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    Prior pregnancy and antenatal rubella sero-negativity-evidence of persistent maternal immunologic alteration?
    Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Problem: It is unclear if the immunologic alterations induced by pregnancy could persist.

    Method Of Study: Antenatal rubella sero-negativity was correlated with gravidity, abortions and parity in 112 083 gravidae managed during 1997-2015, with further analysis stratified for factors known to influence rubella serology.

    Results: The 10. Read More

    Progress and challenges in measles and rubella elimination in the WHO European Region.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Vaccine-preventable Diseases and Immunization, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Denmark.
    Introduction: Despite availability of safe and cost-effective vaccines to prevent it, measles remains one of the significant causes of death among children under five years of age globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) European Region has seen a drastic decline in measles and rubella cases in recent years, and a few of the once common measles genotypes are no longer detected. Buoyed by this success, all Member States of the Region reconfirmed their commitment in 2010 to eliminating measles and rubella, and made this a central objective of the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020 (EVAP). Read More

    Biology, evolution, and medical importance of polyomaviruses: An update.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 Jun 17;54:18-38. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Institute for Medical Informatics and Biometry, Technische Universität Dresden, Blasewitzer Strasse 86, 01307 Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:
    The family Polyomaviridae encompasses non-enveloped viruses with a circular dsDNA genome that is typically approximately 5000bp in length. Originally isolated from mammals, polyomavirus sequences have now been detected in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, although it remains to be determined whether all these animals are genuine hosts. The genomes of all polyomaviruses encode at least two regulatory proteins (large and small tumour antigen) and two structural proteins (capsid proteins VP1 and VP2) whose functions have been defined. Read More

    Universal measles-mumps-rubella vaccination to new recruits and the incidence of mumps in the military.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    In response to the resurgence of mumps, the Korean Armed Forces started the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination to all new recruits regardless of prior vaccination history. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vaccination by comparing the incidence between the military and civilian populations before and after implementation of the new policy. The standardized incidence ratio of mumps in the military was 7. Read More

    Mumps clinical diagnostic uncertainty.
    Eur J Public Health 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Department of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.
    Background: During recent years, various mumps outbreaks have occurred among populations vaccinated for mumps worldwide. In Italy, improving routine coverage with two doses of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is one of the key strategies to eliminate measles and rubella. To monitor the effect of the vaccination programme on the population, the surveillance of these vaccine-preventable diseases has been implemented. Read More

    Qualitative Assessment of Vaccination Hesitancy Among Members of the Apostolic Church of Zimbabwe: A Case Study.
    J Relig Health 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Inter-country Support Team for East and Southern Africa, World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    Vaccine hesitancy or lack of confidence in vaccines is considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. The rise and spread of measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections among Apostolic Church members, estimated at about 3.5 million in Zimbabwe as of 2014. Read More

    How to Increase Vaccination Acceptance Among Apostolic Communities: Quantitative Results from an Assessment in Three Provinces in Zimbabwe.
    J Relig Health 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Inter-country Support Team for East and Southern Africa, World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    A worldwide increasing trend toward vaccine hesitancy has been reported. Measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections originating from Apostolic gatherings. Founded in Zimbabwe in the 1950s, the Apostolic church has built up a large number of followers with an estimated 3. Read More

    Severe Apparently Isolated Fetal Ventriculomegaly And Neurodevelopmental Outcome.
    Prenat Diagn 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Department of Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.
    Objective: To assess the neurodevelopmental outcome of children with a prenatal diagnosis of apparently isolated severe ventriculomegaly (SVM).

    Method: Retrospective cohort study from 1994 to 2011. We included fetuses with unilateral or bilateral ventriculomegaly equal to or greater than 15 mm at prenatal ultrasound and confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, whose parents chose continuation of pregnancy past 22 weeks, and with no associated findings at diagnosis (i. Read More

    MMR vaccine in the postpartum does not expose seronegative women to untoward effects.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2017 Apr-Jun;53(2):152-156
    SOC Pediatria, Ospedale Castelli, Verbania, Italy.
    Background: The aim of this study was to assess whether rubella vaccination immediately after delivery could expose seronegative women to specific untoward effects.

