1,326 results match your criteria Rhodococcus equi

Identification of genes required for the fitness of Rhodococcus equi during the infection of mice via signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University.

Rhodococcus equi is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium that causes pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised people. In the present study, signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis was applied for the negative selection of R. equi mutants that cannot survive in vivo. Read More

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: Another great masquerader.

IDCases 2021 30;24:e01144. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

University of Missouri, Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, Columbia, MO 65212, United States.

Rhodococcosis is a serious infection specially affecting immunocompromised populations. We report a case of disseminated infection by in a renal transplant patient, that was initially diagnosed as histoplasmosis, highlighting the potential for confusion between rhodococcosis and other infections. Clinicians and pathologists should correlate histopathology findings with the clinical and microbiological data. Read More

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Novel Methods to Identify Oxidative Stress-Producing Antibiotics.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2296:249-261

Department of Molecular Biology, Area of Microbiology, University of León, León, Spain.

Antibiotherapy is the main therapeutic strategy in the fight against bacterial pathogens. However, the misuse of antimicrobials has led to the appearance of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The rate at which we isolate multidrug-resistant bacteria is now much faster than the discovery rate of new antimicrobials. Read More

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January 2021

Uptake and replication in Acanthamoeba castellanii of a virulent (pVAPA-positive) strain of Rhodococcus equi and its isogenic, plasmid-cured strain.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jun 10;257:109069. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Equine Infectious Disease Laboratory, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-4475, United States. Electronic address:

Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophytic bacterium and intracellular pathogen that causes pneumonia in foals. Strains of R. equi that are virulent in foals contain a plasmid that encodes a virulence-associated protein A (VapA) necessary for replication in macrophages. Read More

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Ethidium bromide exposure unmasks an antibiotic efflux system in Rhodococcus equi.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, via San Costanzo 4, 06126 Perugia, Italy.

Background: This study introduces a newly created strain (Rhodococcus equiEtBr25) by exposing R. equi ATCC 33701 to ethidium bromide (EtBr), a substrate for MDR transporters. Such an approach allowed us to investigate the resulting phenotype and genetic mechanisms underlying the efflux-mediated resistance in R. Read More

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Epidemiology and Molecular Basis of Multidrug Resistance in Rhodococcus equi.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2021 May 14;85(2). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

SUMMARYThe development and spread of antimicrobial resistance are major concerns for human and animal health. The effects of the overuse of antimicrobials in domestic animals on the dissemination of resistant microbes to humans and the environment are of concern worldwide. is an ideal model to illustrate the spread of antimicrobial resistance at the animal-human-environment interface because it is a natural soil saprophyte that is an intracellular zoonotic pathogen that produces severe bronchopneumonia in many animal species and humans. Read More

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[Pulmonary space-occupying lesion resulted from infection: report of a case].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;50(4):400-402

Department of Pathology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

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Insight into the Maturation Process of the Nitrile Hydratase Active Site.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 29;60(8):5432-5435. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Physics, Marquette University, 1420 W. Clybourn Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233, United States.

The metal binding motif of all nitrile hydratases (NHases, EC 4.2.1. Read More

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Investigation of innate immune function in adult and geriatric horses.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 May 12;235:110207. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

M.H. Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

In order to better understand the influence of age on innate immune function in horses, blood was collected from twelve adult horses (aged 10-16 years; mean: 13 years) and ten geriatric horses (aged 18-26 years; mean: 21.7 years) for analysis of plasma myeloperoxidase, complete blood counts, and cytokine and receptor expression in response to in vitro stimulation with heat-inactivated Rhodococcus equi, heat-inactivated Escherichia coli, and PMA/ionomycin. Gene expression was measured using RT-PCR for IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12α, IL-13, IL-17α, TLR2, TLR4, and TNFα. Read More

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Virulence Plasmids of Isolates From Cuban Patients With AIDS.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:628239. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Clinical Microbiology Diagnostic, Hospital Center of Institute of Tropical Medicine "Pedro Kourí," Havana, Cuba.

is an animal pathogen and zoonotic human opportunistic pathogen associated with immunosuppressive conditions. The pathogenicity of is linked to three animal host-associated virulence plasmids encoding a family of "Virulence Associated Proteins" (VAPs). Here, the PCR-based TRAVAP molecular typing system for the virulence plasmids was applied to 26 strains isolated between 2010 and 2016 at the Institute of Tropical Medicine "Pedro Kourí," Cuba, from individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Read More

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February 2021

Association between antimicrobial treatment of subclinical pneumonia in foals and selection of macrolide- and rifampicin-resistant strains at horse-breeding farms in central Kentucky.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021 Mar;258(6):648-653

Objective: To compare soil concentrations of macrolide- and rifampicin-resistant strains (MRRE) on horse-breeding farms that used thoracic ultrasonographic screening (TUS) to identify foals with subclinical pneumonia combined with subsequent administration of macrolides and rifampin to affected foals (TUS farms) versus soil concentrations on farms that did not (non-TUS farms), determine whether the combined use of TUS and antimicrobial treatment of subclinically affected foals was associated with soil concentration of MRRE, and assess whether there were temporal effects on soil concentrations of MRRE during the foaling season.

