1,364 results match your criteria Rhodococcus equi


Virulence plasmids in clinical isolates of Rhodococcus equi from sick foals in the Netherlands.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Clinical samples from 123 foals with suspected rhodococcosis submitted to the Veterinary Microbiological Diagnostic Centre of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine between 1993 and 2006 were tested for the presence of the virulence gene vapA. Of the 123 samples, 120 were vapA-positive and 3 vapA-negative Rhodococcus equi were isolated. The 120 vapA-positive R. Read More

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Glenthmycins A-M: Macrocyclic Spirotetronate Polyketide Antibacterials from the Australian Pasture Plant-Derived sp. CMB-PB041.

J Nat Prod 2022 Jun 31;85(6):1641-1657. Epub 2022 May 31.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

Chemical investigation of Australian pasture plant-derived sp. CMB-PB041, supported by miniaturized cultivation profiling and molecular network analysis, led to the isolation and characterization of 13 new macrocyclic spirotetronates, glenthmycins A-M (-), with structures assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, chemical degradation and derivatization, and mechanistic and biosynthetic considerations. Hydrolysis of glenthmycin B () yielded the aglycone , whose structure and absolute configuration were secured by X-ray analysis, along with the unexpected amino sugar residues glenthose lactams A () and B (), with Mosher analysis of facilitating assignment of absolute configurations of the amino sugar. Read More

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An Autobioluminescent Method for Evaluating and Growth of Rhodococcus equi.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 31:e0075822. Epub 2022 May 31.

Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Kitasato Universitygrid.410786.c School of Veterinary Medicine, Aomori, Japan.

A previously reported method for evaluating the intracellular growth of Rhodococcus equi using enhanced green fluorescent protein is unsuitable for the quantitative evaluation of the entire sample because the signal can be detected only in the excitation region. Therefore, we created an autobioluminescent using luciferase (). First, we connected to the functional promoter P and introduced it into the chromosomes of ATCC33701 and ATCC33701_P-. Read More

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Fatal Infection in an Alpaca () Caused by Pathogenic .

Animals (Basel) 2022 May 19;12(10). Epub 2022 May 19.

Chemical and Veterinary Analysis Agency Stuttgart (CVUAS), Schaflandstr. 3/3, 70736 Fellbach, Germany.

() is a pathogen primarily known for infections in equine foals, but is also present in numerous livestock species including New World camelids. Moreover, is considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen. In this report, we describe in detail a fatal rhodococcal infection in an alpaca (), to our best knowledge, for the first time. Read More

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Novel Quantitative PCR for and Macrolide Resistance Detection in Equine Respiratory Samples.

Animals (Basel) 2022 May 3;12(9). Epub 2022 May 3.

Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

is an important veterinary pathogen that takes the lives of many foals every year. With the emergence and spread of MDR to current antimicrobial treatment, new tools that can provide a fast and accurate diagnosis of the disease and antimicrobial resistance profile are needed. Here, we have developed and analytically validated a multiplex qPCR for the simultaneous detection of and related macrolide resistance genes in equine respiratory samples. Read More

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Features and application potential of microbial urethanases.

Authors:
Kazuo Masaki

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2022 May 10;106(9-10):3431-3438. Epub 2022 May 10.

National Research Institute of Brewing, 3-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-0046, Japan.

Urethanase (EC 3.5.1. Read More

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Corrigendum: Genomic Characteristics and Pan-Genome Analysis of .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 12;12:884441. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

National Pathogen Resource Center (NPRC), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), Beijing, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2022. Read More

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Fecal concentration of Rhodococcus equi determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of rectal swab samples to differentiate foals with pneumonia from healthy foals.

J Vet Intern Med 2022 May 27;36(3):1146-1151. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Equine Infectious Disease Laboratory, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Background: Diagnostic accuracy of real-time, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to quantify virulent Rhodococcus equi using rectal swab samples has not been systematically evaluated.

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of qPCR of rectal swab samples to differentiate foals with pneumonia from healthy foals of similar age from the same environment.

