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    Pediatric Resident Education and Preparedness Regarding Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2017 Aug 1:9922817727465. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1 Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, Lake Success, NY, USA.
    This study assessed pediatric residents' reported knowledge of and self-confidence in identifying/treating 8 vaccine-preventable diseases. Pediatric residents nationwide (n = 385) reported (1) if they had previously diagnosed measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, varicella, and/or polio; (2) their comfort level in treating these diseases; (3) the likelihood of identifying symptoms; and (4) 16 disease-related statements as true/false. More than 25% of residents were not comfortable treating 5 of the 8 diseases. Read More

    Polyspecific antibodies without persisting antigen in multiple sclerosis, neurolupus and Guillain-Barré syndrome: immune network connectivity in chronic diseases.
    Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Aug;75(8):580-588
    CSF and Complexity Studies, São Paulo SP, Brasil.
    The polyspecific antibody synthesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) gained diagnostic relevance with the frequent combination of measles-, rubella- and varicella zoster antibodies (MRZ-antibody reaction) but their pathophysiological role remains unknown. This review connects the data for intrathecal polyspecific antibody synthesis in MS and neurolupus with observations in the blood of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Simultaneously increased antibody and autoantibody titers in GBS blood samples indicate that the polyspecific antibodies are based on a general property of an immune network, supported by the deterministic day-to-day concentration variation of antibodies in normal blood. Read More

    [Recall system for vaccinations in preschool children in a Local Health Unit in Rome, Italy].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 May-Jun;73(3):275-282
    Dipartimento Biomedicina e Prevenzione, Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata", Italia.
    In Italy, in this period, much attention is dedicated to reach adequate vaccination coverage in children and adolescents. In this study, Vaccination Registry was checked in a Local Health Unit in Rome, Italy, to identify children born in 2007 and 2008 who had not completed the vaccination schedule. Coverage for booster doses of measles, mumps, rubella and for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio vaccines in the 2213 children was around 70%. Read More

    Kinetic and high-throughput profiling of epigenetic interactions by 3D-carbene chip-based surface plasmon resonance imaging technology.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
    Chemical modifications on histones and DNA/RNA constitute a fundamental mechanism for epigenetic regulation. These modifications often function as docking marks to recruit or stabilize cognate "reader" proteins. So far, a platform for quantitative and high-throughput profiling of the epigenetic interactome is urgently needed but still lacking. Read More

    Evaluation of Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine Introduction in Australia.
    JAMA Pediatr 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Sydney, Australia.
    Importance: Incorporating combination vaccines, such as the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine, into immunization schedules should be evaluated from a benefit-risk perspective. Use of MMRV vaccine poses challenges due to a recognized increased risk of febrile seizures (FSs) when used as the first dose in the second year of life. Conversely, completion by age 2 years of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella immunization may offer improved disease control. Read More

    Building capacity for active surveillance of vaccine adverse events in the Americas: A hospital-based multi-country network.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Unit of Medicines and Health Technologies, Department of Health Systems and Services, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), Washington DC, DC, United States.
    New vaccines designed to prevent diseases endemic in low and middle-income countries are being introduced without prior utilization in countries with robust vaccine pharmacovigilance systems. Our aim was to build capacity for active surveillance of vaccine adverse events in the Americas. We describe the implementation of a proof-of-concept study for the feasibility of an international collaborative hospital-based active surveillance system for vaccine safety. Read More

    Utility of routine urine CMV PCR and total serum IgM testing of small for gestational age infants: a single center review.
    J Perinat Med 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Background: Due to the extremely low incidence of TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, CMV, herpes simplex virus) infections, diagnostic testing of all small for gestational age (SGA) infants aimed at TORCH etiologies may incur unnecessary tests and cost.

    Objective: To determine the frequency of urine CMV PCR and total IgM testing among infants with birth weight <10% and the rate of test positivity. To evaluate the frequency of alternative etiologies of SGA in tested infants. Read More

    Utilization and impact of European immunization week to increase measles, mumps, rubella vaccine uptake in Austria in 2016.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    This paper describes engagement in European Immunization Week (EIW) in Tyrol, Austria in April 2016 and an assessment of its possible impact on demand for measles, mumps, rubella vaccination (MMR). It further describes the output of a knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) survey conducted during EIW, showing that 93% (188/202) of respondents were in favor of vaccination in general and 90% (192/214) perceived MMR vaccination to be important. MMR vaccination was perceived as important by more participants than other vaccinations. Read More

    Major Birth Defects after Vaccination Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990 to 2014.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Jul;109(13):1057-1062
    Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: Major birth defects are important infant outcomes that have not been well studied in the postmarketing surveillance of vaccines given to pregnant women. We assessed the presence of major birth defects following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system used to monitor the safety of vaccines in the United States.

