5,749 results match your criteria Rhinoviruses


Development of a respiratory disease model for enterovirus D68 in 4-week-Old mice for evaluation of antiviral therapies.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute for Antiviral Research, Utah State University, Logan, UT, United States; Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT, United States; Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Logan, UT, United States. Electronic address:

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a non-polio enterovirus that affects the respiratory system and can cause serious complications, especially in children and older people with weakened immune systems. As an emerging virus, there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available. Our goal was to develop a mouse model of human EV-D68 infection that mimicked the disease observed in humans and could be used for evaluation of experimental therapeutics. Read More

View Article
December 2018
6 Reads

Rhinovirus and Bacteria Synergistically Induce IL-17C Release from Human Airway Epithelial Cells To Promote Neutrophil Recruitment.

J Immunol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6, Canada; and

Virus-bacteria coinfections are associated with more severe exacerbations and increased risk of hospital readmission in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The airway epithelium responds to such infections by releasing proinflammatory and antimicrobial cytokines, including IL-17C. However, the regulation and role of IL-17C is not well understood. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Molecular and epidemiologic investigation of a rhinovirus outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018 Dec 5:1-3. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

6Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre,Montreal, Quebec,Canada.

We performed a molecular and epidemiologic study of a healthcare-associated rhinovirus outbreak to better understand transmission in neonatal intensive care settings. Sequencing of the 7 outbreak strains revealed 4 distinct clades, indicating multiple sources. A single clade infected 3 patients in adjacent rooms, suggesting horizontal transmission. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Underweight, overweight, and obesity as independent risk factors for hospitalization in adults and children from influenza and other respiratory viruses.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Leidos Biomedical Research Inc. in support of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: The relationship between obesity and risk of complications described during the 2009 influenza pandemic is poorly defined for seasonal influenza and other viral causes of influenza-like illness (ILI).

Methods: An observational cohort of hospitalized and outpatient participants with ILI was conducted in six hospitals in Mexico. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza and other common respiratory pathogens. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Small Animal Models of Respiratory Viral Infection Related to Asthma.

Viruses 2018 Dec 1;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Respiratory viral infections are strongly associated with asthma exacerbations. Rhinovirus is most frequently-detected pathogen; followed by respiratory syncytial virus; metapneumovirus; parainfluenza virus; enterovirus and coronavirus. In addition; viral infection; in combination with genetics; allergen exposure; microbiome and other pathogens; may play a role in asthma development. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Etiology of Coinfections in Children with Influenza during 2015/16 Winter Season in Nepal.

Int J Microbiol 2018 28;2018:8945142. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal.

Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are one of the major public health problems in developing countries like Nepal. Besides the influenza, several other pathogens are responsible for acute respiratory infection in children. Etiology of infections is poorly characterized at the course of clinical management, and hence empirical antimicrobial agents are used. Read More

View Article
October 2018
2 Reads

Comparative Transcriptomic and Metagenomic Analyses of Influenza Virus-Infected Nasal Epithelial Cells From Multiple Individuals Reveal Specific Nasal-Initiated Signatures.

Front Microbiol 2018 14;9:2685. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

and research based on cell lines and animals are likely to be insufficient in elucidating authentic biological and physiological phenomena mimicking human systems, especially for generating pre-clinical data on targets and biomarkers. There is an obvious need for a model that can further bridge the gap in translating pre-clinical findings into clinical applications. We have previously generated a model of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs) which elucidated the nasal-initiated repertoire of immune responses against respiratory viruses such as influenza A virus and rhinovirus. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Rhinovirus infections change DNA methylation and mRNA expression in children with asthma.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0205275. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Pediatric Pneumology & Allergology, Campus Lübeck, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), Member of the German Center of Lung Research (DZL), Lübeck, Germany.

Human rhinovirus infection (HRVI) plays an important role in asthma exacerbations and is thought to be involved in asthma development during early childhood. We hypothesized that HRVI causes differential DNA methylation and subsequently differential mRNA expression in epithelial cells of children with asthma. Primary nasal epithelial cells from children with (n = 10) and without (n = 10) asthma were cultivated up to passage two and infected with Rhinovirus-16 (RV-16). Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Human rhinovirus spatial-temporal epidemiology in rural coastal Kenya, 2015-2016, observed through outpatient surveillance.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 1;3:128. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Epidemiology and Demography Department, KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, +254, Kenya.

Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the predominant cause of upper respiratory tract infections, resulting in a significant public health burden. The virus circulates as many different types (~160), each generating strong homologous, but weak heterotypic, immunity. The influence of these features on transmission patterns of HRV in the community is understudied. Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Vitamin D attenuates rhinovirus-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) in respiratory epithelial cells.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Centre for Immunobiology, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AB, UK; Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research, Barts Institute of Public Health, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AB, UK. Electronic address:

Human rhinoviruses commonly cause upper respiratory infections, which may be complicated by secondary bacterial infection. Vitamin D replacement reduces risk of acute respiratory infections in vitamin D-deficient individuals, but the mechanisms by which such protection is mediated are incompletely understood. We therefore conducted experiments to characterise the influence of the major circulating metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]D) on responses of a respiratory epithelial cell line (A549 cells) to infection with a major group human rhinovirus (RV-16). Read More

View Article
November 2018

Progress in human picornavirus research: New findings from the AIROPico consortium.

Antiviral Res 2018 Nov 23;161:100-107. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

HiLIFE -Institute of Biotechnology, and Molecular and Integrative Biosciences Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Several research groups in Europe are active on different aspects of human picornavirus research. The AIROPico (Academia-Industry R&D Opportunities for Picornaviruses) consortium combined the disciplines of pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy development in order to fill the gaps in our understanding of how picornaviruses cause human disease and how to combat them. AIROPico was the first EU consortium dedicated to human picornavirus research and development, and has largely accelerated and improved R&D on picornavirus biology, diagnostics and therapy. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Elucidating the Interaction of CF Airway Epithelial Cells and Rhinovirus: Using the Host-Pathogen Relationship to Identify Future Therapeutic Strategies.

Front Pharmacol 2018 7;9:1270. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Paediatrics, Medical School, Faculty of Healthy and Medical Science, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

Chronic lung disease remains the primary cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). Growing evidence suggests respiratory viral infections are often more severe in CF compared to healthy peers and contributes to pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) and deterioration of lung function. Rhinovirus is the most prevalent respiratory virus detected, particularly during exacerbations in children with CF <5 years old. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Label-Free Digital Holo-tomographic Microscopy Reveals Virus-Induced Cytopathic Effects in Live Cells.

mSphere 2018 Nov 21;3(6). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Cytopathic effects (CPEs) are a hallmark of infections. CPEs are difficult to observe due to phototoxicity from classical light microscopy. We report distinct patterns of virus infections in live cells using digital holo-tomographic microscopy (DHTM). Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

Influence of viral infection on the relationships between airway cytokines and lung function in asthmatic children.

Respir Res 2018 Nov 21;19(1):228. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Departments of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., Building MSRB2, Room 3570B, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-5688, USA.

Background: Few longitudinal studies examine inflammation and lung function in asthma. We sought to determine the cytokines that reduce airflow, and the influence of respiratory viral infections on these relationships.

Methods: Children underwent home collections of nasal lavage during scheduled surveillance periods and self-reported respiratory illnesses. Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

Epidemiology of severe acute respiratory infections from hospital-based surveillance in Madagascar, November 2010 to July 2013.

PLoS One 2018 21;13(11):e0205124. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

National Influenza Centre, Virology Unit, Pasteur Institute of Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

Background: Few comprehensive data exist regarding the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in low income countries. This study aimed at identifying etiologies and describing clinical features of SARI-associated hospitalization in Madagascar.

Methods: It is a prospective surveillance of SARI in 2 hospitals for 3 years. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

Towards development of generic inhibitors against the 3C proteases of picornaviruses.

FEBS J 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016, India.

Development of novel antivirals, which requires knowledge of the viral life cycle in molecular detail, is a daunting task, involving extensive investments, and frequently resulting in failure. As there exist significant commonalities among virus families in the manner of host interaction, identifying and targeting common rather than specific features may lead to the development of broadly useful antivirals. Here, we have targeted the 3C protease of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV), a faeco-orally transmitted virus of the family Picornaviridae, for identification of potential antivirals. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

High Temperature-Short Time Pasteurization Has a Lower Impact on the Antiviral Properties of Human Milk Than Holder Pasteurization.