    Methods: 163 rubella-seronegative women received Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine in the immediate postpartum period; they were evaluated at one month and at three months thereafter through telephone interviews. As controls, we matched 163 rubella-seropositive women, who might experience similar symptoms for any reason in the same timeframe. Read More

    Revisiting Zika (and Rubella).
    J Public Health Policy 2016 Aug;37(3):273-276
    Center for Advanced Studies, Molecular Pathogenesis, Avenida IPN 2508, 01030, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Three months after the World Health Organization declared the epidemic of Zika virus infections to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, we can look back at what we have learned and prospects for controlling the disease. Although Zika virus infections may explain many cases of brain damage in newborns, it may not be the only cause. We need a clear association between confirmed cases of Zika infections in pregnant women and microcephaly in newborns. Read More

    Non-malarial infectious diseases of antenatal care in pregnant women in Franceville, Gabon.
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017 Jun 12;17(1):185. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Unite de Parasitologie Medicale (UPARAM), Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville (CIRMF), BP 769, Franceville, Gabon.
    Background: In sub-tropical countries, infectious diseases remain one of the main causes of mortality. Because of their lack of active immunity, pregnant women and their unborn children represent the most susceptible people. In Gabon, data on infectious diseases of pregnant women such as syphilis and rubella are either scarce or very old. Read More

    How to select a proper early warning threshold to detect infectious disease outbreaks based on the China infectious disease automated alert and response system (CIDARS).
    BMC Public Health 2017 Jun 12;17(1):570. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, NO. 130 Dong-An Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Background: China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the China Infectious Disease Automated Alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2005. The CIDARS was used to strengthen infectious disease surveillance and aid in the early warning of outbreak. The CIDARS has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the CDC at all levels in China. Read More

    The effectiveness of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination in the prevention of pediatric hospitalizations for targeted and untargeted infections: A retrospective cohort study.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jun 12:1-5. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    b RM/1 Local Health Unit , Rome , Italy.
    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in reducing hospitalizations for infectious disease, targeted and not targeted, as well as from respiratory diseases in children in Rome.

    Methods: The cohort was recomposed through record linkage of 2 archives (vaccination register and hospital discharge records.

    Results: The analysis included 11,004 children. Read More

    History repeats itself in Japan: Failure to learn from rubella epidemic leads to failure to provide the HPV vaccine.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jun 12:1-2. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine , Suita , Osaka , Japan.
    Eradication of vaccine-preventable diseases is one of the most important goals of public health interventions. Herd immunity can be established by national vaccination programs. However, once the national vaccination program stops for any reason, unprotected group will be generated depending on an unfortunate year of birth. Read More

    Rubella antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jun 12:1-4. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    a School of Medicine and Menzies Health Institute Queensland , Griffith University , Gold Coast , Australia.
    Rubella antibodies are not routinely measured in immunoglobulin products and there is a lack of information on the titer in Australian products. To facilitate future studies of the effectiveness of passive immunisation for preventing rubella and congenital rubella syndrome, this study measured the concentration of rubella-specific antibodies in Australian intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) human immunoglobulin products suitable for post-exposure prophylaxis using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. The GMT ± GSD for the IM product was 19 ± 1. Read More

    Vaccination in newly arrived immigrants to the European Union.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Biovomed, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.
    The challenge of assimilating millions of immigrants in the European region each year presents significant socioeconomic issues. Among them is the threat of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) disease transmission within immigrant groups and the broader population given the permeability of nation state borders. A total of 3. Read More

    Reduced antibody response to infant measles vaccination: effects based on type and timing of the first vaccine dose persist after the second dose.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    British Columbia Center for Disease Control, Vancouver, Canada.
    Background: The effect of age at first dose on the immunogenicity of a two-dose pediatric schedule of Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) or MMR-Varicella (MMRV) vaccines was assessed in children born to mostly vaccinated mothers.

    Methods: Immunogenicity data among children given their first measles vaccine dose between 11 and 22 months of age were pooled from five randomized controlled trials conducted in Europe and the United States between 2004 and 2010. Measles antibody titers were measured by ELISA before/after each dose: geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and the proportion sero-negative (GMC<150mIU/ml) were derived by age at first dose. Read More

    Genetic Variants in the IL-4/IL-13 Pathway Influence Measles Vaccine Responses and Vaccine Failure in Children from Mozambique.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    1 Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia , Perth, Western Australia, Australia .
    Despite effective measles vaccines, measles still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The Th2 pathway involving interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 cytokines, and their receptor IL-4Rα, play important roles in the Th1/Th2 balance and antibody production. A Th2 skewing of the cytokine milieu may affect vaccine responses. Read More

    Preliminary multiplex microarray IgG immunoassay for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and rubella.
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017 Jun;112(6):428-436
    Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Carlos Chagas, Curitiba, PR, Brasil.
    Background: During pregnancy, toxoplasmosis and rubella can cause serious damage to the mother and the foetus through vertical transmission. Early diagnosis enables implementation of health measures aimed at preventing vertical transmission and minimising damage caused by these diseases.

