6,297 results match your criteria Rhinoviruses


Covalent and non-covalent strategies for the immobilization of Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease on superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

J Biotechnol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Chemistry, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, 27858-4353, United States. Electronic address:

Proteases with highly specific activities have numerous applications, including the cleavage of affinity tags (Flag; HA; His6X) and solubility promoting partners (GST; MBP) within the context of protein isolation and purification schemes. However, commercially sourced proteases such as Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease and Human Rhinovirus (HRV) 3C protease are typically applied as single use aliquots, which limits their cost-effectiveness. In addition, the presence of residual proteases in downstream applications can complicate analysis of the protein of interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2020.06.021DOI Listing

Genetic impact of CDHR3 on the adult onset of asthma and COPD.

Clin Exp Allergy 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Background: Adult-onset asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous diseases caused by complex gene-environment interactions. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism of cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3), known as a receptor of rhinovirus-C, is associated with childhood-onset asthma especially in atopic individuals.

Objective: Here, we identified risk factors for adult-onset asthma and COPD, focusing on the impact of the CDHR3 variant in atopic individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.13699DOI Listing

The epidemiology of admission-requiring pediatric respiratory infections in a Japanese community hospital using multiplex PCR.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Nara Prefecture General Medical Center, Japan.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common diseases globally among children. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology of admission-requiring pediatric RTI cases and to evaluate the effect of pathogen type on length of hospital stay (LOS) using the FilmArray respiratory panel, a multiplex PCR test. The age-specific distribution and seasonality of viruses were investigated between March 26, 2018 and April 12, 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.154DOI Listing

Outcomes of patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) admitted to the intensive care unit: results from the Egyptian Surveillance Study 2010-2014.

Multidiscip Respir Med 2020 Jan 9;15(1):465. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansura University, Mansura, Egypt.

Background: Few data exist about respiratory viral infections in Egyptian patients. Hereby we describe the outcomes of hospitalized Egyptian patients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) admitted to the ICU.

Methods: A prospective study in which all hospitalized patients meeting the WHO case definition for SARI and admitted to the ICU, during the period 2010-2014, were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/mrm.2020.465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296279PMC
January 2020

Multiplexed High-Throughput Serological Assay for Human Enteroviruses.

Microorganisms 2020 Jun 26;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, 33520 Tampere, Finland.

Immunological assays detecting antibodies against enteroviruses typically use a single enterovirus serotype as antigen. This limits the ability of such assays to detect antibodies against different enterovirus types and to detect possible type-specific variation in antibody responses. We set out to develop a multiplexed assay for simultaneous detection of antibodies against multiple enterovirus and rhinovirus types encompassing all human infecting species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060963DOI Listing

The scent of COVID-19: viral (semi-)volatiles as fast diagnostic biomarkers?

J Breath Res 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics (LEMP), University of Antwerp Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wilrijk, BELGIUM.

The COVID-19 pandemic pressurizes the healthcare system. Protective measures against SARS-CoV-2 infection, like social distancing or isolation, are being taken too late and COVID-19 symptoms are non-specific and can resemble those from rhinoviral infection or influenza, causing a rush of anxious patients with (mild) symptoms to the hospitals. Furthermore, COVID-19 diagnosis is made by taking swabs from the upper of lower respiratory tract, which is not only an unpleasant experience for the patient, but is also time-consuming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7163/aba105DOI Listing

[Evaluation of the effectiveness of ARVI treatment regimen including etiotropic (enisamium iodide) and symptomatic treatment].

Ter Arkh 2020 Apr 27;92(3):50-55. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Smorodintcev Research Institute of Influenza.

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of the use of the antiviral drug enisamium iodide in the complex treatment of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) caused by various pathogens in routine clinical practice.

Materials And Methods: А prospective randomized study included 134 patients who were treated in the epidemic season of influenza and ARVI in 20182019. All patients were examined for the presence of influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, coronaviruses, rhinoviruses, adenoviruses in nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2020.03.000572DOI Listing

[Etiology of severe community - acquired pneumonia in adults: results of the first Russian multicenter study].

Ter Arkh 2020 Jan 15;92(1):36-42. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

M.K. Ammosov Federal North-Eastern University.