Animals: One hundred privately owned foals born in 2021 from 2 farms in New York. Read More

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Culturable Microbial Population From the Upper Respiratory Tract of 1,010 Clinically Healthy Horses in Southern Brazil.

J Equine Vet Sci 2022 Jul 9;114:103946. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Laboratório de Microbiologia e Imunologia Veterinária, Medicina Veterinária, Instituto Federal Farroupilha (IFFar), Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Microbiological diagnosis of equine respiratory infections is essential for disease management. However, reliable diagnosis can be a challenge due to colonization of the upper respiratory tract (URT) by a diverse microbial population, and because there is a lack of studies with samples from healthy animals. Aiming to guide adequate URT culture, this work reports culturable microbial population from the URT of 1,010 apparently healthy horses from 341 farms in Southern Brazil and identifies the putative presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Read More

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Association of pneumonia with concentrations of virulent Rhodococcus equi in fecal swabs of foals before and after intrabronchial infection with virulent R. equi.

J Vet Intern Med 2022 May 24;36(3):1139-1145. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Equine Infectious Disease Laboratory, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Background: Intragastric administration of virulent Rhodococcus equi protects foals against subsequent experimental intrabronchial (IB) infection, but it is unknown whether R. equi naturally ingested by foals contributes to their susceptibility to pneumonia.

Hypothesis: Fecal concentration of virulent R. Read More

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Rhodococcus equiU19 strain harbors a nonmobilizable virulence plasmid.

Microbiol Immunol 2022 Jun 13;66(6):307-316. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine, Aomori, Japan.

Rhodococcus equiis the causative agent of pyogenic pneumonia in foals, and a virulence-associated protein A (VapA) encoded on the pVAPA virulence plasmid is important for its pathogenicity. In this study, we analyzed the virulence of R. equi strain U19, originally isolated in the Netherlands in 1997 and the genetic characteristics of the pVAPA_U19 plasmid. Read More

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Retrospective analysis of post-mortem findings in Thoroughbreds aged from birth to 18 months presented to a UK pathology laboratory.

Vet J 2022 03 5;281:105813. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK.

Enhanced understanding of reasons for, and timings of, mortality in Thoroughbreds prior to entering race training is warranted to provide insight into this population's health status. The aims of this study were to describe pathologies diagnosed at post-mortem (PM) examination in Thoroughbreds aged from birth to 18 months and investigate associations between age and pathology. Reports from a pathology laboratory in Newmarket, UK, were used to identify eligible cases examined between January 2006 and December 2020. Read More

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Genomic Characteristics Revealed Plasmid-Mediated Pathogenicity and Ubiquitous Rifamycin Resistance of .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 16;12:807610. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

National Pathogen Resource Center, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), Beijing, China.

is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause fatal disease in patients who are immunocompromised. At present, the epidemiology and pathogenic mechanisms of infection are not clear. This study characterized the genomes of 53 strains from different sources. Read More

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Birth month associated with tracheal colonization of Rhodococcus equi in newborn foals on horse-breeding farms with sporadic rhodococcosis in Japan.

Vet Microbiol 2022 Apr 17;267:109373. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Head of Pathology Unit, Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Equine Veterinary Medical Center, Member of Qatar Foundation, Education City, PO Box 5825, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

Tracheal washing fluid was collected from 170 foals at 28 and 35 d old from February to July in a foaling season on horse-breeding farms with sporadic rhodococcosis in Japan and was investigated by quantitative culture. The history of the 170 foals followed up for the next few months. The proportion of R. Read More

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Rhodococcus equi foal pneumonia: Update on epidemiology, immunity, treatment and prevention.

Equine Vet J 2022 May 21;54(3):481-494. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Equine Infectious Disease Laboratory, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Pneumonia in foals caused by the bacterium Rhodococcus equi has a worldwide distribution and is a common cause of disease and death for foals. The purpose of this narrative review was to summarise recent developments pertaining to the epidemiology, immune responses, treatment, and prevention of rhodococcal pneumonia of foals. Screening tests have been used to implement earlier detection and treatment of foals with presumed subclinical R. Read More

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The type of anticoagulant used for plasma collection affects in vitro Rhodococcus equi assays.

