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    Immunoglobulin G4-Related Thyroid Diseases.
    Eur Thyroid J 2016 Dec 3;5(4):231-239. Epub 2016 Dec 3.
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a new disease category involving many organ systems, including the endocrine system in general and the thyroid in particular. Since an initial association was made between hypothyroidism and autoimmune (IgG4-related) pancreatitis, more forms of IgG4-related thyroid disease (IgG4-RTD) have been recognized. Four subcategories of IgG4-RTD have so far been identified: Riedel thyroiditis (RT), fibrosing variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis (FVHT), IgG4-related Hashimoto thyroiditis, and Graves disease with elevated IgG4 levels. Read More

    HURTLE CELLS IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES IN HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS PARENCHYMA.
    Georgian Med News 2016 Nov(Issue):42-46
    I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Alexandre Natishvili Institute of Morphology, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    The present study was designed to evaluate the participation and utility of Hǘrtle cells morphological requirment and transformation under Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis versus Riedel´s struma. Several markers have been evaluated to detect induced activities of Hǘrtle cells. Study subject - specimens (tissue fragments) collected from TG surgery (thyroidectomy) for mollecular (receptor) diagnosis of Hǘrtle cells activities using routine histological and immunohistochemical samples. Read More

    Severe trachea compression caused by Riedel's thyroiditis: A case report and review of the literature.
    Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2016 Dec 24;12:18-20. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    Pathology Department, Cangzhou Clinical College of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of Hebei Medical University, Cangzhou 061000, China.
    Background: Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare form of chronic thyroiditis, associated with fibroinflammatory process involving the thyroid and surrounding cervical tissues, leading to compressive symptoms.

    Case Presentation: We present a case of RT in a 73-year-old female with dyspnoea caused by severe trachea compression. She had reported dyspnoea during physical stress, and had noticed a large mass on the front of the neck. Read More

    Riedel's thyroiditis in a black African: A case report and review of literature.
    Niger J Clin Pract 2016 Jul-Aug;19(4):549-555
    Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.
    Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare cause of the enlargement of the thyroid gland. The etiology is not fully known. There has been no report of Riedel thyroiditis in our country. Read More

    Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease: Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Imaging Findings.
    Radiol Clin North Am 2016 May;54(3):535-51
    Department of Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel, immune-mediated, multisystem disease characterized by the development of tumefactive lesions in multiple organs. IgG4-RD encompasses many fibroinflammatory diseases that had been thought to be confined to single organs. Delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis as malignancies leading to aggressive treatment may be averted by identification of the multisystem nature of IgG4-RD. Read More

    IgG4-related disease: The utility of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosis and treatment.
    Hell J Nucl Med 2015 Sep-Dec;18 Suppl 1:155-9
    Department of Rheumatology, Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Jan Brugge-Oostende, Ruddershove 10, B-8000 Brugge, Belgium.
    Objective: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic mass-forming fibro-inflammatory condition which can affect nearly every organ system. Its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, but affected tissues are characterized by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells which cause chronic inflammation, storiform fibrosis and phlebitis. These findings on histopathological specimens are considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. Read More

    A small subgroup of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with IgG4-related disease.
    Virchows Arch 2016 Mar 15;468(3):321-7. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
    Institute of Pathology, Staedtisches Klinikum Munich, Sanatoriumsplatz 2, 81545, Munich, Germany.
    IgG4-related disease is a newly identified syndrome characterized by high serum IgG4 levels and increased IgG4-positive plasma cells in involved organs. The incidence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in the Caucasian population of Europe is unknown. We investigated formalin-fixed thyroid gland samples of 216 patients (191 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 5 Riedel's thyroiditis, and 20 goiters, as controls), morphologically, and immunohistochemically. Read More

    The importance of IgG4 in the predictive model of thyroiditis.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2015 17;2015:150038. Epub 2015 Jun 17.
    Department of Pathology, Militar Medical Academy , Crnotravska 1711000, Belgrade , Serbia.
    Unlabelled: Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-RSD) is a new disease entity first proposed with regard to autoimmune pancreatitis. A 67-year-old male patient was examined because of weight loss and an abdominal pain. Based on the clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and ultrasound features, we identified the diagnosis of the IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD), that was confirmed by the histopathological analysis after the biopsy of the head of pancreas. Read More

    IgG4-related disease.
    Int J Rheum Dis 2016 Aug 10;19(8):747-62. Epub 2015 Aug 10.
    Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a regional or systemic fibro-inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It presents a distinctive histopathological appearance of dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis with the appearance of inflammatory swelling or tumefactive lesions. This new disease entity includes a wide variety of diseases such as Mikulicz disease, autoimmune pancreatitis, Riedel thyroiditis, interstitial nephritis and retroperitoneal fibrosis. Read More