Aim: to study the etiology of severe community - acquired pneumonia (SCAP) in adults in Russian Federation. SCAP is distinguished by high mortality and socio - economic burden. Both etiology and antimicrobial resistance are essential for appropriate antibiotic choice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2020.01.000491DOI Listing
January 2020

Comparison of the computed tomography findings in COVID-19 and other viral pneumonia in immunocompetent adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Radiol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Medical Imaging Research Lab, LABIMED, Department of Radiology, Pavilhão Pereira Filho Hospital, Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Av. Independência, 75, Porto Alegre, 90020160, Brazil.

Objectives: To compare the chest computed tomography (CT) findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to other non-COVID viral pneumonia.

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched through April 04, 2020, for published English language studies. Studies were eligible if they included immunocompetent patients with up to 14 days of viral pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07018-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320914PMC

Active Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections among Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility Staff.

Am J Infect Control 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY; Department of Infection Prevention & Control, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Transmission of respiratory viruses between staff and residents of pediatric long-term care facilities (pLTCFs) can occur. We assessed the feasibility of using text or email messages to perform surveillance for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) among staff.

Methods: From December 7, 2016 to May 7, 2017, 50 staff participants from two pLTCFs received weekly text or email requests to report the presence or absence of ARI symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2020.06.190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316056PMC

Interferon-Dependent and Respiratory Virus-Specific Interference in Dual Infections of Airway Epithelia.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 24;10(1):10246. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Many respiratory viruses cocirculate in the population and multiple infections are commonly reported. The clinical impact of coinfection is unclear and may vary depending on the viral couples involved. Using three-dimensional reconstituted human airway epithelia and clinical viral strains, we investigated the interaction between influenza virus (Flu), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66748-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314816PMC

Determining a sampling regime for PCR detection of respiratory tract viral infection at coronial post-mortem examinations.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Death due to respiratory infection is commonly encountered at autopsy. With only one opportunity to obtain samples for identification of a causative agent, it is important to ensure that sampling regimes are optimized to provide the greatest detection, without the expense and redundancy that can arise from over-sampling. This study was performed retrospectively using data from Coronial autopsies over the period 2012-2019 from which swabs from the nasopharyngeal region, trachea and lung parenchyma, in addition to samples of lung tissue, had been submitted for multiplex PCR detection of respiratory pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-020-00273-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308444PMC

An Online Observational Study of Patients With Olfactory and Gustory Alterations Secondary to SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Front Public Health 2020 29;8:243. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurosciences, IdISSC, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Since the beginning of the Covid-19 epidemic produced by SARS2-Cov virus, olfactory alterations have been observed at a greater frequency than in other coronavirus epidemics. While olfactory alterations may be observed in patients with rhinovirus, influenza virus, or parainfluenza virus infection, they are typically explained by nasal obstruction with mucus or direct epithelial damage; in the case of SARS-CoV-2, olfactory alterations may present without nasal congestion with mucus. We performed a study of patients presenting olfactory/gustatory alterations in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection in order to contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273853PMC

ELISA-Based Assay for Studying Major and Minor Group Rhinovirus-Receptor Interactions.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 18;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

Rhinovirus (RV) infections are a major cause of recurrent common colds and trigger severe exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases. Major challenges for the development of vaccines for RV include the virus occurring in the form of approximately 160 different serotypes, using different receptors, and the need for preclinical models for the screening of vaccine candidates and antiviral compounds. We report the establishment and characterization of an ELISA-based assay for studying major and minor group RV-receptor interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020315DOI Listing

Respiratory viral coinfection in a birth cohort of infants in rural Nepal.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Acute respiratory illnesses are a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality in children. Coinfection with multiple respiratory viruses is common. Although the effects of each virus have been studied individually, the impacts of coinfection on disease severity are less understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12775DOI Listing
June 2020
2.201 Impact Factor

Detection of respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus weeks after hospitalization for bronchiolitis and the risk of recurrent wheezing.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 20. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: In severe bronchiolitis, it is unclear if delayed clearance or sequential infection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus (RV) is associated with recurrent wheezing.

Methods: In a 17-center severe bronchiolitis cohort, we tested nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) upon hospitalization and parents collected nasal swabs ~3 weeks later (clearance swab) for respiratory viruses using PCR. The same RSV subtype or RV genotype in both the NPA and clearance swab defined delayed clearance (DC), while a new RSV subtype or RV genotype at clearance defined sequential infection (SI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa348DOI Listing

Smell and taste dysfunction in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: A review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment options.

Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2020 Jun;38(2):69-77

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand Endoscopic Nasal and Sinus Surgery Excellence Center, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

During the initial pandemic wave of COVID-19, apart from common presenting symptoms (cough, fever, and fatigue), many countries have reported a sudden increase in the number of smell and taste dysfunction patients. Smell dysfunction has been reported in other viral infections (parainfluenza, rhinovirus, SARS, and others), but the incidence is much lower than SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathophysiology of post-infectious olfactory loss was hypothesized that viruses may produce an inflammatory reaction of the nasal mucosa or damage the olfactory neuroepithelium directly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12932/AP-030520-0826DOI Listing

Leonurus sibiricus root extracts decrease airway remodeling markers expression in fibroblasts.

Clin Exp Immunol 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Immunopathology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Bronchial asthma is believed to be provoked by the interaction between airway inflammation and remodeling. Airway remodeling is a complex and poorly-understood process, and controlling it appears key for halting the progression of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases. Plants synthesize a number of valuable compounds as constitutive products and as secondary metabolites, many of which have curative properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cei.13481DOI Listing

SARS-CoV-2 coinfections: Could influenza and the common cold be beneficial?

J Med Virol 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Physics & Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas.

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world, causing serious illness and death and creating a heavy burden on the healthcare systems of many countries. Since the virus first emerged in late November 2019, its spread has coincided with peak circulation of several seasonal respiratory viruses, yet some studies have noted limited coinfections between SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses. We use a mathematical model of viral coinfection to study SARS-CoV-2 coinfections, finding that SARS-CoV-2 replication is easily suppressed by many common respiratory viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300957PMC

Conditionally Reprogrammed Human Normal Airway Epithelial Cells at ALI: A Physiological Model for Emerging Viruses.

Virol Sin 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinoi at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

Cancer cell lines have been used widely in cancer biology, and as biological or functional cell systems in many biomedical research fields. These cells are usually defective for many normal activities or functions due to significant genetic and epigenetic changes. Normal primary cell yields and viability from any original tissue specimens are usually relatively low or highly variable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-020-00244-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298165PMC

A cross-reactive mouse monoclonal antibody against rhinovirus mediates phagocytosis in vitro.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 16;10(1):9750. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Rhinoviruses (RVs) are the main cause of the common cold worldwide. To date, more than 160 types of the virus have been recognized, categorized into three major species - A, B, and C. There are currently no approved vaccines available to prevent infection with RVs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66600-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297972PMC

Viral load of Respiratory Syncytial Virus among children from primary care and hospital settings admitted to a university hospital in Brazil (2009-2013).

J Med Virol 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Clinical Virology Laboratory, Infectious Diseases Unit, Medicine Department, São Paulo Federal University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a relevant cause of acute respiratory infection among children. Viral replication and immune conditions may account for severity. RSV viral load (VL) was assessed in 486 children (290 hospitalized and 196 from primary care) attended at São Paulo Hospital from 2009 to 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26185DOI Listing

Nontypeable Type IV pilus mediates augmented adherence to rhinovirus-infected human airway epithelial cells.

Infect Immun 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A.

Human rhinovirus (hRV) is frequently detected in the upper respiratory tract, and symptomatic infection is associated with increased nasopharyngeal bacterial load with subsequent development of secondary bacterial diseases. Nontypeable (NTHI) is a commensal bacterial species of the human nasopharynx however, in the context of prior or concurrent upper respiratory tract viral infection, this bacterium commonly causes multiple diseases throughout the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism(s) by which hRV infection promotes development of NTHI-induced diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00248-20DOI Listing

Dynamics and predisposition of respiratory viral co-infections in children and adults.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Center for Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, 44195, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The epidemiology of respiratory co-infection pairings is poorly understood. Here we assess the dynamics of respiratory viral co-infections in children and adults and determine predisposition for or against specific viral pairings.

Methods: Over 5 respiratory seasons from November 30, 2013 through June 6, 2018, mono- and co-infection prevalence of 13 viral pathogens were tabulated at The Cleveland Clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.05.042DOI Listing

[Practice and thinking of acute respiratory infection surveillance for the response of emerging respiratory diseases in Shanghai].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 Jun 16;41(0):E073. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Shanghai Institute of Prevention Medicine, Shanghai 200336, China; School of Public Health,Fudan University,Shanghai 200032. China.

Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention has implemented an active comprehensive surveillance project of acute respiratory infections in adults in Shanghai, including influenza like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). By testing and identifying a variety of respiratory pathogens, it was found that influenza viruses were the main pathogens in 172 ILI cases in 2019. The positive rates of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus, influenza A (H3N2) virus and influenza B virus Victoria lineage were 30. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200421-00616DOI Listing

Increased antiviral response in circulating lymphocytes from hypogammaglobulinemia patients.

