2,534,113 results match your criteria Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials[Journal]


Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis in Korea: A Narrative Review.

Yonsei Med J 2019 Jan;60(1):10-21

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, and Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of systemic necrotising vasculitides, which often involve small vessels, and which lead to few or no immune deposits in affected organs. According to clinical manifestations and pathological features, AAV is classified into three variants: microscopic polyangiitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and eosinophilic GPA. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria contributed to the classification of AAV, although currently the algorithm suggested by the European Medicines Agency in 2007 and the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides proposed in 2012 have encouraged physicians to classify AAV patients properly. Read More

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January 2019
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Clinical Implications of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Diagnosis of Asthma and its Subtypes.

Yonsei Med J 2019 Jan;60(1):1-9

Department of Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Soonchunhyang University, Bucheon, Korea.

For the past three decades, a large number of genetic studies have been performed to examine genetic variants associated with asthma and its subtypes in hopes of gaining better understanding of the mechanisms underlying disease pathology and to identify genetic biomarkers predictive of disease outcomes. Various methods have been used to achieve these objectives, including linkage analysis, candidate gene polymorphism analysis, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS); however, the degree to which genetic variants contribute to asthma pathogenesis has proven to be much less significant than originally expected. Subsequent application of GWAS to well-defined phenotypes, such as occupational asthma and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugexacerbated respiratory diseases, has overcome some of these limitations, although with only partial success. Read More

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January 2019
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Porcine-Derived Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering and Reconstructive Surgery: Considerations and Alternatives in Muslim Patients.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burn Centre, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.

During the last three decades, tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery have become standard therapeutic options in the world of medicine. Several biomaterials, either alone, or in combination with cultured cellular products, have been introduced to compensate for the scarcity of autologous donor tissue or to improve healing in a variety of surgical specialties e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Dementia-friendly community initiatives: An integrative review.

J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

University of Canberra, 3. Stephen Neville.

Aim: To synthesise international research conducted on dementia-friendly community initiatives.

Background: The number of people living with dementia is increasing as a result of population ageing. Impairments related to neurological changes, together with environmental challenges result in disability for people who have dementia. Read More

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December 2018

Developmental mutant mouse models for external genitalia formation.

Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Developmental Genetics, Institute of Advanced Medicine, Wakayama Medical University (WMU), Wakayama, Japan.

Development of external genitalia and perineum is the subject of developmental biology as well as toxicology and teratology researches. Cloaca forms in the lower (caudal) end of endoderm. Such endodermal epithelia and surrounding mesenchyme interact with various signals to form the external genitalia. Read More

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November 2018

The Overlooked Aspect of Excitotoxicity: Glutamate-Independent Excitotoxicity in Traumatic Brain Injuries.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5E5, Canada.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading major cause of morbidity and mortality in youth and individuals under 45 year age. A wide variety of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified contributing to the pathogenesis of TBI. A better understanding of the pathophysiology behind TBI is essential for providing more effective treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Subconjunctival draining minimally-invasive glaucoma devices for medically uncontrolled glaucoma.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 16;12:CD012742. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Ophthalmology, Nottingham University Hospital, Derby Road, Nottingham, UK, NG7 2UH.

Background: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Subconjunctival draining minimally-invasive glaucoma devices such as the Xen gelatin implant and InnFocus stent have been introduced as a treatment to prevent glaucoma progressing.These implants provide a channel to allow aqueous humour from the anterior chamber of the eye to drain into the subconjunctival space on the surface of the eye thus reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) and mimicking the mechanism of the most commonly undertaken glaucoma surgery, trabeculectomy. Read More

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December 2018
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Re-examining the role of adjuvant radiation therapy.

J Surg Oncol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Surgical Oncology, Northern Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Previously important roles for adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in melanoma patients included improved regional control after resection of high-risk nodal disease, to reduce local recurrence for desmoplastic, and other subtypes of melanoma with neurotropism, reducing in-brain relapse of brain metastases after surgery and other situations on a case-by-case basis. This review evaluates the integration of adjuvant RT into clinical practice at this time of rapidly evolving knowledge and improving outcomes from effective systemic therapy. Read More

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December 2018

From Endogenous Compounds as Biomarkers to Plasma-Derived Nanovesicles as Liquid Biopsy; Has the Golden Age of Translational PK-ADME-DDI Science Finally Arrived?

