumps epidemic in children from kindergarten to early school age in Jiangsu Province, China.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 May 24:1-22. Epub 2018 May 24.
    b Department of Expanded Program on Immunization, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Nanjing , Jiangsu province , 210009 , China.
    A single dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine has been applied in routine immunizations for children in China; however, the Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level of mumps in children from kindergarten to early school age with MMR vaccine immunization history has not been elucidated. This study aimed to describe the immunity profile of children from kindergarten to early school age to identify the susceptible population. In Jiangsu Province, a cross-sectional survey of 4- to 8-year-old children who were vaccinated with at least one dose of MMR vaccine was conducted. Read More

    Chickenpox: An update.
    Med Mal Infect 2018 May 19. Epub 2018 May 19.
    Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), pharmacie usage intérieur, hôpital de la conception, 147, boulevard Baille, 13005 Marseille, France; Laboratoire de pharmaco-chimie radicalaire, faculté de pharmacie, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, 27, boulevard Jean-Moulin-CS30064, 13385 Marseille cedex 05, France. Electronic address:
    Despite its benign characteristics, chickenpox is a childhood disease responsible for complications and deaths, particularly in the high-risk population. VariZIG, not commercialized in France, is a good alternative for seronegative individuals exposed to the virus and not eligible for vaccination. The efficacy of routine vaccination has been demonstrated with a decrease in chickenpox incidence and with the development of herd immunity. Read More

    Therapeutic Outcome of Intralesional Immunotherapy in Cutaneous Warts Using the Mumps, Measles, and Rubella Vaccine: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial.
    J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2018 May 1;11(5):15-20. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Drs. Awal and Kaur are with the Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy and Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research in Amritsar, India.
    Various treatment modalities have been described in the literature for treating warts, but none thus far have demonstrated optimal results. Recently, the mumps, measles, and rubella (MMR) antigen has gained popularity because of its proven efficacy in the treatment of warts. The goal was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intralesional MMR antigen in the treatment of cutaneous warts. Read More

    Vaccines and the risk of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
    Vaccine 2018 06 18;36(26):3733-3739. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Department of Expanded Program on Immunization, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. Electronic address:
    Background: It is important to examine the risk of Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after vaccination.

    Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study between January 2011 and December 2015. Four controls per case were matched for age, gender, address. Read More

    Knowledge gaps persist and hinder progress in eliminating mumps.
    Vaccine 2018 06 18;36(26):3721-3726. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:
    Mumps, a common childhood disease in the pre-vaccine era that causes swelling of the parotid salivary glands, can lead to orchitis, viral meningitis, and sensorineural deafness. While the incidence of disease decreased dramatically after the vaccine was added to standard vaccination schedules, the disease has made a substantial resurgence in recent years. As a result, it becomes critical to examine the factors involved in recurring outbreaks. Read More

    Response to third rubella vaccine dose.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 May 17:1-22. Epub 2018 May 17.
    a Division for Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) , Oslo , Norway.
    Limited data exist on the immunogenicity of a third dose of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). In this study, our aim was to evaluate the long-term rubella immunogenicity afforded by two childhood MMR doses of the Norwegian vaccination program in a cohort of conscripts and to determine the effect of an additional dose of MMR vaccine, in order to inform vaccination policy. Blood samples from Norwegian conscripts (n = 495) taken both before and eight months after administration of a dose of MMR vaccine were tested using an enzyme immunoassay to measure anti-rubella IgG. Read More

    Seroprevalence of HIV, HTLV, CMV, HBV and rubella virus infections in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belém, Pará, Northern Brazil.
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 May 16;18(1):169. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Virology Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Augusto Correa 1, Guamá, 66, Belém, Pará, 075-110, Brazil.
    Background: Prenatal tests are important for prevention of vertical transmission of various infectious agents. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus and vaccination coverage against HBV in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 324 pregnant adolescents from 2009 to 2010. Read More

    Rubella infection in pregnancy and congenital rubella in United Kingdom, 2003 to 2016.
    Euro Surveill 2018 May;23(19)
    UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, Faculty of Population Health Sciences Population, London, United Kingdom.
    Rubella vaccination has been included in the United Kingdom's (UK) routine childhood schedule for nearly 30 years. The UK achieved World Health Organization (WHO) elimination status in 2016 and acute rubella infections are rare. In the period 2003-16, 31 rubella infections in pregnancy (0. Read More

    Parallel evolution of common allelic variants confers flowering diversity in Capsella rubella.
    Plant Cell 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan CITY: Beijing POSTAL_CODE: 100093 China [CN]
    Flowering time is an adaptive life history trait. Capsella rubella, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana and a young species, displays extensive variation for flowering time but low standing genetic variation due to an extreme bottleneck event, providing an excellent opportunity to understand how phenotypic diversity can occur with a limited initial gene pool. Here, we demonstrate that common allelic variation and parallel evolution at the FLC locus confer variation in flowering time in C. Read More