    Riedel thyroiditis: Fine needle aspiration findings of a rare entity.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2015 Sep 7;43(9):747-50. Epub 2015 Jul 7.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.
    Riedel thyroiditis is a rare fibrosing disorder characterized by extension of the fibroinflammatory process beyond the thyroid capsule. Due to the nature of this lesion, fine-needle aspiration often yields scant material and may be interpreted as non-diagnostic. In this report, we describe cytologic features that allow the cytopathologist to favor a diagnosis of Riedel thyroiditis, thereby guiding appropriate further work-up and management. Read More

    Clinicopathological features of Riedel's thyroiditis associated with IgG4-related disease in Japan.
    Endocr J 2015 7;62(8):725-31. Epub 2015 Jul 7.
    The 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama 641-8509, Japan.
    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic fibrosing disorder characterized by a hard, infiltrative lesion in the thyroid gland, which is often associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is typified by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, resulting in tissue fibrosis and organ dysfunction. In order to evaluate the clinicopathological features of RT and its relationship with IgG4-RD, we performed a Japanese literature search using the keywords "Riedel" and "Riedel's thyroiditis. Read More

    IgG4 related disease of the head and neck.
    Head Neck Pathol 2015 Mar 25;9(1):24-31. Epub 2015 Mar 25.
    Departments of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Warren 2/55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA,
    IgG4 related disease of the head and neck region represents one of the more common manifestations of IgG4 related disease. Involvement of the submandibular and parotid glands, the orbit and thyroid represent some of the more common sites involved by IgG4 related disease. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis, Mikulicz disease and Riedel thyroiditis are also members of the family of IgG4 related disease. Read More

    [Riedel thyroiditis: two cases report].
    Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2014 Oct;28(19):1523-5
    Riedel thyroiditis is a benign disease, which is often self-limited. Examinations, such as CT and histologic diagnosis can distinguish it from malignant neoplasms and hashimoto's thyroiditis. Riedel thyroiditis is an uncommon form of chronic thyroiditis in which the thyroid gland is replaced by fibrous tissue. Read More

    [Non-autoimmune thyroiditis].
    Medicina (B Aires) 2014 ;74(6):481-92
    Dirección Médica Química Montpellier SA, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail:
    The term thyroiditis comprises a group of thyroid diseases characterized by the presence of inflammation, including autoimmune and non-autoimmune entities. It may manifest as an acute illness with severe thyroid pain (subacute thyroiditis and infectious thyroiditis), and conditions in which the inflammation is not clinically evident evolving without pain and presenting primarily thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter (drug-induced thyroiditis and Riedel thyroiditis). The aim of this review is to provide an updated approach on non-autoimmune thyroiditis and its clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Read More

    Fibrosis of the thyroid gland caused by an IgG4-related sclerosing disease: three years of follow-up.
    Acta Clin Belg 2014 Dec 16;69(6):446-50. Epub 2014 Sep 16.
    Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-RSD) represents a recently identified inflammatory disorder in which infiltration of IgG4 plasma cells causes fibrosis in organs. While IgG4-RSD is well documented in the pancreas and other organs, it is poorly characterized in the thyroid gland. We report a case of a 48-year-old female with a fibrotic thyroid mass associated with a retroperitoneal fibrosis. Read More

    Increased lymphangiogenesis in Riedel thyroiditis (Immunoglobulin G4-related thyroid disease).
    Virchows Arch 2014 Sep 11;465(3):359-64. Epub 2014 Jul 11.
    Department of Pathology, Clinical University Hospital, Galician Health Service (SERGAS), Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, Spain,
    The present study describes in depth a case of Riedel thyroiditis (RT) to clarify its pathogenesis and its putative inclusion in the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. We report the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of a case of RT in a 39-year-old white Spanish woman, admitted with a hard goiter and cold nodule in the left thyroid lobe. This case represents 0. Read More

    ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT usefulness in extra-pancreatic involvement in IgG4 related diseases.
    Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol 2014 Nov-Dec;33(6):366-9. Epub 2014 Mar 12.
    Servicio Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.
    IgG4-related diseases are a group of recently identified entities that include disorders that were previously known by other names, such as Mikulicz disease, Küttner's tumor, Riedel thyroiditis, among others, as well as some new ones described in the last years. These pathologies are a challenge for the medical community in terms of diagnosis and characterization due to their wide spectrum of clinical presentation. Functional imaging can provide a new approach to the comprehension of physiopathology, staging and targeting site of biopsy of IgG4-related diseases. Read More