Allergy 2020 Jun 13. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland.

Background: B cells play a crucial role during rhinovirus (RV) infections by production of virus-neutralizing antibodies. A main feature of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is hypogammaglobulinemia (HG). HG patients have severely reduced levels of antibody-producing B cells and suffer from prolonged virus infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14445DOI Listing

Evaluation of Innate Immune Mediators Related to Respiratory Viruses in the Lung of Stable COPD Patients.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 10;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Divisione di Pneumologia e Laboratorio di Citoimmunopatologia dell'Apparato Cardio Respiratorio, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SpA, Società Benefit, IRCCS, Veruno, Via Revislate 13, 28010 Novara, Italy.

Little is known about the innate immune response to viral infections in stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Objectives: To evaluate the innate immune mediators related to respiratory viruses in the bronchial biopsies and lung parenchyma of stable COPD patients. We evaluated the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of Toll-like receptors 3-7-8-9 (TLR-3-7-8-9), TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFNβ (TRIF), Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), Phospho interferon regulatory factor 3  ( pIRF3), Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), Phospho interferon regulatory factor 7 (pIRF7), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG1), melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DHX58 ( LGP2), Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factors (DAI), forkhead box protein A3(FOXA3), Interferon alfa (IFNα), and Interferon beta (IFNβ) in the bronchial mucosa of patients with mild/moderate ( = 16), severe/very severe ( = 18) stable COPD, control smokers (CS) ( = 12), and control non-smokers (CNS) ( = 12). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061807DOI Listing

BAL Cytokine Patterns in Children with Severe Neutrophilic and Pauci-granulocytic Asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine; Carter Immunology Center; Department of Microbiology University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908. Electronic address:

Background: Asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease occurring in adults and children that is characterized by distinct inflammatory patterns. While numerous studies have been performed in adults, little is known regarding the heterogeneity of severe asthma in children, particularly inflammatory signatures involving the air spaces.

Objective: To determine the relationship of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytokine/chemokine expression patterns in children with severe-therapy resistant asthma stratified according to neutrophilic versus non-neutrophilic BAL inflammatory cell patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.05.039DOI Listing

The role of rhinovirus infections in young children with cystic fibrosis.

J Clin Virol 2020 Jun 1;129:104478. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Respiratory Department, Children's Health Ireland, Crumlin, Dublin 12, Ireland; School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Rhinovirus (RV) is an important virus in children with chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma; however, little is known about its role in CF. Our aim was to examine the prevalence and clinical impact of different RV species in young children with CF. We collected clinical data and nasal swabs on patients at home and in the hospital setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263235PMC

The Dynamic Life of Virus Capsids.

Viruses 2020 Jun 5;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Boulevard, Route 0645, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

Protein-shelled viruses have been thought as "tin cans" that merely carry the genomic cargo from cell to cell. However, through the years, it has become clear that viruses such as rhinoviruses and caliciviruses are active and dynamic structures waiting for the right environmental cues to deliver their genomic payload to the host cell. In the case of human rhinoviruses, the capsid has empty cavities that decrease the energy required to cause conformational changes, resulting in the capsids "breathing", waiting for the moment when the receptor binds for it to release its genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060618DOI Listing

Could nutritional and functional status serve as prognostic factors for COVID-19 in the elderly?

Med Hypotheses 2020 Jun 2;144:109946. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

First Department of Surgery, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laikon General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Geriatric patients seem to be the most vulnerable group in COVID-19. These patients are usually characterized by impaired mobilization and malnutrition. In addition, obesity has been correlated with increased mortality rates after COVID-19 infection, highlighting the role of nutrition in prognosis of COVID-19 as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264929PMC

Potential role of zinc supplementation in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19.

Med Hypotheses 2020 May 25;144:109848. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical Center East, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents the largest current health challenge for the society. At the moment, the therapeutic strategies to deal with this disease are only supportive. It is well known that zinc (Zn) possesses a variety of direct and indirect antiviral properties, which are realized through different mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247509PMC
May 2020
1.152 Impact Factor

Chest CT features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia: key points for radiologists.

Radiol Med 2020 Jul 4;125(7):636-646. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche S. O. D. Radiologia Pediatrica e Specialistica, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Ospedali Riuniti "Umberto I-G.M. Lancisi-G. Salesi", Via Conca 71, 60030, Ancona, AN, Italy.