    Methods: We searched VAERS for reports of major birth defects during January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2014. Read More

    Extensive intracranial calcification of pseudo-TORCH syndrome with features of Dandy-Walker malformation.
    Asian J Neurosurg 2017 Jul-Sep;12(3):541-543
    Department of Neurosurgery, SCB Medical College and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha, India.
    Pseudo-TORCH syndrome or congenital infection-like syndrome is a group of conditions which resemble congenital infections such as those caused by toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes (TORCH) group of organisms, clinico-radiologically, but serological tests are negative for the organisms. One of the variety shows features such as microcephaly, extensive intracranial calcification showing gross resemblance to congenital CMV infection, making its other name as microcephaly intracranial calcification syndrome (MICS). Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), in addition to posterior fossa large cyst, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, and hydrocephalus is often associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum and callosal lipomas, dysplasia of the brainstem, and cerebellar hypoplasia or dysgenesis. Read More

    Chronically ill adolescents are also incompletely vaccinated: A cross-sectional study in France.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 29;35(36):4707-4712. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Nantes, Nantes, France; National Institutes of Health and Medical Research, CIC 1413, University Hospital of Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Background: Adolescent vaccination coverage tends to be suboptimal, leading to resurgent infectious pathologies and vulnerability to various pathogens. The low frequency of medical consultations and missed opportunities for vaccination are often used to explain the low rate of vaccination. The aim of this study was to assess if the vaccination coverage rate is higher in chronically ill adolescents (CIA) who require a close pediatric specialized follow-up versus the rate in healthy adolescents (HA). Read More

    MMR and MMRV vaccines.
    Vaccine 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Children's Hospital, Dr. Horst Schmidt Klinik, Ludwig-Erhard-Strasse 100, 65199 Wiesbaden, Germany. Electronic address:
    Measles, mumps, rubella and varicella are viral infections which can implicate seriously long-term sequelae of infected individuals or even the unborn child. Vaccines against the individual diseases have long been available. Global measles vaccination is estimated to have prevented more than 20million deaths during 2000-2015. Read More

    Socioeconomic factors influencing childhood vaccination in two northern Italian regions.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 27;35(36):4673-4680. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Molecular Medicine of the University of Padova, Padova, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: Infant vaccination rates have been declining in Italy over the past 5-7years. The aims of this study were to assess the trend in the proportions of children unvaccinated at 24months old, to identify sociodemographic factors associated with non-vaccination; and to examine changes in parental attitudes to vaccination over time.

    Methods: We conducted a population-based birth cohort study by combining existing electronic data sets. Read More

    Self-reported infections during international travel and notifiable infections among returning international travellers, Sweden, 2009-2013.
    PLoS One 2017 28;12(7):e0181625. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    The Public Health Agency of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    We studied food and water-borne diseases (FWDs), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme among Swedish international travellers, in order to identify countries associated with a high number of infections. We used the national database for notifiable infections to estimate the number of FWDs (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, shigellosis, EHEC, Entamoeba histolytica, yersinosis, hepatitis A, paratyphoid fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis E, listeriosis, cholera), STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and acute hepatitis B), VBDs (dengue fever, malaria, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria) acquired abroad 2009-2013. We obtained number and duration of trips to each country from a database that monthly collects travel data from a randomly selected proportion of the Swedish population. Read More

    A Comprehensive Review of Immunization Practices in Solid Organ Transplant and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.
    Clin Ther 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases, especially influenza, varicella, herpes zoster, and invasive pneumococcal infections, continue to lead to significant morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients.

    Methods: We highlight guideline recommendations for the use of key vaccines in SOT and HSCT recipients and to review the latest evidence and developments in the field.

    Results: Physicians should vaccinate individuals with end-stage organ disease, as vaccine seroresponse rates are higher pretransplantation. Read More

    Rubella, herpes simplex virus type 2 and preeclampsia.
    Virol J 2017 Jul 26;14(1):142. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, P. O. Box 102, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Background: Preeclampsia is a major health problem. Although, the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, there are recent studies on association between infections and preeclampsia.