    Objective: Here, we report the development of a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies produced during toxoplasmosis and rubella infection. Read More

    Etiological and epidemiological factors in hearing-impaired students in Van, East of Turkey: A case series.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Jun;67(6):951-953
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Van, Turkey.
    The aim of the present case series was to investigate the causes of hearing loss in the children studying at a primary School for the deaf in Van Province, Turkey. The present series included 95 children with sensorineural hearing loss. Otoscopic and ophthalmological examinations, pure-tone audiometry, and tympanometry were performed for each patient. Read More

    Analysis of aquaporins in Brassicaceae species reveals high-level of conservation and dynamic role against biotic and abiotic stress in canola.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 5;7(1):2771. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Département de phytologie-Faculté des Sciences de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada.
    Aquaporins (AQPs) are of vital importance in the cellular transport system of all living organisms. In this study, genome-wide identification, distribution, and characterization of AQPs were determined in Arabidopsis lyrata, Capsella grandiflora, C. rubella, Eutrema salsugineum, Brassica rapa, B. Read More

    Prevalence of pregnancy-relevant infections in a rural setting of Ghana.
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017 Jun 6;17(1):172. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Kreuzbergring 57, D-37075, Göttingen, Germany.
    Background: Although infectious diseases still account for a high burden of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, simultaneous investigations on multiple infections affecting maternal and child health are missing.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, single-centre pilot study in a rural area of Ghana to assess the infectiological profile during pregnancy. Screening of 180 expectant mothers was done by vaginal swabs and serology to detect the most common pregnancy-relevant infections. Read More

    Global and national laboratory networks support high quality surveillance for measles and rubella.
    Int Health 2017 May;9(3):184-189
    Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
    Laboratory networks are an essential component of disease surveillance systems because they provide accurate and timely confirmation of infection. WHO coordinates global laboratory surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases, including measles and rubella. The more than 700 laboratories within the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) supports surveillance for measles, rubella and congenial rubella syndrome in 191 counties. Read More

    Clinically Confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome: The Role of Echocardiography.
    Ethiop J Health Sci 2017 Mar;27(2):197-202
    Wolfson Medical Center, Israel; Jimma University, Ethiopia.
    Background: Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) affects thousands of children in the developing world because rubella vaccination is not routinely available in most of these countries. Among its many manifestations, congenital heart disease is life threatening.

    Case Details: A 9-month-old infant presented with whitish lesions over her left eye. Read More

    Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women and Microcephaly.
    Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2017 May 2;39(5):235-248. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    From the discovery of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in 1947 in Uganda (Africa), until its arrival in South America, it was not known that it would affect human reproductive life so severely. Today, damage to the central nervous system is known to be multiple, and microcephaly is considered the tip of the iceberg. Microcephaly actually represents the epilogue of this infection's devastating process on the central nervous system of embryos and fetuses. Read More

    Assembly, maturation and three-dimensional helical structure of the teratogenic rubella virus.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jun 2;13(6):e1006377. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Biological Sciences, 240 S. Martin Jischke Drive, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States of America.
    Viral infections during pregnancy are a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Of these, rubella virus infection is a well-substantiated example that leads to miscarriages or severe fetal defects. However, structural information about the rubella virus has been lacking due to the pleomorphic nature of the virions. Read More

    Modeling the Transmission of Measles and Rubella to Support Global Management Policy Analyses and Eradication Investment Cases.
    Risk Anal 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Kid Risk, Inc., Orlando, FL, USA.
    Policy makers responsible for managing measles and rubella immunization programs currently use a wide range of different vaccines formulations and immunization schedules. With endemic measles and rubella transmission interrupted in the region of the Americas, all five other regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) targeting the elimination of measles transmission by 2020, and increasing adoption of rubella vaccine globally, integrated dynamic disease, risk, decision, and economic models can help national, regional, and global health leaders manage measles and rubella population immunity. Despite hundreds of publications describing models for measles or rubella and decades of use of vaccines that contain both antigens (e. Read More