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

It is now established that a drug's pharmacokinetics-absorption-distribution-metabolism-excretion-drug-drug interaction (PK-ADME-DDI) profile can be modulated by age, disease, and genotype. In order to facilitate subject phenotyping and clinical DDI assessment, therefore, various endogenous compounds (in plasma and urine) have been pursued as drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter biomarkers. Compared to biomarkers, however, the topic of circulating extracellular vesicles as "liquid biopsy" has received little attention within the ADME community; most organs secrete nanovesicles (e. Read More

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December 2018

The Challenge to Search for New Nervous System Disease Biomarker Candidates: the Opportunity to Use the Proteogenomics Approach.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Laboratory of Functional Genomics and Bioinformatics, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion diseases, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis are the most common nervous system diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide. The current scientific literature associates these pathological conditions to abnormal expression levels of certain proteins, which in turn improved the knowledge concerning normal and affected brains. However, there is no available cure or preventive therapy for any of these disorders. Read More

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December 2018

Fecal volatile organic compounds for early detection of colorectal cancer: where are we now?

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, AG&M Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The fecal volatolome, which is composed of fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs), seems to hold potential as non-invasive biomarker for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its precursor lesions advanced adenomas (AA). The potential of the fecal volatolome has been subject of various studies using either chemical analytical or pattern-recognition techniques. The available literature on the potential of the fecal volatolome as CRC and AA biomarker was reviewed. Read More

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December 2018

Gut microbiome approaches to treat obesity in humans.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The rising worldwide prevalence of obesity has become a major concern having many implications for the public health and the economy. It is well known that many factors such as lifestyle, increased intake of foods high in fat and sugar and a host's genetic profile can lead to obesity. Besides these factors, recent studies have pointed to the gut microbiota composition as being responsible for the development of obesity. Read More

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December 2018

Genome analysis and -omics approaches provide new insights into the biodegradation potential of Rhodococcus.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126, Milan, Italy.

The past few years observed a breakthrough of genome sequences of bacteria of Rhodococcus genus with significant biodegradation abilities. Invaluable knowledge from genome data and their functional analysis can be applied to develop and design strategies for attenuating damages caused by hydrocarbon contamination. With the advent of high-throughput -omic technologies, it is currently possible to utilize the functional properties of diverse catabolic genes, analyze an entire system at the level of molecule (DNA, RNA, protein, and metabolite), simultaneously predict and construct catabolic degradation pathways. Read More

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December 2018

Microglia Receptors in Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Bioengineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 111 Lock Street, Room105 CHEN bldg, Newark, NJ, 07102, USA.

Microglia have been implicated as a key mediator of chronic inflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The animal models of TBI vary significantly based on the type of brain injury (focal versus diffuse). This has made it extremely difficult to assess the role of microglia and the window of microglia activation. Read More

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December 2018

Tuftsin phosphorylcholine-a novel compound harnessing helminths to fight autoimmunity.

Immunol Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

The distinction that in areas where helminthic infections are common, autoimmune diseases are less prevalent, led to the investigation of immune modulatory properties of helminths and their derivatives. Such are phosphorylcholine (PC) moieties which are a component of secreted products of helminths. PC has been broadly studied for its attenuating effects on the human immune system. Read More

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December 2018

Metabolic requirements of the nephron.

Pediatr Nephrol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Rangos Research Center, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.

The mammalian kidney is a complex organ that has several metabolically active cell types to aid in waste filtration, salt-water balance, and electrolyte homeostasis in the body. These functions are done primarily through the nephron, which relies on strict regulation of various metabolic pathways. Any deviations in the metabolic profile of nephrons or their precursor cells called nephron progenitors can lead to renal pathologies and abnormal development. Read More

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December 2018
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Functional roles of Grainyhead-like transcription factors in renal development and disease.

Pediatr Nephrol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, 13125, Berlin, Germany.

Proper renal function relies on the tightly regulated development of nephrons and collecting ducts. This process, known as tubulogenesis, involves dynamic cellular and molecular changes that instruct cells to form highly organized tubes of epithelial cells which compartmentalize the renal interstitium and tubular lumen via assembly of a selective barrier. The integrity and diversity of the various renal epithelia is achieved via formation of intercellular protein complexes along the apical-basal axis of the epithelial cells. Read More

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December 2018
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Visualization technologies for 5-ALA-based fluorescence-guided surgeries.