    Riedel thyroiditis in a patient with graves disease.
    Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2013 Jun 18;28(2):138-43. Epub 2013 Jun 18.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun, Korea.
    Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare form of infiltrative and inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland and can be associated with systemic fibrotic processes, Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves disease. Riedel thyroiditis in combination with Graves disease however, is very rare. A 57-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for Graves disease diagnosed 30 years ago presented with an enlarging neck mass and voice changes. Read More

    Vasovagal reflex emergency caused by Riedel's thyroiditis: A case report and review of the literature.
    Asian J Surg 2016 Jan 3;39(1):41-4. Epub 2013 May 3.
    Department of General Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China.
    Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare type of chronic thyroiditis, associated with fibroinflammatory process and invasion into surrounding tissues, leading to compressive symptoms. A 45-year-old man had a left thyroid mass, presenting with hypotension and bradycardia many times. He was diagnosed with vasovagal reflex caused by cervical vessel compression due to a thyroid lesion. Read More

    Case of concurrent Riedel's thyroiditis, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma.
    Korean J Intern Med 2013 Mar 27;28(2):236-41. Epub 2013 Feb 27.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.
    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland. It is characterized by a fibroinflammatory process that partially destroys the gland and extends into adjacent neck structures. Its clinical manifestation can mask an accompanying thyroid neoplasm and can mimic invasive thyroid carcinoma. Read More

    [Long-term follow-up of a French cohort of retroperitoneal fibrosis].
    Rev Med Interne 2013 Oct 14;34(10):591-9. Epub 2013 Mar 14.
    Service de médecine interne, université Paris-Diderot, hôpital Bichat, AP-HP, 46, rue Henri-Huchard, 75018 Paris, France.
    Purpose: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease with an expanding etiologic spectrum. We aimed to analyze non-invasive diagnosis strategy, associated disorders, monitoring, treatment and prognosis.

    Methods: Retrospective cohort study in a single tertiary center. Read More

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the thyroid with abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells.
    Auris Nasus Larynx 2013 Dec 8;40(6):587-90. Epub 2013 Feb 8.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Okayama Saiseikai General Hospital, Okayama, Japan.
    A case of thyroidal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma mimicking IgG4-related disease is described. A 54-year-old male presented with acute swelling of the anterior neck. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), malignant lymphoma (ML), or acute deterioration of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were initially suspected, and an emergent tracheostomy was required for progressive airway obstruction; a simultaneous biopsy from the thyroid tissue was performed. Read More

    The immunopathogenesis of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis one century after hashimoto.
    Eur Thyroid J 2013 Jan 2;1(4):243-50. Epub 2012 Nov 2.
    Department of Human Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Hakaru Hashimoto described 4 patients with a hitherto unknown cause for goitre, struma lymphomatosa, a century ago. He was careful to distinguish this from Riedel thyroiditis but it has become clear that fibrosis and atrophy of the thyroid are indeed components of Hashimoto thyroiditis, and in rare cases IgG4-related sclerosing disease may be an outcome. Although the cause of the lymphocytic infiltration was unknown to Hashimoto, we now know through the pioneering studies of N. Read More

    IgG4-related disease of the head and neck: CT and MR imaging manifestations.
    Radiographics 2012 Nov-Dec;32(7):1945-58
    Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, School of Medicine, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan.
    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a recently established systemic disease that commonly involves the head and neck, including the salivary glands, lacrimal glands, orbits, thyroid gland, lymph nodes, sinonasal cavities, pituitary gland, and larynx. Although the definitive diagnosis of IgG4-related disease requires histopathologic analysis, elevated serum IgG4 levels are helpful in making the diagnosis. Because of the proposed clinical diagnostic criteria for this disease, cross-sectional imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play an important diagnostic role. Read More

    A case of asymptomatic riedel thyroiditis with follicular adenoma in a patient with a multinodular goiter: an unusual association.
    Eur Thyroid J 2012 Oct 22;1(3):204-7. Epub 2012 Sep 22.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mustafa Kemal University Medical Faculty, Hatay, Turkey.
    Background: Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare inflammatory disease that results in fibrosis of the thyroid gland and invasion to the surrounding structures of the neck. Follicular adenoma (FA) of the thyroid is the most common benign neoplasm of the gland.