COVID-19 is an emerging infection caused by a novel coronavirus that is moving so rapidly that on 30 January 2020 the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and on 11 March 2020 as a pandemic. An early diagnosis of COVID-19 is crucial for disease treatment and control of the disease spread. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated a low sensibility; therefore chest computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role not only in the early detection and diagnosis, especially for false negative RT-PCR tests, but also in monitoring the clinical course and in evaluating the disease severity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-020-01237-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270744PMC

Airway Epithelial Cell Immunity Is Delayed During Rhinovirus Infection in Asthma and COPD.

Front Immunol 2020 15;11:974. Epub 2020 May 15.

Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, NSW, Australia.

Respiratory viral infections, particularly those caused by rhinovirus, exacerbate chronic respiratory inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airway epithelial cells are the primary site of rhinovirus replication and responsible of initiating the host immune response to infection. Numerous studies have reported that the anti-viral innate immune response (including type I and type III interferon) in asthma is less effective or deficient leading to the conclusion that epithelial innate immunity is a key determinant of disease severity during a rhinovirus induced exacerbation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243842PMC

Epidemiology and Phylogenetic Analysis of Viral Respiratory Infections in Vietnam.

Front Microbiol 2020 15;11:833. Epub 2020 May 15.

Usher Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) impose a major public health burden on fragile healthcare systems of developing Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam. The epidemiology, genetic diversity and transmission patterns of respiratory viral pathogens that circulate in this region are not well characterized. We used RT-PCR to screen for 14 common respiratory viruses in nasal/throat samples from 4326 ARI patients from 5 sites in Vietnam during 2012-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242649PMC

Human rhinovirus infection and COPD: role in exacerbations and potential for therapeutic targets.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2020 Jun 4:1-13. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust , London, UK.

Introduction: Respiratory virus infections (predominantly rhinoviruses) are the commonly identified in COPD exacerbations but debate about their role as a trigger of exacerbations continues. Experimental infection studies have provided significant new evidence establishing a causal relationship between virus infection and COPD exacerbations and contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbations. However as yet no anti-viral treatments have undergone clinical trials in COPD patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2020.1764354DOI Listing

Biennial Upsurge and Molecular Epidemiology of Enterovirus D68 Infection in New York, United States, 2014-2018.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infection has been associated with outbreaks of severe respiratory illness and increased cases of non-polio acute flaccid myelitis. The patterns of EV-D68 circulation and molecular epidemiology are not fully understood. In this study nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens collected from patients in the Lower Hudson Valley, New York from 2014 to 2018 were examined for Rhinovirus/Enterovirus (RhV/EV) by the FilmArray Respiratory Panel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00284-20DOI Listing

Risk factors for intubation in severe bronchiolitis: a useful tool to decide on an early intensive respiratory support.

Minerva Pediatr 2020 06 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy -

Background: Bronchiolitis is the most frequent lower airway infection leading hospitalization in children younger than 2 years. RSV is the typical common cause, followed by rhinovirus. Criteria for Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission are not defined by guidelines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05574-7DOI Listing

Impact of respiratory viral polymerase chain reaction testing on de-escalation of antibiotic therapy in children who require chronic positive pressure ventilation.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Division of Hospital Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Background: Children who require chronic positive pressure ventilation (CPPV) are frequently hospitalized with acute respiratory infections. Although respiratory viral testing is often performed, it is unclear how positive results impact antibiotic use. We sought to assess the impact of respiratory viral testing on antibiotic use in hospitalized children on CPPV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24884DOI Listing

Co-infections among patients with COVID-19: The need for combination therapy with non-anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents?

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Co-infection has been reported in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, but there is limited knowledge on co-infection among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The prevalence of co-infection was variable among COVID-19 patients in different studies, however, it could be up to 50% among non-survivors. Co-pathogens included bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila and Acinetobacter baumannii; Candida species and Aspergillus flavus; and viruses such as influenza, coronavirus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus, influenza B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.05.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245213PMC

Beyond HIV infection: Neglected and varied impacts of CCR5 and CCR5Δ32 on viral diseases.

Virus Res 2020 May 30;286:198040. Epub 2020 May 30.

Laboratório de Imunobiologia e Imunogenética, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

The interactions between chemokine receptors and their ligands may affect susceptibility to infectious diseases as well as their clinical manifestations. These interactions mediate both the traffic of inflammatory cells and virus-associated immune responses. In the context of viral infections, the human C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) receives great attention from the scientific community due to its role as an HIV-1 co-receptor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260533PMC

Comparison of clinical features of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants with RSV/HRV infection, and incidences of subsequent wheezing or asthma in childhood.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 May 30;20(1):387. Epub 2020 May 30.

Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Background: To compare the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) and to explore the relationship between the development of recurrent wheezing/asthma and RSV/ HRV infections in infancy.

Methods: Retrospective study was conducted to compare the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs). Hospitalized patients with ALRTIs from March 2007 to December 2016 were screened. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05094-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260463PMC

Inhibitory antibodies identify unique sites of therapeutic vulnerability in rhinovirus and other enteroviruses.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 28;117(24):13499-13508. Epub 2020 May 28.

Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University, 201210 Shanghai, People's Republic of China;

The existence of multiple serotypes renders vaccine development challenging for most viruses in the genus. An alternative and potentially more viable strategy for control of these viruses is to develop broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting highly conserved proteins that are indispensable for the virus life cycle, such as the 3C protease. Previously, two single-chain antibody fragments, YDF and GGVV, were reported to effectively inhibit human rhinovirus 14 proliferation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1918844117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306783PMC

Viruses and atypical bacteria in the respiratory tract of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with airway infection.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute of Infection Medicine, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Brunswiker Straße 4, D-24105, Kiel, Germany.

Respiratory tract infections (RTI) can take a serious course under immunosuppression. Data on the impact of the underlying pathogens are still controversial. Samples from the upper (n = 322) and lower RT (n = 169) were collected from 136 children and 355 adults; 225 among them have been immunocompromised patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-03878-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253234PMC

Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Oxidative Stress Leads to an Increase in Labile Zinc Pools in Lung Epithelial Cells.

mSphere 2020 05 27;5(3). Epub 2020 May 27.

Clinical and Cellular Virology Laboratory, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Zinc supplementation in cell culture has been shown to inhibit various viruses, like herpes simplex virus, rotavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, whether zinc plays a direct antiviral role in viral infections and whether viruses have adopted strategies to modulate zinc homeostasis have not been investigated. Results from clinical trials of zinc supplementation in infections indicate that zinc supplementation may be beneficial in a pathogen- or disease-specific manner, further underscoring the importance of understanding the interaction between zinc homeostasis and virus infections at the molecular level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00447-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253603PMC

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Responds to Virus-Infected Cells with a Significant Increase in Type IV Pilus Expression.

mSphere 2020 May 27;5(3). Epub 2020 May 27.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Nontypeable (NTHI) colonizes the human nasopharynx, but when the host immune response is dysregulated by upper respiratory tract (URT) virus infection, NTHI can gain access to more distal airway sites and cause disease. The NTHI type IV pilus (T4P) facilitates adherence, benign colonization, and infection, and its majority subunit PilA is in clinical trials as a vaccinogen. To further validate the strategy of immunization with PilA against multiple NTHI-induced diseases, it is important to demonstrate T4P expression under microenvironmental conditions that predispose to NTHI infection of the airway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00384-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253600PMC

Respiratory viruses are associated with serum metabolome among infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis: A multicenter study.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations in the United States. Growing evidence supports the heterogeneity of bronchiolitis. However, little is known about the interrelationships between major respiratory viruses (and their species), host systemic metabolism, and disease pathobiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pai.13296DOI Listing
May 2020
3.397 Impact Factor

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in management of COVID-19; A systematic review on current evidence.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 May 27:e13557. Epub 2020 May 27.

Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Since there is still no definitive conclusion regarding which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most effective and safe in viral respiratory infections, we decided to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various NSAIDs in viral respiratory infections so that we can reach a conclusion on which NSAID is best choice for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: A search was performed in Medline (via PubMed), Embase and CENTRAL databases until 23 March 2020. Clinical trials on application of NSAIDs in viral respiratory infections were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267090PMC

Inside the lungs of COVID-19 disease.

Int J Legal Med 2020 Jul 26;134(4):1271-1274. Epub 2020 May 26.

University Center of Legal Medicine (CURML), Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.

In the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, only few data regarding lung pathology induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is available, especially without medical intervention interfering with the natural evolution of the disease. We present here the first case of forensic autopsy of a COVID-19 fatality occurring in a young woman, in the community. Diagnosis was made at necropsy and lung histology showed diffuse alveolar damage, edema, and interstitial pneumonia with a geographically heterogeneous pattern, mostly affecting the central part of the lungs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-020-02318-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248187PMC