    Immunization Offer Targeting Migrants: Policies and Practices in Italy.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 May 12;15(5). Epub 2018 May 12.
    National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS), viale Regina Elena, 299-00161 Rome, Italy.
    The unprecedented flow of migrants over the last three years places Italy in front of new issues regarding medical care from the rescue phase up to the integration into the national health services, including preventive actions. We used online questionnaires to investigate the Italian national and regional policies for immunization offer targeting asylum seekers, refugees, irregular migrants and unaccompanied minors. Another questionnaire was used to assess how these policies are translated into practice in migrant reception centres and community health services. Read More

    The Role of Humor in Messaging about the MMR Vaccine.
    J Health Commun 2018 May 14:1-9. Epub 2018 May 14.
    c School of Communication , The Ohio State University , USA.
    Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have increased due, in part, to misconceptions about vaccine safety (Kennedy et al., 2011). Extant literature has examined various messages designed to correct false beliefs about vaccination risks and to urge parents to vaccinate their children. Read More

    ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Togaviridae.
    J Gen Virol 2018 Jun 10;99(6):761-762. Epub 2018 May 10.
    1​Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.
    The Togaviridae is a family of small, enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 10-12 kb. Within the family, the genus Alphavirus includes a large number of diverse species, while the genus Rubivirus includes the single species Rubella virus. Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and are pathogenic in their vertebrate hosts. Read More

    Update From the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 May;7(2):93-99
    Stanford University School of Medicine, California.
    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, each of whom is appointed to a 4-year term. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Read More

    Into Darkness and Silence: What Caused Helen Keller's Deafblindness?
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 May 5. Epub 2018 May 5.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    In 1882, at 19 months of age, Helen Keller developed a febrile illness that left her both deaf and blind. Historical biographies attribute the illness to rubella, scarlet fever, encephalitis, or meningitis. This analysis of her illness suggests she likely had bacterial meningitis, caused by N. Read More

    Decreased antibodies against rubella in previously vaccinated treatment-naïve childhood systemic lupus erythematous patients: a prospective case-control study.
    Scand J Rheumatol 2018 May 9:1-3. Epub 2018 May 9.
    a Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases Unit, Second Department of Pediatrics, 'P and A Kyriakou' Children's Hospital, Medical School , National and Kapodestrian University of Athens , Athens , Greece.

    Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit Annual Report, 2016.
    Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 2017 Sep 1;41(3):E288-E293. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit, Kids Research Institute, Westmead, New South Wales.
    This report summarises the cases reported to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) of rare infectious diseases or rare complications of more common infectious diseases in children. During the calendar year 2016, there were approximately 1500 paediatricians reporting to the APSU and the monthly report card return rate was 90%. APSU continued to provide unique national data on the perinatal exposure to HIV, congenital rubella, congenital cytomegalovirus, neonatal and infant herpes simplex virus, and congenital and neonatal varicella. Read More

    Information, education, and health behaviors: Evidence from the MMR vaccine autism controversy.
    Health Econ 2018 Jul 2;27(7):1043-1062. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Department of Economics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    In the wake of strong, although later refuted, claims of a link between autism and the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, I examine whether fewer parents immunized or delayed vaccinations for their children and if there was a differential response by mother's education level. Using various controls and a differencing strategy that compares in MMR take-up with other vaccines, I find that the MMR-autism controversy led to a decline in the immediate years and that there were negative spillovers onto other vaccines. I also find evidence that more highly educated mothers responded more strongly to the controversy either by not immunizing their children altogether or, to a lesser degree, delaying vaccination. Read More

    Extension of French vaccination mandates: from the recommendation of the Steering Committee of the Citizen Consultation on Vaccination to the law.
    Euro Surveill 2018 Apr;23(17)
    Santé Publique France, Saint-Maurice, France.
    On 4 December 2017, French parliamentarians passed a law extending the vaccination mandates for children up to 2 years of age from three vaccinations (against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis) to 11 by adding vaccinations against pertussis, (Hib), hepatitis B, pneumococcal diseases, meningococcal C diseases, measles, mumps and rubella. This vote follows a recommendation made by the Steering Committee of the Citizen Consultation on Vaccination that took place in 2016. The law applies to all children born after 1 January 2018. Read More

    Can Flanders resist the measles outbreak? Assessing vaccination coverage in different age groups among Flemish residents.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Jun 2;146(8):1043-1047. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Leuven University Vaccinology Center,KU Leuven,Campus Gasthuisberg,Herestraat 49,Leuven 3000,Belgium.
    The Belgian strategic plan to eliminate measles contains several vaccination strategies including routine immunisation programmes and catch-up campaigns. A new expanded programme on immunisation-based survey (2016) assessed the uptake of the recommended measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in three different cohorts: toddlers, adolescents and parents of toddlers. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select 875 toddlers (age 18-24 months) and 1250 adolescents (born in 2000) from 107 municipalities in Flanders. Read More

    Management and control of communicable diseases in schools and other child care settings: systematic review on the incubation period and period of infectiousness.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 2;18(1):199. Epub 2018 May 2.
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Solna Municipality, Sweden.
    Background: Information on the incubation period and period of infectiousness or shedding of infectious pathogens is critical for management and control of communicable diseases in schools and other childcare settings.