    Patient Findings: A 42-year-old woman was referred to the outpatient clinic due to a multinodular goiter and thyroiditis. Read More

    Extraintestinal manifestations of autoimmune pancreatitis.
    Dig Dis 2012 20;30(2):220-3. Epub 2012 Jun 20.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    The term autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was first used in Japan in 1995 to describe a newly recognized form of chronic pancreatitis, after the description of Yoshida and colleagues. But Sarles in 1961, first described a form of idiopathic chronic inflammatory sclerosis of the pancreas, suspected to be due to an autoimmune process. AIP has become a widely accepted term because clinical, serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings suggest an autoimmune mechanism. Read More

    A case of Riedel's thyroiditis.
    J Korean Surg Soc 2012 May 26;82(5):317-20. Epub 2012 Apr 26.
    Thyroid Cancer Center, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Riedel's thyroiditis is an extremely rare disease that is difficult to diagnose correctly using preoperative diagnostic tools because it can mimic malignant neoplasm or the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis during preoperative physical, radiologic, and pathologic examination. We describe here a rare case of Riedel's thyroiditis in an elderly patient and its radiologic characteristics. Read More

    Hashimoto thyroiditis: a century later.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2012 May;19(3):181-6
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    More than a century has passed since the first description of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) as a clinicopathologic entity. HT is an autoimmune disease in which a breakdown of immune tolerance is caused by interplay of a variety of immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors. Thyrocyte injury resulting from environmental factors results in expression of new or hidden epitopes that leads to proliferation of autoreactive T and B cells. Read More

    Rituximab for the treatment of IgG4-related disease: lessons from 10 consecutive patients.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2012 Jan;91(1):57-66
    Rheumatology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
    Patients with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) typically have elevated serum concentrations of IgG4 and share histopathologic features that are similar across affected organ(s). IgG4-RD patients frequently require prolonged treatment with glucocorticoids and are often unable to taper these medications. Traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are generally ineffective. Read More

    A novel clinical entity, IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD): general concept and details.
    Mod Rheumatol 2012 Feb 1;22(1):1-14. Epub 2011 Sep 1.
    Division of Hematology and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada-machi, Kahoku-gun 920-0293, Ishikawa, Japan.
    IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD) is a novel clinical disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 concentration and tumefaction or tissue infiltration by IgG4-positive plasma cells. IgG4RD may be present in a certain proportion of patients with a wide variety of diseases, including Mikulicz's disease, autoimmune pancreatitis, hypophysitis, Riedel thyroiditis, interstitial pneumonitis, interstitial nephritis, prostatitis, lymphadenopathy, retroperitoneal fibrosis, inflammatory aortic aneurysm, and inflammatory pseudotumor. Although IgG4RD forms a distinct, clinically independent disease category and is attracting strong attention as a new clinical entity, many questions and problems still remain to be elucidated, including its pathogenesis, the establishment of diagnostic criteria, and the role of IgG4. Read More

    Invasive fibrous thyroiditis (Riedel thyroiditis): the Mayo Clinic experience, 1976-2008.
    Thyroid 2011 Jul 13;21(7):765-72. Epub 2011 May 13.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
    Background: Invasive fibrous thyroiditis (IFT) is the rarest form of thyroiditis, and reports are often limited to case reports and small case series. In this study, we aimed to summarize our institutional experience with IFT since 1976.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients with IFT evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from 1976 through 2008, with special emphasis on clinical presentation, associated risk factors, associated comorbid conditions, complications, and treatment. Read More

    A Case of Concurrent Riedel's, Hashimoto's and Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis.
    Case Rep Med 2009 11;2009:535974. Epub 2009 Aug 11.
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Internal Medicine and Endocrinology Unit, University of Brescia, 25100 Brescia, Italy.
    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare form of infiltrative and inflammatory disease of the thyroid, first described by Bernard Riedel in 1896. The concurrent presence of RT and other thyroid diseases has been reported, but, the association of RT with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and acute thyroiditis has not yet been reported. We present a case of concurrent Riedel's, Hashimoto's and acute thyroiditis that occurred in a 45-year-old patient. Read More

    [Autoimmune pancreatitis].
    Orv Hetil 2008 May;149(19):873-6
    Semmelweis Egyetem, Altalános Orvostudományi Kar, II. Belgyógyászati Klinika Budapest, Szentkirályi u. 46. 1088.
    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis. Its clinical relevance, however, cannot be dismissed, as it can be difficult to distinguish autoimmune pancreatitis from malignant pancreatic cancer and in contrast with the majority of chronic pancreatitis forms it can be efficiently treated, even complete remission can be achieved on steroid therapy. The clinical picture of autoimmune pancreatitis is not characteristic, obstructive jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss are frequently observed. Read More