J Neurooncol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Introduction: 5-ALA-based fluorescence-guided surgery has been shown to be a safe and effective method to improve intraoperative visualization and resection of malignant gliomas. However, it remains ineffective in guiding the resection of lower-grade, non-enhancing, and deep-seated tumors, mainly because these tumors do not produce detectable fluorescence with conventional visualization technologies, namely, wide-field (WF) surgical microscopy.

Methods: We describe some of the main factors that limit the sensitivity and accuracy of conventional WF surgical microscopy, and then provide a survey of commercial and research prototypes being developed to address these challenges, along with their principles, advantages and disadvantages, as well as the current status of clinical translation for each technology. Read More

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December 2018

Immunotherapy Advances in Urothelial Carcinoma.

Curr Treat Options Oncol 2018 Dec 15;19(12):79. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Opinion Statement: Checkpoint inhibitors have monumentally transformed the treatment of metastatic urothelial carcinoma. While the efficacy and safety of the different agents are similar in platinum-refractory metastatic urothelial carcinoma, pembrolizumab is the only agent that was superior to chemotherapy in a randomized phase III trial. Pembrolizumab and atezolizumab are also approved as first-line therapies in cisplatin-ineligible metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Read More

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December 2018
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Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis for Cardiologists: Differential Diagnosis, Cardiovascular Comorbidities, and Patient Management.

Adv Ther 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

U.O. di Pneumologia e Terapia Semi-Intensiva Respiratoria - Servizio di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria ed Emodinamica Polmonare, Ospedale San Giuseppe - MultiMedica IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

The presence of rare comorbidities in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) presents a diagnostic challenge to cardiologists. In evaluating these patients, cardiologists are faced with a unique opportunity to shorten diagnosis times and direct patients towards correct treatment pathways. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a type of interstitial lung disease (ILD), is an example of a rare disease where patients frequently demonstrate comorbid CVD. Read More

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December 2018

Immune aspects of the bi-directional neuroimmune facilitator TRPV1.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

School of Arts and Sciences, St. Bonaventure University, St. Bonaventure, New York, 14778, USA.

A rapidly growing area of interest in biomedical science involves the reciprocal crosstalk between the sensory nervous and immune systems. Both of these systems are highly integrated, detecting potential environmental harms and restoring homeostasis. Many different cytokines, receptors, neuropeptides, and other proteins are involved in this bidirectional communication that are common to both systems. Read More

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December 2018

Systemic sclerosis induced by the use of cocaine: is there an association?

Rheumatol Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Division of Rheumatology, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 -3° andar, sala 3131, Cerqueira César, São Paulo, CEP 01246-903, Brazil.

The association between cocaine abuse and systemic sclerosis (SSc) is rarely described. Two new cases of this association are presented: two young adults, after using inhaled cocaine for a few years, were diagnosed with SSc. While a 24 year-old white female patient presented with diffuse SSc with multiple digital ulcers and scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), a 27 year-old male patient presented limited SSc with skin ulcers and digital gangrene, rapidly evolving to death due to massive intestinal hemorrhage. Read More

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December 2018
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Thrombotic microangiopathy in a patient with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: case-based review.

Rheumatol Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain.

The correct diagnosis, classification and therapeutic management of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) continue to be a challenge for the clinician. We report a rare case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) as a trigger for complement-mediated TMA in a 57-year-old man who was successfully treated with corticoids, cyclophosphamide and therapeutic plasma exchange. Additionally, we review few other cases reported in the literature and the pathophysiological pathway of association between TMA and EGPA. Read More

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December 2018
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Lack of Standard Definitions of Primary and Secondary (Non)responders After Primary Gastric Bypass and Gastric Sleeve: a Systematic Review.

Obes Surg 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Máxima Medical Center, Eindhoven/Veldhoven, The Netherlands.

Lack of standard definitions of primary and secondary (non)responders after RYGB and SG makes it impossible to compare the literature. The aim was to analyze the different definitions used. MEDLINE® was searched for literature published between 01-07-2014 and 01-07-2017 concerning (1) patients who received a primary RYGB or SG and (2) the outcomes of primary and secondary (non)responders. Read More

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December 2018

Establishment and application of distant hybridization technology in fish.

Sci China Life Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

State Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, China.

Hybridization is widely used. However, for a long time, systematic theories and technologies related to hybridization in fish have been lacking. In this study, through long-term systematic research, we investigated and obtained the main rules regarding inheritance and reproduction related to fish distant hybridization. Read More

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December 2018
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Pore-forming bacteriocins: structural-functional relationships.

Arch Microbiol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Institute of Cellular and Intracellular Symbiosis, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, Russian Federation.