    Methods: We performed a systematic literature review (Pubmed and Embase) to identify and critically appraise all relevant published articles using incubation, infectiousness or shedding, and exclusion period as parameters for the search. No language, time, geographical or study design restrictions were applied. Read More

    Recognizing Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in the Emergency Department.
    Adv Emerg Nurs J 2018 Apr/Jun;40(2):110-118
    Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies, Washington, District of Columbia.
    Measles, mumps, and rubella have impacted millions of American lives over the last 100 years. During the last century, researchers have identified viral diseases, developed a combination vaccine, and have continued ongoing research when outbreaks have occurred. Despite the high incidence of vaccinated individuals, these highly communicable diseases continue to flourish within clusters of outbreaks throughout the United States. Read More

    TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) screening of small for gestational age and intrauterine growth restricted neonates: efficacy study in a single institute in Korea.
    Korean J Pediatr 2018 Apr 23;61(4):114-120. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: Routine screening for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (TORCH) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA) neonates has become a common practice. However, the incidence of TORCH varies across countries, and the cost of TORCH testing may be disadvantageous compared to disease-specific screening. To evaluate the efficacy of TORCH screening, the medical charts of IUGR or SGA neonates born in a single institution in Bucheon, Korea from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed. Read More

    Management of newly diagnosed high-risk and intermediate-risk follicular lymphoma with Y ibritumomab tiuxetan in a phase II study.
    Hematol Oncol 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Five-year overall survival for high-risk Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index follicular lymphoma is only approximately 50% compared with 90% for low risk. To evaluate an approach to improve upon this poor outcome, we completed an exploratory phase II trial of intensified treatment for patients with intermediate and high-risk follicular lymphoma. Front-line treatment with chemo-immunotherapy consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone was followed by radio- immunotherapy with 90-Yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation, and 2 years of rituximab maintenance. Read More

    Assessment of temperatures in the vaccine cold chain in two provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a cross-sectional pilot study.
    BMC Res Notes 2018 Apr 27;11(1):261. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Bureau of International Cooperation, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 1628655, Japan.
    Objective: All childhood vaccines, except the oral polio vaccine, should be kept at 2-8 °C, since the vaccine potency can be damaged by heat or freezing temperature. A temperature monitoring study conducted in 2008-2009 reported challenges in cold chain management from the provincial level downwards. The present cross-sectional pilot study aimed to assess the current status of the cold chain in two provinces (Saravan and Xayabouly) of Lao People's Democratic Republic between March-April 2016. Read More

    A Microneedle Patch for Measles and Rubella Vaccination Is Immunogenic and Protective in Infant Rhesus Macaques.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Jun;218(1):124-132
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Background: New methods to increase measles and rubella (MR) vaccination coverage are needed to achieve global and regional MR elimination goals.

    Methods: Here, we developed microneedle (MN) patches designed to administer MR vaccine by minimally trained personnel, leave no biohazardous sharps waste, remove the need for vaccine reconstitution, and provide thermostability outside the cold chain. This study evaluated the immunogenicity of MN patches delivering MR vaccine to infant rhesus macaques. Read More

    A digital microfluidic system for serological immunoassays in remote settings.
    Sci Transl Med 2018 Apr;10(438)
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6, Canada.
    Serosurveys are useful for assessing population susceptibility to vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. Although at-risk populations in remote areas could benefit from this type of information, they face several logistical barriers to implementation, such as lack of access to centralized laboratories, cold storage, and transport of samples. We describe a potential solution: a compact and portable, field-deployable, point-of-care system relying on digital microfluidics that can rapidly test a small volume of capillary blood for disease-specific antibodies. Read More

    A new species of Polietina (Diptera: Muscidae) from South America, with an updated phylogeny of the genus and a review of species' identity in GenBank.
    Zootaxa 2018 Apr 11;4407(3):415-426. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Department of Zoology, Universidade Federal do Paraná, C.P. 19020, Curitiba 81531-980, Paraná, Brazil..
    After a 20 years hiatus, we describe a new species, Polietina ponti sp. nov., from Madre de Dios, Tambopata River, Peru. Read More

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