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal seropositivity of rubella, Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and preeclampsia. Read More

    Prevalence of Rubella Antibodies Among Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    1 Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles; 2 National Institute for Biomedical Research (INRB), Kinshasa, DRC; 3 OpGen, Inc. Gaithersburg, MD; 4 McKing Consulting, Expanded Programme on Immunization, Kinshasa, DRC; 5 Expanded Programme on Immunization, Kinshasa, DRC; 6 Kinshasa School of Public Health, Kinshasa, DRC; 7 Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA.
    Background: While generally mild in children, rubella infection in early pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Rubella vaccination is not yet available as a part of routine immunization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the burden of infection is unknown.

    Methods: In collaboration with the 2013-2014 DRC Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), a serosurvey was carried out to assess population immunity to vaccine preventable diseases. Read More

    Vaccine-preventable diseases in pediatric patients: a review of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella [digest].
    Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2016 Dec 22;13(12 Suppl Points & Pearls):S1-S2. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Chief Fellow, Emergency & Transport Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine/University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.
    Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Read More

    Sociodemographic and economic characteristics of susceptibility to rubella among women preparing for pregnancy in rural China.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Jul 21;62:112-118. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, No. 38, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Infection with rubella virus during pregnancy can result in congenital defects and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The risk of rubella infection is greatly determined by the level of rubella antibodies in the serum. A survey of rubella antibody seronegativity rates was conducted in 780 000 women in rural China who were planning a pregnancy, in order to evaluate the herd susceptibility in different age groups and by high, middle, and low GDP per capita regions. Read More

    Public Health and Economic Consequences of Vaccine Hesitancy for Measles in the United States.
    JAMA Pediatr 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston3Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas4James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, Houston, Texas5Scowcroft Institute of International Affairs, The Bush School of Government and Public Service, Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Importance: Routine childhood vaccination is declining in some regions of the United States due to vaccine hesitancy, which risks the resurgence of many infectious diseases with public health and economic consequences. There are ongoing policy debates on the state and national level, including legislation around nonmedical (personal-belief) exemptions for childhood vaccination and possibly a special government commission on vaccine safety, which may affect vaccine coverage.

    Objective: To estimate the number of measles cases in US children and the associated economic costs under scenarios of different levels of vaccine hesitancy, using the case example of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination and measles. Read More

    Vaccine-Preventable Admissions to an Irish Paediatric Intensive Care.
    Ir Med J 2017 May 10;110(5):560. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin 12.
    In the Republic of Ireland, the schedule of state-funded immunisation for children is comprehensive and includes diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, pneumococcus, hepatitis B, meningococcus C, haemophilus B, polio, measles, rubella and mumps. Varicella and meningococcal B vaccines are commercially available but are not currently funded by the government. Each of the illnesses preventable by these vaccines can cause substantial morbidity, and rarely mortality, in infants and children. Read More

    The web and public confidence in MMR vaccination in Italy.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 20;35(35 Pt B):4494-4498. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Biology - University of Pisa, Via S. Zeno 35, 56127 Pisa, Italy.
    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage in Italy has been decreasing starting from 2012 and, at the present, none of the Italian regions has achieved the goal of 95% coverage target. A decision of the Court of Justice of Rimini in March 2012 that awarded vaccine-injury compensation for a case of autism has been indicated as a probable trigger event leading to a reduction of vaccine confidence in Italy. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between MMR vaccination coverage to online search trends and social network activity on the topic "autism and MMR vaccine", during the period 2010-2015. Read More

    Rubella sero-prevalence among children in Kilimanjaro region: a community based study prior to the introduction of rubella vaccine in Tanzania.
    Ital J Pediatr 2017 Jul 21;43(1):63. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Institute of Public Health, Department of forensic medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Childhood rubella infection is a mild, self-limiting illness. Rubella infection among pregnant women however, is a major public health concern. Depending on gestation age, it may result in fetal death, stillbirth or a new-born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Read More

    Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Bangladesh, 2000-2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Jul 21;66(28):753-757. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    In 2013, at the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR), a regional goal was established to eliminate measles and control rubella and congenital rubella syndrome* by 2020 (1). WHO-recommended measles elimination strategies in SEAR countries include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in every district, delivered through the routine immunization program or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)(†); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely measles case-based surveillance system that meets targets for recommended performance indicators; and 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network (2). In 2014, Bangladesh, one of 11 countries in SEAR, adopted a national goal for measles elimination by 2018 (2,3). Read More

    Pediatric reference intervals for 29 Ortho VITROS 5600 immunoassays using the CALIPER cohort of healthy children and adolescents.
    Clin Chem Lab Med 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Background: Accurate reference intervals (RIs) based on a healthy pediatric population are essential for pediatric test result interpretation. The CALIPER project has recruited a large healthy cohort and completed a series of a priori studies to address gaps in pediatric RIs. As immunoassays from different manufacturers for endocrine and special chemistry markers are not standardized and show marked intermethod differences, direct RI studies are needed for each major analytical platform. Read More