Peptides and proteins are important bioorganic compounds in nature, among which a special place is occupied by antimicrobial substances. There are more than 2000 different antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by a variety of living organisms. Bacteriocins produced by bacteria are the minor group, whose chemical structures are most complicated among all AMPs. Read More

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December 2018
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Endodontic sealers based on calcium silicates: a systematic review.

Odontology 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Central Interdisciplinary Ambulance in the School of Dentistry, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building W 30, 48149, Münster, Germany.

Recently, sealers based on calcium silicates were developed as a new class of endodontic sealers. Inspired by the excellent sealing ability and biocompatibility of calcium silicate-based cements, these sealers establish a biological point of view on the obturation of root canals. No longer, the bacteria-tight seal against reinfection of the root canal is the only goal of root canal obturation. Read More

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December 2018

Consensus Statement of the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR): management and treatment of complete rectal prolapse.

Tech Coloproctol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Santa Rita Clinic, Vercelli, Italy.

Rectal prolapse, rectal procidentia, "complete" prolapse or "third-degree" prolapse is the full-thickness prolapse of the rectal wall through the anal canal and has a significant impact on quality of life. The incidence of rectal prolapse has been estimated to be approximately 2.5 per 100,000 inhabitants with a clear predominance among elderly women. Read More

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December 2018
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Approaches to therapeutic angiogenesis for ischemic heart disease.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Morehouse School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, 720 Westview Drive SW, Atlanta, GA, 30310, USA.

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is caused by the narrowing of arteries that work to provide blood, nutrients, and oxygen to the myocardial tissue. The worldwide epidemic of IHD urgently requires innovative treatments despite the significant advances in medical, interventional, and surgical therapies for this disease. Angiogenesis is a physiological and pathophysiological process that initiates vascular growth from pre-existing blood vessels in response to a lack of oxygen. Read More

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December 2018

Official controls regarding artisanal ice cream shops: public health policies and consumer protection in the Italian and European legislative frameworks.

Ann Ig 2019 Jan-Feb;31(1):76-85

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Ice cream is a widely enjoyed food that is especially popular during summer. To ensure it is safe and ready-to-eat for consumers, legislation imposes a series of obligations for food business operators, and for competent authorities that have to carry out official controls, including official sampling. This article reviews the general and specific requirements applicable to the premises where ice cream is produced, concerning aspects related to health notification obligations and to implementing and maintaining procedures based on the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system. Read More

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December 2018

Minimally Invasive Function-Preserving Gastrectomy with Sentinel Node Biopsy for Early Gastric Cancer.

Digestion 2018 Dec 14;99(1):14-20. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Recently, minimally invasive approaches such as endoscopic treatment or laparoscopic gastrectomy for early gastric cancer have made rapid progress. However, the extent of gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy in laparoscopic surgery is radical, similar to that of open gastrectomy for patients with early gastric cancer diagnosed as not indicated for endoscopic treatment. Since it is well known that lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor, the standard procedure of gastrectomy with radical lymph node dissection has been performed for the purpose of curative resection. Read More

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December 2018
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Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Like Symptoms in Ulcerative Colitis Patients in Clinical Remission: Association with Residual Colonic Inflammation.

Digestion 2018 Dec 14;99(1):46-51. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine II, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Japan.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients in clinical remission often experience irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms. The prevalence rate of UC patients meeting the definition of IBS, such as shown by the Rome criteria, is significantly higher in those without ongoing clinical activity as compared to healthy controls. Several studies have investigated residual low-grade inflammation found in colonic mucosa of quiescent UC patients and its association with development of IBS-like symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

Current Status and Challenges of Endoscopic Treatments for Duodenal Tumors.

Digestion 2018 Dec 14;99(1):21-26. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Research and Development for Minimally Invasive Treatment, Cancer Center, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo,

Background: Superficial tumors of the duodenum, other than ampullary tumors, have been traditionally considered rare. However, reports of this kind of tumor have increased in recent times, and the demand for minimally invasive treatments have also increasing.

Summary: Adenomas and intramucosal carcinomas are target lesions for treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Liquid Biopsy for the Management of Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

Digestion 2018 Dec 14;99(1):39-45. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Background: Liquid biopsy is a collective term that refers to the analysis of tumor-derived biomarkers isolated from biological fluids of cancer patients. Recently, many authors reported the usefulness of liquid biopsy for the management of malignancy. Summary and Key Messages: The peripheral blood of cancer patients is a pool of cells and/or cell products derived from the primary or metastatic tumor, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating free (cf) DNA or RNA, and exosomes containing proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular Basis of Cystinosis: Geographic Distribution, Functional Consequences of Mutations in the CTNS Gene, and Potential for Repair.