Samples: 720 soil samples and 20 completed questionnaires from 20 horse-breeding farms (10 TUS farms and 10 non-TUS farms) in central Kentucky.

Procedures: A questionnaire was used to gather information from participating farms about their 2019 foaling season. Read More

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Equine antimicrobial therapy: Current and past issues facing practitioners.

J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2021 Mar 2;44(2):270-279. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA.

Equine antimicrobial therapy has advanced over time with the availability of increasing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in horses, allowing for greater evidence-based clinical decision-making. However, many challenges to optimal antimicrobial therapy remain and further research is needed to address these areas. There are a limited number of approved antimicrobials for use in horses, which creates a need for compounded preparations for clinicians. Read More

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Antagonistic Effects of Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)-Associated Bacteria Against Four Phytopathogens.

J Econ Entomol 2021 04;114(2):597-610

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Ecology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Ji'nan, China.

Recent studies have revealed multiple roles of insect-associated microbes such as lignin degradation, entomopathogen inhibition, and antibiotic production. These functions improve insect host fitness, and provide a novel source of discovering beneficial microbes for industrial and agricultural production. Previously published research found that in the symbiosis formed by the dipteran pest Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) and its associated bacteria, the bacteria showed effective inhibition of one fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Read More

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Host-directed therapy in foals can enhance functional innate immunity and reduce severity of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 28;11(1):2483. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Center for Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases, Texas A&M University, Houston, TX, USA.

Pneumonia caused by the intracellular bacterium Rhodococcus equi is an important cause of disease and death in immunocompromised hosts, especially foals. Antibiotics are the standard of care for treating R. equi pneumonia in foals, and adjunctive therapies are needed. Read More

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January 2021

Species diversity and molecular analysis of opportunistic Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus isolated from the hospital environment in a developing country, a potential resources for nosocomial infection.

Genes Environ 2021 Jan 28;43(1). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Basic and Laboratory and Sciences, Khomein University of Medical Sciences, Qods street, Khomein, Iran.

Background: Hospital environmental resources have a significant role in cross-transmission of opportunistic pathogens such as actinomycetes species to the patients. Actinomycetes have a remarkable capability to survive in adverse and harsh conditions of hospital environments; therefore, they are a threat to the health of patients. Due to this issue, we aimed to determine the frequency and diversity of actinomycetes species in hospital soil, water and dust by using a combination of conventional and molecular methods including the phenotypic and biochemical tests for preliminary identification and the PCR amplification of the specific region of the 16S rRNA, hsp65 gene and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA for the genus and species identification. Read More

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January 2021

Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Rhodococcus equi, United States.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 02;27(2):529-537

Multidrug resistance has been detected in the animal and zoonotic human pathogen Rhodococcus equi after mass macrolide/rifampin antibioprophylaxis in endemically affected equine farms in the United States. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) R. equi emerged upon acquisition of pRERm46, a conjugative plasmid conferring resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, and, as we describe, tetracycline. Read More

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February 2021

Plasma lipidome of healthy and Rhodococcus equi-infected foals over time.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

Background: Many foals that develop thoracic ultrasonographic lesions as a result of Rhodococcus equi infection heal on their own. However, most of these foals receive antimicrobials because foals at risk of developing clinical pneumonia cannot be identified. Untargeted lipidomics is useful to identify candidate biomarkers. Read More

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January 2021

[Rhodococcus equi, first case report of disseminated disease in Peru].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2020 Nov;37(5):610-614

Facultad de Medicina "San Fernando", Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

We present the case of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with a LTCD4 + 49 cells/mm3, who was admitted due to a seven-month period of weight loss, abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea and rubbery skin lesions. Myeloculture and blood cultures were positive for Rhodococcus equi. In addition, histological lesions in the skin and intestine compatible with this agent were observed, such as malacoplachy, granulomatous reaction and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Read More

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November 2020

Enhanced Chitin Deacetylase Production Ability of CGMCC14861 by Co-culture Fermentation With sp. MC7.

Front Microbiol 2020 10;11:592477. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Lab of Industrial Microbiology, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, China.

Chitin deacetylase (CDA) can hydrolyze the acetamido group of chitin polymers and its deacetylated derivatives to produce chitosan, an industrially important biopolymer. Compared with traditional chemical methods, biocatalysis by CDA is more environment-friendly and easy to control. However, most reported CDA-producing microbial strains show low CDA producing capabilities. Read More

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December 2020

Opsonization but not pretreatment of equine macrophages with hyperimmune plasma nonspecifically enhances phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Rhodococcus equi.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jan 16;35(1):590-596. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Background: Evidence regarding the efficacy of equine hyperimmune plasma to prevent pneumonia in foals caused by Rhodococcus equi is limited and conflicting.

Hypothesis: Opsonization with R. equi-specific hyperimmune plasma (HIP) will significantly increase phagocytosis and decrease intracellular replication of R. Read More

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January 2021

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for Identification of Bacterial Isolates From Horses.