    Analysis of the association between millennium development goals 4 & 5 and the physician workforce across international economic strata.
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2017 Jul 18;17(1):18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    St. Joseph's Family Medicine Residency, Syracuse, USA.
    Background: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5. Read More

    Molecular surveillance of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region: new challenges in the elimination phase.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Aug 14;23(8):516-523. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    WHO European Regional Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: The WHO European Region (EUR) has adopted the goal of eliminating measles and rubella but individual countries perform differently in achieving this goal. Measles virus spread across the EUR by mobile groups has recently led to large outbreaks in the insufficiently vaccinated resident population. As an instrument for monitoring the elimination process and verifying the interruption of endemic virus transmission, molecular surveillance has to provide valid and representative data. Read More

    Emergence of ON1 genotype of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A in China between 2011 and 2015.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 14;7(1):5501. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Medical Virology Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    A molecular epidemiological study of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) was conducted to examine the distribution of its subgroups and genotypes, as well as to identify its transmission pattern in China. A total of 705 samples collected from 9 provinces in China between January 2008 and February 2015 were identified as HRSV-positive and were subsequently sequenced. Of these, 336 samples were HRSV subgroup A (HRSVA), 368 samples were HRSV subgroup B (HRSVB), and 1 sample contained both HRSVA and HRSVB. Read More

    Etiology and prognosis of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in Chinese children: a multicentre prospective study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jul 14;17(1):494. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Respiratory Department, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.
    Background: In China, there were few studies about the pathogens of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in children in recent years. The aims of this study were to characterize the etiology and prognosis of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in Chinese children.

    Methods: This was a multicentre prospective study. Read More

    A self-affirmation exercise does not improve intentions to vaccinate among parents with negative vaccine attitudes (and may decrease intentions to vaccinate).
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(7):e0181368. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Psychology, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, United States of America.
    Two studies investigated the effectiveness of a self-affirmation exercise on vaccine safety beliefs and intent to vaccinate future children. In Study 1, a sample of 585 parents with at least one child under the age of 18 in the home participated through Amazon's MTurk. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a 2 x 2 design. Read More

    Measles Outbreak - Minnesota April-May 2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Jul 14;66(27):713-717. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    On April 10, 2017, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) was notified about a suspected measles case. The patient was a hospitalized child aged 25 months who was evaluated for fever and rash, with onset on April 8. The child had no history of receipt of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and no travel history or known exposure to measles. Read More

    Rubella Surveillance and Diagnostic Testing Among a Low-Prevalence Population, New York City, 2012-2013.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Bureau of Immunization, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Queens, NY, USA.
    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) receives clinical and laboratory reports for rubella. Because rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM) assays may produce false positive results and rubella infections may be asymptomatic, interpretation of positive IgM results can be challenging. Rubella reports received by DOHMH in 2012-2013 were reviewed. Read More

    Surgical Options for Uhl's Anomaly.
    World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2017 Jul;8(4):470-474
    2 Department of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Sciences, Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Uhl's anomaly is an extremely rare congenital heart defect characterized by a near total absence of the myocardium of the parietal wall of the right ventricle. Few reports of surgical management exist in literature. We present three patients with this anomaly who were managed with different surgical strategies. Read More

    Age-appropriate versus up-to-date coverage of routine childhood vaccinations among young children in Israel.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jul 11:1-9. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    c The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Medicine, the Hebrew University and Hadassah Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine , Department of Health Policy and Management , Jerusalem , Israel.
    Background And Aims: Routine childhood vaccinations schedules recommend that children receive the vaccine doses at specific ages. Vaccination coverage data are conventionally reported by the up-to-date method. We aimed to assess vaccination timeliness by the age-appropriate method and compare with the up-to-date vaccination coverage. Read More

    [Study of mumps immunity after administrating measles-mumps-rubella vaccine among children aged 2-7 years old in Jiangsu Province in 2015].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Jul;51(7):593-597
    Division of Expanded Programme Immunization, Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210009, China.
    Objective: To investigate the immunity to mumps after administrating measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) among children aged 2-7 years old in Jiangsu province in 2015. Methods: A total of 4 190 healthy children aged 2-7 years old, living in local places for at least 3 months, and having been vaccinated at least 1 dose MMR were recruited to the study from Wujin district of Changzhou city, Gaogang district of Taizhou city and Ganyu district of Lianyungang city by using stratified cluster random sampling method between September and November, 2015. Those who did not accept MMR vaccination, who refused venous blood collection, who had affected mumps according to the memory of parents or teachers and who were diagnosed serious disease by clinical doctors were excluded from study. Read More

    Congenital microcephaly in Quebec: baseline prevalence, risk factors and outcomes in a large cohort of neonates.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Jul 4. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Objective: We assessed baseline prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of microcephaly in a large population of neonates.