Nephron 2018 Dec 14;141(2):1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Development and Regeneration, Organ Systems Cluster, KU Leuven, Leuven,

Mutations in the CTNS gene encoding the lysosomal membrane cystine transporter cystinosin are the cause of cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. More than 140 CTNS mutations have been reported worldwide. Recent studies have discovered that cystinosin exerts other key cellular functions beyond cystine transport such as regulation of oxidative state, lysosomal dynamics and autophagy. Read More

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December 2018

Ulipristal Acetate before Hysteroscopic and Laparoscopic Surgery for Uterine Myomas: Help or Hindrance?

Gynecol Obstet Invest 2018 Dec 14:1-13. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Academic Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy.

Background/aims: Ulipristal acetate ([UPA], Esmya®) is an orally active selective progesterone-receptor modulator that has been approved as preoperative treatment for uterine myomas. This systematic review aims to summarize the available data on surgical outcomes of patients undergoing myomectomy by hysteroscopy or by laparoscopy after preoperative treatment with UPA.

Methods: this review was performed following PRISMA guidelines and was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018092201). Read More

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December 2018

Isolated Ascites in a Monochorionic Twin after Fetoscopic Laser Ablation Is Not Necessarily Secondary to Recurrence or Anaemia: Bowel Complications in Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome after Fetoscopic Laser Ablation.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2018 Dec 14:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Fetal Medicine Centre, Birmingham Women's and Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Background/purpose: We report a case study of jejunal atresia and the results of a systematic literature review of all reported cases of bowel complications occurring after fetoscopic laser ablation (FLA) for the treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS).

Methods: A systematic literature review was performed of bowel complications after FLA for TTTS according to PRISMA guidelines.

Results: There are 11 published cases of small bowel atresia, 5 cases of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), and 2 cases with foetal bowel perforations. Read More

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December 2018

Recent Incidence Trend of Surgically Resected Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma and Microsatellite Instability Status in Japanese Patients.

Digestion 2018 Dec 14;99(1):6-13. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation of Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The incidence trend of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinoma in Japan has not been sufficiently investigated. Little is known about the microsatellite instability (MSI) status of this tumor.

Summary: Previously published studies analyzing the trend of EGJ adenocarcinoma in Japan were reviewed. Read More

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December 2018

Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

Digestion 2018 Dec 14;99(1):27-32. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo,

Patients with ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. This risk has been estimated to reach about 7% at 20 years of disease, 7-14% at 25 years, and as high as 30% after 35 years. The guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease recommend endoscopic resection of circumscribed dysplasia and ongoing colonoscopic surveillance as a reasonable strategy in patients with ulcerative colitis. Read More

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December 2018

Making the Best of Available Options for Optimal Sarcoma Treatment.

Authors:
Axel Le Cesne

Oncology 2018 14;95 Suppl 1:11-20. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

For 35 years options for treating advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) were limited to doxorubicin, dacarbazine and ifosfamide. In 2007, trabectedin was approved. Since then, several other agents have become available and many more are in development, ushering in a new era in disease management. Read More

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December 2018

Advancing towards Better Cooperation for Better Sarcoma Prognoses.

Oncology 2018 14;95 Suppl 1:5-10. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) are necessary to deliver the best sarcoma care. Planning the optimal therapeutic strategy per patient requires input and expertise from several disciplines. Case/cohort studies have reported improved patient outcomes associated with treatment by MDTs and/or treatment in sarcoma centres. Read More

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December 2018

Integrated Analysis of the Endoscopic, Pathological and Molecular Characteristics of Colorectal Tumorigenesis.

Digestion 2018 Dec 14;99(1):33-38. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Molecular Diagnostic Pathology, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan.

Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) develop through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In addition to the well-characterized adenoma-carcinoma sequence, the serrated neoplasia pathway is now recognized as an alternative pathway for CRC development.

Summary: Through analysis of the colonoscopic, pathological, and molecular features of colorectal tumors, we identified a novel microsurface structure characteristic of serrated lesions. Read More

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December 2018

Insufficient sleep and fitness to drive in shift workers: a systematic literature review protocol.