    Underreporting of congenital rubella in Italy, 2010-2014.
    Eur J Pediatr 2017 Jul 28;176(7):955-962. Epub 2017 May 28.
    Communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit, National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.
    In accordance with the goals of the World Health Organization Regional Committee for Europe, the Italian national Measles and Rubella Elimination Plan 2010-2015 aimed to reduce the incidence of congenital rubella cases to <1 case/100,000 live births by 2015. In Italy, a passive national surveillance system for congenital rubella and rubella in pregnancy is active since 2005. We estimated the degree of underreporting of congenital rubella, performing a capture-recapture analysis of cases detected through two independent sources: the national surveillance system and the national hospital discharge database, in the years 2010-2014. Read More

    On religious and secular exemptions: A case study of childhood vaccination waivers.
    Ethnicities 2017 Apr 9;17(2):220-241. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Paul Scholten Centre for Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    This paper analyses exemptions to general law through the prism of vaccine waivers in the United States. All US states legally require the vaccination of children prior to school or daycare entry; however, this obligation is accompanied with a system of medical, religious, and/or philosophical exemptions. Nonmedical exemptions became subject of discussion after the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak in California, which unequivocally brought to light what had been brewing below the surface for a while: a slow but steady decline in vaccination rates in Western societies, resulting in the reoccurrence of measles outbreaks. Read More

    Hepatic calcifications in fetal population studied by autopsies in Bogota, Colombia.
    J Dev Orig Health Dis 2017 May 23:1-5. Epub 2017 May 23.
    4Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics,Pontificia Universidad Javeriana,Bogota,Colombia.
    Fetal hepatic calcifications can be caused by infections, chromosomal disorders, thrombotic events, ischemic hepatic necrosis and subcapsular hematomas among others events. Its features and clinical significance are still not well known. We performed an observational study to describe fetal hepatic calcifications and its association with main clinical and histopathological findings from the fetal autopsy database, between 2007 and 2014. Read More

    Towards measles elimination in Italy: Virological surveillance and genotypes trend (2013-2015).
    Virus Res 2017 May 15;236:24-29. Epub 2017 May 15.
    National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Department of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:
    In accordance with the goal of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, the Italian National Measles and Rubella Elimination Plan aimed to interrupt indigenous measles transmission in Italy by the end of 2015. However, from 2013 to 2015, Italy experienced high measles burden with 4902 measles cases (49.3% laboratory-confirmed) reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system (cumulative incidence in the triennium reference period: 2. Read More

    Study of rubella candidate vaccine based on a structurally modified plant virus.
    Antiviral Res 2017 May 13;144:27-33. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1-12 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119234, Russian Federation.
    A novel rubella candidate vaccine based on a structurally modified plant virus - spherical particles (SPs) - was developed. SPs generated by the thermal remodelling of the tobacco mosaic virus are promising platforms for the development of vaccines. SPs combine unique properties: biosafety, stability, high immunogenicity and the effective adsorption of antigens. Read More

    Acute Rubella Virus Infection among Women with Spontaneous Abortion in Mwanza City, Tanzania.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Mar 1;11(3):QC25-QC27. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, Mwanza, Tanzania.
    Introduction: Acute rubella virus infection in early pregnancy has been associated with poor pregnancy outcome ranging from spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and multiple birth defects known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). Despite its importance the prevalence of acute rubella virus infections is not known among women with spontaneous abortion in most centres in developing countries.

    Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the seroprevalence of acute rubella infection among women with spontaneous abortion in Mwanza city. Read More

    Two Imported Cases of Congenital Rubella Syndrome and Infection-Control Challenges in New York State, 2013-2015.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    New York State Department of Health, Albany.
    Rubella was declared eliminated in the United States in 2004. During 2013-2015, 2 infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) were born in New York State. Both mothers were foreign born and traveled to Yemen during their pregnancy. Read More

    Missed Opportunities for Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccination Among Departing U.S. Adult Travelers Receiving Pretravel Health Consultations.
    Ann Intern Med 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    From Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx, New York; and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
    Background: Measles outbreaks continue to occur in the United States and are mostly due to infections in returning travelers.