    Design: Retrospective cohort study.

    Setting: All hospitals in the province of Quebec, Canada. Read More

    Regulation of FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 expression and production in Brassica oleracea and Capsella rubella.
    Planta 2017 Jul 3. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Qianhu Houcun, Nanjing, 210014, Jiangsu, China.
    Main Conclusion: The contribution of variations in coding regions or promoters to the changes in FAE1 expression levels have be quantified and compared in parallel by specifically designed swapping constructs. FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) is a key gene in control of erucic acid synthesis in plant seeds. The expression of FAE1 genes in Brassica oleracea and Capsella rubella, representatives of high and low erucic acid species, respectively, was characterized to provide insight into the regulation of very long-chain fatty-acid biosynthesis in seeds. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus among pregnant women and the importance of avidity assays.
    Saudi Med J 2017 Jul;38(7):727-732
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. E-mail.
    Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), Rubella virus, and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) among pregnant women in Izmir, Turkey.

    Methods: Medical records of pregnant women attending Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January 2014 and January 2016 were analyzed in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Read More

    Unearthing a sesterterpene biosynthetic repertoire in the Brassicaceae through genome mining reveals convergent evolution.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Jul 3;114(29):E6005-E6014. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Metabolic Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom;
    Sesterterpenoids are a rare terpene class harboring untapped chemodiversity and bioactivities. Their structural diversity originates primarily from the scaffold-generating sesterterpene synthases (STSs). In fungi, all six known STSs are bifunctional, containing C-terminal trans-prenyltransferase (PT) and N-terminal terpene synthase (TPS) domains. Read More

    Lancet 2017 Jun 30. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; International Vaccine Access Center, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    Measles is a highly contagious disease that results from infection with measles virus and is still responsible for more than 100 000 deaths every year, down from more than 2 million deaths annually before the introduction and widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles virus is transmitted by the respiratory route and illness begins with fever, cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis followed by a characteristic rash. Complications of measles affect most organ systems, with pneumonia accounting for most measles-associated morbidity and mortality. Read More

    Vaccine Adverse Events: Separating Myth from Reality.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Jun;95(12):786-794
    Conemaugh Family Medicine Residency Program, Johnstown, PA, USA.
    Vaccines are one of the most successful medical advances in modern times. Most vaccine-preventable illnesses are unfamiliar to modern parents. Because of this, parents are increasingly questioning the necessity of immunizing their children, especially because no vaccine is completely free of adverse effects or the risk of complications. Read More

    Measles outbreak after 12 years without endemic transmission, Portugal, February to May 2017.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Jun;22(23)
    Directorate-General of Health, Lisbon, Portugal.
    We report a measles outbreak in two Portuguese health regions (Algarve and Lisbon and the Tagus Valley) since February 2017, and which by 31 May resulted in 28 confirmed cases, of which 16 were unvaccinated. Thirteen cases were healthcare workers. One unvaccinated teenager died. Read More

    Mumps Virus SH protein inhibits NF-κB activation by interacting with TNFR1, IL-1R1, and TLR3 complexes.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Robert Koch Institute, Unit 12 "Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Viruses Affecting Immunocompromised Patients", Berlin, Germany.
    The mumps virus (MuV) small hydrophobic protein (SH) is a type I membrane protein expressed in infected cells. SH has been reported to interfere with innate immunity by inhibiting TNFα-mediated apoptosis and NF-κB activation. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we generated recombinant MuVs (rMuVs) expressing either the SH protein with an N-terminal FLAG epitope or lacking SH expression due to the insertion of three stop codons into the SH gene. Read More

    Humoral Immunity in Arsenic-Exposed Children in Rural Bangladesh: Total Immunoglobulins and Vaccine-Specific Antibodies.
    Environ Health Perspect 2017 Jun 14;125(6):067006. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Early-life arsenic exposure has been associated with reduced cell-mediated immunity, but little is known about its effects on humoral immunity.

    Objective: We evaluated whether prenatal and childhood arsenic exposure was associated with humoral immune function in school-aged children.

    Methods: Children born in a prospective mother-child cohort in rural Bangladesh were immunized with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines at 9 years of age (). Read More

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