Inj Prev 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The majority of shift workers experience insufficient sleep as a result of their employment. Insufficient sleep is associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, affecting key skills required for driving, resulting in shift workers experiencing a disproportionate burden of RTC injuries and fatalities. Yet, to our knowledge, no systematic literature review (SLR) exists to critically appraise and synthesise evidence on the determinants of fitness to drive (assessed on-road) and driving performance (assessed in a driving simulator) in shift workers with insufficient sleep. Read More

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December 2018

Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Focus on arachidonic acid metabolites.

Authors:
Malvina Hoxha

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 13;110:796-802. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Catholic University Our Lady of Good Counsel, Department of Chemical-Toxicological and Pharmacological Evaluation of Drugs, Rruga Dritan Hoxha, Tirana, Albania; Università degli studi di Milano, Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Via Balzaretti, 9-20133, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable disease, characterized by the muscle inflammation and progressive deterioration of muscle function. We discuss and review the role of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in DMD in muscle fiber degeneration and regeneration and new opportunities for developing new drugs by targeting the AA pathway, providing evidence that the AA pathway could represent an efficacious strategy to ameliorate the treatment of DMD patients. Currently a series of DMD care recommendations regarding management of rehabilitation, orthopedic, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastroenterology exist and the therapy is restricted to corticosteroids for muscle dysfunction with serious side effects. Read More

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December 2018

Therapeutic targeting of angiogenesis molecular pathways in angiogenesis-dependent diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 13;110:775-785. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Molecular Medicine Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Angiogenesis is a critical step in the progression of almost all human malignancies and some other life-threatening diseases. Anti-angiogenic therapy is a novel and effective approach for treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In this article, we will review the main strategies developed for anti-angiogenic therapies beside their clinical applications, the major challenges, and the latest advances in the development of anti-angiogenesis-based targeted therapies. Read More

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December 2018
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Fiend and friend in the renin angiotensin system: An insight on acute kidney injury.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 13;110:764-774. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan 333 031, India. Electronic address:

Besides assisting the maintenance of blood pressure and sodium homeostasis, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). The RAS is equipped with two arms i) the pressor arm composed of Angiotensin II (Ang II)/Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)/Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) also called conventional RAS, and ii) the depressor arm consisting of Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang 1-7)/Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/MasR known as non-conventional RAS. Activation of conventional RAS triggers oxidative stress, inflammatory, hypertrophic, apoptotic, and pro-fibrotic signaling cascades which promote AKI. Read More

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December 2018
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Does obtaining CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 pharmacogenetic testing predict antidepressant response or adverse drug reactions?

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 8;271:604-613. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Harvard South Shore Psychiatry Residency Training Program, Brockton, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Treatment non-response and adverse reactions are common in patients receiving antidepressants. Personalizing psychiatric treatment based on pharmacogenetic testing has been proposed to help clinicians guide antidepressant selection and dosing. This systematic literature review assesses the two most robustly studied drug-metabolizing enzymes, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19, and examines whether obtaining CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 testing can be used to predict antidepressant response or adverse drug reactions in order to improve clinical outcomes. Read More

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December 2018

Cancer diagnosis using nanomaterials based electrochemical nanobiosensors.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Nov 19;126:773-784. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences , Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Cancer is one of the most important causes of mortality in the world, which can be severely reduced by early detection to avoid future problems in the field of economics and mental health. Hence, electrochemical nanobiosensors as portable devices for rapid detection of  cancer biomarkers, have found an important place in clinical medicine for diagnosis, managements or cancer screening. Although, these biosensors have been receiving attention in the recent years, their principles are unchanged. Read More

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November 2018

Prognostic role of microRNA-155 expression in gliomas: A meta-analysis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Dec 7;176:103-109. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China. Electronic address:

Recent studies have reported that microRNA-155 (miR-155) is linked to the clinical outcomes of many tumors. However, its role in prognosis of gliomas remains unclear. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the prognostic value of miR-155 in the survival of patients with gliomas. Read More

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December 2018

Lipid exchange at ER-mitochondria contact sites: a puzzle falling into place with quite a few pieces missing.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 13;57:71-76. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Over the last years, the importance of inter-organelle communication has become more and more evident, attested by the fast growing number of newly-identified membrane contact sites (MCS). At MCSs two organelles are connected via protein tethers that bring them in close proximity to facilitate metabolite exchange. In this review, we will focus on the MCSs connecting the ER and mitochondria, which have been implicated in phospholipid transport. Read More

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December 2018
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