J Equine Vet Sci 2020 12 28;95:103276. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Microbiology Division, Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan.

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is used for bacterial identification by analyzing the spectra of isolates and comparing them against a database of reference spectra; it is known for its rapidity and accuracy. Although MALDI-TOF MS is used for identification of bacterial isolates from animals, not all animal pathogens are identified correctly. In this study, we used a commercial MALDI-TOF MS identification system to examine 3724 bacterial isolates from horses and their environments. Read More

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December 2020

Current Trends in Understanding and Managing Equine Rhodococcosis.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Oct 18;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland.

The aim of this review was to summarize studies on equine rhodococcosis over the last decade. For many years has remained one of the major health challenges in the equine breeding industry worldwide. Recently, many novel approaches and ideas have been described and some of them were initially implemented into the clinical practice. Read More

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October 2020

Relationship between rifampicin resistance and RpoB substitutions of Rhodococcus equi strains isolated in France.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2020 12 28;23:137-144. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

ANSES, Laboratory for Animal Health in Normandy, Physiopathology and Epidemiology of Equine Diseases Unit, Goustranville, France.

Objectives: Study of the rifampicin resistance of Rhodococcus equi strains isolated from French horses over a 20-year period.

Methods: Rifampicin susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion (DD) and broth macrodilution methods, and rpoB gene sequencing and MLST were performed on 40 R. equi strains, 50. Read More

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December 2020

Acute interstitial pneumonia in foals: A severe, multifactorial syndrome with lung tissue recovery in surviving foals.

Equine Vet J 2020 Sep 28. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Veterinary Clinic, Destedt, Germany.

Background: Acute interstitial pneumonia in foals has been sparsely described in literature, and the individual authors disagree on the underlying aetiology. Histopathological follow-up from surviving foals is not available.

Objectives: Description of clinical and histopathological findings in the course of acute interstitial pneumonia and in recovery. Read More

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September 2020

Causes and Pathology of Equine Pneumonia and Pleuritis in Southern Brazil.

J Comp Pathol 2020 Aug 19;179:65-73. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

We document the causes and pathological findings in 50 cases of equine pneumonia and pleuritis in Southern Brazil. Suppurative (17/50), pyogranulomatous (14/50), aspiration (5/50), mycotic (4/50), bronchointerstitial (3/50), embolic (3/50) and eosinophilic granulomatous pneumonia (1/50) and pleuritis (3/50) were the main conditions identified. Streptococcus spp. Read More

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Effects of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and Prascend (pergolide tablets) treatment on endocrine and immune function in horses.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 01 29;74:106531. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

M.H. Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

It remains unclear how pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and pergolide treatment (Prascend [pergolide tablets]) affect endocrine and immune function in horses. To evaluate these effects, blood was collected regularly from 28 university-owned horses (10 Non-PPID, 9 PPID control [PC], and 9 PPID treatment [PT]) over approximately 15 mo. Pergolide treatment was initiated after Day 0 collections. Read More

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January 2021

Reinvestigation of the virulence of Rhodococcus equi isolates from patients with and without AIDS.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2020 Dec 2;71(6):679-683. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine, Towada, Aomori, Japan.

Rhodococcus equi emerged as a zoonotic pathogen of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients over the last three decades. Two virulence plasmid types of R. equi, pVAPA and pVAPB associated with equine and porcine isolates, have been recognized, and more recently, pVAPN, a novel host-associated virulence plasmid in R. Read More

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December 2020

Serological epidemiological surveillance for vapN-harboring Rhodococcus equi infection in goats.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Dec 30;73:101540. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine, Higashi 23-35-1, Towada, Aomori, 034-8628, Japan.

Rhodococcus equi causes suppurative pneumonia in foals aged 1-3 months; moreover, it has emerged as a pathogenic cause of zoonotic diseases. After the initial report of the ruminant-pathogenic factor VapN encoded by the novel virulence plasmid pVAPN, several reports have described ruminant infections caused by vapN-harboring R. equi. Read More

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December 2020

The Analysis of Estrogen-Degrading and Functional Metabolism Genes in DSSKP-R-001.

Int J Genomics 2020 25;2020:9369182. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, No. 2555 Jingyue Avenue, Changchun City, Jilin Province, China.

Estrogen contamination is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problems, causing widespread concern worldwide. Environmental estrogens are mainly derived from human and vertebrate excretion, drugs, and agricultural activities. The use of microorganisms is currently the most economical and effective method for biodegradation of environmental estrogens. Read More

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Microbiological assessment of sheep lymph nodes with lymphadenitis found during post-mortem examination of slaughtered sheep: implications for veterinary-sanitary meat control.

Acta Vet Scand 2020 Sep 4;62(1):48. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health Protection, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences "SGGW", Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Microbiological examination of lesions found in slaughtered animals during meat inspection is an important part of public health protection as such lesions may be due to zoonotic agents that can be transmitted by meat. Examination of inflamed lymph nodes also plays a particular important role, as lymphadenitis may reflect a more widespread infection. Such lesions in sheep are mainly caused by pyogenic bacteria but also mycobacteria are occasionally found. Read More

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September 2020