BMC Res Notes 2022 Feb 14;15(1):50. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

Objective: The efficacy of Rhodococcus equi-specific hyperimmune plasma (HIP) is usually evaluated in vitro. Anticoagulants (AC) used for plasma collection can negatively impact bacterial replication but their effect on R. equi growth has not been evaluated. Read More

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February 2022

Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): antimicrobial-resistant in horses.

EFSA J 2022 Feb 2;20(2):e07081. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

() was identified among the most relevant antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria in the EU for horses in a previous scientific opinion. Thus, it has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on its eligibility to be listed, Annex IV for its categorisation according to disease prevention and control rules as in Article 9 and Article 8 for listing animal species related to the bacterium. The assessment has been performed following a methodology previously published. Read More

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February 2022

Judicial Opinions 103-111.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2022 Jan;72(1)

Leibniz Institute DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Inhoffenstrasse 7B, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

In Opinion 103, the request to place the name Ehrenberg 1832 (Approved Lists 1980) on the list of rejected names is denied because a neotype may be designated. Similarly, because a neotype may be designated, in Opinion 104 the request to place the name Döbereiner and Ruschel 1958 (Approved Lists 1980) on the list of rejected names is denied. In Opinion 105, it is emphasized that the name Fukuda . Read More

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January 2022

Assessment of animal diseases caused by bacteria resistant to antimicrobials: Horses.

EFSA J 2021 Dec 24;19(12):e07112. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

In this opinion, the antimicrobial-resistant bacteria responsible for transmissible diseases that constitute a threat to the health of horses have been assessed. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collected via an extensive literature review and expert judgement. Details on the methodology used for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. Read More

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December 2021

Ion Channel and Ubiquitin Differential Expression during Erythromycin-Induced Anhidrosis in Foals.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Nov 25;11(12). Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Animal Sciences, UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Macrolide drugs are the treatment of choice for infections, despite severe side-effects temporary anhidrosis as a. To better understand the molecular biology leading to macrolide induced anhidrosis, we performed skin biopsies and Quantitative Intradermal Terbutaline Sweat Tests (QITSTs) in six healthy pony-cross foals for three different timepoints during erythromycin administration-pre-treatment (baseline), during anhidrosis and post-recovery. RNA sequencing of biopsies followed by differential gene expression analysis compared both pre and post normal sweating timepoints to the erythromycin induced anhidrosis episode. Read More

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November 2021

Identification of an Intermediate Species along the Nitrile Hydratase Reaction Pathway by EPR Spectroscopy.

Biochemistry 2021 12 29;60(49):3771-3782. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Physics, Marquette University, 1420 West Clybourn Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233, United States.

A new method to trap catalytic intermediate species was employed with Fe-type nitrile hydratase from TG328-2 (NHase). NHase was incubated with substrates in a 23% (w/w) NaCl/HO eutectic system that remained liquid at -20 °C, thereby permitting the observation of transient species that were present at electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-detectable levels in samples frozen while in the steady state. Fe-EPR signals from the resting enzyme were unaffected by the presence of 23% NaCl, and the catalytic activity was ∼55% that in the absence of NaCl at the optimum pH of 7. Read More

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December 2021

Bacterial and viral enterocolitis in horses: a review.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2022 May 11;34(3):354-375. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, University of California-Davis, San Bernardino Laboratory, USA.

Enteritis, colitis, and enterocolitis are considered some of the most common causes of disease and death in horses. Determining the etiology of these conditions is challenging, among other reasons because different causes produce similar clinical signs and lesions, and also because some agents of colitis can be present in the intestine of normal animals. We review here the main bacterial and viral causes of enterocolitis of horses, including spp. Read More

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Effect of season and geographic location in the United States on detection of potential enteric pathogens or toxin genes in horses ≥6-mo-old.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2022 May 11;34(3):407-411. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

We investigated the effects of season and geographic location on detection of nucleic acids of potential enteric pathogens (PEPs) or their toxins (PEP-Ts) in feces of horses ≥6-mo-old in the United States. Results of 3,343 equine diarrhea PCR panels submitted to Idexx Laboratories for horses >6-mo-old were reviewed. Submission months were grouped into 4 seasons, and states were grouped into 4 geographic regions. Read More