Front Pediatr 2018 16;6:304. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Holder pasteurization (62. 5°C for 30 min) is recommended by all international human milk bank guidelines to prevent infections potentially transmitted by donor human milk. A drawback is that it affects some human milk bioactive and nutritive components. Read More

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

Evidence for respiratory viruses interactions in asymptomatic preschool-aged children.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Third Department of Pediatrics, University General Hospital "Attikon", School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Aim: To prospectively evaluate interferences between viruses of the upper respiratory tract in asymptomatic preschool children.

Methods: Nasal-pharyngeal swabs from 233 preschool aged children were prospectively collected over four consecutive time periods, during one school year. The samples were tested using a RT-PCR DNA/RNA microarray system for nine respiratory viruses. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Detection of central nervous system viral infections in adults in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(11):e0207440. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Central nervous system (CNS) viral infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide but the systematic survey of patients admitted to hospitals with CNS infections in many countries, including Indonesia, is limited. To obtain more information regarding the causes of CNS infections in Indonesia, this study was performed to detect and identify viral agents associated with CNS infections amongst in-patients at a referral hospital in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Adult patients admitted to R. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Characterization of rhinovirus C from a 4-year-old boy with acute onset dilated cardiomyopathy in Jakarta, Indonesia.

JMM Case Rep 2018 Sep 1;5(9):e005139. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Cardiology Division, Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia/Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Introduction: Myocarditis, inflammation of the heart muscle, can be caused by infections, autoimmune disease or exposure to toxins. The major cause of myocarditis in the paediatric population is viral infection, including coxsackievirus B3, adenovirus, herpesvirus, parvovirus, influenza A and B, and hepatitis. Here, we report the detection of rhinovirus C in a boy with a clinical presentation of myocarditis, suggesting a possible causative role of this virus in this case. Read More

View Article
September 2018
3 Reads

Respiratory viruses in returning Hajj & Umrah pilgrims with acute respiratory illness in 2014-2015.

Indian J Med Res 2018 Sep;148(3):329-333

Center for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background & Objectives: Respiratory tract infections are common among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims which pose a public health risk of spread of respiratory infections. Influenza has been reported from Indian Hajj and Umrah returning pilgrims, but data on other respiratory pathogens are sparse in India. Here we report the presence of common respiratory viral pathogens in returning Hajj and Umrah pilgrims suffering from acute respiratory illness (ARI) in 2014-2015. Read More

View Article
September 2018
5 Reads

Changes in the composition of the upper respiratory tract microbial community in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

J Autoimmun 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 3, Haus 27, 24105, Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:

Dysbiosis¸ i.e. changes in microbial composition at a mucosal interface, is implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Genetic diversity of rhinoviruses detected at a tertiary hospital in Catalonia (Spain) during the 2014-2017 seasons.

Future Microbiol 2018 11 12;13:1565-1573. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Respiratory Viruses Unit, Virology Section, Microbiology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Aim: To describe the genetic diversity of rhinovirus (RV) from patients attended at a tertiary hospital in Barcelona (Spain) from October 2014 to May 2017.

Methods: RV detection was performed by real-time multiplex RT-PCR. A specific real-time quantitive retrotranscription PCR (qRT-PCR) was carried out to select those samples (Ct < 35) for molecular characterization based on partial VP4/2 protein. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of human rhinovirus positivity in hospitalized children.

Ann Thorac Med 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):230-236

Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Clinical and Translational Science Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: The clinical relevance of positive human rhinovirus (HRV) in hospitalized patients is unclear. Our objective was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of HRV positivity in a heterogeneous population of hospitalized children, compared to those positive for another respiratory virus and those where no respiratory virus was detected.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study of children hospitalized between January 2014 to April 2015 who had a respiratory viral specimen collected. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Viral Acute Respiratory Illnesses in Young Infants Increase the Risk of Respiratory Readmission.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Dec;37(12):1217-1222

From the Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

Background: Respiratory viruses cause acute respiratory illness (ARI) in early childhood, but their effect on subsequent ARI admissions is not fully understood. This study aimed to determine the association between initial ARI admission because of viruses including human rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human adenovirus (HAdV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and the risk of ARI readmission in children.