    Objective: To describe how providers assessed the measles immunity status of departing U.S. Read More

    Microbial Vertical Transmission during Human Pregnancy.
    Cell Host Microbe 2017 May;21(5):561-567
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA; Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA. Electronic address:
    Congenital infections with pathogens such as Zika virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes, Treponema pallidium, parvovirus, HIV, varicella zoster virus, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpesviruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the devastating impact of microbial infections on the developing fetus, relatively little is known about how pathogens associated with congenital disease breach the placental barrier to transit vertically during human pregnancy. In this Review, we focus on transplacental transmission of pathogens during human gestation. Read More

    Suboptimal MMR2 vaccine coverage in six counties in Norway detected through the national immunisation registry, April 2014 to April 2017.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Apr;22(17)
    Department of Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Noway.
    In 2014, Norway became aware of potential low vaccination coverage for the second dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR2) in six of 19 counties. This was detected by comparing the national coverage (NC) for 16-year-olds extracted from the national immunisation registry SYSVAK with the annual status update for elimination of measles and rubella (ASU) reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). The existing method for calculating NC in 2014 did not show MMR2 coverage. Read More

    Ongoing measles outbreak in Wallonia, Belgium, December 2016 to March 2017: characteristics and challenges.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Apr;22(17)
    Service of Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Department of Public Health and Surveillance, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium.
    We describe characteristics of an ongoing measles outbreak in Wallonia, Belgium, and difficulties in control measures implementation. As at 12 March 2017, 177 measles cases were notified, of which 50% were 15 years and older, 49% female. Atypical clinical presentation and severe complications, mainly among adults, in combination with late notification, low or unknown vaccination coverage of contacts, infected healthcare workers and increased workload due to contact tracing, are the main concerns for outbreak management. Read More

    Written reminders increase vaccine coverage in Danish children - evaluation of a nationwide intervention using The Danish Vaccination Register, 2014 to 2015.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Apr;22(17)
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    We evaluated a national intervention of sending written reminders to parents of children lacking childhood vaccinations, using the Danish Vaccination Register (DDV). The intervention cohort included the full birth cohort of 124,189 children born in Denmark who reached the age of 2 and 6.5 years from 15 May 2014 to 14 May 2015. Read More

    Waning Immunity Is Associated with Periodic Large Outbreaks of Mumps: A Mathematical Modeling Study of Scottish Data.
    Front Physiol 2017 25;8:233. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of StirlingStirling, UK.
    Vaccination programs for childhood diseases, such as measles, mumps and rubella have greatly contributed to decreasing the incidence and impact of those diseases. Nonetheless, despite long vaccination programmes across the world, mumps has not yet been eradicated in those countries: indeed, large outbreaks continue. For example, in Scotland large outbreaks occurred in 2004, 2005, and 2015, despite introducing the MMR (Measles-Mumps-Rubella) vaccine more than 20 years ago. Read More

    Expression of complete SIV p27 Gag and HIV gp120 engineered outer domains targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies in live rubella vectors.
    Vaccine 2017 May 5;35(24):3272-3278. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Lab of Immunoregulation, DVP, Office of Vaccines, Center for Biologics, FDA, Bldg 72, Room 1212, White Oak Campus, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA. Electronic address:
    Infection with HIV or SIV often elicits a potent immune response to viral antigens. This includes T cells and antibodies specific for Gag and Env antigens. In contrast, when given as a vaccine, the same antigens have been weak immunogens, unable to elicit antibodies with comparable titer, durability, or neutralizing activity. Read More

    Two-year antibody persistence in children vaccinated at 12-15 months with a measles-mumps-rubella virus vaccine without human serum albumin.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 May 8:1-7. Epub 2017 May 8.
    m GSK , King of Prussia , PA , USA.
    One combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine without Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is currently licensed in the USA (M-M-R II; Merck, USA) and another has been developed (Priorix™ [MMR-RIT, GSK, Belgium]). In this follow-up study, children from USA or Puerto Rico, who had received one dose of M-M-R II or MMR-RIT at 12-15 months of age in the primary study (NCT00861744), were followed-up for 2 y post-vaccination. Anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and anti-mumps antibodies using ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays. Read More

    Spatial distribution of mumps in South Korea, 2001-2015: identifying clusters and population risk factors.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Jul 8;145(10):2122-2128. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Epidemiology,Seoul National University School of Public Health,Gwanak-ro,Gwanak-gu,Seoul 151-742,Republic of Korea.
    In South Korea, the resurgence of mumps was noted primarily among school-aged children and adolescents since 2000. We analyzed spatial patterns in mumps incidence to give an indication to the geographical risk. We used National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System data from 2001 to 2015, classifying into three periods according to the level of endemicity. Read More

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