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Randomized, controlled trial comparing Rhodococcus equi and poly-N-acetyl glucosamine hyperimmune plasma to prevent R equi pneumonia in foals.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Nov 5;35(6):2912-2919. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Equine Infectious Disease Laboratory, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Background: Hyperimmune plasma raised against β-1→6-poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG HIP) mediates more opsonophagocytic killing of Rhodococcus equi (R equi) than does R equi hyperimmune plasma (RE HIP) in vitro. The relative efficacy of PNAG HIP and RE HIP to protect foals against R equi pneumonia, however, has not been evaluated.

Hypothesis: Transfusion with PNAG HIP will be superior to RE HIP in foals for protection against R equi pneumonia in a randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial. Read More

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November 2021

Isolation of Rhodococcus equi from the gastrointestinal contents of earthworms (family Megascolecidae).

Lett Appl Microbiol 2022 Jan 20;74(1):27-31. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Animal Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Japan.

Rhodococcus equi was isolated from the gastrointestinal contents of earthworms (family Megascolecidae) and their surrounding soil collected from pastures of two horse-breeding farms in Aomori Prefecture, outdoor pig pens, forest in Towada campus, orange groves and forest where wild boars (Sus scrofa) are established in Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture. The number of R. equi in the lower gastrointestinal contents of 23 earthworms collected from our campus was significantly larger than that of the upper gastrointestinal content. Read More

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January 2022

-Occurrence in Goats and Clinical Case Report.

Pathogens 2021 Sep 4;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Division of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.

Background: infection is commonly known in equine medicine to cause frequently fatal rhodococcosis. Infections in other species and people are also reported. Clinical manifestation in goats is relatively similar to horses and humans, but data regarding bacterium prevalence are scarce. Read More

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September 2021

Cellulitis-related Rhodococcus equi in a cat harboring VAPA-type plasmid pattern.

Microb Pathog 2021 Nov 9;160:105186. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

UNESP-São Paulo State University, Department of Animal Production and Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Rhodococcus equi is a well-known intracellular facultative bacterium that is opportunistic in nature, and a contagious disease-causing agent of pyogranulomatous infections in humans and multihost animals. Feline rhodococcosis is an uncommon or unnoticed clinical condition, in which the organism is usually refractory to conventional antimicrobial therapy. The pathogenicity of the agent is intimately associated with plasmid-governed infectivity, which is attributed to the presence of plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins (Vap). Read More

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November 2021

Synergistic combinations of clarithromycin with doxycycline or minocycline reduce the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Rhodococcus equi.

Equine Vet J 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.

Background: The alarming increase in rifampin and macrolide resistance among Rhodococcus equi isolates highlights the need to identify alternative therapeutic options that can effectively control rhodococcosis in foals while limiting the further development of drug resistance.

Objectives: To evaluate bacterial killing, antibiotic synergism and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of clarithromycin alone and in combination with doxycycline, minocycline or rifampin against clinical isolates of R equi.

Study Design: In vitro experiments. Read More

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September 2021

The opportunistic intracellular bacterial pathogen Rhodococcus equi elicits type I interferon by engaging cytosolic DNA sensing in macrophages.

PLoS Pathog 2021 09 2;17(9):e1009888. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Bryan, Texas, United States of America.

Rhodococcus equi is a major cause of foal pneumonia and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised humans. While alveolar macrophages constitute the primary replicative niche for R. equi, little is known about how intracellular R. Read More

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September 2021

Post-Operative Wound Infection by Multiple Zoonotic Organisms.

Am Surg 2021 Aug 30:31348211041558. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

St. Matthew's University School of Medicine, Miami, Fl, USA.

Rhodococcus hoagii (formerly Rhodococcus equi), originally isolated from equine species, is primarily transmitted through inhalation of contaminated aerosols such as dust and even breath of infected livestock. Pasteurella multocida is a common cause of cellulitis secondary to canine and feline bites. These are 2 zoonotic microbes that can present with potentially life-threatening, systematic illness in immunocompromised patients. Read More

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