Methods: Clinical information and nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from children <2 years old at their initial ARI admission in Nha Trang, Vietnam, from January 2007 to April 2012. Read More

View Article
December 2018
7 Reads

Limited Correlation of Shotgun Metagenomics Following Host Depletion and Routine Diagnostics for Viruses and Bacteria in Low Concentrated Surrogate and Clinical Samples.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 23;8:375. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Biology Division, Spiez Laboratory, Swiss Federal Office for Civil Protection, Spiez, Switzerland.

The etiologic cause of encephalitis, meningitis or meningo-encephalitis is unknown in up to 70% of cases. Clinical shotgun metagenomics combined with host depletion is a promising technique to identify infectious etiologies of central nervous system (CNS) infections. We developed a straightforward eukaryotic host nucleic acid depletion method that preserves intact viruses and bacteria for subsequent shotgun metagenomics screening of clinical samples, focusing on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

Viral Respiratory Infections in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit-A Review.

Front Microbiol 2018 19;9:2484. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Division of Neonatology, Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Although infrequent, respiratory viral infections (RVIs) during birth hospitalization have a significant impact on short- and long-term morbidity in term and preterm neonates. RVI have been associated with increased length of hospital stay, severe disease course, unnecessary antimicrobial exposure and nosocomial outbreaks in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Virus transmission has been described to occur via health care professionals, parents and other visitors. Read More

View Article
October 2018
5 Reads

The Resource Burden of Infections With Rhinovirus/Enterovirus, Influenza, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2018 Nov 2:9922818809483. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

4 Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA.

We reviewed the resource utilization of patients with human rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/ENT), influenza A/B (FLU), or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). A total of 2013 patients with nasopharyngeal swabs positive for HRV/ENT, RSV, or FLU were included. Records were reviewed for respiratory support, vascular access procedures, emergency department care only versus admission versus pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) care, antibiotics, length of stay, and billing data. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Impact of community respiratory viral infections in urban children with asthma.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School; Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School. Electronic address:

Background: Upper respiratory tract viral infections cause asthma exacerbations in children. However, the impact of natural colds on asthmatic children in the community, particularly in the high-risk urban environment, is less well-defined.

Objective: We hypothesized that children with high-symptom upper respiratory viral infections have reduced airway function and greater respiratory tract inflammation than children with virus-positive low-symptom illnesses or virus-negative upper respiratory tract symptoms. Read More

View Article
October 2018
3 Reads

Development of a Rhinovirus Inoculum using a Reverse Genetics Approach.

J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Background: Experimental inoculation is an important tool for common cold and asthma research. Producing rhinovirus (RV) inocula from nasal secretions has required prolonged observation of the virus donor to exclude extraneous pathogens. We produced a RV-A16 inoculum using reverse genetics and determined the dose necessary to cause moderate colds in seronegative volunteers. Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

Reverse Genetics and Rhinovirus - A New Approach to an Old Problem?

Authors:
David Proud

J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Physiology & Pharmacology and Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

View Article
November 2018

A multiplex one-tube nested real time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of respiratory syncytial virus, human rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus.

Virol J 2018 10 30;15(1):167. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 155 Changbai Street, Chang ping District, Beijing, 102206, China.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human Rhinovirus (HRV) and human Metapneumo Virus (HMPV) are important viral pathogens causing acute respiratory tract infections in the hospitalized patients. Sensitive and accurate detection of RSV, HRV and HMPV is necessary for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Results: A locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based multiplex closed one-tube nested real-time RT-PCR (mOTNRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of RSV, HRV and HMPV. Read More

View Article
October 2018
3 Reads

Modulation of airway hyperresponsiveness by rhinovirus exposure.

Respir Res 2018 Oct 29;19(1):208. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Medicine, Rutgers Institute for Translational Medicine and Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Rhinovirus (RV) exposure has been implicated in childhood development of wheeze evoking asthma and exacerbations of underlying airways disease. Studies such as the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) and Childhood Origins of ASThma (COAST) have identified RV as a pathogen inducing severe respiratory disease. RVs also modulate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), a key characteristic of such diseases. Read More

View Article
October 2018
5 Reads

Fomite-mediated transmission as a sufficient pathway: a comparative analysis across three viral pathogens.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Oct 29;18(1):540. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Fomite mediated transmission can be an important pathway causing significant disease transmission in number of settings such as schools, daycare centers, and long-term care facilities. The importance of these pathways relative to other transmission pathways such as direct person-person or airborne will depend on the characteristics of the particular pathogen and the venue in which transmission occurs. Here we analyze fomite mediated transmission through a comparative analysis across multiple pathogens and venues. Read More

View Article
October 2018
2 Reads

Post-viral atopic airway disease: pathogenesis and potential avenues for intervention.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Oct 27:1-10. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

a Division of Allergy and Immunology , Nationwide Children's Hospital - The Ohio State University College of Medicine , Columbus , OH , USA.