    Primary spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland; an overview.
    Am J Clin Pathol 2006 Jun;125 Suppl:S95-123
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland (T-SCL) are not encountered routinely in clinical practice or in the context of thyroid pathology. They commonly are classified as primary or secondary to metastatic disease. Primary T-SCL can be derivedfromfollicular, C-cell (parafollicular), or mesenchymal components and may be the result of reactive or neoplastic processes, including post-fine-needle aspiration spindle cell nodules, Riedel thyroiditis, solitary fibrous tumor, leiomyoma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, hyalinizing trabecular tumor, spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation, follicular dendritic cell tumor, medullary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation. Read More

    Current concepts on Riedel thyroiditis.
    Am J Clin Pathol 2004 Jun;121 Suppl:S50-63
    Department of Internal Medicine, ASL Modena, Italy.
    Riedel thyroiditis (RT) is an uncommon form of chronic thyroiditis in which the thyroid gland is replaced by fibrous tissue. The etiologic mechanisms underlying RT are unclear: the prevailing view is that it is part of a generalized fibroinflammatory process also involving other organs. The clinical manifestations of RT are protean, often resembling malignancy owing to goiter of remarkably hard consistency. Read More

    Spindle cell transformation of papillary carcinoma: an aggressive entity distinct from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 2004 Jan;128(1):87-9
    Department of Pathology, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, The Mount Sinai New York University Medical Center, New York, NY 10029, USA.
    Spindle cells are not routinely encountered in the context of thyroid pathology and are most often present in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and benign conditions such as Riedel struma or de Quervain granulomatous thyroiditis. Only a few publications have reported papillary thyroid carcinoma admixed with a prominent spindle cell component. While these tumors are clearly distinct from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, prognostication as to their oncologic potential is not yet established. Read More

    CT findings in sclerosing mesenteritis (panniculitis): spectrum of disease.
    Radiographics 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6):1561-7
    Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 601 N Caroline St, Rm 3251, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
    Sclerosing mesenteritis is a complex inflammatory disorder of the mesentery. Although sclerosing mesenteritis is often associated with other idiopathic inflammatory disorders such as retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, Riedel thyroiditis, and orbital pseudotumor, its exact cause is unknown. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of sclerosing mesenteritis will vary depending on the predominant tissue component (fat, inflammation, or fibrosis). Read More

    [Therapeutic approach in Riedel thyroiditis].
    Ann Ital Chir 2000 May-Jun;71(3):349-53
    Io Istituto di Clinica Chirurgica, Università degli Studi di Roma, La Sapienza.
    Riedel's invasive fibrous thyroiditis is a rare disorder of unknown origin with progressive extension and invasion of adjacent structures. Clinically it is impossible to distinguish between Riedel's/thyroiditis and other diseases as undifferentiated carcinoma, Hashimoto's disease etc.. Read More

    MR imaging of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.
    Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2000 Feb;8(1):163-82, ix
    Department of Radiology, and Cardiovascular Research, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, USA.
    Whereas scintigraphy and ultrasonography are the primary imaging modalities used for the investigation of thyroid disorders, MR imaging is generally used for specific indications, including evaluating the extent of substernal goiters, assessing the effect on adjacent structures, imaging the local extent of thyroid carcinomas, and localizing recurrent sites of thyroid neoplasia. MR imaging also has been used for the investigation of congenital disorders of the thyroid gland and the evaluation of diffuse thyroid disease, such as Grave's disease, Hashimoto's and Riedel thyroiditis, and hemochromatosis. MR imaging of the parathyroid glands is generally used for patients with recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism following neck exploration. Read More

    Idiopathic fibrosclerotic disorders and other inflammatory pseudotumors.
    Semin Diagn Pathol 1998 May;15(2):161-73
    Lauren V. Ackerman Laboratory of Surgical Pathology, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    Fibroinflammatory disorders constitute heterogeneous clinical conditions whose cause and pathogenesis are largely unknown. Inflammatory pseudotumor has been applied in a generic sense to several of these disorders, which present as a mass displacing surrounding anatomic structures or leading to organ dysfunction secondary to compressive growth around the ureter(s), common bile duct, or great vessels in the mediastinum. The fibrosclerosing disorders of retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing mediastinitis, sclerosing cholangitis, orbital pseudotumor, and Riedel thyroiditis are seemingly related in a clinical sense because there are well-documented cases of patients with two or more of these conditions and reports of these disorders presenting in family members. Read More

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