Introduction: In early childhood, wheezing due to lower respiratory tract illness is often associated with infection by commonly known respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (RV). How respiratory viral infections lead to wheeze and/or asthma is an area of active research. Areas covered: This review provides an updated summary of the published information on the development of post-viral induced atopy and asthma and the mechanisms involved. Read More

View Article
October 2018
9 Reads

Large-scale genomic analysis reveals recurrent patterns of intertypic recombination in human enteroviruses.

Virology 2018 Oct 23;526:72-80. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Bioinformatics Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Larisa 41500, Greece. Electronic address:

Recombination is a driving force for the emergence, evolution and virulence/epidemics of viruses, comprising the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family, important for human and animal health. By analyzing 2949 complete genomes/coding sequences, we provide a thorough and up-to-date overview of the genome-wide patterns and hotspots of intertypic recombination between the genogroups of this genus. Two prominent recombination hotspots are identified/verified, at the 5'UTR-capsid region junction, and at the beginning of the P2 region. Read More

View Article
October 2018
5 Reads

Viral detection profile in children with severe acute respiratory infection.

Braz J Infect Dis 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Pediatria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Objectives: The role of viral co-detection in children with severe acute respiratory infection is not clear. We described the viral detection profile and its association with clinical characteristics in children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic.

Method: Longitudinal observational retrospective study, with patients aged 0-18 years, admitted to 11 PICUs in Rio de Janeiro, with suspected H1N1 infection, from June to November, 2009. Read More

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

A crowdsourced analysis to identify ab initio molecular signatures predictive of susceptibility to viral infection.

Nat Commun 2018 10 24;9(1):4418. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Sage Bionetworks, Seattle, WA, 98121, USA.

The response to respiratory viruses varies substantially between individuals, and there are currently no known molecular predictors from the early stages of infection. Here we conduct a community-based analysis to determine whether pre- or early post-exposure molecular factors could predict physiologic responses to viral exposure. Using peripheral blood gene expression profiles collected from healthy subjects prior to exposure to one of four respiratory viruses (H1N1, H3N2, Rhinovirus, and RSV), as well as up to 24 h following exposure, we find that it is possible to construct models predictive of symptomatic response using profiles even prior to viral exposure. Read More

View Article
October 2018
6 Reads
10.740 Impact Factor

PCR detection of respiratory pathogens in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

The frequency of viral respiratory pathogens in asymptomatic subjects is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in the upper airways of asymptomatic adults, as compared with a reference population of symptomatic patients sampled in the same centres during the same period. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab samples were prospectively collected from adults with and without ongoing symptoms of respiratory tract infection (RTI) during 12 consecutive months, in primary care centres as well as hospital emergency departments, and analysed for respiratory pathogens by a PCR panel detecting 16 viruses and four bacteria. Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Development of a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay for detection of viral double-stranded RNA.

Anal Biochem 2018 Oct 21;566:46-49. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Pharmacology Research Laboratory, Watarase Research Center, Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, 1848 Nogi, Nogi-machi, Shimotsuga-gun, Tochigi 329-0114, Japan. Electronic address:

The group of positive-sense single-stranded RNA ((+) ssRNA) viruses includes many important human pathogens. However, specific antiviral agents are not currently available for many RNA viruses. For screening of antiviral agents, methods that are simple, rapid, and compatible with high-throughput are required. Read More

View Article
October 2018
3 Reads

Demographic and seasonal characteristics of respiratory pathogens in neonates and infants aged 0 to 12 months in the Central-East region of Tunisia.

J Med Virol 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Division of Virology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: This study aimed to characterize the epidemiology of pathogenic respiratory agents in patients aged 0 to 12 months and hospitalized for acute respiratory infections in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014.

Methods: A total of 20 pathogens, including viruses, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were detected using molecular sensitive assays, and their associations with the patient's demographic data and season were analyzed.

Results: Viral infectious agents were found in 449 (87. Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Detection of human rhinoviruses by reverse transcription strand invasion based amplification method (RT-SIBA).

J Virol Methods 2019 Jan 19;263:75-80. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Research and Development, Orion Diagnostica Oy, P. O. BOX 83, FI-02101, Espoo, Finland. Electronic address:

Background: Rhinovirus (RV), a major cause of respiratory infection in humans, imposes an enormous economic burden due to the direct and indirect costs associated with the illness. Accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial for deciding the appropriate clinical approach and minimizing unnecessary prescription of antibiotics. Diagnosis of RV is extremely challenging due to genetic and serological variability among its numerous types and their similarity to enteroviruses. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Recent advances in understanding rhinovirus immunity.

F1000Res 2018 24;7. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Rhinoviruses are the most common cause of upper respiratory tract infections. However, they can induce exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, bronchiolitis in infants, and significant lower respiratory tract infections in children, the immunosuppressed, and the elderly. The large number of rhinovirus strains (currently about 160) and their antigenic diversity are significant obstacles in vaccine development. Read More

View Article
September 2018
1 Read

Lower Airway Virology in Health and Disease-From Invaders to Symbionts.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2018 Oct 13;54(5). Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Department of Paediatrics, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Studies of human airway virome are relatively recent and still very limited. Culture-independent microbial techniques showed growing evidence of numerous viral communities in the respiratory microbial ecosystem. The significance of different acute respiratory viruses is already known in the pathogenesis of chronic conditions, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), or chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), and their exacerbations. Read More

View Article
October 2018
6 Reads

Molecular Endotypes Contribute to the Heterogeneity of Asthma.

Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2018 Nov 21;38(4):655-665. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Division of Cell Biology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206, USA. Electronic address:

Diagnosis and management of asthma is commonly implemented based on clinical assessment. Although these nonmolecular biomarkers have been useful, limited resolution of the heterogeneity among asthmatic patients and little information regarding the underlying pathobiology of disease in individuals have been provided. Molecular endotying using global transcriptome expression profiling associated with clinical features of asthma has improved our understanding of disease mechanisms, risk assessment of asthma exacerbations, and treatment responses, especially in patients with type 2 inflammation. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

The ORMDL3 Asthma Gene Regulates ICAM1 and has Multiple Effects on Cellular Inflammation.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Respiratory Science, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Rationale: Polymorphisms on chromosome 17q21 confer the major genetic susceptibility to childhood-onset asthma. Risk alleles positively correlate with ORMDL3 expression. The locus influences disease severity and the frequency of human rhinovirus (HRV) initiated exacerbations. Read More

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

Host Gene Expression in Nose and Blood for the Diagnosis of Viral Respiratory Infection.

J Infect Dis 2018 Oct 18. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

We compared nasal and blood samples for evaluation of the host transcriptomic response in children with acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, symptomatic non-RSV respiratory virus infections, asymptomatic rhinovirus infection, and virus-negative asymptomatic controls. Despite lower quality of nasal RNA, the number of genes detected by microarray in each sample type was equivalent. Nasal gene expression signal derived mainly from epithelial cells but also included a variable leukocyte contribution. Read More

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

Outcome of children with rhinovirus detection prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

Pediatr Transplant 2018 Dec 19;22(8):e13301. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Mercy, Kansas City, Missouri.

Rhinoviruses are commonly detected in symptomatic and asymptomatic children prior to HCT. Unlike pre-HCT detection of other respiratory viruses, it is not known whether RV detection, with or without clinical symptoms, is associated with worse outcomes in children post-HCT. In a retrospective study of children undergoing allogeneic HCT from January 2009 to February 2015, 91 children underwent allogeneic HCT, and 62 children had RPP testing within 30 days pre-HCT. Read More

View Article
December 2018
4 Reads

Respiratory Viruses and Atypical Bacteria Co-Infection in Children with Acute Respiratory Infection.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2018 Sep 23;6(9):1588-1593. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Departments of Child Health, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are one of the prevalent pediatric diseases. Coinfections of respiratory viruses and atypical bacterial respiratory pathogens are common.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of co-infection between respiratory pathogens including viruses, bacteria and atypical bacteria in a sample of Egyptian children presenting with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection. Read More

View Article
September 2018
4 Reads